CN103625462A - Method for controlling energy-saving series-connection hybrid power tractor - Google Patents

Method for controlling energy-saving series-connection hybrid power tractor Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103625462A
CN103625462A CN201310332347.1A CN201310332347A CN103625462A CN 103625462 A CN103625462 A CN 103625462A CN 201310332347 A CN201310332347 A CN 201310332347A CN 103625462 A CN103625462 A CN 103625462A
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energy
power
motor
trac
control
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CN103625462B (en
Inventor
徐立友
刘孟楠
周志立
王伟
李晴
方树平
刘海亮
游昆云
王心彬
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Henan University of Science and Technology
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Henan University of Science and Technology
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/04Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of propulsion units
    • B60W10/06Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of propulsion units including control of combustion engines
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/42Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by the architecture of the hybrid electric vehicle
    • B60K6/46Series type
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/04Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of propulsion units
    • B60W10/08Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of propulsion units including control of electric propulsion units, e.g. motors or generators
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/24Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of energy storage means
    • B60W10/26Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of energy storage means for electrical energy, e.g. batteries or capacitors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W20/00Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles
    • B60W20/10Controlling the power contribution of each of the prime movers to meet required power demand
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2540/00Input parameters relating to occupants
    • B60W2540/10Accelerator pedal position
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2540/00Input parameters relating to occupants
    • B60W2540/16Ratio selector position
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/62Hybrid vehicles
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/80Technologies aiming to reduce greenhouse gasses emissions common to all road transportation technologies
    • Y02T10/92Energy efficient charging or discharging systems for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors specially adapted for vehicles

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for controlling an energy-saving series-connection hybrid power tractor. According to the method for controlling the energy-saving series-connection hybrid power tractor, a traction motor serves as an engine, a diesel engine/ power generator set serves as a main energy system, a storage battery pack or a storage battery/ super capacitor set serves as an auxiliary energy system, when a diesel engine/a power generator operates economically, the main energy system outputs constant electric power so that the traction motor can be driven to operate efficiently, and then the constant electric power is higher than the electric power needed by the traction motor, redundant electric power is stored by the auxiliary energy system; when an SOC value of the auxiliary energy system is larger than a set value, the main energy system stops working, and energy is only provided by the auxiliary energy system. According to the method for controlling the energy-saving series-connection hybrid power tractor, power is supplied under the condition that the diesel engine/the power generator operates economically rather than according to the power demand of the traction tractor, so that the diesel engine in the diesel engine/the power generator works close to an operating point which can guarantee that the fuel consumption rate of the diesel engine is smallest all the time, the power using efficiency is high, the oil consumption is low, energy is saved, and emission is reduced.

Description

The control method of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac.
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of control method of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac..
Background technology
Energy-conservation and environmental protection is two important themes in China and industrial technology field, the world today.Reply worldwide energy shortage problem and greenhouse gas emission problem today, energy-conservation and efficiently become the main flow trend of Modern Industry Products.Trac., as the major impetus of modern agricultural production, is being taken on agriculture tasks such as farmland construction, ploughing, intertillage, plant protection, results.The tractor population of China increases year by year, the end of the year 2010, nearly 4,000,000 of national large and middle tractor recoverable amount, nearly 2,000 ten thousand of compact tractor recoverable amount.Although Tendency of Agricultural Machinery in China has obtained tremendous development the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, still have larger gap compared with developed countries, integral level is still not high; Advance the great requirement of agricultural modernization to compare to remain many gaps with synchronizeing in industrialization, urbanization deeply develop; Also incompatible with the mission requirements of building a New Socialist Countryside, face many contradictions and problem, " 12 " planning clearly proposes, economical and effective, one of developing goal economize on resources, protection of the environment being agricultural mechanical technology.
