CN104000557A - Calculus diagnostic method - Google Patents

Calculus diagnostic method Download PDF

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CN104000557A
CN104000557A CN 201310184659 CN201310184659A CN104000557A CN 104000557 A CN104000557 A CN 104000557A CN 201310184659 CN201310184659 CN 201310184659 CN 201310184659 A CN201310184659 A CN 201310184659A CN 104000557 A CN104000557 A CN 104000557A
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calculus
image
optical
reflection
method
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CN 201310184659
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Chinese (zh)
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李士元
孙家伟
何怡青
谢曜声
庄竞程
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法玛科技顾问股份有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a calculus diagnostic method employing optical coherence tomography (OTC) to carry out teeth imaging, thus defining image zones of teeth surface, calculus top and calculus bottom, commonly calculating optical reflection rate of the three image zones, marking colors in the calculus image zone, finally combining the image with calculated optical reflection rate with the color, thereby improving calculus image identification quality.

Description

牙结石诊断方法 Diagnosis of tartar

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种利用光学同调断层扫描术来进行牙齿成像,并且再计算牙齿及牙结石的光学折射率,以提升牙结石影像辨识质量的一种诊断方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to an optical coherence tomography imaging to the teeth, and then calculate the optical index of teeth and dental calculus, a diagnostic method to improve the quality of dental calculus image recognition.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 牙周病为现今感染率最高的慢性口腔疾病之一。 Periodontal disease is now one of the highest infection rate of chronic oral diseases [0002]. 全世界约有50%以上的人口患有或曾经患有此疾病。 Approximately 50% of the world's population suffers from this disease or have had. 根据文献与教科书记载,重度牙周病甚至可造成牙齿的脱落。 Described in the literature and textbooks, it can cause severe periodontal disease and even fall off the teeth. 世界卫生组织(World Health Organization, WHO)于2003统计,全世界牙齿脱落的原因约有5%~15%是因为重度牙周病的缘故。 World Health Organization (World Health Organization, WHO) statistics in 2003, the cause of tooth loss worldwide of about 5% to 15% because of severe periodontal disease sake. 此外,牙周病也可能引发如吸入式肺炎等多种全身性疾病。 Furthermore, periodontal disease may also lead to pneumonia, such as inhaled and other systemic diseases. 孕妇若有严重的牙周病,则会增加早产的可能性。 If severe periodontal disease in pregnant women, will increase the likelihood of premature birth. 由此可知,牙周病实为一不可小觑的疾病。 It can be seen, in fact, a periodontal disease should not be overlooked. 不但影响患者身体的健康,治愈此疾病及其后遗症所损失的金钱与时间更是难以估计。 Not only affect the patient's body health, money and time to cure this disease and its sequelae lost even more difficult to estimate. 因此,若能有效且准确在牙周病初发之时将其诊断出来,并加以适当的治疗,将能有效解决前述几个问题。 Therefore, if effective and accurate at the time of onset of periodontal disease to be diagnosed, and make the appropriate treatment, will be able to effectively address the aforementioned questions. 一般认为,牙周病会因为口腔内微生物所引起。 It is generally believed that because of periodontal disease caused by microorganisms in the oral cavity. 这些微生物在口腔中形成牙菌斑,此时若不加以清除,则微生物将会大量孳生,并分泌出毒素导致周围组织发炎及其他症状,最终成为牙周病。 These microorganisms plaque formation in the oral cavity, at this time if not cleared, would microorganisms are abundant, and secrete toxins cause inflammation of the surrounding tissue and other symptoms, periodontal disease eventually become. 与牙菌斑相关的病征相当多样化,最明显的症状为牙结石的产生。 Symptoms associated with plaque quite diverse, to produce the most obvious symptom of dental calculus.

