CN103776378A - Non-contact type flexible on-line dimension measurement system - Google Patents

Non-contact type flexible on-line dimension measurement system Download PDF

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CN103776378A
CN103776378A CN201410067991.5A CN201410067991A CN103776378A CN 103776378 A CN103776378 A CN 103776378A CN 201410067991 A CN201410067991 A CN 201410067991A CN 103776378 A CN103776378 A CN 103776378A
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measurement
part
robot
industrial
system
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CN201410067991.5A
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Chinese (zh)
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朴永杰
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上海思琢自动化科技有限公司
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Publication of CN103776378A publication Critical patent/CN103776378A/en

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Abstract

Disclosed is a non-contact type flexible on-line dimension measurement system. A laser displacement sensor, an industrial camera and a power supply are fixed at the tail end of an industrial robot, and the robot saves measuring positions of workpieces to a robot moving track program through a teaching programming in advance. After the workpieces are placed on a measuring bracket and fixedly clamped, the robot drives the displacement sensor, the industrial camera and the power supply to operate to each measurement point on the workpieces for measurement according to pre-programmed programs; when the robot operates to each measurement point, the robot sends a measurement permission instruction to a measurement sensing system, a control system of the measurement sensing system performs measurement and real-timely sends measurement results to a measurement data saving and querying data base, subsequently, the control system of the measurement sensing system informs the robot of operation to the next measurement point, and the whole system repeatedly performs the above circulation to accomplish measurement work of one workpiece at all measurement points. By means of the non-contact type flexible on-line dimension measurement system, efficiency of measurement of automobile parts is improved, measurement samples are multiple, and measurement results are accurate.

Description

一种非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统 A non-contact measuring system flexible line size

[0001] 技术领域: [0001] Technical Field:

本发明涉及物理领域,尤其涉及测量技术,特别涉及在汽车零部件生产过程中对零部件产品进行尺寸监控的自动测量技术,具体的是一种非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统。 The present invention relates to the field of physics, in particular, to measurement techniques, and more particularly to an automatic measurement techniques to monitor the size of the product components in the production process of automobile parts, specifically a non-contact measurement of dimensions of the flexible line system.

[0002] 背景技术: [0002] BACKGROUND:

在汽车零部件的生产过程中需要按照客户提供的形位公差要求(GD&T)对汽车零部件进行检测。 Detecting the need for automotive parts according to shape and position tolerances (GD & T) provided by the customer in the production process of automobile parts. 现有技术中的检测方法是先制作一个测量检具,将被测零件放上去定位好之后,利用检具上事先精密加工并精确标定好的模拟块或卡板等参照物对零件关注的部件或特征点进行测量。 After detecting method in the prior art is to make a measurement gages, the part is to put up a good positioning, the use of prior seizure good precision machining and accurate calibration of analog block or cardboard like reference part of interest on the member feature points or measurements. 但是这种专用的测量检具只针对某个特定零部件的专用检测,不能用于其它零件的测量,并且检具上的模拟块或卡板需要精密加工、精密装配、精密标定,所以当要求检测零件数量较多时,整体检具的制作成本会非常高。 However, this dedicated measurement gages only for specific detection of a particular component, can not be used to measure other parts, and the analog block or cardboard gage require precision machining, precision assembly, precise calibration, so when required when detecting a larger number of parts, making the overall cost of the seizure will be very high. 而且由于专用测量检具都由人工操作,对大型零件或测点要求较多的零件,测量人员的工作量非常大,测量工具简单且精度较低,测量后期数据需人工录入电脑进行分析,而人工录入会有误操作,影响分析结果。 And since the special measuring gages by manual operation, a large part of the measuring point or more required parts is very large workload surveyors, simple and low precision measurement tool, the measurement data is late for an artificial input computer for analysis, and manual entry there will be misuse, affect the results. 由于以上问题造成整个零件的尺寸测量、监控的过程效率非常低,尺寸监控过程中测量采样数量很少,数据分析结果很难体现短期内的零件生产过程能力,对现场的报警存在延时,不能实时地反映产线问题,会造成不良品流出。 Because of these problems caused by the process of measuring the size of the entire part of the monitoring of the efficiency is very low, the size of the monitoring process to measure small number of samples, data analysis results reflect the difficult parts production capacity in the short term, there is a delay to the scene of the alarm can not be reflected in real time on production line will cause outflow of defective products.

[0003] 发明内容: [0003] SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION:

本发明所要解决的技术问题是提供一种非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统,所述的这种非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统要解决现有技术中采用检具人工测量汽车零部件的方法效率低、采样数少、检测结果延时的技术问题。 The present invention is to solve the technical problem of providing a flexible non-contact measurement system line size, according to this non-contact system for measuring the size of the flexible line efficiency the prior art solutions using manual measurement gage auto parts low, a small number of samples, delay detection result technical problems.

