CN103940753B - The aerosol nucleation pulse generator - Google Patents

The aerosol nucleation pulse generator Download PDF

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CN103940753B
CN103940753B CN201410177454.6A CN201410177454A CN103940753B CN 103940753 B CN103940753 B CN 103940753B CN 201410177454 A CN201410177454 A CN 201410177454A CN 103940753 B CN103940753 B CN 103940753B
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pressure
aerosol
sample cell
nucleation
pulse generator
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CN103940753A (en
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庞树峰
王娜
张云
李大民
张韫宏
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北京理工大学
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Abstract

本发明具体涉及一种气溶胶成核脉冲发生器。 The present invention particularly relates to an aerosol nucleating pulse generator. 气溶胶成核脉冲发生器,其技术方案是:压力缸(1)内的气体体积随活塞(5)的往返运动呈重复性变化,压力缸(1)和样品池(2)内的气压同样呈高压-低压-高压的脉冲式变化:气压由低向高变化时,储水罐(4)中的水蒸发形成蒸汽通过导气管(6)进入至样品池(2)内并进行压缩,部分水蒸气凝结成凝结核,少量凝结核聚集长大形成液态水凝聚在样品池(2)壁上;气压由高向低变化时,液态水蒸发形成蒸汽分子;在一个高压-低压的变化周期内完成均相成核-汽化的过程;成核-汽化的过程中所造成的水分缺失通过储水罐(4)内的水蒸气挥发进行补充。 The aerosol nucleation pulse generator, which is the technical solution: in the volume of gas (1) with reciprocating motion of the cylinder piston (5) form a repetitive change the air pressure in the cylinder (1) and the sample cell (2), as a high pressure - low pressure - high pressure pulse variation: pressure changes from low to high to, water storage tank (4) is formed by evaporation by steam enters duct (6) through the sample cell (2) and compressed, partially water vapor condenses into condensation nuclei, nuclear accumulation of a small amount of condensation of liquid water formed grow aggregated sample cell (2) wall; the air pressure changes from high to low, steam formed by evaporation of liquid water molecules; in a high pressure - low pressure changes within the period homogeneous nucleation completed - vaporization process; nucleation - vaporization of water in the process caused by the lack of volatile supplemented vapor inside the storage tank (4). 本发明为研究气溶胶成核的动力学机理提供便利。 The present invention provides a convenient mechanism for the study of aerosol dynamics into nucleation.

Description

气溶胶成核脉冲发生器 The aerosol nucleation pulse generator

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明属于化学实验领域,具体涉及一种气溶胶成核脉冲发生器。 [0001] The present invention belongs to the field of experimental chemistry, specifically relates to an aerosol nucleating pulse generator.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] PM2.5即分散于空气中的直径小于或等于2.5微米的液体或固体气溶胶颗粒,目前已经成为大气环境的主要污染源。 [0002] PM2.5 i.e. the diameter of dispersed air or less liquid or solid aerosol particles of 2.5 microns, has become a major source of pollution of atmospheric environment. PM2.5究竟如何形成的,环境湿度,大气成分如何影响其生长,pM2.5在不同的地区是如何分布的? How exactly the formation of PM2.5, ambient humidity, atmospheric composition affect their growth, pM2.5 in different regions how they are distributed? 这些问题已经成为目前环境科学家和化学家们的研究热点。 These problems have become environmental scientists and chemists hotspot. 虽然现在对于气溶胶的分布以及其生长过程的研究已经取得了一些成果,但是由于气溶胶凝结核的颗粒很小(小于3nm),难以捕捉,因此对于气溶胶的成核机制仍然存在很多争议和研究空白。 While it is for the distribution of aerosol and its growth research has made some achievements, but because of the aerosol condensation nuclei of very small particles (less than 3nm), elusive, so for aerosol nucleation mechanism and there are still a lot of controversy research gaps. 红外光谱技术可以探测不同聚集态的化合物的结构信息,是研究气溶胶的重要手段。 Infrared spectroscopy can detect different structural information aggregation compounds, it is an important means to study aerosol. 因此将气溶胶成核脉冲发生器与高分辨红外光谱相结合可以为气溶胶成核机理的研究提供有效的技术方法。 Thus aerosol nucleation pulse generator of high resolution infrared spectroscopy can provide effective combination aerosol art methods Nucleation Mechanism.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0003] 本发明的目的是:为深入研究气溶胶成核的动力学机理,提供一种气溶胶成核脉冲发生器; [0003] The object of the present invention are: Kinetic Mechanism for the further study of aerosol nucleation, there is provided an aerosol nucleating pulse generator;

