CN103518169A - Distributed control of dynamic reactive power - Google Patents

Distributed control of dynamic reactive power Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103518169A
CN103518169A CN201280022444.4A CN201280022444A CN103518169A CN 103518169 A CN103518169 A CN 103518169A CN 201280022444 A CN201280022444 A CN 201280022444A CN 103518169 A CN103518169 A CN 103518169A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
reactive power
network
controller
voltage
compensator
Prior art date
Application number
CN201280022444.4A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
约翰·恩斯林
鲁巴·阿克拉姆·阿马里
阿杰·F·门萨
埃哈卜·H·舒巴基
Original Assignee
佩特拉太阳能公司
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US201161450742P priority Critical
Priority to US61/450,742 priority
Application filed by 佩特拉太阳能公司 filed Critical 佩特拉太阳能公司
Priority to PCT/US2012/028436 priority patent/WO2012122454A1/en
Publication of CN103518169A publication Critical patent/CN103518169A/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/12Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks for adjusting voltage in ac networks by changing a characteristic of the network load
    • H02J3/16Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks for adjusting voltage in ac networks by changing a characteristic of the network load by adjustment of reactive power
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J13/00Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network
    • H02J13/00002Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network characterised by monitoring
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J13/00Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network
    • H02J13/00006Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network characterised by information or instructions transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated power network element or electrical equipment
    • H02J13/00016Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network characterised by information or instructions transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated power network element or electrical equipment using a wired telecommunication network or a data transmission bus
    • H02J13/00017Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network characterised by information or instructions transport means between the monitoring, controlling or managing units and monitored, controlled or operated power network element or electrical equipment using a wired telecommunication network or a data transmission bus using optical fiber
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J13/00Circuit arrangements for providing remote indication of network conditions, e.g. an instantaneous record of the open or closed condition of each circuitbreaker in the network; Circuit arrangements for providing remote control of switching means in a power distribution network, e.g. switching in and out of current consumers by using a pulse code signal carried by the network
    • H02J13/00032Systems characterised by the controlled or operated power network elements or equipment, the power network elements or equipment not otherwise provided for
    • H02J13/00034Systems characterised by the controlled or operated power network elements or equipment, the power network elements or equipment not otherwise provided for the elements or equipment being or involving an electric power substation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J3/00Circuit arrangements for ac mains or ac distribution networks
    • H02J3/18Arrangements for adjusting, eliminating or compensating reactive power in networks
    • H02J3/1821Arrangements for adjusting, eliminating or compensating reactive power in networks using shunt compensators
    • H02J3/1835Arrangements for adjusting, eliminating or compensating reactive power in networks using shunt compensators with stepless control
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E40/00Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y02E40/30Reactive power compensation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E40/00Technologies for an efficient electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y02E40/70Smart grids as climate change mitigation technology in the energy generation sector
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y04S10/22Flexible AC transmission systems [FACTS] or power factor or reactive power compensating or correcting units
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y04INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
    • Y04SSYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
    • Y04S10/00Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
    • Y04S10/30State monitoring, e.g. fault, temperature monitoring, insulator monitoring, corona discharge

Abstract

The invention discloses a system and a method for controlling dynamic reactive power in an electric power system by providing distributed VAR compensator. The VAR compensator may include a voltage sensor for sensing an instantaneous value of a grid voltage. The VAR compensator may further include a reactive power compensator and a controller configured to operate the reactive power compensator. The controller may further be configured to determine an amount of reactive power to be provided to the electric power system based on the sensed grid voltage and a droop profile.

Description

The distributed control of dynamic reactive power

The pct international patent application that the name of the Petra Solar inc. of the application Shi Yi U.S. state-owned firm was submitted on March 9th, 2012, the appointment applicant of the All Countries except the U.S. is Petra Solar inc., applicant for U.S.'s appointment is Dutch citizen Johan H.R.Enslin, Jordan citizen Ruba Akram Amarin, Togo citizen Adje F.Mensah and Jordan citizen Ehab H.Shoubaki, and require the U.S. Patent application No.61/450 submitting on March 9th, 2011,742 right of priority, is disclosed and is all incorporated in this as a reference.