[0003] 牙结石是由微生物矿化沉积而来,当发现牙结石存在之时,转变为牙周病的机会已相当大。 [0003] Dental calculus is mineralized by microorganisms from deposition, when finding the presence of tartar, periodontal disease has the opportunity to change considerably. 因此,若能早期诊断出牙结石,则诊断出牙周病的可能性亦会提高不少。 Therefore, if the early diagnosis of dental calculus, periodontal disease is diagnosed will also increase the possibility of a lot. 传统诊断牙结石的主流方法为利用X光片造影诊断及牙周囊探棒检测。 Traditional diagnosis of dental calculus is the main method of diagnosis using an X-ray contrast detection and periodontal probe balloon. 这些方法的可靠度、灵敏度与重复性都略嫌不足。 Reliability, sensitivity and reproducibility of these methods are a bit inadequate. 如X光片,容易因为牙结石本身特性而产生漏检或误诊,而其辐射性不适合对孕妇或小孩实施。 X-rays, because the calculus itself easily generates characteristic missed or misdiagnosed, and its radiation is not suitable for pregnant women or children embodiments. 更甚者如牙周囊探棒检测,为一破坏性方法,必须切开患部才能实施检测,不论牙结石的有无都会造成患者的极大不适感。 What is more, such as periodontal probe to detect bladder, it is a destructive method, the affected area must be cut in order to implement the detection, regardless of the presence or absence of dental calculus will cause great discomfort of the patient. 若施测者客观度或经验不足,则可能让患者白白挨刀。 If the objective of Surveying person or lack of experience, it can make the patient in vain knife. 其他如突光显影术(fluorescence)、口腔内摄影机等方法,不是需要难以清洗的显影剂,就是本身仍不属于成熟的技术,更重要的是,这些方法的灵敏度与分辨率都相当的差,无法诊断出早期牙结石。 The other developing light projecting procedure (Fluorescence), intraoral cameras or the like, difficult to clean the developer need not, itself, is still part of mature technology, more importantly, the sensitivity and resolution of these methods are quite poor, not diagnosed early dental calculus.

[0004] 为了解决上述的问题,本发明利用光学同调断层扫描术(Optical CoherenceTomography, OCT)来进行检测。 [0004] To solve the above problems, the present invention utilizes an optical coherence tomography (Optical CoherenceTomography, OCT) be detected. OCT不具有辐射性,具有高空间分辨率(μ m等级),可实时成像,也可重组为三维立体影像。 OCT having no radiation, with high spatial resolution (μ m level), real-time imaging, may be reconstituted as three-dimensional images. 但是目前OCT的影像仅有黑白、若待测物有相类似时(如:牙结石与食物残渣)则将产生相类似的特征影像,如此一来将严重影响到辨识度。 However, there are only black and white images of the OCT, if there is similar to the analyte (eg: tartar and food debris) will produce images with similar features, it will seriously affect the result of recognition. 要提升此辨识能力则需要一定程度的训练,对于OCT的使用者将造成相当的门坎负担。 To enhance this ability to identify a certain level of training is required for users OCT threshold will result in a considerable burden. 因此,如何成功抑制OCT影像的空间噪声,提高待测物特征影像的辨识质量,乃为目前临床诊断应用上亟于突破的问题。 Therefore, how to successfully suppress spatial noise OCT image and improve image quality characteristics identification of the analyte, is for the clinical diagnosis of the current urgent application to issue a breakthrough.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0005] 本发明的主要目的在于提供一种不具辐射性,非破坏性、非侵入性及可重复性高的牙结石诊断方法。 [0005] The main object of the present invention is to provide a non-radioactive, non-destructive, non-invasive and highly reproducible method for the diagnosis of dental calculus. [0006] 本发明的次要目的在于提供出一种不受主观意识判断的影响,而大幅减低了误诊或漏诊的牙结石诊断方法。 [0006] Secondary object of the present invention is to provide a sense of subjective judgment not affect one, while greatly reducing the misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis of dental calculus.

[0007] 为达到上述目的,本发明采用以下技术方案: [0007] To achieve the above object, the present invention employs the following technical solution:

[0008] 一种牙结石诊断方法,包括: [0008] A dental calculus diagnostic method, comprising:

[0009] (I)利用光学同调断层扫描术(OCT)进行牙齿成像; [0009] (I) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for teeth;

[0010] (2)定义牙齿表面的影像区域; [0010] (2) imaging the area defining the tooth surface;

[0011] (3)定义牙结石的顶端及底部的影像区域; [0011] (3) defines the image area of ​​dental calculus top and bottom;

[0012] (4)计算定义出的影像区域的光学折射率; [0012] (4) calculating the refractive index of the optical image of the defined area;

[0013] (5)将牙结石的影像区域标注上颜色; [0013] (5) The dental calculus image area marked on the color;

[0014] (6)最后将牙结石隔离区的颜色与已计算出光学折射率的牙结石影像进行结合。 [0014] (6) Finally, the color of dental calculus with the isolation region has been calculated refractive index of the optical image of dental calculus binding.

