CN103567815B - Based on the test of numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and the evaluation method of milling aperture - Google Patents

Based on the test of numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and the evaluation method of milling aperture Download PDF

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CN103567815B
CN103567815B CN201310562312.7A CN201310562312A CN103567815B CN 103567815 B CN103567815 B CN 103567815B CN 201310562312 A CN201310562312 A CN 201310562312A CN 103567815 B CN103567815 B CN 103567815B
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test
hole
axis
error
lathe
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CN103567815A (en
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仇健
李焱
马晓波
任宝钢
李健康
于文东
陈经伟
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沈阳机床(集团)设计研究院有限公司
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q17/00Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools
    • B23Q17/09Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools for indicating or measuring cutting pressure or for determining cutting-tool condition, e.g. cutting ability, load on tool
    • B23Q17/0952Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools for indicating or measuring cutting pressure or for determining cutting-tool condition, e.g. cutting ability, load on tool during machining
    • B23Q17/0985Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools for indicating or measuring cutting pressure or for determining cutting-tool condition, e.g. cutting ability, load on tool during machining by measuring temperature
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q17/00Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools
    • B23Q17/20Arrangements for observing, indicating or measuring on machine tools for indicating or measuring workpiece characteristics, e.g. contour, dimension, hardness

Abstract

Based on the test of numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and the evaluation method of milling aperture, belong to the test of numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and evaluation field.Its step is as follows: 1) make test part; 2) assignment test part is installed; 3) test part is completed the processing of work surface by the work flow of Thermal Error detection ordering requirement, the milling cutter selecting detection to specify carries out hole machined, and process according to detecting the cutting parameter such as the speed of mainshaft, cutting-in, feed speed of specifying, adjacent two little apertures of detection are consistent constantly; 5) test part after processing is placed under normal temperature environment, detects after residual stress discharges completely again; 6) test part completing all well processing is detected; 7) aperture synthesis change, hole depth change and the change of bottom surface, hole roughness, carry out heat in metal cutting error evaluation to tested lathe.The method contributes to carrying out hot performance evaluation to lathe model machine or the machine tool product that dispatches from the factory, and grasps the application performance of lathe.

Description

Based on the test of numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and the evaluation method of milling aperture

Technical field

The present invention relates to the test of a kind of numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and evaluation method, belong to Digit Control Machine Tool evaluation technology field.

Background technology

The thermal characteristics of Digit Control Machine Tool has material impact to part crudy and machine tool drive situation and can reflect the important indicator of machine tool capability.Affecting one of principal element of high-speed machine tool machining accuracy is exactly Thermal Error.The measurement of machine tool thermal error and the control of Thermal Error are the important means evaluating and improve machine tool capability, are one of the key technologies that must consider of High speed high precision machine tool.At present, some scholars and engineers and technicians control to have obtained remarkable achievement to the hot optimization of the Thermal Error mechanism of action of lathe, error modeling and compensation, machine tool structure and Thermal Error both at home and abroad.But more research is also confined to the dry run state of lathe or the analysis of historical empirical data, not only cause test result and truly add and there is certain gap man-hour, the thermal state precision under machine tooling state can not be reflected comprehensively, and need professional test instrument costly.

Summary of the invention

The technical problem that the invention solves is to provide a kind of method for detecting and assessing numerical control machine tool cutting thermal state precision, the method to test and testing requirement lower, test result presses close to true machine tooling, concentrated expression can comprise the hot machining accuracy of main shaft of numerical control machine tool and feed system.