Background technology

A large amount of electric power now by extensive centralized for power plant fuel, waterpower or nuclear energy produce, and logical long-distance sends terminal user to.Power flow to consumer from centralized power plant by distributed network.Electric power from centralized power plant to terminal user is conventionally according to the transmission of alternating current (AC) form, and wherein electric current and voltage are all sinusoidal forms, also referred to as AC system.In AC system, power is measured as the energy flow rate by set point.If terminal user's load is pure resistive, only transmit actual power, this is because voltage and current is all homophase.If terminal user's load is net resistance (capacitor and inductor), so voltage and current is 90 ° of out-phase, and do not exist the net energy of load to transmit.

Typical terminal user's load has resistance, inductance and electric capacity, so active power and reactive power (reactive power) both flow to terminal user's load.The inductive of terminal user's load and capacitive character character cause that electric current changes phase place with respect to voltage: electric capacity tends to electric current leading voltage in phase place, and inductance tends to electric current backward voltage in phase place.In order to transmit the active power of same amount, between electric current and voltage, there is the poor AC system of higher phase and will there is higher circulation, therefore there is higher loss.In addition, higher circulation requires the equipment (conductor, transformer etc.) of high specified (power), or may cause causing the damage for equipment due to overcurrent.

Therefore in AC system, in order to transmit the energy of maximum and to raise the efficiency and reliability, the phase differential between electric current and voltage should be minimum.By absorbing in electric system or sending reactive power and control the phase differential between electric current and voltage.The control of reactive power in electric system is called to VAR to be supported.With VAR compensator, provide the VAR in electric system to support.These VAR compensators are usually located in the substation of distribution or near on the loop of distributed substation.These VAR compensators provide minimum protection or protection are not provided near other equipment that are positioned at transformer or be positioned at load.In addition, present VAR compensator is standalone.

Summary of the invention

According to embodiments of the invention, system and method are disclosed, for the topological sum of the quick dynamic distributed reactive power of electric system, controls.Described system can comprise: voltage sensor, and for the instantaneous value of sensing line voltage.Described system can also comprise reactive power compensator and for operating the controller of reactive power compensator.Line voltage and decline curve (droop profile) that described controller can be configured to based on sensing carry out definite amount that will offer the reactive power of electric system.Described controller can also be configured to operate the switch of reactive power compensator, increasing to electric system/and from electric system, remove capacitor and/or the firing angle of one or more inductors is set.

It should be understood that aforementioned general description and following detailed description in detail are examples and just illustrative, and be not considered as limiting scope of the present invention described and prescription.In addition, can provide feature and/or variant other features and/or the variant in addition of setting forth here.For example, embodiments of the invention can relate to combination and the sub-portfolio of the various features of describing in detailed description.

Accompanying drawing explanation

That in the disclosure, comprise and as the accompanying drawing of a disclosure part, various embodiment of the present invention has been described.In accompanying drawing:

Fig. 1 shows the environment that can put into practice various embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 2 shows the distribution system according to the embodiment of the present invention, has quick dynamic distributed VAR compensator;

Fig. 3 shows the dynamic distributed VAR compensator according to Fig. 2 of the embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 4 is according to the block scheme of the element of the controller of the VAR compensator for Fig. 3 of the embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 5 is the decline curve for distributed VAR compensator according to the embodiment of the present invention;

Fig. 6 is according to the architecture of data acquisition, monitoring and the control of the quick dynamic distributed VAR compensator of the embodiment of the present invention; And

Fig. 7 is the figure having described according to the operator scheme of the VAR compensator of the embodiment of the present invention.

Embodiment

Below describe in detail with reference to accompanying drawing.If possible, with identical reference number, represent same or similar element in the accompanying drawings and the description below.Although can describe embodiments of the invention, modification, change and other implementations are possible.For example, can realize for the element that illustrates in accompanying drawing and replace, increase or revise, and can be by the replacement for disclosed method, present and the interpolation stage is revised method described here.Therefore, below describe also unrestricted the present invention in detail.On the contrary, correct scope of the present invention is defined by the following claims.

Embodiments of the invention can, by a kind of dynamic distributed VAR compensator is fast provided, provide a kind of system and method for controlling the reactive power in distribution system.Can absorb or transmit the reactive power in distribution system by distributed VAR compensator, to control reactive power.Described system can comprise: voltage sensor, and for the instantaneous value of sensing line voltage.Described system can also comprise: the controller of reactive power compensator and operation reactive power compensator.Described controller can be configured to the amount that line voltage based on sensing and decline curve are determined the reactive power that will offer electric system.Described controller can also be configured to operate the switch of reactive power compensator, increasing to electric system/and from electric system, remove capacitor and/or the firing angle of one or more inductors is set.