[0015] 每个物体都有独一无二的光学折射率(refractive index),因此计算待测物的光学折射率,将能大幅提升特征影像的辨识质量。 [0015] Each object has a unique optical index of refraction (refractive index), thus calculating the optical refractive index of the analyte, will greatly enhance the image quality characteristic identification.

[0016] 对于本发明的技术特征与实施范例,将配合图标在如下的实施方式中详细说明,让本发明所属技术领域中具有通常知识者,能了解其内容,并可据以实施。 [0016] For the technical features of the exemplary embodiment of the present invention will be described in detail below with icons embodiment, so that ordinary knowledge Technical Field The present invention pertains having to understand its contents, and according to FIG.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0017]【图式简单说明】 [0017] [Brief Description of the drawings]

[0018] 图1为本发明的图像处理流程图。 [0018] FIG image processing flowchart of the present invention.

[0019] 图2为本发明的诊断步骤流程图。 [0019] FIG diagnostic step 2 of the present invention. FIG.

[0020] 图3为本发明的光学折射率的影像示意图。 [0020] Fig 3 a schematic view of an image optical index of refraction of the present invention.

[0021] 图4A为本发明实施例的具有牙结石的牙齿影像图。 [0021] Figure 4A FIG tooth image having dental calculus embodiment of the present invention.

[0022] 图4B为本发明实施例的猪牙龈肉覆盖在牙齿上面的影像图。 Pig meat gums [0022] FIG. 4B embodiment of the present invention to cover the tooth top image in FIG.

[0023] 图4C为将图4B进行OCT的牙齿成像图。 [0023] FIG. 4C is a dental imaging FIG OCT FIG 4B.

[0024] 图4D为定义牙齿表面区域的影像图。 [0024] FIG. 4D is a defined area of ​​the tooth surface image of FIG.

[0025] 图4E为定义牙结石顶端的影像图。 [0025] FIG. 4E is defined at the top of the image of FIG dental calculus.

[0026] 图4F为定义牙结石底部的影像图。 [0026] Figure 4F is a bottom defined dental calculus image in FIG.

[0027] 图4G为牙结石区域的影像表示图。 [0027] FIG 4G is a diagram showing an image area of ​​dental calculus.

[0028] 图4H为本发明完成后的影像图。 [0028] FIG. 4H of the present invention after the completion of the image of FIG.

[0029]【主要组件符号说明】 [0029] The main component symbol DESCRIPTION

[0030] I牙齿11牙结石2猪牙龈肉 [0030] I 11 teeth tartar gums pig meat 2

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0031]本发明的牙结石诊断方法,其图像处理流程如下,如图1所示。 [0031] Dental calculus diagnostic method of the present invention, the image processing flow is as follows, as shown in FIG.

[0032] (a)先利用OCT进行牙齿的影像撷取。 [0032] (a) to perform image capturing using OCT teeth.

[0033] (b)再将撷取后的影像进行非等方性延展滤波(anisotropic diffusionfiltering),以过滤掉影像的噪声及斑点,进而知道影像的边界位置。 [0033] (b) then after the image capturing non-stretched isotropic filtering (anisotropic diffusionfiltering), to filter out noise and images of the spots, and thus to know the position of the boundary of the image.

[0034] (C)再将影像进行中值滤波(middle value filtering),以滤除掉影像的斑点噪声。 [0034] (C) and then the image median filtering (middle value filtering), to filter out speckle noise image.

[0035] (d)再将影像进行第一次的门坎值滤波(threshold filtering),以进一步找出影像最外边界的位置。 [0035] (d) performing a first image and then the threshold value filter (threshold filtering), to further identify the location of the outer boundary of the image most.

[0036] (e)再进行牙齿表面线性收敛,定义出牙齿表面的影像区域。 [0036] (e) further linear convergence tooth surface, tooth surface defining a region of the image.

[0037] (f)另外,当步骤流程(d)完成后要进行步骤流程(e)之前,影像同时会传送到另一条支线进行高斯滤波(Gaussian filtering),以除去牙肉影像,纯化牙结石影像。 Before [0037] (f) In addition, after the process step (D) to complete the process step (E), the image will also be transferred to another branch Gaussian filter (Gaussian filtering), to remove the image gums, dental calculus purified image.

[0038] (g)再将影像进行第二次的门坎值滤波,以更进一步找出牙结石的边界位置。 [0038] (g) for the video threshold value and then filtered a second time to further identify the boundary position of dental calculus.