The object of the invention is to be achieved through the following technical solutions:

Based on the test of numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and the evaluation method of milling aperture, its step is as follows:

1) test part is made: test part is a cube, one of them plane as plane to be processed, plane as reference for installation plane, 2 planes as detection reference plane, datum clamp face is offered 4 locating holes, the plane to be processed of test part, in order at interval of processing in a 10 minutes aperture, forms some detection apertures after cutting;

2) assignment test part is installed: the reference for installation plane of test part as on platen, and need be fitted tightly with worktable upper surface, position again after 2 detection reference planes are parallel with Y-axis with the X-axis of lathe respectively;

3) test part is completed the processing of work surface by the work flow of Thermal Error detection ordering requirement, the milling cutter selecting detection to specify carries out hole machined, and process according to detecting the cutting parameter such as the speed of mainshaft, cutting-in, feed speed of specifying, adjacent two machining holes (detect aperture) through time time consistency; Interval same time intermittent recording machine tool chief axis temperature is needed in process;

4) test part after processing is placed under normal temperature environment, detects after residual stress discharges completely again;

5) detect the test part completing all well processing: detect hole in piece part by 2 detection reference planes, the testing process according to initial apertures → final apertures is carried out the test of numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and is detected; Applied Digital microscope obtains the microphoto of machining hole upper surface and bottom surface, hole, and measures and record varying aperture; The average distance of application displacement sensor each hole upper surface opposed bottom face, the change of record hole depth; Utilize roughmeter or contourgraph to measure bottom unevenness, measure the relative distance of relative two the detection reference planes in Ge Kong center;

6) aperture synthesis change, hole depth change and the change of bottom surface, hole roughness, carry out heat in metal cutting error evaluation to tested lathe;

The evaluation criteria of Thermal Error is as follows: initial cuts first hole to cutting temperature reaches stable no longer continuation and end when rising, the all machining holes completed are as detection target, wherein record the error of the maximum detection aperture of error respectively as the maximum of radial Thermal Error in X-axis and Y-axis along lathe X-axis and Y-axis two axis directions, the maximum detect aperture depth error of hole depth is as machine Z-axis direction Thermal Error; For same specification of the same type two different brands lathes, error is higher in the thermal state precision grade of the less lathe of X, Y and Z tri-axis; For same specification of the same type successively two generation machine tool product, error is higher in the thermal state precision grade of the less lathe of X, Y and Z tri-axis; Thermal deformation for middle-size and small-size lathe requires higher, and its thermal state precision controls at 0.008mm in X-axis, controls at 0.008mm in Y-axis, controls in 0.01mm in Z-axis direction, and for large-size lathe, each Axial Thermal distortion does not generally exceed 0.015mm; For the heat balance time of various lathe, medium and small lathe required in 2 hours, and heavy heavy duty machine tools are in 4 hours.

Beneficial effect of the present invention: the present invention adopts such scheme, the present invention adopts actual cut processing mode, actual cut is added in dry run process, not by Thermal Error test special instrument in working angles, indirectly obtain numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and Thermal Error by detecting the part processing precision obtained after processing situation is affected on machined surface quality.The detection of machine cut Thermal Error is measured hole in piece part machining accuracy and quality by detecting instrument such as crudy such as application microscope and contourgraph etc.The method is arranged according to test part and normalized cutting tool, part installation and locating method, procedure and cutter rail, processing method, the test of numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and detection method is carried out according to concrete testing process, heat in metal cutting error evaluation is carried out to tested lathe, contribute to carrying out hot performance evaluation to lathe model machine or the machine tool product that dispatches from the factory, and can help lathe user under the condition not possessing professional test instrument, grasp the application performance of lathe, and the applicable situation of reasonable arrangement lathe, cutting parameter is set.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 Thermal Error test flow chart.

Fig. 2 is the sensor positioning scheme figure of main shaft thermal state precision in Fig. 1, in figure, and 1 ~ 5 displacement transducer, 6 main shafts, 7 handle of a knifes and inspection rod, 8 fixtures, 9 workbench.

The temperature rise curve figure obtained is tested when Fig. 3 a is conventional machine tool dry run.

The thermomechanical curve figure obtained is tested when Fig. 3 b is conventional machine tool dry run.

The hot trend curve figure obtained is tested when Fig. 3 c is conventional machine tool dry run.