Because China's agricultural economy feature and developed country exist much difference, Agricultural Machinery Design is larger for energy-conservation and efficient demand.Mixed-power tractor is the product to pure battery-powered tractor transition as traditional trac., has and is easy to reequip on original product, and be easily adapted as the advantage of pure battery-powered tractor.Compare traditional trac., mixed-power tractor has various energy resources system, can realize flexible and changeable energy management, for the efficient utilization of the energy provides possibility; And due to the participation of electric energy, can save a part of fuel oil consumption.Compare pure battery-powered tractor, mixed-power tractor has better flying power, and before battery technology and charging technique are obtained larger technological breakthrough, mixed-power tractor is larger for the meaning of actual production.
The research of existing series hybrid-power trac. is still in the tachnical storage stage, and the domestic Related product that there is no occurs, main flow enterprise does not carry out related development yet; Relevant colleges and universities are theoretical investigation, and most in the conceptual phase for mixed mode in parallel and car load method of designing, for the research of control system, not yet carry out.The mode of contrast hybrid vehicle, vehicle dynamics system for rotating speed and torque as power output, automobile is as the vehicle, it is better that its road conditions are compared trac., and use the target of the automobile of series hybrid-power to be mainly energy-saving and emission-reduction, be generally used for urban transportation tool, operating mode Main change is the speed of a motor vehicle, conventionally little for the variation of torque.And the speed of a motor vehicle depends on driver intention, so adopt this mode based on torque by causing car load to sacrifice the flexible variation of the speed of a motor vehicle, cannot be used in automobile.And operational mode of the present invention and control method are applicable to the speed of a motor vehicle and change compared with little and torque changes trac. system greatly.Compare electric-control system, its core ECU key is signal processing module, domestic why ECU aspect technology relatively abroad backward reason is exactly that the processing module that is the control system that is similar to expert system of electronic control technology is not grasped core technology, and the foundation of expert system is very complicated.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac. control method, the traction motor in driving system is moved with the higher operating mode of efficiency all the time, improve fuel oil service efficiency, realize energy-saving and emission-reduction.
For achieving the above object, the control method of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac. of the present invention, using traction motor as driving engine, using diesel engine/generator set as main source of energy system, using battery pack or storage battery/super capacitor group as auxiliary energy system, diesel engine/electrical generator is under economy operation, main source of energy system is sent electric power definite value, drive traction motor efficiently to move, when electric power definite value is greater than traction motor demand electric power, by auxiliary energy system, store unnecessary electric power; When auxiliary energy system SOC value is during higher than setting value, main source of energy system quits work, by the independent energy supply of auxiliary energy system.
Further, when trac. work occurs that bearing power is uprushed, by auxiliary energy system, provide load changing electric power.
The method step of the efficient operation of described driving traction motor is as follows:
(1) gather trac. throttle pedal aperture and lever position signal;
(2) according to Das Gaspedal aperture and lever position signal, try to achieve expectation tractive force, desired output torque;
(3) first kind of way: torque be take the math modeling of motor efficiency and carried out Optimum search as optimization aim according to desired output, obtains the desired output rotating speed of motor efficiency when maximum; Or the second way: adopt for the experiment of the motor efficiency line retrace analysis of going forward side by side and obtain the piecewise function of relevant peak efficiency, the desired speed of making every effort to according to expectation traction, obtains the desired output rotating speed under this desired speed according to current transmitting ratio;
(4) by desired output rotating speed, desired output torque input motor controller, the operation of electrical motor is controlled.
In described step (2), be according to Das Gaspedal aperture size, to account for the ratio estimation chaufeur desired output torque of pedal maximum opening, establishing the pedal degree of depth is A, and maximum opening is B, nmaximum drawbar force under gear is F max.n, now expect that tractive force magnitude estimation is: according to current transmitting ratio, obtain the desired output torque under this expectation tractive force.