According to embodiments of the invention, Fig. 1 is the environment that can put into practice various embodiment of the present invention.Fig. 1 is depicted as and comprises power house 102, one or more transmission unit 104a, 104b and 104c (being referred to as transmission unit 104), one or more power supply unit 106a and 106b (being generally power supply unit 106), micro-electrical network 108, one or more load 110a and 110b (being referred to as load 110) and distribution system 112.Additionally, micro-electrical network 108 also comprises one or more power electronic interfaces (PEI) 114a, 114b and 114c (being referred to as PEI 314), one or more DG source 116a, 116b and 116c (being referred to as DG source 116) and one or more DG unit 118a, 118b and 118c (being referred to as DG unit 118).

As mentioned above, power house 102 can depend on tradition and renewable origin, and described source can include but not limited to fuel, nuclear energy, water conservancy, wind energy, photoelectricity energy and underground heat.Except above-mentioned, power house 102 can produce extensive electric power to distribute to load 110 via distribution system 112.About Fig. 2, describe power distribution network in detail.

According to embodiments of the invention, can Jiang You power house 102 electric power that produce offer transmission unit 104, so that electric power is further transferred to power supply unit 106.The feeding power that Jiang Cong power house 102 produces is in transmission unit 104.Because generator unit 102 is usually located at the position away from power supply unit 106, so transmission unit 104 can be used high voltage (110KV or more than) to reduce the energy loss of transmission.Power supply unit 106 can be the final level to terminal user by power delivery, and can reduce with step-down transformer the voltage of high value.Terminal user is also referred to as the consumption building in the disclosure.

Fig. 2 is the distribution system 200 with quick dynamic distributed VAR compensator.As shown in Figure 2, distribution system 200 can comprise distribution substation 202, one or more distribution loop 204a and 204b (being referred to as loop 204), one or more secondary substation transformer 206a and 206b (being referred to as secondary substation transformer 206), one or more consumption building 208a and 208b (being referred to as consumption building 208), one or more capacitor group 210, one or more quick dynamic distributed VAR compensator 212a and 212b (being referred to as VAR compensator 212).The distribution system 200 of Fig. 2 can also comprise communication system 214He data center 216.

Distribution substation 202 can send the electric power receiving from transmission system to loop 204.Substation 202 can comprise that one or more primary transformers 218 are to change the voltage level between high-transmission voltage (110KV or more than) and low distribution voltage (2.3KV to 35KV).Substation 202 can also comprise switching, protection and opertaing device 220.Primary transformers 218 can have armature winding and secondary winding (not shown in Fig. 2).Transmission system can be connected with armature winding, and loop 204 can be connected with the secondary winding of primary transformers 218.

The output of distribution substation 202 can be loop 204.Loop 204 can overhead be gone up along street (or in some cases underground) and extend.Loop 204 can be for being delivered to electric power consumption building 208 from distribution substation 202.Only have larger consumption building directly from distribution voltage, to carry out direct feed.Great majority consumption building can be via secondary substation transformer 206 feeds.Secondary substation transformer 206 can be configured to the voltage level of self feeding device 204 in the future and change into consumption building 208 voltage levels of asking (relatively low level).Secondary substation transformer 206 can be install or be arranged on limit on the ground, and can be positioned near consumption building 208.Although show, only have a consumption building to be connected with the secondary substation transformer in Fig. 2, more than one consumption building can be connected with independent secondary substation transformer.In an example embodiment, also the part beyond the secondary substation transformer of distribution system 200 206 can be called to secondary voltage network.

Secondary voltage network can be equipped with more than one VAR compensator 212.As example, VAR compensator 212 can be connected between secondary substation transformer 206 and consumption building 208, preferably more close secondary substation transformer 206.VAR compensator 212 can be configured to provide quick dynamic distributed reactive power compensation on secondary voltage network.In the disclosure, with reference to figure 3, VAR compensator 212 is described in further detail.