[0004] 本发明的技术方案是:气溶胶成核脉冲发生器,它包括:压力缸、样品池、红外光谱分析仪、温度计、压力表以及储水罐; [0004] aspect of the present invention is: aerosol nucleation pulse generator, comprising: a pressure cylinder, the sample cell, infrared spectroscopy, a thermometer, a pressure gauge and a water storage tank;

[0005] 压力缸内设有活塞,活塞往返运动改变压力缸和样品池内气体压力; [0005] The pressure cylinder provided with a piston, the piston reciprocates to change the cylinder and the gas pressure in the sample cell;

[0006] 样品池为封闭结构,它通过导气管与压力缸连通;样品池内设有温度计以及压力表; [0006] The cuvette is a closed structure, which communicates with the cylinder through the air duct; sample cell is provided with a thermometer and a pressure gauge;

[0007] 储水罐为封闭结构,它通过导气管与样品池连通; [0007] The storage tank is a closed structure, which communicates with the airway through the sample cell;

[0008] 红外光谱分析仪与样品池连接; [0008] Infrared spectrum analyzer is connected to the sample cell;

[0009] 压力缸内的气体体积随活塞的往返运动呈重复性变化,压力缸和样品池内的气压同样呈高压-低压-高压的脉冲式变化:气压由低向高变化时,储水罐中的水蒸发形成蒸汽通过导气管进入至样品池内并进行压缩,部分水蒸气凝结成凝结核,少量凝结核聚集长大形成液态水凝聚在样品池壁上;气压由高向低变化时,液态水蒸发形成蒸汽分子;在一个高压-低压的变化周期内完成均相成核-汽化的过程;成核-汽化的过程中所造成的水分缺失通过储水罐内的水蒸气挥发进行补充。 Gas volume [0009] the pressure cylinder with a reciprocating motion of the piston changes in the form of repetitive, the cylinder pressure and the same sample cell as a high pressure - low pressure - high pressure pulse variation: the air pressure changes from low to high, the water storage tank water vapor formed by evaporation to enter the sample cell of the airways and compressed, partially condensed vapor into a condensation nuclei, nuclear accumulation of a small amount of condensation of liquid water formed grow in the sample cell aggregation; the air pressure changes from high to low, liquid water evaporated to form a vapor molecule; in a high pressure - low pressure changes within the complete cycle of homogeneous nucleation - vaporization process; nucleation - vaporization of water in the process caused deletion supplemented by evaporation of water vapor in the water storage tank.

[0010] 本发明的有益效果是:(1)利用本发明可快速实现气溶胶成核-汽化的过程,利用检测仪器可获取气溶胶成核的临界压力与气溶胶组成之间的关系,为研究气溶胶成核的动力学机理提供便利; [0010] Advantageous effects of the present invention are: (1) the use of the present invention can be implemented quickly aerosol nucleation - evaporation process, the use of detection equipment may be acquired relationship between the critical pressure and the aerosol nucleation aerosol composition as Research into the dynamics of aerosol nucleation mechanism to facilitate;

[0011 ] (2)储水罐可及时补充成核-汽化的过程中所造成的水分缺失,使得成核-汽化的过程具备良好的周期性和重复性,符合步进扫描红外光谱的测试条件; [0011] (2) replenish the water storage tank may be nucleating - Water deletion process caused by the vaporization of such nucleation - vaporization process with good reproducibility and periodically meet the test condition of step scanning infrared spectrum ;

[0012] (3)通过控制活塞的运动频率可以定量地控制气溶胶的成核周期,为获取气溶胶核化的定量研究提供有效的装置。 [0012] (3) can be quantitatively controlled by the movement of the aerosol nucleation cycle frequency of the control piston, to provide effective means for the quantitative study of aerosol nucleation acquired.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0013] 图1为本发明的结构组成示意图; [0013] Figure 1 is a schematic diagram illustrating a structure of the invention;