In the first kind of way of described step (3), using the pure mathematics model of traction motor efficiency as objective function, to the positive and negative FkN(F centered by expectation tractive force want-F, F want+ F) for scope adopts Intelligent region searching algorithm, carry out Optimum search, obtaining making in search coverage objective function optimum is the operation point (F of motor efficiency when the highest best, V best), F wherein best∈ (F want-F, F want+ F), with V bestreplace F wantunder the desired speed that traction motor is the most efficiently moved, current transmitting ratio obtains the desired output rotating speed under this desired speed.
Described Intelligent region searching algorithm is fish-swarm algorithm, ant group algorithm or particle cluster algorithm.
The second way of described step (3) is by contrived experiment, to draw the operating efficiency curve of electrical motor under different gears, the mode of drawing iso-efficiency curve by gathering motor stand test and loaded test data obtains a level and smooth curve, makes this curve negotiating motor operation high efficiency profile region; Gather the point on curve, carry out regression analysis, matching correlation function, to obtain the piecewise function under different gears.
Described step (4) afterwards, timing acquiring trac. throttle pedal aperture and lever position signal, judge whether to re-start the calculating of desired output rotating speed, if, re-execute step (2) to (4), motor controller adopts new desired output rotating speed to control; If not, motor controller adopts the desired output rotating speed of last time to control.
Further, to whether needing to re-start the calculating of desired output rotating speed, be first to judge whether lever position changes, if change, need to recalculate, if having to change, do not adopt again the fuzzy rule forming about pedal aperture, pedal aperture rate of change to judge.
Energy-saving series hybrid-power trac. control method of the present invention, with diesel engine/electrical generator, under economical operation, power rather than power according to trac. power demand, diesel engine in diesel engine/electrical generator is operated near the minimum operating point of its effective specific fuel consumption all the time, and energy service efficiency is high, oil consumption is lower, realized energy-saving and emission-reduction.
Motor model based on trac. and car load math modeling, traction motor in driving system is moved with the higher operating mode of efficiency all the time, Intelligent treatment part can adopt chip microcontroller, input cost, the cost of development of experiment are less, and be applicable to the underdeveloped present situation of China's trac. electronic control technology, and need not develop huge expert system, controlling result can make electrical motor operate in all the time near most effective region, can significantly improve electric transmission efficiency, inefficient problem when solution high-power series hybrid-power trac. is engaged in underloading operation.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the control method schematic diagram of the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the SOC control policy schematic diagram of the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the control system schematic diagram used of the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is theoretical performance characteristic figure under one grade of certain 180 horsepowers of traction electric machine that trac. is joined of the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is that certain 180 horsepowers of trac. of the embodiment of the present invention are joined theoretical performance characteristic figure under traction electric machine third gear;
Fig. 6 is the logic fuzzy Control diagram of circuit of the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 7 is pedal aperture rate of change membership function presentation graphs;
Fig. 8 is pedal aperture membership function sign picture.
Mark implication in Fig. 1 is as follows:
P generaterepresent that diesel engine/generator set is with the lower electric power of being sent of the minimum effective specific fuel consumption operating mode operation of diesel engine; P requirerepresent the work requirements power under efficient operational mode; P marginrepresent the unnecessary electric power that the lower diesel engine/electrical generator of high effective model operation sends; P peakrepresent load changing power demand; P regeneraterepresent regenerative brake power.
Mark implication in Fig. 3 is as follows:
1 represents Das Gaspedal; 2 represent pedal position sensor; 3 represent communication bus; 4 presentation logic fuzzy controllers; 5 represent electric machine controller; 6 represent traction motor; 7 represent intelligent processing module; 8 represent transmission output shaft; 9 represent wheel speed sensors; 10 represent torque sensor; 11 represent change-speed box; 12 represent input shaft; 13 represent reverse gear position sensor; 14 represent 4 file location sensors; 15 represent 3 file location sensors; 16 represent 2 file location sensors; 17 represent 1 file location sensor; 18 represent power-transfer clutch.