According to embodiments of the invention, one or more capacitor groups 222 can be connected to provide with loop 204 Control of Voltage for loop 204.Capacitor group 222 also can comprise capacitor controller 224, so that one or more capacitors are connected/are disconnected with loop 204.

According to embodiments of the invention, capacitor controller 224, VAR compensator 212 and opertaing device 220 can be connected by communication system 214Yu data center 216.Communication system 214 can be the communication system of communication system, wide area network (WAN), mesh network, the Internet or other standards based on Zigbee protocol.Capacitor controller 224, VAR compensator 212 and opertaing device 220 also can use communication system 214 to communicate with one another.An example embodiment Zhong, data center 216, can be positioned at central monitoring system place.

According to embodiments of the invention, distribution system 200 can comprise central monitoring system (not shown in Fig. 2).Central monitoring system can be configured to use communication system 214 or separated communication system to communicate by letter with the element of distribution system 200.Central monitoring system can be configured to use intercommunication system to communicate by letter with the element of distribution system 200.Two-way communication can comprise from the element reception data relevant with the state of distribution system, and to configurable element, send order in response to the status data receiving.Described order can comprise the set of actions of being carried out by the element that receives order.Data center 214 can be arranged in central monitoring system, and for storing the data that receive from the element of distribution system.

According to embodiments of the invention, central monitoring system can comprise standard distributed system management facility, as Distribution Management System (DMS), supervision and control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, electric power cut-off management system (OMS), fault detect isolation and (FDIR) system of recovery, team management system (CMS), metric data management system (MDMS) and management system of the present invention.

Although only show two VAR compensators in Fig. 2, typical distribution system can be included on compare great geographic area, distribute more than two VAR compensators.The type of the number that the number of VAR compensator can be built based on consumption, consumption load is, consume the amount of load and consume building apart from the distance of distribution substation.As example, can provide each secondary substation transformer a VAR compensator, for controlling the reactive power of distribution system.The example standard of VAR compensator is provided in the appendix 1 of this instructions.

Fig. 3 shows according to the element of the VAR compensator 212 of the embodiment of the present invention.VAR compensator 212 can comprise voltage sensor 302, controller 304, reactive power compensator 306, fuse 308, electromagnetic interference (EMI) (EMI) reaction unit 310 and communication module 312.

Voltage sensor 302 can be connected with loop 204.Voltage sensor 302 can be configured to the instantaneous value of sensing loop voltage, also referred to as line voltage (V grid).The instantaneous value of the loop voltage of sensing can be sent to controller 304.Controller 304 can be configured to operate the switch in reactive power compensator 306, with the line voltage based on sensing, to loop 204, provides VAR to support.With respect to Fig. 4 of the present disclosure, controller 304 and function thereof have been described in detail.

In one embodiment, reactive power compensator 306 can be connected with loop 204 with EMI reaction unit 310 by fuse 308.Fuse 308 can be configured to interrupt overcurrent to prevent the overheated of reactive power compensator 306 or to damage.EMI reaction unit 308 can be configured to the Radio frequency interference (RFI) of conduction between loop 204 and reactive power compensator 306 to decay.

In one embodiment, reactive power compensator 306 can comprise leading VAR unit 314 and one or more VAR unit 316a, 316b and 316c (being referred to as VAR unit 316).314HeVAR unit, leading VAR unit 316 is connected in parallel with loop 204.Reactive power compensator 306 can also comprise metal oxide varistor (MOV) 318.Metal oxide varistor (MOV) 318 can be connected in parallel with leading VAR unit 314 and VAR unit 316.

In one embodiment, MOV 318 can be configured to protect the sensing unit of reactive power compensator 306 not affected by excessive transient voltage.When the voltage at 316 two ends, 314HeVAR unit, leading VAR unit is higher, MOV 318 can pass to the electric current of remarkable increase.The voltage at two ends, DangVAR unit keeps being less than while clamping down on voltage, and MOV 318 can keep non-conductive in the normal operation period, as shunt pattern (shunt-mode) device.The voltage at two ends, DangVAR unit when clamping down on voltage and intersect, can trigger MOV 318, and the shunt current that the voltage by increasing can be produced fall to leave VAR unit.Can determine and clamp down on voltage by effectiveness.