[0014] 图2为活塞往返运动时,压力缸内气体体积变化示意图; [0014] FIG. 2 is a piston reciprocating motion, a schematic view of the pressure cylinder gas volume change;

[0015] 其中,1-压力缸、2-样品池、3-红外光谱分析仪、4-储水罐、5-活塞、6-导气管、7-温度计、8-样品罐、9-截止阀、10-压力表、11-数据采集系统、12-显示器、13-活塞推拉 [0015] wherein, l-pressure cylinder, the sample cell 2-, 3- infrared spectroscopy, 4 storage tank, 5- piston, airway 6-, 7- thermometer, sample jars 8-, 9- shut-off valve , 10 gauge, 11 a data acquisition system, 12 a display, 13 sliding piston

目.ο Head .ο

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

: :

[0016] 参见附图1,实施例1:气溶胶成核脉冲发生器,它包括:压力缸1、样品池2、红外光谱分析仪3、温度计7、压力表10以及储水罐4 ; [0016] Referring to FIG. 1, Example 1: Aerosol nucleation pulse generator, comprising: a pressure cylinder 1, the sample cell 2, infrared spectroscopy 3, 7 thermometer, pressure gauge 10 and a storage tank 4;

[0017] 压力缸1内设有活塞5,活塞5往返运动改变压力缸1和样品池2内气体压力; [0017] 1 cylinder equipped with a piston 5, the piston 5 reciprocates to change a pressure cylinder 2 and gas pressure within the sample cell;

[0018] 样品池2为封闭结构,它通过导气管6与压力缸1连通;样品池2内设有温度计7以及压力表10 ; [0018] Sample 2 is a closed cell structure, by which the airway 6 communicates with the cylinder 1; sample cell 2 equipped with a thermometer and a pressure gauge 10 7;

[0019] 储水罐4为封闭结构,它通过导气管6与样品池2连通; [0019] The storage tank 4 is a closed structure, which communicates through the airway sample cell 2 and 6;

[0020] 红外光谱分析仪3与样品池2连接; [0020] Infrared spectrum analyzer 3 is connected to the sample cell 2;

[0021] 红外光谱分析仪3、温度计7以及压力表10用于监测样品池2内样品的变化; [0021] 3 infrared spectroscopy, a thermometer and a pressure gauge 10 7 2 Sample for monitoring changes in the sample cell;

[0022] 压力缸1内的气体体积随活塞5的往返运动呈重复性变化,由于样品池2通过导气管6与压力缸1连通,因此样品池2和压力缸1内的气压同样成高压-低压-高压的脉冲式变化:附图2给出了活塞往返运动时,压力缸内气体体积变化示意图,当活塞5从(a)图运动至(c)图中位置时,压力缸1和样品池2内气压由低向高变化,储水罐4中的水蒸发形成蒸汽通过导气管6进入至样品池2内并进行压缩,部分水蒸气凝结成凝结核,少量的凝结核聚集长大形成液态水凝聚在样品池2壁上;当活塞5从(c)图位置运动至(a)图位置时,液态水形成蒸汽分子;活塞5运动至(b)图位置时,样品池2为水气混合状态;在一个高压-低压的变化周期内完成均相成核-汽化的过程;成核-汽化的过程中所造成的水分缺失通过储水罐4内的水蒸气挥发进行补充; [0022] The volume of gas in the cylinder with a reciprocating motion of the piston 5 in the form of repetitive changes, since a sample cell 2 through the communication pipe 6 and the guide cylinder, so the air pressure in the sample cell 12 and the same cylinder to a high pressure - low pressure - high pressure pulse variation: 2 shows the piston reciprocates accompanying drawings, a schematic diagram of the pressure changes in the volume of the gas cylinder, when 5 from part (a) is moved to (c) position of the piston in FIG cylinder 1 and sample pool 2 changes from low to high pressure, the evaporation of the water storage tank 4 is formed by vapor into the air duct 6 into the sample cell 2 and compressed, partially condensed into water vapor condensation nuclei, nuclear accumulation of a small amount of condensation formed grow 2 liquid condensed in the sample cell wall; when the piston 5 from (c) to FIG position (a) in FIG position, liquid water molecules to form a vapor; piston 5 is moved to (b) position of FIG, 2 is water cuvette gas mixed state; in a high pressure - low pressure changes within the complete cycle of homogeneous nucleation - vaporization process; nucleation - vaporization of water in the process caused deletion volatile supplemented by steam in the water storage tank 4;