[0004] 本发明的这种非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统,包括组合式测量传感器和工业机器人,所述的工业机器人包括有一个机械臂,其中,所述的组合式测量传感器固定连接在所述的工业机器人的机械臂上,组合式测量传感器包括一个一维激光位移传感器和一个工业摄像机,所述的一维激光位移传感器和工业摄像机固定连接,一维激光位移传感器包括有信号线,工业摄像机包括有信号输出线,一维激光位移传感器的信号线和工业摄像机的信号输出线均连接到一个计算机,工业机器人与一个机器人控制器连接,所述的机器人控制器通过信号和数据线与所述的计算机连接,计算机中设置有机器视觉处理模块,利用一维激光位移传感器测量被测零件上的实体部位轮廓度,利用工业摄像机采集被测零件上的孔、或者边缘、或者镂空部位的图像,再利用所述的 [0004] This non-contact type flexible line dimension measuring system of the invention, comprising a combined measurement sensor and the industrial robot, the industrial robot comprises a robot arm, wherein said combined measuring sensors fixedly connected to the the industrial robot manipulator described below, the combined measurement sensor comprises a one-dimensional laser displacement sensor and an industrial camera, a one-dimensional camera and industrial laser displacement sensor is fixedly connected to the one-dimensional laser displacement sensor includes a signal line, industrial the camera comprising a signal output line signal output lines, one-dimensional laser displacement sensor signal lines and industrial cameras are connected to a computer, an industrial robot and a robot controller connected to said robot controller by the signal and data lines with the said computer connection, the computer is provided with a machine vision processing module, using one-dimensional laser displacement sensor of the solid portion of the profile part to be measured, using industrial camera hole on the part to be measured acquired, or an edge, or a hollow portion of the picture , the re-use of 机器视觉处理模块计算得到被测零件上的孔、或者边缘、或者镂空部位的空间位置,将测量得到的被测零件的实体部位轮廓度和被测零件上的孔、或者边缘、或者镂空部位的空间位置与零件的数模理论位置进行比较,得到其偏差值即测量结果。 Machine vision processing module calculates the part is obtained in the hole, or an edge, or the spatial position of the hollow portion, the solid portion of the hole of the part is measured and the measured parts of the contour, or an edge, or a hollow portion compared with the spatial position of the D part theoretical position, i.e. the value of the deviation obtained measurement result.

[0005] 进一步的,在组合式测量传感器的探测范围中设置有一个零件支架,所述的零件支架连接有一个定位机构,所述的定位机构中包括有一个驱动机构,所述的驱动机构的控制端与一个可编程逻辑控制器连接,所述的可编程逻辑控制器连接有启动开关。 [0005] Further, provided the combined detection range measurement sensor has a holder part, the holder part is connected to a positioning mechanism, the positioning mechanism includes a drive mechanism, the drive mechanism according a control terminal connected to a programmable logic controller, said programmable logic controller is connected to the start switch.

[0006] 进一步的,所述的计算机与一个数据库和网页查询服务器连接,所述的网页查询服务器连接在一个网络中。 [0006] Further, the computer is connected to a database query and the web server, the web server queries a network connection. [0007] 进一步的,根据一维激光位移传感器的信号线和工业摄像机的测量结果数据,构造被测零件上的测点在传感器三维坐标系中的位置数据,所述的传感器三维坐标系按右手建系原则构造。 [0007] Further, the one-dimensional data of the measurement results of the laser displacement sensor signal lines and industrial camera, position data of the measuring point on the part is configured in a three-dimensional coordinate system of the sensor, the sensor three-dimensional coordinate system by hand build a department construction principle.

[0008] 进一步的,利用一个三坐标测量仪预先对被测零件的样件测量,将样件的三坐标测量结果作为该样件相对零件理论数模的偏差矢量,将该偏差矢量与被测零件相对标准样件的偏差矢量进行矢量运算,获得一般被测零件相对数模理论位置的偏差矢量,将一般被测零件相对数模理论位置的偏差矢量经过奇次坐标变换转换到零件坐标系里,由此获得偏差在零件坐标系的X、Y、Z三个方向上的分量及方向。 [0008] Further, by using a coordinate measuring instrument for measuring sample previously tested parts, the coordinate measurement sample as a sample of the deviation vector relatively theoretical molded parts, and the measured deviation vector parts relative standard deviation vector of the sample vector calculation to obtain the D deviation vector relatively general theoretical position the part is, the deviation vector relatively DAC general theoretical position after the part is transformed into an odd coordinate conversion part coordinate system , thereby obtaining a deviation in the X-direction component and a part coordinate system, Y, Z three directions.

[0009] 进一步的,所述的工业机器人为6轴机器人。 [0009] Further, the industrial robot having 6-axis robot.