In one embodiment, leading VAR unit 314 can comprise reaction unit 320, for triode (TRIAC) or solid state AC switch 322 and the driver 324 of alternating current.Reaction unit 320 can be connected with loop 204 by TRIAC 322.Driver 324 can be configured to operate TRIAC322.

,VAR unit 316a can comprise TRIAC 324a, driver 326a, reaction unit 328a and one or more capacitor 330a and 330b (being referred to as capacitor 330) in one embodiment.One or more capacitors 330 can be connected in series with reaction unit 328.One or more capacitor 330a and 330b can serial or parallel connections or according to together with being connected of series and parallel connections.Reaction unit 328 can be connected with loop 204 by TRIAC 324.,VAR unit 316b and 316c also can comprise the similar parts of YuVAR unit 316a as shown in Figure 3.The parts of VAR unit 316b and 316c can be connected according to the similar mode of parts of YuVAR unit 316a.As example ,VAR unit 316b, can comprise TRIAC 324b, driver 326b, reaction unit 328b and one or more capacitor 330c and 330d.As another example ,VAR unit 316c, can comprise TRIAC324c, driver 326c, reaction unit 328c and one or more capacitor 330e and 330f.

In one embodiment, TRIAC 322 and 324 can be can be along the electronic unit of any direction conduction current when conducting.Can by the gate electrode to TRIAC, apply positive current or negative current and come conducting TRIAC 322 and 324.Can provide grid current by driver 324 and 326, also referred to as gate-control signal (gating signal).Once conducting, TRIAC 322 and 324 can continue conduction, until the electric current of the TRIAC that flows through drops to below predetermined threshold.Predetermined threshold may also be referred to as maintenance electric current.In one embodiment, driver 324 and 326 can operate by controller 304.

Fig. 4 is according to the block scheme of the controller 304 of Fig. 3 of the embodiment of the present invention.Controller 304 can comprise analog to digital converter (ADC) 402, phaselocked loop (PLL) 404, root mean square (RMS) estimator 460, error estimator 408, decline curve 410 and modulator 412.Controller 304 can also comprise monitor state machine 414, digital communication bus 416 and timer 418.

In one embodiment, ADC 402 can be configured to receive from voltage sensor 302 instantaneous value of the line voltage of sensing.ADC 402 can provide the digital version of physical signalling, represents line voltage and each independent capacitor group.Output from ADC 402 can be sent to PLL 404 and RMS estimator 406.

In one embodiment, PLL 404 can produce the output signal relevant to the phase place of input signal.PLL 404 can provide the phase reference of line voltage.PLL 404 also can provide the estimated frequency of line voltage as correction factor to RMS estimator 406.

In one embodiment, RMS estimator 406 can be used from the output of ADC 402 and calculate line voltage (V grid) RMS value.RMS value is the statistical measurement of the amplitude of variable quantity, for example sinusoidal variations.In one example, the RMS value of line voltage can be calculated as:

V rms = V peak 2 ,

Wherein Vpeak is line voltage (V grid) peak value.

In one embodiment, can be as the input of error estimator 408 from the output of RMS estimator 406.Error estimator 408 can be by the line voltage (V receiving from RMS estimator 406 grid) RMS value with reference to RMS voltage, compare.Error estimator 408 can also be estimated the RMS value of the line voltage that RMS estimator 406 calculates and poor with reference between RMS voltage.

In one embodiment, can provide the voltage with reference to RMS by central monitoring system, and can be stored in RMS estimator 406 with reference to RMS voltage this locality.In an example embodiment, can the operating conditions based on distribution system 200 dynamically revise the voltage with reference to RMS.

The RMS value of the line voltage being calculated by RMS estimator 406 in one embodiment, and can be used as the input of decline curve module 410 with reference to the difference of estimating between RMS voltage.Decline curve module 410 can comprise decline curve as shown in Figure 5.With reference to Fig. 5 of the present disclosure, decline curve is discussed in further detail.

In one embodiment, decline curve module 410 can the difference based on estimating be estimated the required reactive power amount that will absorb/send in loop 204.Decline curve module can or be estimated aequum with the decline curve that is positioned at central monitoring system by the decline curve with local storage.

In one embodiment, can be as the input of modulator 412 from the output of decline curve module 410.Modulator 412 can be converted to the output from decline curve module 410 control signal that capacitor is connected/is disconnected with loop 404, and the firing angle of the variometer in reactive power compensator 306 is set.Output from modulator 410 can be as the input of driver 324 and 326.