[0023] 判定气溶胶成核的数量以及动力学过程可以通过红外光谱分析仪3观测:光谱图中蒸汽信号减小,液态水的信号增强则说明部分水蒸气已经凝结成核,综合蒸汽和液态水信号的强弱变化,则可判断成核数量。 [0023] determines the number of aerosol nucleation kinetics, and can be observed by infrared spectroscopy 3: vapor spectrum signal decreases, then the signal enhancement of the liquid portion of the water vapor has condensed into nuclei integrated vapor and liquid changes in the strength of the water signal, the number of nucleation can be determined.

[0024] 实施例2,较优的,为研究气溶胶的异相成核过程,在实施例1的基础上,气溶胶成核脉冲发生器还包括一个装有易挥发物质(如硝酸、氨气)的样品罐8;样品罐8通过截止阀9与导气管6连通,打开截止阀9,活塞5运动时,样品罐8中的液体与储水罐4的水分同时挥发出气体参与气溶胶的成核过程。 [0024] Example 2, and more for the study of aerosol heterogeneous nucleation process, on the basis of Example 1, the aerosol generator further comprises a pulse nucleation containing a volatile substance (such as nitric acid, ammonia gas) sample tank 8; sample tank 8 through the stop valve 9 communicating with the air duct 6, the cutoff valve 9 is opened, when the movement of the piston 5, the water storage tank and the liquid in the sample tank 84 while the gas volatilized aerosol participation the nucleation process.

[0025] 实施例3,较优的,为体现本发明的智能化,在实施例1或2的基础上,增加数据采集系统11 ;温度计7与压力表10的监测数据由数据采集系统11采集,并通过显示器12显示;这样可以很直观地观察到样品池2内的温度和压力,便于根据要求随时调控活塞5的运动速率。 [0025] Example 3, superior, intelligent embodying the present invention, on the basis of Example 1 or 2 on the increase in the data acquisition system 11; 7 with a thermometer gauge 10 monitoring data by the data acquisition system 11 and display 12 through the display; this can be visually observed in the temperature and pressure of the sample cell 2, according to the requirements at any time to facilitate the regulation of the rate of movement of the piston 5.

[0026] 实施例4,在实施例1或2的基础上,本发明还包括活塞推拉装置13 ;活塞推拉装置13的实现方式有多种,例如它可以包括:电机以及由电机驱动的滚珠丝杠,通过滚珠丝杠与活塞5固定连接带动其往返运动;它还可以包括:电机、套接在电机输出轴上的齿轮、与齿轮啮合的转轮以及与转轮连接的推杆,通过推杆与活塞5固定连接带动其往返运动。 [0026] Example 4, on the basis of Example 1 or 2, the present invention further comprises a piston 13 sliding means; There are many implementations of the piston urging means 13, for example, it may comprise: a motor and a ball screw driven by a motor bar, by the ball screw drive is fixedly connected to the piston 5 which reciprocates; may further comprise: a motor, a gear socket of the motor output shaft, the gear wheel and the wheel connected to the push rod and, by pushing 5 is fixedly connected to the piston rod drive its reciprocating motion.

Claims (6)