The specific embodiment
One, energy-saving series hybrid-power trac. control method
Energy-saving series hybrid-power trac. control method is usingd traction motor as driving engine, using diesel engine/generator set as main source of energy system, using battery pack or storage battery/super capacitor group as auxiliary energy system, diesel engine/electrical generator is under economy operation, main source of energy system is sent electric power definite value, drive traction motor efficiently to move, when electric power definite value is greater than traction motor demand electric power, by auxiliary energy system, store unnecessary electric power; When auxiliary energy system SOC value is during higher than setting value, main source of energy system quits work, by the independent energy supply of auxiliary energy system.When trac. work occurs that bearing power is uprushed, by auxiliary energy system, provide load changing electric power.Above-mentioned "/" represent " with " the meaning.
In series hybrid-power trac. as shown in Figure 1, using the diesel engine/generator set of mixed-power tractor as main source of energy system, wherein, diesel engine is all the time with the operating mode operation under its minimum fuel consumption rate, in operational process, and the generated output P of main source of energy institute generatesubstantially constant.Using battery pack or storage battery/super capacitor group as auxiliary energy system.Drive-system traction motor is controlled and is operated in all the time near efficient operating mode by control module, because the efficient operating mode of motor is not full load mode, therefore the trac. energy flow moving under this pattern cannot balance, the electrical motor of efficient operation may not consume electric energy that main source of energy supplies completely, can produce the unnecessary electrical power P that diesel engine/electrical generator sends margin.Therefore use auxiliary energy system to store this part energy, and the energy of store regenerated braking generation.In conjunction with the control policy of SOC shown in Fig. 2, when its SOC value is during higher than setting value, diesel engine/generator set quits work, and by the independent energy supply of auxiliary energy system, the energy of this part storage is discharged.SOC in Fig. 2 lowthe minimum carrying capacity that refers to the electrical energy storage device of setting, SOC toprefer to the maximum carrying capacity of setting.
Above-mentioned control method is applicable to the series hybrid-power trac. that adopts hand-operated transmission; Or for take the series hybrid-power transmission system of existing traditional type as installation object on the basis retaining power bridge and body structure.Provide the control system and the control method that make the efficient operation of electrical motor of the series hybrid-power trac. of concrete this control method of employing below.
Two, the efficient operation control system of the electrical motor of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac.
As shown in Figure 3, control system comprises pedal 1, pedal position sensor 2, communication bus 3, logic fuzzy controller 4, electric machine controller 5, traction motor 6, intelligent processing module 7, transmission output shaft 8, tachogen 9, torque sensor 10, change-speed box 11, input shaft 12, reverse gear position sensor 13,4 file location sensor 14,3 file location sensor 15,2 file location sensor 16,1 file location sensor 17 and power-transfer clutchs 18 to the efficient operation control system of electrical motor of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac..
Intelligent processing module 7 adopts optimizing searching algorithms to carry out optimizing to the motor efficiency in positive and negative certain scope tractive force centered by expectation tractive force or adopts for the experiment of the motor efficiency line retrace analysis of going forward side by side and obtains the piecewise function of relevant peak efficiency, obtains the desired output rotating speed of motor efficiency when maximum together with expectation torque input motor controller; Intelligent processing module 7 can be analyzed the moving velocity that expectation makes the efficient operation of electrical motor under tractive force, so as to draw under the efficient operation of motor with reference to output speed; Between pedal position sensor 2, lever position transduser (comprising 1-4 shelves and reverse gear position sensor), logic module controller 4 and intelligent processing module 7, adopt CAN bus as communication bus 3.
Logic module controller 4 comprises obfuscation algoritic module, reasoning module, ambiguity solution module.