Fig. 4 a is heat in metal cutting error testing part model figure.

Fig. 4 b is processing sequence in test part and feed path schematic diagram.

Fig. 5 a-Fig. 5 c is the Thermal Error test part engineering drawing comprising locating hole, work surface, reference for installation and detection reference, and wherein, Fig. 5 a is front view, comprises locating hole and reference for installation; Fig. 5 b is top view, comprises detection reference and work surface; Fig. 5 c is left view.

Fig. 6 a is the Pore Diameter Detection figure that after processing, part first machining hole is corresponding.

Fig. 6 b is microphoto at the bottom of the hole that after processing, part first machining hole is corresponding.

Fig. 6 c is three-D profile image at the bottom of the hole that after processing, part first machining hole is corresponding.

Fig. 6 d is the Pore Diameter Detection figure that after processing, last machining hole of part is corresponding.

Fig. 6 e is microphoto at the bottom of the hole that after processing, last machining hole of part is corresponding.

Fig. 6 f is three-D profile image at the bottom of the hole that after processing, last machining hole of part is corresponding.

Fig. 7 a is varying aperture curve map.

Fig. 7 b is hole depth change curve.

Fig. 7 c is roughness curve figure at the bottom of hole.

Detailed description of the invention

The theoretical foundation of the inventive method: the principle utilizing milling aperture mode under continuous operating condition to measure numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error can be summarized as: the hole machined precision that milling aperture obtains comprises varying aperture, blind hole depth, hole circle degree (milling cutter boring) or hole cylindricity (milling cutter hole milling) etc., and the hole machined surface quality of acquisition comprises roughness at the bottom of side, hole roughness and hole.Due in machine cut to the heat in metal cutting error of aperture and the factor that hole circle degree has an impact mainly main shaft run-out workbench workpiece relative to main axle cutter.Compared to Thermal Error, main shaft circular runout produce error almost can ignore, therefore, can utilize part through time processing hole milling time varying aperture reflection lathe radial Thermal Error.In like manner, the error had an impact for hole depth is the axial runout of main shaft and axial heat in metal cutting error mainly, and the former relative the latter can ignore, therefore, can part through time processing hole milling time the Axial Thermal error of hole depth change reflection lathe.Correspondingly, in all on all four situation of lathe, cutter, workpiece material, machined parameters and processing method, on the factor mainly Thermal Error of hole machined surface roughness parameter impact, therefore the roughness reflection machine cut Thermal Error of hole sidewall or bottom surface can be utilized the impact of crudy, roughness at the bottom of its mesopore is easier to obtain, therefore, the reflection of roughness at the bottom of hole heat in metal cutting error is utilized to affect situation to machine tooling surface roughness.

The test of numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and the idiographic flow of evaluation method that the present invention is based on milling aperture are as follows:

1) a kind of test part that lathe is interrupted machining accuracy for a long time that can reflect is designed, as shown in fig. 4 a, the detection aperture formed afterwards by 1 plane to be processed, 1 reference for installation plane, 4 locating holes, 2 detection reference planes and some cuttings forms test part.

Wherein, reference for installation plane and locating hole are used for installation and the location of part, and the aperture formed after plane to be processed, processing and detection reference plane are for realizing the formation of machine cut Thermal Error detection elements and reaching testing goal.