[0010] 进一步的,组合式测量传感器上连接有光源。 [0010] Further, combined measuring sensor is connected to a light source.

[0011] 进一步的,工业摄像机的信号输出线是用于视频信号输出的千兆以太网线。 [0011] Further, a signal output line of industrial cameras is a Gigabit Ethernet cable for video signal output.

[0012] 本发明和已有技术相比较,其效果是积极和明显的。 [0012] The present invention and compared to prior art, the effect is positive and significant. 本发明将激光位移传感器、工业摄像机和光源固定在工业机器人末端,机器人事先通过示教编程将工件的测量位置保存到机器人运行轨迹程序中。 The laser displacement sensor of the present invention, industrial camera and a light source fixed to the end of the industrial robot, the robot will be programmed in advance by teaching position of the workpiece to save the measured trajectory of the robot program. 在工件放置到测量支架并夹紧固定好之后,操作人员启动可编程逻辑控制器,可编程逻辑控制器在检测到所有测量条件满足后发给机器人测量允许的信号,机器人带动激光位移传感器、工业摄像机和光源按事先编好的程序运行至工件上的各个测量点进行测量。 After placing the workpiece and clamp the measuring carriage well fixed, the operator starts a programmable logic controller, a programmable logic controller signals sent to the robot after measurement allows to detect all the measurement condition is satisfied, the robot drives the laser displacement sensors, industrial camera and a light source operating according to the program pre-programmed to the respective measuring points on the workpiece measurement. 机器人每运行至一个测点时,会给测量传感系统发送测量允许指令,测量传感系统的控制系统进行测量,并将测量结果实时发送到测量数据保存、查询数据库中,之后测量传感系统的控制系统再通知机器人可以运行到下一个测点,整个系统多次执行以上循环,完成一个工件所有测点的测量工作。 When a robot moves to each measurement point, the measurement will allow the sensing system sending a measurement command, measurement and control system sensing system is measured, and the measurement result to the real-time measurement data storage, database queries, after the measurement sensing system the control system can then notify the robot moves to the next measuring point, the system repeatedly executes the above cycle, complete measurements of all measuring points of a workpiece. 提高了测量汽车零部件的效率,采样数多,检测结果精确并可实时获得。 Improve the measurement of the efficiency of auto parts, the number of samples and more accurate detection results can be obtained in real time.

[0013] 附图说明: [0013] BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS:

图1是本发明的非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统的结构示意图。 FIG 1 is a schematic view of a flexible non-contact-line size measurement system according to the invention.

[0014] 图2是本发明的非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统中的组合式传感器的结构示意图。 [0014] FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a flexible line non-contact measurement system according to the present invention the size of a combined sensor.

[0015] 图3是本发明的非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统的一个实施例中的测量系统运行流程图。 [0015] FIG. 3 is a flexible non-contact measurement system according to the present invention, line size is a measurement flowchart of the operation system in the embodiment.

[0016]图4是本发明的非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统的一个实施例中的测量系统控制软件与工业机器人的通信流程图。 [0016] FIG. 4 is a flexible non-contact-line dimension measuring system of the invention is a communication flow diagram of the measurement system and the industrial robot control software embodiment.

[0017] 图5是本发明的非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统的一个实施例中的传感器三维坐标系的构建示意图。 [0017] FIG. 5 is a flexible non-contact-line dimension measuring system of the invention is to build a three-dimensional schematic diagram of a sensor coordinate system embodiment.

[0018] 图6是本发明的非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统的一个实施例中利用一维激光位移传感器测量面轮廓度的矢量算法的示意图。 [0018] FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of an algorithm using vector-dimensional laser displacement sensor measuring surface profile of the non-contact embodiment of the flexible line size measurement system according to the present invention.

[0019] 图7是本发明的非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统的一个实施例中利用工业摄像机测量孔的位置度时的矢量算法示意图。 [0019] FIG. 7 is a flexible line non-contact measurement system according to the present invention, the size of vector a schematic view of the algorithm utilized in the position of the measurement hole industrial cameras embodiment.

[0020] 图8是本发明的非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统的一个实施例中的齐次坐标变换矩阵形式。 [0020] FIG. 8 is a homogeneous coordinate transform matrix in the form of embodiment of a flexible non-contact measurement system line size of the embodiment of the present invention.