[0039] (h)确认是否已隔离出牙结石影像,如果尚未隔离,则再重复步骤流程(g),确认牙结石的边界位置。 [0039] (h) to confirm whether the image isolate tartar, if not already isolated, and then the process repeats step (G), to confirm the position of the boundary of dental calculus.

[0040] (i)当牙结石影像被隔离后,则更进一步确定牙结石影像的边界位置。 [0040] (i) When the image is isolated from dental calculus, it is further determined boundary position of the image of dental calculus.

[0041] (j)进行牙结石顶线收敛,定义出牙结石顶端的影像区域。 [0041] (j) be the top line of dental calculus convergence, the image area is defined at the top of dental calculus.

[0042] (k)进行牙结石底线收敛,定义出牙结石底部的影像区域。 [0042] (k) converges for dental calculus bottom, defining the image area of ​​the bottom of dental calculus.

[0043] (I)将定义出的牙结石顶端、牙齿表面及牙结石底部的影像区域进行光学折射率的计算,其公式为如下,并请参阅图3。 [0043] (I) defined in the top of the dental calculus, tooth surface and the image area of ​​the bottom of dental calculus calculated optical index of refraction, the formula is as follows, and see FIG. 3.

[0044] [0044]

Figure CN104000557AD00051

[0045] z':牙齿表面中心处到牙结石顶端的距离 [0045] z ': the distance from the tooth surface at the center of the top of tartar

[0046] z:牙齿表面中心处到牙结石底部的距离 [0046] z: distance from the tooth surface at the center of the bottom of tartar

[0047] (m)另外,当图像处理流程(h)完成后要进行图像处理流程(i)之前,影像同时被传送到另一条支线进行标示牙结石隔离区的颜色。 Before [0047] (m) Further, when the image processing flow (h) to be performed to complete the image processing flow (I), while the image is transferred to the other branch for the color-coded dental calculus isolation region.

[0048] (η)将牙结石隔离区的颜色与已算出光学折射率的牙结石影像进行结合收敛,然后完成整个图像处理。 [0048] (η) color of dental calculus with the isolation region the calculated refractive index of the optical image of dental calculus binding convergence, and to complete the image processing.

[0049] 从上述本案的图像处理程流可以了解,本案的牙结石诊断方法,至少包括如下步骤,如图2所示。 [0049] The image processing program can be understood from the above-described flow of the case, the case of dental calculus method of diagnosis comprising at least the following steps, as shown in FIG.

[0050] (I)利用光学同调断层扫描术(OCT)进行牙齿成像。 [0050] (I) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dental imaging.

[0051] 为了解OCT对其牙结石成像的实际状况,本实施例使用一颗具有牙结石11的牙齿1,并且将接近人类牙龈肉的厚度0.8mm的猪牙龈肉2覆盖在该牙齿I上,请参阅图4A及图4B。 [0051] In order to understand the actual condition thereof OCT imaging of dental calculus, the present embodiment uses a tooth having dental calculus 11 1, and the closer the thickness of human gingival gum meat pig meat 0.8mm 2 covering the teeth on the I see Figure 4A and 4B. 并将图4B进行OCT的牙齿成像,该成像如图4C所示,从图4C可以观察到,正常牙齿表面上另有一不规则形状增生区域(如箭头所示),此影像符合牙结石堆积在牙齿表面的病理,并且也证实了OCT诊断牙龈下的牙结石能力。 And FIG. 4B OCT, dental imaging, the image shown in Figure 4C, to be observed from FIG. 4C, an irregular shape and another region of a normal tooth surface hyperplasia (arrow), This video accumulation of dental calculus in line with pathological tooth surface, and also confirmed the ability of dental calculus in OCT diagnostic gums.

[0052] (2)定义牙齿表面的影像区域,如图4D所示。 [0052] (2) imaging the area defining the tooth surface, shown in Figure 4D.

[0053] (3)定义牙结石的顶端及底部的影像区域,如图4E及图4F所示; [0053] (3) the top and bottom of the image area defined dental calculus, as shown in Figure 4E and 4F;

[0054] (4)计算定义出的影像区域的光学折射率,请参阅图3所示。 [0054] (4) calculating the refractive index of the optical image of the defined area, see FIG. 3.

[0055] (5)将牙结石的影像区域标注上颜色,如图4G的圆圈处所示。 [0055] (5) The image area marked on the color of dental calculus, circled as shown in FIG 4G.