Tachogen adopts magnetoelectric tachometric transducer, is installed on transmission output shaft side, by the method for indirect measurement, measures moving velocity signal, and usings this signal as one of feedback signal of control process; Torque sensor adopts metal resistance strain gauge torque sensor, be installed on transmission output shaft, its elastic element is rotating shaft, the strain of rotating shaft can cause that the resistance of strain-gauge changes, thereby can obtain by the mode of indirect measurement load tractive force signal, and using this signal as one of feedback signal of control process; Output is connected motor controller to tachogen with torque sensor.
Pedal position sensor adopts reluctance type angular transducer, be installed on pedal position, extract the position signal of moment Das Gaspedal, be translated into electric signal transmission to control module, logic fuzzy controller 4 and intelligent processing module 7 whereby signal show that pedal aperture changes size and rate of change size; 1 file location sensor, 2 file location sensors, 3 file location sensors, 4 file location sensors and reverse gear position sensor adopt piezoelectric transducer, be affixed on each file location groove inner side of lever guiding deckle board, when lever enters in the groove of this gear, touching extruding piezoelectric transducer, produces lever position signal now.
Three, the efficient progress control method of the electrical motor of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac.
The step of the efficient progress control method of electrical motor of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac. is as follows;
(1) by pedal position sensor and lever position transduser, gather respectively trac. throttle pedal aperture and lever position signal, and signal is uploaded to logic fuzzy controller and intelligent processing module by CAN bus;
(2) intelligent processing module is tried to achieve expectation tractive force, desired output torque according to Das Gaspedal aperture and lever position signal;
(3) according to desired output, torque be take the math modeling of motor efficiency and is carried out Optimum search as optimization aim, obtains the desired output rotating speed of motor efficiency when maximum;
(4) by desired output rotating speed, desired output torque input motor controller, the operation of electrical motor is controlled.
In step (2), be that the ratio estimation chaufeur desired output torque that accounts for pedal maximum opening according to Das Gaspedal aperture size (is expected that torque refers to the torque of central transmission place herein, be can be understood as wheel place output torque-demand; Because the output torque of electrical motor is between the output torque of wheel rear axle place, the difference before reaching limit of adhesion is the speed ratio effect of main reduction gear and change-speed box, between the two for surely than relation.)。Concrete grammar is, take certain 180 horsepowers of trac. is example, designing its driving system is: certain 156kW diesel engine/generator set is as its main source of energy, certain 130kW electrical motor is as its driving engine, matched batteries group or storage battery/super capacitor group are as accessory feed, take 180 horsepowers of trac.s of domestic certain brand as installation object, retain its vehicle bridge and body portion, it is designed to 4 gear gearboxes and carry out power conversion.The theoretical analysis is calculated and Computer Simulation, and this series hybrid-power transmission system meets former machine performance requirement.According to lever position signal judgement current working gear of living in, according to the drawbar force scope under this gear, as shown in Figure 4, Figure 5, with its pedal maximum opening to the maximum drawbar force under should gear, with corresponding its tractive force minimum value of 1/N pedal aperture, with corresponding its expectation tractive force variation range of (the N-1)/N pedal aperture scope in the middle of it.As chaufeur, stepping on the plate degree of depth is that A(obtains according to the concrete pedal position sensor using), maximum opening is B, nmaximum drawbar force under gear is F max.n, now the large I of expectation tractive force of chaufeur is estimated as: according to current transmitting ratio, can obtain the desired output torque under this expectation tractive force.
In step (3), using the pure mathematics model of traction motor efficiency as objective function, to the F herein of the positive and negative FkN(centered by expectation tractive force, be to need the comprehensive concrete characteristic of type power drive system auxiliary motor and the tractive characteristic of mixed-power tractor used to consider to determine, due to of the present invention be general approach, only with F, replace concrete type to use the search radius of optimization method of the present invention) (F want-F, F want+ F) for scope adopts Intelligent region searching algorithm, carry out Optimum search, obtaining making in search coverage objective function optimum is the operation point (F of motor efficiency when the highest best, V best), F wherein best∈ (F want-F, F want+ F), with V bestreplace F wantunder the desired speed that traction motor is the most efficiently moved, as shown in Figure 4,5, can find out that the optimization method result based on Intelligent region searching algorithm can provide the desired speed reference value that approaches peak efficiency.According to current transmitting ratio, obtain the desired output rotating speed under this desired speed.Intelligent region searching algorithm can be used the fast convergence rates such as fish-swarm algorithm, ant group algorithm or particle cluster algorithm, regional optimizing algorithm that robustness is good, the set basis of algorithm design parameter is used object to carry out match settings, because these Intelligent region searching algorithms are all existing ripe algorithm, therefore do not repeat at this.