[0021] 图9是本发明的非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统的一个实施例中的齐次坐标变换示意图。 [0021] FIG. 9 is a flexible non-contact-line dimension measuring system of the invention is a homogeneous coordinate transform in the embodiment of FIG. [0022] 具体实施方式: [0022] DETAILED DESCRIPTION:

实施例1: Example 1:

如图1所示,本发明的非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统,包括包括组合式测量传感器和工业机器人4,所述的工业机器人4包括有一个机械臂,其中,所述的组合式测量传感器固定连接在所述的工业机器人4的机械臂上,组合式测量传感器包括一个一维激光位移传感器I和一个工业摄像机2,所述的一维激光位移传感器I和工业摄像机2固定连接,组合式测量传感器上连接有光源3,一维激光位移传感器I包括有信号线,工业摄像机2包括有视频信号输出线,一维激光位移传感器I的信号线和工业摄像机2的视频信号输出线均连接到一个计算机6,工业机器人4与一个机器人控制器5连接,所述的机器人控制器5通过信号和数据线与所述的计算机6连接,计算机6中设置有机器视觉处理模块,利用一维激光位移传感器I测量被测零件11上的实体部位轮廓度,利用工业摄像机2采 1, a flexible non-contact-line dimension measuring system of the invention, comprising a combination comprising a measuring sensor 4 and the industrial robot, said industrial robot comprising a robot arm 4, wherein said combined measuring sensor fixedly connected to the robot arm in the industrial robot 4, the combined measurement sensor comprises a one-dimensional laser displacement sensor I and an industrial camera 2, the one-dimensional laser displacement sensor I 2 cameras and industrial fixedly connected, modular connected to a light source 3, a one-dimensional laser displacement sensor I includes a signal line, industrial camera 2 comprises a video signal output lines, one-dimensional laser displacement sensor I signal lines and industrial camera video signal output lines 2 on the measuring sensors are connected to the a computer 6, the industrial robot 4 is connected to a robot controller 5, a robot controller 56 connected via a signal and data lines with the computer, the computer 6 is provided with a machine vision processing module, one-dimensional laser displacement I site of the sensor measurement entity 11 on the contour of the part to be measured, using industrial mining camera 2 被测零件11上的孔、或者边缘、或者镂空部位的图像,再利用所述的机器视觉处理模块计算得到被测零件11上的孔、或者边缘、或者镂空部位的空间位置,将测量得到的被测零件11的实体部位轮廓度和被测零件11上的孔、或者边缘、或者镂空部位的空间位置与零件的数模理论位置进行比较,得到其偏差值即测量结果。 The part is a hole 11, or an edge, or a hollow portion of the image, and then using the machine vision calculated by the processing module 11 under test hole part, or an edge, or a spatial position of the hollow portion of the measured hole portion 11 entity of the part is 11 degrees and the measured profile parts, or an edge, or a digital to analog spatial position with a theoretical position of the hollow portion of the part compared to obtain the deviation value, that the measurement results.

[0023] 进一步的,在组合式测量传感器的探测范围中设置有一个零件支架10,所述的零件支架10连接有一个定位机构,所述的定位机构中包括有一个驱动机构,所述的驱动机构的控制端与一个可编程逻辑控制器9连接,所述的可编程逻辑控制器9连接有启动开关8。 [0023] Further, there is provided a holder part in the detection range of the combined measuring sensor 10, the holder part 10 is connected with a positioning means, said positioning means comprises a drive mechanism, said drive control terminal means and connected to a programmable logic controller 9, the programmable logic controller 9 is connected with a start switch 8.

[0024] 进一步的,所述的计算机6与一个数据库和网页查询服务器7连接,所述的网页查询服务器连接7在一个网络中。 [0024] Further, the computer 6 is connected to a database query and web servers 7, the web 7 query server connected in a network.

[0025] 进一步的,根据一维激光位移传感器I的信号线和工业摄像机2的测量结果数据,构造被测零件11上的测点在传感器三维坐标系中的位置数据,所述的传感器三维坐标系按右手建系原则构造。 [0025] Further, the one-dimensional data of the measurement results of the laser displacement sensor signal lines I and industrial camera 2, the position data of the measuring point 11 on the part is configured in a three-dimensional coordinate system of the sensor, the sensor three-dimensional coordinates Department by department structure was built right in principle.

[0026] 进一步的,利用一个三坐标测量仪预先对被测零件11的样件测量,将样件的三坐标测量结果作为该样件相对零件理论数模的偏差矢量,将该偏差矢量与被测零件11相对标准样件的偏差矢量进行矢量运算,获得一般被测零件11相对数模理论位置的偏差矢量,将一般被测零件11相对数模理论位置的偏差矢量经过奇次坐标变换转换到零件坐标系里,由此获得偏差在零件坐标系的X、Y、Z三个方向上的分量及方向。 [0026] Further, by using a predetermined coordinate measuring instrument measuring the measured sample part 11, the coordinate measurement sample as a sample of the deviation vector relatively theoretical molded parts, with the deviation vector is Part 11 measured relative standard deviation vector of the sample vector operation, the part is typically 11 to obtain the relative number modulus deviation vector theoretical position, the deviation vector 11 with respect to the theoretical position of a digital to analog converter to the general part to be measured through an odd coordinate transformation Part coordinate system, thereby obtaining a deviation in the X-direction component and a part coordinate system, Y, Z three directions.