In one embodiment, monitor state machine 414 can be configured to the interaction that collaborative closed loop declines between the external command interface of controlling and exposing by communication conduits.Monitor state machine 414 also can carry the configuration parameter with respect to voltage, for example various operation schemes, or other amounts arbitrarily as above.

In one embodiment, timer 418 can provide reference timing signal to the every other parts in controller.Reference timing signal can be used for synchronous internal clocking by parts, or to adding timestamp from the data of utility network sensing.Digital communication bus 416 is configured to set up communication between controller 304 and communication system 214.

In one embodiment, by the phase angle being switched by TRIAC 322, modulate, reaction unit 324 can be switched in circuit changeably, and therefore to distribution system 200, provide the reactive power of continuous variable to inject (or absorption).In this configuration, by capacitor 330, provide coarse Control of Voltage; The controlled reaction unit of TRIAC is for meticulous control is provided.Can utilize the controlled capacitor of TRIAC to switch control and the more dirigibility that provides more level and smooth.

Fig. 5 has described according to the example of the decline curve of the embodiment of the present invention.In one embodiment, decline curve can comprise the evaluated error of RMS value of line voltage and a kind of mapping between the required reactive power amount that will absorb in loop 204 or send.No matter when the evaluated error of the RMS value of line voltage drops between two successive values that provide in mapping, can be by the evaluated error of the RMS value with line voltage following and above point carry out interpolation, calculate required reactive power.

In one embodiment, although according to the formal description of curve in Fig. 5 the evaluated error of RMS value of line voltage and the mapping between required reactive power amount, can according to form or arbitrarily other mapping techniques described mapping is described.

In one embodiment, the mapping between the evaluated error of the RMS value of line voltage and required reactive power amount can be stored in decline curve, and dynamically upgrades.Can upgrade described mapping by central monitoring system or supvr.Can send the mapping of upgrading via communication system 214.In addition, the mapping between the evaluated error of the RMS value of line voltage and required reactive power amount can the operating conditions based on loop 204 come at local update.

Fig. 6 is in accordance with another embodiment of the present invention for the architecture of data acquisition, monitoring and the control of quick dynamic distributed VAR compensator.As shown in Figure 6, VAR compensator can be connected with the secondary voltage network of distribution system.

In one embodiment, VAR compensator can possess the energy source being connected with distribution system.As example, VAR compensator can provide together with photovoltaic (PV) system.In another embodiment, can provide VAR compensator as the unit element being connected with distribution system.

As described in Figure 6, VAR compensator can be configured to via communication system and central monitoring system communication.Described communication system can be wireless communication system or wired communication system.Communication system can so that VAR compensator can with distribution system in other VAR compensators or another electric adjustment equipment interact.Each independent VAR compensator be monitored and be controlled to central monitoring system can by communication system.In addition, communication system can realize the management of the VAR compensator of local position distribution on compare great region, Dui Ju central area.

In one embodiment, described communication system can be intelligent grid communication system, publicly by intelligent grid communication system, manages distribution system.The integration realization of VAR compensator and smart electric grid system VAR compensator to the monitoring of the operation of central monitoring system and health degree and report.Monitoring and report can comprise records the reactive power that VAR compensator produces.Monitoring and report can also comprise to the transmission maintenance and repair alarm of public control center.

In one embodiment, VAR compensator and intelligent grid integrated can make it possible to remotely control VAR compensator.In one example, can remotely configure VAR compensator by the order in communication system.Can in central monitoring system, watch the state of the VAR compensator of generation.

In an example embodiment, the integrated of VAR compensator and intelligent grid can be to the public electric network reliability instrument that provides, wherein central monitoring system for example can monitor consistently and provide, for the real-time status of critical parameters (voltage and VAR) and upgrade, thereby realize automatic electric power cut-off, detects and repairs the response time fast.

Fig. 7 has illustrated according to the voltage of the different operation modes of the VAR compensator of the embodiment of the present invention.As shown in Figure 7, VAR compensator can operate under two kinds of different patterns.Under the first operator scheme, the decline curve work that VAR compensator can be stored based on this locality.VAR compensator based on line voltage and decline curve can be in absorbing/send distribution system reactive power.Under the second operator scheme, by central monitoring system, control VAR compensator and operate.Central monitoring system can send order via communication system.