Math modeling based on electrical efficiency, the DC machine of take illustrates as example.
Electric current is directly proportional to the moment of torsion that electrical motor produces, and introduces copper loss constant k c, copper loss is:
P c = k c T e 2
The iron loss of electrical motor is proportional to field frequency, and field frequency causes more magnetization and degaussing process compared with Gao Shihui, will cause more magnetic hysteresis loss; Also can cause the rate of change of higher magnetic flow, therefore also will increase the eddy current being produced by electromagnetic induction.The rate of change of magnetic flow is proportional to the cireular frequency of rotor, introduces iron loss constant k i, the iron loss of electrical motor is:
P i=k iω r
The loss in efficiency P being caused by friction and windage mfor:
P M=T fω r+k wω r 3
In formula: T ffor friction moment Nm, k wit is the constant that is relevant to rotor shapes size.
Power of motor is output as:
Power of motor is input as: P in=P out+ P c+ P i+ P m+ C,
In formula: the intrinsic loss kW that C is electrical motor.
Motor efficiency is: η m = P out P in = T L ω r 9550 [ Tω r + k c T e 2 + ( k i + T f ) ω r + k w ω r 3 + C ]
Above formula is exactly the Optimization goal function adopting while having brushless motor, be based on motor efficiency math modeling.Constant wherein need to be demarcated by the loss experiment to motor when for different type of machines.
Step (4) afterwards, desired output rotating speed when trying to achieve motor efficiency maximum, and input motor controller and control, electrical motor is operated in after efficiency maximum, timing acquiring trac. throttle pedal aperture and lever position signal, keep the once initialization judgement to searching process Q second, to guarantee that the accumulation difference that the tractive force of accumulating under outer work condition complicated and changeable in second at Q changes the desired speed causing is corrected, improve practical precision.
Initialized judgement, by logic fuzzy controller, according to pedal position rate and lever change in location situation, infer driver intention, judge whether to run into load tractive force sudden load, and determine whether again searching process is carried out to initialization at once according to driver intention, according to the signal that gathers related sensor, re-start optimizing.The logic rules of logic fuzzy controller are as shown in table 1 below.
Table 1 fuzzy rule
Logic thinks, when lever position changes, load tractive force is undergone mutation, and searching process need to carry out initialization; When lever position does not change, according to the fuzzy rule shown in table 1, carry out initialization judgement, as shown in Figure 6.
Large, medium and small in table 1, difference due to different pedal structure and stroke, cannot make concrete scope divides, now provide the scope of making after normalized, with the membership function of fuzzy control principle, represent its scope, specifically pedal aperture rate of change membership function, as shown in Figure 8 pedal aperture membership function as shown in Figure 7.
The 3rd step of the efficient progress control method of electrical motor of this trac. can also realize in the following ways: the operating efficiency curve of drawing electrical motor under different gears by contrived experiment, by gather motor stand test and loaded test data (as gather its operating point, etc. efficient point, drafting iso-efficiency curve) mode obtains a level and smooth curve, makes this curve negotiating motor operation high efficiency profile region; Gather the point on curve, carry out regression analysis, matching correlation function, to obtain the piecewise function under different gears.Adopt this experiment for the motor efficiency line retrace analysis of going forward side by side to obtain the piecewise function of relevant peak efficiency, the desired speed of making every effort to according to expectation traction, obtains the desired output rotating speed under this desired speed according to current transmitting ratio.