[0027] 进一步的,所述的工业机器人4为6轴机器人。 [0027] Further, the industrial robot having 6-axis robot 4.

[0028] 如图2所不,工业摄像机2中包括有镜头21,光源3环绕镜头21设直,工业摄像机2和一维激光位移传感器I均连接到一个支架12上,被测零件11上具有孔特征111,孔特征111位于镜头21的视野中,一维激光位移传感器I发出的激光线101落在被测零件11的测点112上。 [0028] FIG. 2 is not, industrial camera 2 includes a lens 21, a lens 21 surrounding the light source 3 is provided with a straight, industrial camera and a 2-dimensional laser displacement sensor I is connected to a bracket 12, the part under test 11 wherein the laser line hole 111, the field of view of the lens 21 in the hole feature 111, one-dimensional laser displacement sensor 101 falls emitted I part to be measured on the measuring point 11 112.

[0029] 具体的,如图3和图4所示,在本发明的实施例中,组合式测量传感器固定在工业机器人2的机械臂的末端,将被测零件11放置在测量支架10上,通过外围的启动按钮给可编程逻辑控制器9启动信号,再由可编程逻辑控制器9将测量支架10对应的编号发送给计算机6中的测量系统控制软件(AutoCF),再由测量系统控制软件启动工业机器人2运行该零件对应的机器人程序并开始对零件进行测量。 [0029] Specifically, as shown in Figures 3 and 4, in the embodiment of the present invention, the combined measuring sensor fixed to the end of the robot arm of the industrial robot 2, the part to be measured 11 is placed on the measuring carriage 10, the peripheral via the start button to start signal the programmable logic controller 9, and then by the programmable logic controller 10 the measuring carriage corresponding to a transmission number of computer measurement system control software 6 (AutoCF) 9, then the control software the measuring system industrial robot 2 starts to run the part corresponding to the part of the robot program and starts the measurement. 工业机器人2在测量过程中,会先运行到某一个测点的测量位置后停止不动,并发送“允许测量”、“测点编号”的信号给控制软件,控制软件得到“测点编号”信息后会自动调用该测点的测量配置信息(包括使用激光测量还是摄像机测量、标准件的测量值等),并按照测量配置信息内容对该测点进行测量。 Industrial robot 2 in the measurement process, after the first run to a measurement position a certain measurement point stops moving, and transmits "allows measurement", "measurement point number" signal to the control software, control software to obtain "measuring point numbers" measurement configuration information automatically calls the measuring point (including the use of a camera or a laser measuring measurement, measured values ​​of the standard) after the information, and configuration information of content was measured according to the measurement of the measuring point. 在完成一个测点的测量后,会把测量结果信息马上通过以太网的方式写到远程服务器数据库里。 Upon completion of the measurement of a measurement point, the measurement results will immediately write the information by way of remote Ethernet server database. 之后测量控制软件会给工业机器人2 —个“一个测点测量结束”的信号,工业机器人2得到此信号后会运行到下一个测点,再重复上面所述的循环。 After the measurement control software give industrial robot 2 - of "a measurement end point measurement" signal, the industrial robot 2 to obtain a test run to the next point after the signal, and then repeat the cycle described above. 最后完成一个零件所有测点的测量之后,工业机器人2回到原位的同时会向测量控制软件发送一个“一个零件测量结束”的信号,测量控制软件退出内部测量循环,并做一些后期处理工作(如零件尺寸合格率的统计并写入数据库等)。 After the final completion of a measurement of all measuring points of the parts, industrial robot 2 back into place at the same time it will send a measurement software to control "a part measurement end" signal, measurement and control software to exit the internal measurement cycle, and do some post-processing work (such as the statistical passing rate of part size and written to the database, etc.).

[0030] 一维激光位移传感器I主要是对实体部位的轮廓度进行测量,工业摄像机2主要是完成对孔、边等特征的测量。 [0030] The one-dimensional laser displacement sensor I is primarily of profile parts is measured entities, industrial camera 2 is the completion of measurement of the characteristic holes, edges or the like. 两种测量传感器组合使用可以完成大部分汽车零部件形位公差方面的测量。 Both measurements can be done in combination of most of the sensor measurement tolerances of shape and position of auto parts. 本实施例在通过两种传感器进行测量时,两种数据并不是同时应用计算的,而是针对不同的测点,而选用不同的传感器进行测量。 In the present embodiment, when two measurement sensor, two kinds of data while the application is not calculated, but for different measuring points, and use different sensors. 但是测量结果数据会构造成传感器三维坐标系的数据,传感器三维坐标系按右手建系原则构造,如图5所示。 However, measurement data of the sensor data is configured to three-dimensional coordinates, three-dimensional sensor according to the right-hand coordinate system based construction principle construction, as shown in FIG. 每个测点的测量结果在传感器三维坐标系里进行计算,即,激光测量结果可表示为:{0,0,z},摄像机图像测量结果可表示为:{x,y,0}。 Measurement results of each measurement point is calculated in the sensor three-dimensional coordinate system, i.e., the laser measurement results can be expressed as: {0,0, z}, camera image measurements can be expressed as: {x, y, 0}. 以上构造的三维数据通过坐标变换及矢量运算得到最终所需结果。 The obtained three-dimensional data structure above the desired final result by the coordinate transformation and the vector operation.