[0056] (6)最后将牙结石隔离区的颜色与已计算出光学折射率的牙结石影像进行结合,如图4H所示。 [0056] (6) Finally, the color of dental calculus with the isolation region has been calculated refractive index of the optical image are combined dental calculus, as shown in FIG 4H.

[0057] 以上所述,仅为本发明的具体实施方式,但本发明的保护范围并不局限于此,任何熟悉本技术领域的技术人员在本发明揭露的技术范围内,可轻易想到变化或替换,都应涵盖在本发明的保护范围之内。 [0057] The above are only specific embodiments of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, any skilled in the art in the art within the technical scope of the present invention is disclosed, variations may readily occur or Alternatively, it shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention. 因此,本发明的保护范围应所述以权利要求的保护范围为准。 Accordingly, the scope of the present invention should be in the scope of the claims and their equivalents.

Claims (4)

  1. 1.一种牙结石诊断方法,其特征在于包括: (1)利用光学同调断层扫描术进行牙齿成像; (2)定义牙齿表面的影像区域; (3)定义牙结石的顶端及底部的影像区域; (4)计算定义出的影像区域的光学折射率; (5)将牙结石的影像区域标注上颜色; (6)最后将牙结石隔离区的颜色与已计算出光学折射率的牙结石影像进行结合。 A dental calculus diagnosis method, comprising: (1) using optical coherence tomography for dental imaging; (2) the tooth surface defines an image region; top and bottom of the image area (3) defined tartar ; (4) calculating the refractive index of the optical image of the defined area; (5) the image area marked on the color of dental calculus; (6) Finally, the color of dental calculus with the isolation region has been calculated refractive index of the optical image of dental calculus binding.
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的牙结石诊断方法,其特征在于,所述定义牙齿表面的影像区域之前,还包括如下步骤: (a)进行非等方性延展滤波,以过滤掉影像的噪声及斑点; (b)再进行中值滤波,以滤除掉影像的斑点噪声; (c)再进行门坎值滤波,以找出影像最外边界的位置; (d)再进行牙齿表面线性收敛,以定义出牙齿表面的影像区域。 2. The method of claim dental calculi according to claim 1, characterized in that, prior to the image area of ​​the tooth surface defines, further comprising the steps of: (a) non-stretched isotropic filter, to filter out noise images and spots; (b) then the median filter to filter out speckle noise image; (c) further filtering threshold value, to find the position of the outermost boundary of the image; (d) further linear convergence tooth surface, to define an image area of ​​the tooth surface.
  3. 3.根据权利要求1所述的牙结石诊断方法,其特征在于,所述定义牙结石的顶端及底部的影像区域之前,还包括如下步骤: (a)进行非等方性延展滤波,以过滤掉影像的噪声及斑点; (b)再进行中值滤波,以滤除掉影像的斑点噪声; (C)再进行门坎值滤波,以找出影像最外边界的位置; (d)再进行高斯滤波,以除去牙肉影像,纯化牙结石影像; (e)再进行第二次的门坎值滤波,以找出牙结石的边界位置; (f)进行牙结石顶线收敛,定义出牙结石顶端的影像区域; (g)进行牙结石底线收敛,定义出牙结石底部的影像区域。 The diagnostic method according tartar claimed in claim 1, wherein the defined image area to the top and bottom of dental calculus, the method further comprising the steps of: (a) non-stretched isotropic filter, to filter out spots and image noise; (b) then the median filter to filter out speckle noise of images; (C) then the threshold value filtering, to find the position of the outermost boundary of the image; (d) further Gauss filtering the image to remove the gums, dental calculus purified image; (e) then filtering the second threshold value in order to identify the position of the boundary of dental calculus; (f) for the top line of convergence dental calculus, tartar define a top image region; (G) for the bottom line of convergence dental calculus, dental calculus define a bottom image area.
  4. 4.根据权利要求1所述的牙结石诊断方法,其特征在于所述光学折射率的计算为: The diagnostic method according tartar claim 1, characterized in that the optical index is calculated as:
    Figure CN104000557AC00021
    其中该^为牙齿表面中心处到牙结石顶端的距离,z:牙齿表面中心处到牙结石底部的距离。 Wherein ^ is the distance to the tooth surface at the center of the top of stone teeth, z: tartar from the bottom of the tooth surface to the center.
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