In one embodiment, quick dynamic distributed VAR compensator can be adjusted to the voltage in the secondary service tap on distribution loop in desired restriction.Voltage modulated can allow public by extending the life-span of secondary substation transformer along loop compensation load curve urgent and that increase.In addition, distributed VAR compensator can minimize the loss in secondary substation transformer by improving along the power factor of loop.In addition, distributed VAR compensator can reduce the voltage that for example, increase due to distributed power generation quantity (photovoltaic (PV) battery) causes and rises.The ability that reduces voltage rising can allow PV battery additional on loop.

In one embodiment, the VAR compensator of DYNAMIC DISTRIBUTION can be delivered to distribution system by leading and hysteresis reactive power fast.For example, when operating (, supporting minimum voltage or the corrected power factor) in distribution system, the reactive power in VAR compensator produces to provide smoothly cuts continuous Voltage-output.VAR compensator can be designed as and makes the harmonic wave and the minimum that produce due on the circuit that parts are selected and controlled switching causes.

The reactive power of controlling in distribution system can reduce the loss in distribution system and transmission system.In addition, control that reactive power can allow the reducing of transformer loss by voltage/VAR optimization, capacity reduces energy-conservation with peak value.Control reactive power and can allow to postpone transformer renewal and replace, thereby improved efficiency.In addition, control reactive power and increased the power factor on loop, thus the power quality impact that has alleviated other photovoltaics (PV) generating or nonlinear load.The distributed dependence helping avoid for centralized VAR compensation, centralized VAR compensation requires larger wattless component, and produces linear frequency harmonic wave.In addition, avoid having eliminated for the dependence of centralized VAR support the possibility of Single Point of Faliure.By providing VAR to support at POL, quick dynamic distributed VAR compensator uses separated VAR unit to improve the overall performance of utility network, and has reduced loss and voltage fluctuation for consumer.

Embodiments of the invention can be realized in the encapsulation that comprises the circuit of discrete electronic component, comprises logic gate or on the one chip of inheriting electronic chip, utilize the circuit of microprocessor or comprising electronic component or microprocessor.Embodiments of the invention also can be used can actuating logic computing (for example " with ", "or" and " non-") other technologies realize,, include but not limited to machinery, optics, fluid and quantum technology.In addition, embodiments of the invention can be at multi-purpose computers or in other circuit or system, are realized arbitrarily.

For example, embodiments of the invention can be implemented as computer procedures (method), computing system or manufacture article, for example computer program or computer-readable medium.Computer program can be computer system-readable and computer-readable storage medium that the computer program instructions of processing for object computer is encoded.Computer program can be also the signal that the computer program instructions by propagating on the carrier of computer system-readable and object computer being processed is encoded.Therefore, the present invention can be to realize in hardware and/or software (comprising firmware, resident software, microcode etc.).In other words, embodiments of the invention can take computing machine can with or computer-readable recording medium on the form of computer program, on described storage medium, have at the computing machine of media implementation and can use or computer readable program code, by instruction execution system or combined command executive system, use described program code.Computing machine can with or computer-readable medium can be the arbitrary medium that can comprise, store, communicate by letter, propagate or transmit the program of being used by instruction execution system, equipment or device.

For example, computing machine can with or computer-readable medium can be but be not limited to electronics, magnetic, optical, electrical magnetic, infrared or semiconductor system, unit or propagation medium.Computer-readable medium examples (non-to the greatest extent complete list) more specifically, computer-readable medium can comprise following content: electrical connection, portable computer diskette, random access memory (RAM), ROM (read-only memory) (ROM), Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory EPROM (EPROM or flash memory), optical fiber, the portable compact disk ROM (read-only memory) (CD-ROM) with one or more lead-in wires.Attention: computing machine can with or computer-readable medium can be even paper or other the suitable media of having printed program on it, for example via the scanning of paper or other media, in electronics mode, obtain program, then if desired according to suitable mode, compile, explain or process in addition, being then stored in computer memory.