[0031] 对激光传感器反馈的测量数据的处理算法是本实施例的重要创新内容之一。 [0031] The laser processing algorithm of the feedback sensor measurement data is an important innovation of the present embodiment. 如图6所示,通过坐标变换把各个偏差矢量变换到同一个坐标系(零件三维坐标系或者传感器三维坐标系)里后进行矢量运算,从而得到:测量点相对数模点的偏差矢量rx,即,rx =rs + rm。 6, by the coordinate transformation to transform the respective deviation vector with a coordinate system (three-dimensional coordinate system or the sensor part three dimensional coordinate system) in the vector calculation, whereby: the relative deviation of the measurement point digital-point vector rx, i.e., rx = rs + rm. 其中,rs可以通过三坐标测量设备对标准样件进行测量得到,rm则是测量得到,最终在零件坐标系里rx矢量的三个分量,即为偏差结果的X,Y,Z三个方向上的偏差分量。 Wherein, rs standard sample can be measured by a coordinate measuring apparatus, rm is measured, the three components in the final part of the vector rx coordinate system, the result is the deviation X, Y, Z three directions the the deviation component. 测量时要求激光线与数模点的法向尽可能重合。 Measurement method requires the number of laser line coincides with the time-point of the possible.

[0032] 对摄像机图像测量得到的偏差数据的处理算法也是本实施例的重要创新内容之一。 [0032] The data processing algorithm of the camera image deviation measured content is also an important innovation of the present embodiment. 首先需要将通过摄像机得到的图像进行一系列的图像处理步骤并最终获得被测点的几何要素,从而在二维方向上判断位置偏差量。 First, the camera image needs to be obtained through the series of image processing steps and finally obtained measured point of the geometric elements, in order to determine the amount of positional deviation in two dimensions. 摄像机测量的特征对象主要是零件边缘、对称规则孔、不对称孔、多边形孔、螺母孔等有边缘特征的测量点。 The main features of the object the camera is measured with an edge characteristic points of edges of the part measurement, symmetry regular holes, asymmetric hole, a polygonal hole, a nut hole or the like. 图像处理主要包括以下几个步骤: The image processing mainly includes the following steps:

1)高斯图像滤波一首先对通过摄像机采集到的图像上设置关注区域(ROI),后期所有的图像处理运算都在此区域进行,这样可以大大减少图像处理的数据量和运算量,提高测量速度。 1) Gaussian image filtering a first pair is provided on the acquired through the camera image region of interest (the ROI), the latter part of all image processing operations are carried out in this area, which can greatly reduce the amount of data and computational image processing to improve the measurement speed . 在ROI区域进行过滤,将干扰信号、图像杂点处理掉,保留反差较大的图像边缘特征; ROI area in the filter, the interfering signals, the image point disposed heteroaryl retain greater contrast image edge feature;

2) Canny图像边缘检测一在经过滤波后的图像里进行Canny边缘检测运算,最终获得有边缘信息的二值图像,即边缘像素值为255,其它背景的像素值为0; 2) a Canny edge detection in the image after the image filtered Canny edge detection operation performed in the final binary image of an edge information, i.e. edge pixels is 255, other background pixel value is 0;

3)轮廓提取一在边缘检测输出的图像里获取所有轮廓,将边缘信息转换为轮廓信息; 3) extracting a contour image edge detection output of all the contours in the acquisition, converts the edge information to the contour information;