1.气溶胶成核脉冲发生器,其特征在于,它包括:压力缸⑴、样品池(2)、红外光谱分析仪(3)、温度计(7)、压力表(10)以及储水罐⑷; 所述压力缸(1)内设有活塞(5),所述活塞(5)往返运动改变所述压力缸(1)和样品池(2)内气体压力; 所述样品池(2)为封闭结构,它通过导气管(6)与所述压力缸(1)连通;所述样品池(2)内设有所述温度计(7)以及压力表(10); 所述储水罐(4)为封闭结构,它通过所述导气管(6)与所述样品池(2)连通; 所述红外光谱分析仪(3)与所述样品池(2)连接; 所述压力缸(1)内的气体体积随所述活塞(5)的往返运动呈重复性变化,所述压力缸(1)和样品池(2)内的气压同样呈高压-低压-高压的脉冲式变化:气压由低向高变化时,储水罐(4)中的水蒸发形成蒸汽通过所述导气管(6)进入至所述样品池(2)内并进行压缩,部分水蒸气凝结成凝结核,少量凝结核聚集长大形成液 1. The aerosol nucleation pulse generator, characterized in that it comprises: a pressure cylinder ⑴, the sample cell (2), infrared spectroscopy (3), a thermometer (7), pressure gauge (10) and a water storage tank ⑷ ; said pressure cylinder (1) is provided with (5) reciprocating motion of the piston (5), the piston changing the cylinder (1) and the sample cell (2) gas pressure; the sample cell (2) closed structure, which (1) communicates with the cylinder through a duct (6); said sample cell (2) is provided with a thermometer (7) and a pressure gauge (10); the water storage tank (4 ) is a closed structure, which communicates through said air duct (6) and the sample cell (2); said infrared spectroscopic analyzer (3) and the sample cell (2); said pressure cylinder (1) in the gas volume with reciprocating motion of the piston (5) form a repetitive change, gas pressure within said pressure cylinder (1) and the sample cell (2), as a high pressure - low pressure - high pressure pulse variation: a low pressure when changes to high, the water storage tank (4) is formed by evaporation to steam entering the sample cell (2) and compressed by said air duct (6), part of the water vapor is condensed into condensation nuclei, a small amount of condensation nuclei They grew up together to form a liquid 水凝聚在所述样品池(2)壁上;气压由高向低变化时,所述液态水蒸发形成蒸汽分子;在一个高压-低压的变化周期内完成均相成核-汽化的过程;所述成核-汽化的过程中所造成的水分缺失通过所述储水罐(4)内的水蒸气挥发进行补充。 Condensed water in the sample cell (2) wall; the air pressure changes from high to low, the evaporation of liquid water molecules to form a vapor; in a high pressure - low pressure changes within the complete cycle of homogeneous nucleation - vaporization process; the said nucleation - vaporization of water in the process caused by the absence of supplemented volatile vapor inside the storage tank (4).
2.如权利要求1所述的气溶胶成核脉冲发生器,其特征在于,它还包括一个装有易挥发物质的样品罐⑶;所述样品罐⑶通过截止阀(9)与所述导气管(6)连通。 2. The aerosol nucleation pulse generator according to claim 1, characterized in that it further comprises a sample jars containing ⑶ volatile substance; ⑶ said sample tank via a stop valve (9) and the guide pipe (6) in communication.
3.如权利要求1或2所述的气溶胶成核脉冲发生器,其特征在于,所述温度计(7)与所述压力表(10)的监测数据由数据采集系统(11)采集,并通过显示器(12)显示。 3. The aerosol nucleation pulse generator of claim 1 or claim 2, characterized in that, (7) the monitoring data with the thermometer gauge (10) by the data acquisition system (11) collected, and display (12) through the display.
4.如权利要求1或2所述的气溶胶成核脉冲发生器,其特征在于,它还包括活塞推拉装置(13)ο 4. The aerosol nucleation pulse generator of claim 1 or claim 2, characterized in that it further comprises (13) ο piston push means
5.如权利要求4所述的气溶胶成核脉冲发生器,其特征在于,所述活塞推拉装置(13)包括:电机以及由所述电机驱动的滚珠丝杠,所述滚珠丝杠与所述活塞(5)固定连接。 The aerosol nucleation pulse generator according to claim 4, wherein said piston urging means (13) comprising: a motor and a ball screw driven by the motor, the screw and the above (5) is fixedly connected to the piston.
6.如权利要求4所述的气溶胶成核脉冲发生器,其特征在于,所述活塞推拉装置(13)包括:电机、套接在所述电机输出轴上的齿轮、与所述齿轮啮合的转轮以及与转轮连接的推杆。 6. The aerosol according to claim 4 nucleating pulse generator, characterized in that, the piston push means (13) comprising: a motor, a gear sleeved on said output shaft of the motor, meshes with the gear runner and the runner is connected with the push rod.
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CN203155194U (en) * 2013-04-02 2013-08-28 青岛众瑞智能仪器有限公司 Aerosol generator
CN103566840B (en) * 2013-11-04 2015-04-29 浙江大学 System and method for producing high-time diluted PM2.5 aerosol

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