Can design the experiment about electrical motor operating efficiency, the relation of usining between input electric power and output mechanical power is as experiment purpose.Adopt the method for controlling torque to change output speed, find the rotating speed that under a certain torque, motor operating efficiency is the highest (the mode of speed control differences that concrete motor is different).The electrical motor that the torque range of take is 0~700Nm is example, sets 10Nm and once tests, and carries out 70 groups of above-mentioned experiments, can by least square ratio juris, return processing to these 70 groups of data acquisitions.Specifically fitting to which kind of function need to be better to the compatible degree of these experimental results (loose point) according to which kind of function, can adopt polynomial function, Gaussian function and Fourier function etc.The means of matching are abundanter, can adopt method of least square to carry out, and also can adopt software to carry out matching as spss and matlab etc.Provide a kind of Function Fitting method: as used matlab software to carry out matching, at command window, key in cftool order, experimental result is set up to m file, in tool box, carry out matching.
The trac. of employing series hybrid-power driving system of 180 horsepowers of certain moneys of take describes the efficient operation control system of electrical motor and the control method of this trac. in detail as example.According to system as shown in Figure 1, arrange, sensor station is installed described in the efficient operation control system of the electrical motor of trac..
Chaufeur A drives this trac. and carries out cultivation operation, and the sensor that is positioned at chaufeur pedal position place obtains the signal about pedal aperture, the variation of pedal aperture and pedal aperture rate of change by gathering the pedal aperture of certain time: U, Δ U and dU.Now intelligent processing module is according to the expectation torque T of pedal aperture signal U judgement chaufeur 1, and to math modeling, be that optimization aim is carried out optimizing according to this torque, the expectation tach signal n while obtaining its efficiency maximum 1, and with the above-mentioned expectation torque T of this signal combination 1by bus, inputting electric machine controller controls the operation of electrical motor.Because the searching process of intelligent processing module is not continuous, setting an optimizing initialization cycle is Q second, is Q and carries out an optimizing second, redefines the expectation rotating speed of next Q in second.As in this example, if there is operating mode sudden change in second in first Q, first Q in second with n 1all the time as expectation rotating speed.At second Q, in second, there is expectation rotation speed n 2, to suppose now to run into slope and plough, trac. operating mode is undergone mutation, the violent pedal of chaufeur, there is larger change in expectation torque, if now still use n 2the efficiency that cannot guarantee electrical motor as the words of expectation rotating speed, therefore now needs searching process initialization at once, redefines expectation rotating speed; Judge when optimizing initialization just need to rely on the fuzzy control model described in Fig. 1, the signal H that the pedal aperture variation that dependence pedal position sensor sends and rate of change signal delta U thereof and dU signal and lever position transduser send, if gear changes, export high level, think that the change of lever position is the chaufeur judgement external world and has chugging, by fuzzy controller and threshold circuit, in conjunction with the logic rules in Fig. 6 and the fuzzy rule in table 1, comprehensively judge whether to need optimizing initialization, thresholding is to judge lever position signal H low and high level.If needed, in second Q expectation rotation speed n with optimizing again in second 2' replacement n 2input electric machine controller is controlled.
To the optimizing simulation result of the above-mentioned pattern of employing of certain 4 D Drive trac. as shown in Figure 4,5, in figure, asterisk represents trac. running operating point to optimizing result, can be clear that, its operating point is all near most effective.