4)几何形状的拟合一在本实施例里主要是椭圆拟合,通过最小二乘法对轮廓进行椭圆拟合,得到对应每个轮廓的椭圆信息,包括椭圆的中心、长轴、短轴、倾斜角度等,并通过长轴短轴比对椭圆进行筛选,保留接近目标形状的椭圆信息,最终获得目标点的几何中心的位置,从而获得中心位置的偏差量,实验证实拟合椭圆的效果比拟合圆的效果要可靠、稳定得多; 对摄像机图像测量得到的偏差数据的处理算法也是本系统的重要创新内容之一。 4) the geometry of a fitting in the present embodiment is mainly ellipse fitting, fitting of the elliptic profile by the least squares method to obtain the information corresponding to each oval contour, including ellipse center, major axis, minor axis, effect of the inclination angle and the like, and by the major axis than the minor axis of the ellipse was screened with an elliptical shape close to the target information, the position of the target point finally obtained the geometric center, to thereby obtain the center position deviation amount, the experiments confirmed that fit ellipse ratio the effect of the circle fitted to reliable, much more stable; data processing algorithms deviation camera image measured is also one of the important contents of this innovative system. 如图7所示,通过坐标变换把各个偏差矢量变换到同一个坐标系(零件三维坐标系或者传感器三维坐标系)里后进行矢量运算,从而得到:测量点相对数模点的偏差矢量rx ,BP, rx =rs + rm。 7, by the coordinate transformation to transform the respective deviation vector with a coordinate system (three-dimensional coordinate system or the sensor part three dimensional coordinate system) in the vector arithmetic, to obtain: a digital to analog measurement point relative deviation vector points rx, BP, rx = rs + rm. 其中,rs可以通过三坐标测量设备对标准样件进行测量得到,rm则是通过本系统测量得到,最终在零件坐标系里rx矢量的三个分量,即为偏差结果的X,Y,Z三个方向上的偏差分量。 Wherein, rs coordinate measuring apparatus may be performed by the standard sample measured, rm was then measured by the present system, the final part in the coordinate system of the three components of the vector rx, is the result of variation of X, Y, Z three offset component in the direction. 以上同激光测量算法一致,但要求摄像机的CCD平面尽可能与被测孔所在平面平行。 Measured with the above laser consensus algorithm, but requires a CCD camera as a plane parallel to the plane where the measured hole.

[0033] 偏差矢量的坐标空间变换算法是本实施例的重要创新内容之一。 Coordinate space [0033] deviation vector transformation algorithm is an important innovation of the present embodiment. 一般情况下由于工业工业机器人2的绝对定位误差比较大,远低于其重复定位精度,而且由于计算过程中不使用绝对坐标值,而使用相对偏差的矢量进行计算。 In general industry since industrial robot 2 Absolute positioning error is relatively large, much lower than the repeated positioning accuracy, and since no absolute coordinate value calculation process, using the calculated relative deviation vector. 矢量运算可以在坐标系里整体平移,所以在坐标变换的运算过程中,只考虑坐标旋转变换,而不计算平移变换,从而避开了工业机器人2绝对定位误差大的问题。 Vector arithmetic may be integrally translated in coordinate system, so the calculation process of coordinate conversion, consider only the coordinate rotation conversion, without calculating the translation transform, thus avoiding the industrial robot 2 Absolute positioning error is large problem. 构造的齐次坐标变换矩阵如图8中的T所示,其中第四列的平移矢量部分均为O。 Configuration of the homogeneous transformation matrix shown in FIG. 8 T, where part of the translation vector of the fourth column are O. 如图9所示,在测量数据结果处理运算过程中,需要把传感器坐标系(图中{S})下的测量结果转换到工业机器人2末关节坐标系(图中{E}),再进一步转换到工业机器人2基坐标系(图中{R}),最终转换到零件坐标系(图中{P})。 9, the results of data processing operations in the measurement process, the need to sensor coordinate system (FIG {S}) to the measurement result in the conversion of an industrial robot end joint coordinate system 2 (FIG. {E}), and further 2 to convert industrial robot base coordinate system (FIG {R}), converted to the final part coordinate system (FIG {P}).

[0034] 本实施例中的坐标变换过程实际上只是坐标系姿态的旋转变换,因为运算的对象是偏差矢量,矢量在运算时可以在坐标系里平移,而不需考虑矢量的起点和终点的绝对坐标值。 [0034] The present embodiment the coordinate transformation process in the coordinate system rotation conversion actually only posture, because the object is a deviation vector operation, the vector may be translated in the coordinate system at the time of operation, without regard to the start and end of the vector absolute coordinates. 所以在标定各个坐标系相对旋转变换关系时,只要确定旋转角度值即可。 Therefore, when the respective calibration transformation between the coordinate system relative rotation, as long as the rotation angle values ​​can be determined.

Claims (8)