2) assignment test part is installed: the reference for installation plane of test part as on platen, and need be fitted tightly with worktable upper surface, position again after 2 detection reference planes are parallel with Y-axis with the X-axis of lathe respectively;

3) test part is completed the processing of work surface by the work flow of Thermal Error detection ordering requirement, the milling cutter selecting detection to specify carries out hole machined, and process according to detecting the cutting parameter such as the speed of mainshaft, cutting-in, feed speed of specifying, adjacent two machining holes (detect aperture) through time time consistency; Interval same time intermittent recording machine tool chief axis temperature is needed in process;

4) test part after processing is placed under normal temperature environment, detects after residual stress discharges completely again;

5) test part completing all well processing is detected: the relative distance comprising the distance at the bottom of the pore size of each aperture, hole upper surface relative opening, the roughness of baseplane, hole, relative two detection references in Ge Kong center; Detect hole in piece part by 2 detection reference planes, the testing process according to initial apertures → final apertures is carried out the test of numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and is detected.Applied Digital microscope obtains the microphoto of machining hole upper surface and bottom surface, hole, and measures and record varying aperture; The average distance of application displacement sensor each hole upper surface opposed bottom face, the change of record hole depth; Utilize roughmeter or contourgraph to measure bottom unevenness, measure the relative distance of relative two the detection reference planes in Ge Kong center;

6) aperture synthesis change, hole depth change and the change of bottom surface, hole roughness, evaluate with intermittent-cutting state lower main axis relative workbench radial heat distortion error, Axial Thermal distortion inaccuracy, machined surface quality in continuous running tested lathe.Reach stable no longer continuation by initial cuts first hole to cutting temperature to end when rising, using completed all machining holes as detection target, wherein record the maximum detection aperture of error respectively as the maximum of radial Thermal Error in X-axis and Y-axis along lathe X-axis and Y-axis two axis directions, the maximum detect aperture depth error of hole depth is as machine Z-axis direction Thermal Error.For same specification of the same type two different brands lathes, error is higher in the thermal state precision grade of the less lathe of X, Y and Z tri-axis; For same specification of the same type successively two generation machine tool product, error is higher in the thermal state precision grade of the less lathe of X, Y and Z tri-axis; For dissimilar different size lathe, there is no comparativity in principle, the thermal deformation of general centering junior machine requires higher, its thermal state precision needs to control in 0.008mm, 0.008mm and 0.01mm at X, Y and Z-axis direction, for large-size lathe, evaluation criteria can suitably be relaxed, and each Axial Thermal distortion does not generally exceed 0.015mm.The heat balance time of various lathe, medium and small lathe required in 2 hours, and heavy heavy duty machine tools are in 4 hours.

Utilize in Fig. 2 Thermal Error when being distributed in the radial and axial displacement transducer continuous measurement main shaft dry run of main shaft, and utilize the temperature rise in thermal imaging system or the whole operation process of temperature sensor record.Test the thermo parameters method that obtains, temperature rise change and thermal deformation, hot trend curve are respectively as shown in Fig. 3 a, 3b, 3c.

Adopt the inventive method embody rule such as under:

1) choosing diameter is 3mm whole hard alloy 2 tooth milling cutter, requires that milling cutter shear blade crosses center, to realize the processing of processing blind hole side and bottom surface.

2) detect part as Fig. 4 a, material is 7075-T6 aerolite or 7050-T6 aerolite, Cutting free when can ensure small diameter milling knife processing parts, and can obtain good machining accuracy.

3) part is installed according to part installation and locating method and locates, as shown in Figure 5 a to 5 c, reference for installation plane and locating hole are used for installation and the location of part, and the aperture formed after plane to be processed, processing and detection reference plane are for realizing the formation of machine cut Thermal Error detection elements and reaching testing goal.

4), when cutting, machine spindle speed should operate at about 75% of maximum speed, hole machined degree of depth 2mm, and feed speed is 0.028m/min.The Processing Strategies utilizing the Cutting tool installation manner of regulation to specify carries out the little hole machined of milling to part, processes an aperture at interval of 10min.Adjacent two aperture pitch are 2.5 times of tool diameter D in the X-axis, and Y-axis is 2 times of tool diameters, first pitch-row is all 4D/3 distance from two detection reference planes, as Fig. 4 b.And interval 5min or 10min logging machine bed tempertaure, when temperature reach stable after, stop the processing of part.

5), in hole machined process, the procedure of control system trip is as shown in table 1.