It should be noted last that: above embodiment is the non-limiting technical scheme of the present invention in order to explanation only, although the present invention is had been described in detail with reference to above-described embodiment, those of ordinary skill in the art is to be understood that; Still can modify or be equal to replacement the present invention, and not depart from any modification or partial replacement of the spirit and scope of the present invention, it all should be encompassed in the middle of claim scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. the control method of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac., using traction motor as driving engine, using diesel engine/generator set as main source of energy system, using battery pack or storage battery/super capacitor group as auxiliary energy system, it is characterized in that: diesel engine/electrical generator is under economy operation, and main source of energy system is sent electric power definite value, drive traction motor efficiently to move, when electric power definite value is greater than traction motor demand electric power, by auxiliary energy system, store unnecessary electric power; When auxiliary energy system SOC value is during higher than setting value, main source of energy system quits work, by the independent energy supply of auxiliary energy system.
2. the control method of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac. according to claim 1, is characterized in that, when trac. work occurs that bearing power is uprushed, by auxiliary energy system, provides load changing electric power.
3. the control method of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac. according to claim 2, is characterized in that, the method step of the efficient operation of described driving traction motor is as follows:
(1) gather trac. throttle pedal aperture and lever position signal;
(2) according to Das Gaspedal aperture and lever position signal, try to achieve expectation tractive force, desired output torque;
(3) first kind of way: torque be take the math modeling of motor efficiency and carried out Optimum search as optimization aim according to desired output, obtains the desired output rotating speed of motor efficiency when maximum; Or the second way: adopt for the experiment of the motor efficiency line retrace analysis of going forward side by side and obtain the piecewise function of relevant peak efficiency, the desired speed of making every effort to according to expectation traction, obtains the desired output rotating speed under this desired speed according to current transmitting ratio;
(4) by desired output rotating speed, desired output torque input motor controller, the operation of electrical motor is controlled.
4. the control method of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac. according to claim 3, it is characterized in that: in described step (2), be according to Das Gaspedal aperture size, to account for the ratio estimation chaufeur desired output torque of pedal maximum opening, if the pedal degree of depth is A, maximum opening is B nmaximum drawbar force under gear is F max.n, now expect that tractive force magnitude estimation is: according to current transmitting ratio, obtain the desired output torque under this expectation tractive force.
5. the control method of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac. according to claim 4, it is characterized in that, in the first kind of way of described step (3), using the pure mathematics model of traction motor efficiency as objective function, to the positive and negative FkN(F centered by expectation tractive force want-F, F want+ F) for scope adopts Intelligent region searching algorithm, carry out Optimum search, obtaining making in search coverage objective function optimum is the operation point (F of motor efficiency when the highest best,v best), F wherein best∈ (F want-F, F want+ F), with V bestreplace F wantunder the desired speed that traction motor is the most efficiently moved, current transmitting ratio obtains the desired output rotating speed under this desired speed.
6. the control method of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac. according to claim 5, is characterized in that, described Intelligent region searching algorithm is fish-swarm algorithm, ant group algorithm or particle cluster algorithm.
7. the control method of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac. according to claim 4, it is characterized in that, the second way of described step (3) is by contrived experiment, to draw the operating efficiency curve of electrical motor under different gears, the mode of drawing iso-efficiency curve by gathering motor stand test and loaded test data obtains a level and smooth curve, makes this curve negotiating motor operation high efficiency profile region; Gather the point on curve, carry out regression analysis, matching correlation function, to obtain the piecewise function under different gears.
8. according to the control method of the energy-saving series hybrid-power trac. described in any one in claim 3-7, it is characterized in that, described step (4) afterwards, timing acquiring trac. throttle pedal aperture and lever position signal, judge whether to re-start the calculating of desired output rotating speed, if so, re-execute step (2) to (4), motor controller adopts new desired output rotating speed to control; If not, motor controller adopts the desired output rotating speed of last time to control.
9. the control method of energy-saving series hybrid-power trac. according to claim 8, it is characterized in that, to whether needing to re-start the calculating of desired output rotating speed, be first to judge whether lever position changes, if change, need to recalculate, if having to change, do not adopt again the fuzzy rule forming about pedal aperture, pedal aperture rate of change to judge.
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