1.一种非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统,包括组合式测量传感器和工业机器人,所述的工业机器人包括有一个机械臂,其特征在于:所述的组合式测量传感器固定连接在所述的工业机器人的机械臂上,组合式测量传感器包括一个一维激光位移传感器和一个工业摄像机,所述的一维激光位移传感器和工业摄像机固定连接,一维激光位移传感器包括有信号线,工业摄像机包括有信号输出线,一维激光位移传感器的信号线和工业摄像机的信号输出线均连接到一个计算机,工业机器人与一个机器人控制器连接,所述的机器人控制器通过信号和数据线与所述的计算机连接,计算机中设置有机器视觉处理模块,利用一维激光位移传感器测量被测零件上的实体部位轮廓度,利用工业摄像机采集被测零件上的孔、或者边缘、或者镂空部位的图像,再利用所述的机器视 A non-contact type flexible line dimension measurement system comprising a combined measurement sensor and the industrial robot, the industrial robot comprises a robot arm, wherein: said combined measuring sensors fixedly connected to the the industrial robot manipulator, the combined measurement sensor comprises a one-dimensional laser displacement sensor and an industrial camera, a one-dimensional camera and industrial laser displacement sensor is fixedly connected to the one-dimensional laser displacement sensor includes a signal line, industrial camera comprising signal output line, a signal output line one-dimensional laser displacement sensor signal lines and industrial cameras are connected to a computer, an industrial robot is connected to a robot controller, the robot controller and a data signal line with the a computer connection, the computer vision processing module is provided with a machine using a one-dimensional laser displacement sensor of the solid portion of the profile part to be measured, using industrial camera hole on the part to be measured acquired, or an edge, or a hollow portion of the image, and then depending on the using machine 处理模块计算得到被测零件上的孔、或者边缘、或者镂空部位的空间位置,将测量得到的被测零件的实体部位轮廓度和被测零件上的孔、或者边缘、或者镂空部位的空间位置与零件的数模理论位置进行比较,得到其偏差值即测量结果。 The processing module calculates the part is obtained in the hole, or an edge, or a spatial position of the hollow portion, the spatial position of the holes on the solid portion of the part is measured and the measured profile of the part, or an edge, or a hollow portion compared with the theoretical position of the D part, i.e. the value of the deviation obtained measurement result.
2.如权利要求1所述非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统,其特征在于:在组合式测量传感器的探测范围中设置有一个零件支架,所述的零件支架连接有一个定位机构,所述的定位机构中包括有一个驱动机构,所述的驱动机构的控制端与一个可编程逻辑控制器连接,所述的可编程逻辑控制器连接有启动开关。 1 2. The flexible non-contact measurement system as claimed in claim dimension line, wherein: the holder is provided with a detection part combined range measurement sensor, said bracket part is connected with a positioning means, said the positioning mechanism includes a drive mechanism, said control terminal of the drive mechanism is connected with a programmable logic controller, said programmable logic controller is connected to the start switch.
3.如权利要求1所述非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统,其特征在于:所述的计算机与一个数据库和网页查询服务器连接,所述的网页查询服务器连接在一个网络中。 The noncontact flexible line dimension measurement system as claimed in claim 3, wherein: the computer is connected to a database query and the web server, the web server queries a network connection.
4.如权利要求1所述非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统,其特征在于:根据一维激光位移传感器的信号线和工业摄像机的测量结果数据,构造被测零件上的测点在传感器三维坐标系中的位置数据,所述的传感器三维坐标系按右手建系原则构造。 4. The flexible non-contact type line size measurement system of claim wherein: the sensor three-dimensional coordinate data of the measurement results of one-dimensional laser displacement sensor signal lines and industrial cameras, the measured points on the part to be measured in configuration position data lines, the three-dimensional coordinate system of the sensor system is configured by the right hand construction principle.
5.如权利要求4所述非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统,其特征在于:利用一个三坐标测量仪预先对被测零件的样件测量,将样件的三坐标测量结果作为该样件相对零件理论数模的偏差矢量,将该偏差矢量与被测零件相对标准样件的偏差矢量进行矢量运算,获得一般被测零件相对数模理论位置的偏差矢量,将一般被测零件相对数模理论位置的偏差矢量经过奇次坐标变换转换到零件坐标系里,由此获得偏差在零件坐标系的X、Y、Z三个方向上的分量及方向。 4 5. The flexible non-contact measurement system as claimed in claim dimension line, wherein: using a coordinate measuring instrument in advance of the test sample measurement part, the coordinate measurements of the sample as the sample is relatively Part number module theory deviation vector, the deviation vector and the measured deviation vector components relative standard sample vector operation is performed, the part is typically obtained relative number modulus deviation vector theoretical position, typically the part is relative to the number of mode theory after the odd position vector deviation coordinate transformation to convert the part coordinate system, thereby obtaining a deviation in the direction of the component and a part coordinate system X, Y, Z three directions.
6.如权利要求1所述非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统,其特征在于:所述的工业机器人为6轴机器人。 The noncontact flexible line dimension measurement system as claimed in claim 6, wherein: said industrial robot having 6-axis robot.
7.如权利要求1所述非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统,其特征在于:组合式测量传感器上连接有光源。 1 7. The flexible non-contact measurement system as claimed in claim dimension line, wherein: a light source combined with a measuring sensor is connected.
8.如权利要求1所述非接触式柔性在线尺寸测量系统,其特征在于:工业摄像机的信号输出线是用于视频信号输出的千兆以太网线。 The noncontact flexible line dimension measurement system as claimed in claim 8, wherein: a signal output line of industrial cameras Gigabit Ethernet cable for video signal output.
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