For example, above reference has been described embodiments of the invention according to the block scheme of the method for the embodiment of the present invention, system and computer program and/or optional description.Function/action of mentioning in module may with carrying out in reverse order shown in arbitrary procedure figure.For example, depend on comprised function/action, in fact two modules that illustrate continuously can be carried out in fact simultaneously, or sometimes can carry out according to contrary order.

Although instructions comprises example, scope of the present invention is represented by claims.In addition, although according to the present invention that moved special-purpose language description for architectural feature and/or method, claim is not limited to above-mentioned feature or action.On the contrary, the example as the embodiment of the present invention discloses above-mentioned special characteristic and action.

Appendix 1

Claims (20)

1. for controlling a system for quick dynamic distributed reactive power, described system comprises:
Voltage sensor, for the instantaneous value of the line voltage of sensing utility network;
The reactive power compensator being connected with described utility network; And
Controller, is configured to operate described reactive power compensator to provide VAR to support to utility network, and described controller is configured to:
Based on root-mean-square error value and decline curve, determine the reactive power amount that will offer utility network, the root-mean-square value of the instantaneous value that wherein said root-mean-square error value is line voltage and poor with reference between rms voltage; And
Based on determined amount, according at least one operates the switch in reactive power compensator below: capacitor is connected with utility network; Capacitor and utility network are disconnected; And setting is for the firing angle of variometer.
2. system according to claim 1, wherein said decline curve is the mapping between root-mean-square error value and the reactive power amount that will offer utility network.
3. system according to claim 1, wherein said decline curve is stored on controller.
4. system according to claim 1, wherein said decline curve is stored in central monitoring system.
5. system according to claim 4, wherein said controller is configured to obtain decline curve and decline curve upgrades from central monitoring system.
6. system according to claim 1, wherein said controller is also configured to use intercommunication system and central monitoring system communication.
7. system according to claim 6, wherein said intercommunication system is mesh network.
8. system according to claim 1, wherein said reactive power compensator comprises that the metal oxide varistor (MOV) being connected in parallel is to protect reactive power compensator not affected by excessive instantaneous voltage.
9. control a method for reactive power, described method comprises:
Receive the transient measurement value of the line voltage of utility network;
Based on root-mean-square error value and decline curve, determine the instantaneous reactive power amount that offers utility network of wanting, the root-mean-square value of the instantaneous value that wherein said root-mean-square error value is line voltage and poor with reference between rms voltage; And
Based on determined amount, according at least one operates the switch in reactive power compensator below: capacitor is connected with utility network; Capacitor and utility network are disconnected; And setting is for the firing angle of variometer; Wherein said reactive power compensator may be operably coupled to utility network.
10. method according to claim 9, wherein said decline curve is the mapping between root-mean-square error value and the reactive power amount that will offer utility network.
11. methods according to claim 9, wherein said decline curve is stored on controller, and wherein said controller is configured to operate the switch of described reactive power compensator.
12. methods according to claim 9, wherein said decline curve is stored in central monitoring system.
13. methods according to claim 12, wherein said controller is also configured to obtain decline curve and decline curve renewal from central monitoring system.
14. methods according to claim 12, wherein said controller is configured to use intercommunication system and central monitoring system communication.
15. methods according to claim 14, wherein said intercommunication system is mesh network.
16. 1 kinds for controlling the system of reactive power, and described system comprises:
Utility network; And
At least one quick dynamic distributed VAR compensator, comprising:
Voltage sensor, for the instantaneous value of the line voltage of sensing utility network;
Reactive power compensator; And
Controller, is configured to operate described reactive power compensator to provide VAR to support to utility network, and described controller is configured to:
Based on root-mean-square error value and decline curve, determine the reactive power amount that will offer utility network, the root-mean-square value of the instantaneous value that wherein said root-mean-square error value is line voltage and poor with reference between rms voltage; And
Based on determined amount, according at least one operates the switch in reactive power compensator below: capacitor is connected with utility network; Capacitor and utility network are disconnected; And setting is for the firing angle of variometer.
17. systems according to claim 16, wherein said utility network is intelligent grid.
18. systems according to claim 16, wherein said quick dynamic distributed VAR compensator is connected with the secondary voltage network of utility network.
19. systems according to claim 16, wherein said controller is configured to use intercommunication system and central monitoring system communication.
20. systems according to claim 19, wherein said intercommunication system is distributed or netted communication protocol.
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