Table 1 processing program code

6) part after processing needs to be placed on next week of normal temperature environment, detects after residual stress discharges completely again.Testing process according to initial apertures → final apertures is carried out the test of numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and is detected.Applied Digital microscope obtains the microphoto of machining hole upper surface and bottom surface, hole, and measures and record varying aperture; The average distance of application displacement sensor each hole upper surface opposed bottom face, the change of record hole depth; Utilize roughmeter or contourgraph to measure bottom unevenness, occasion with good conditionsi also can need three-D profile at the bottom of measured hole, and register hole machined surface quality changes.

7) to sum up, aperture synthesis change, hole depth change and the change of bottom surface, hole roughness, carry out heat in metal cutting error evaluation to tested lathe.I.e. aperture distortion reflection main shaft radial deformation, test case is as Fig. 6 a, 6d and Fig. 7 a, and hole depth change reflection main shaft axial elongation, test case is as Fig. 7 b, and bottom surface, hole roughness evaluates hot crudy, and test case is as Fig. 6 b, 6c, 6e, 6f and Fig. 7 c.

Claims (1)

1., based on the test of numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and the evaluation method of milling aperture, its step is as follows:
1) test part is made: test part is a cube, one of them plane as plane to be processed, plane as reference for installation plane, 2 planes as detection reference plane, datum clamp face is offered 4 locating holes, the plane to be processed of test part, in order at interval of processing in a 10 minutes aperture, forms some detection apertures after cutting;
2) assignment test part is installed: the reference for installation plane of test part as on platen, and need be fitted tightly with worktable upper surface, position again after 2 detection reference planes are parallel with Y-axis with the X-axis of lathe respectively;
3) test part is completed the processing of work surface by the work flow of Thermal Error detection ordering requirement, the milling cutter selecting detection to specify carries out hole machined, and process according to detecting the speed of mainshaft, cutting-in, the feed speed cutting parameter of specifying, adjacent two machining holes through time time consistency; Interval same time intermittent recording machine tool chief axis temperature is needed in process;
4) test part after processing is placed under normal temperature environment, detects after residual stress discharges completely again;
5) detect the test part completing all well processing: detect hole in piece part by 2 detection reference planes, the testing process according to initial apertures → final apertures is carried out the test of numerical control machine tool cutting Thermal Error and is detected; Applied Digital microscope obtains the microphoto of machining hole upper surface and bottom surface, hole, and measures and record varying aperture; The average distance of application displacement sensor each hole upper surface opposed bottom face, the change of record hole depth; Utilize roughmeter or contourgraph to measure bottom unevenness, measure the relative distance of relative two the detection reference planes in Ge Kong center;
6) aperture synthesis change, hole depth change and the change of bottom surface, hole roughness, carry out heat in metal cutting error evaluation to tested lathe;
The evaluation criteria of Thermal Error is as follows: initial cuts first hole to cutting temperature reaches stable no longer continuation and end when rising, the all machining holes completed are as detection target, wherein record the error of the maximum detection aperture of error respectively as the maximum of radial Thermal Error in X-axis and Y-axis along lathe X-axis and Y-axis two axis directions, the maximum detect aperture depth error of hole depth is as machine Z-axis direction Thermal Error; For same specification of the same type two different brands lathes, error is higher in the thermal state precision grade of the less lathe of X, Y and Z tri-axis; For same specification of the same type successively two generation machine tool product, error is higher in the thermal state precision grade of the less lathe of X, Y and Z tri-axis; Thermal deformation for middle-size and small-size lathe requires higher, and its thermal state precision controls at 0.008mm in X-axis, controls at 0.008mm in Y-axis, controls in 0.01mm in Z-axis direction, and for large-size lathe, each Axial Thermal distortion does not exceed 0.015mm; For the heat balance time of various lathe, medium and small lathe required in 2 hours, and heavy heavy duty machine tools are in 4 hours.
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