CN103345275A - Single-shaft batch counteractive flywheel moment optimal distribution method based on angular momentum margin - Google Patents

Single-shaft batch counteractive flywheel moment optimal distribution method based on angular momentum margin Download PDF

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CN103345275A
CN103345275A CN 201310226638 CN201310226638A CN103345275A CN 103345275 A CN103345275 A CN 103345275A CN 201310226638 CN201310226638 CN 201310226638 CN 201310226638 A CN201310226638 A CN 201310226638A CN 103345275 A CN103345275 A CN 103345275A
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flywheel
angular momentum
margin
torque
moment
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CN103345275B (en )
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孙兆伟
张众正
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哈尔滨工业大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a single-shaft batch counteractive flywheel moment optimal distribution method based on an angular momentum margin, and belongs to the field of control distribution. The multi-objective optimization distribution method based on the angular momentum margin is designed for solving the problem that due to the fact that a traditional moment distribution method takes no account of self angular momentum of flywheels, the flywheels are saturated and cannot complete tasks. A weight coefficient optimization method is used, system energy consumption and output margins of the flywheels are integrally considered, a suitable weight coefficient is given to each item according to energy consumption and the output margin of each flywheel, the weight coefficients are adjusted in the process of moment distribution, therefore, energy consumption is reduced, and saturation of the flywheels is avoided. The single-shaft batch counteractive flywheel moment optimal distribution method based on the angular momentum margin is beneficial to improving flywheel system output capacity, can save fuel to a certain extent, and can be widely used for the field of rapid spacecraft attitude maneuver.

Description

基于角动量裕度的单轴批量反作用飞轮力矩优化分配方法 Optimization allocation method based on single batch reaction angular momentum flywheel torque margin

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种飞轮的力矩分配方法,特别涉及一种基于角动量裕度的单轴反作用飞轮的力矩优化方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to a method of flywheel torque distribution, particularly to a method for optimizing torque based on single flywheel angular momentum reaction margin. 属于控制分配领域。 It belongs to the control area of ​​distribution.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 随着我国航天事业的飞速发展,航天器快速姿态机动及其可靠性问题成为目前主要的研究内容。 [0002] With the rapid development of China's aerospace industry, spacecraft attitude maneuver quickly and reliability issues become the main contents. 于此同时,容错性对于军事领域及空间应用起着至关重要的作用,对于这些环境极端,条件恶劣的应用场合,航天器的可靠性是一个不容忽视的关键性问题。 At the same time, fault tolerance for military applications and space applications play a crucial role in these harsh environmental extremes, conditions of application, the reliability of spacecraft is a critical issue can not be ignored. 考虑到航天器应用周期较长,因此航天器上经常配置只消耗电能的反作用飞轮作为姿态控制系统的执行机构。 Considering the long period spacecraft applications, it is often arranged as a reaction flywheel attitude control system actuators only consume power on the spacecraft. 同时又为了提高航天器的可靠性及其输出能力,现常采用冗余配置的反作用飞轮系统,如何将期望的控制指令分配到冗余的、力矩与角动量受限的各个反作用飞轮上去是设计航天器控制分配算法时所需要考虑的关键问题之一。 While its output capacity in order to improve the reliability of the spacecraft, is often used reaction flywheel system redundant configuration, how to assign a desired control command to the redundant, torque and angular momentum of the flywheel is limited up each reaction is designed one of the key problems with the spacecraft control allocation algorithm to consider.

[0003] 现常用的能量优化分配方法能够满足航天器的姿态控制要求,但它也存在着一定的缺点:最重要的一点则是利用能量优化分配方法得到的解并不一定在反作用飞轮可执行的范围内,可能会导致飞轮出现力矩饱和的现象,从而导致机动任务无法执行。 [0003] Optimization of the energy distribution is now commonly used method can meet the requirements of spacecraft attitude control, but it also has certain drawbacks: the most important point is to use the energy distribution method of the optimal solution is not necessarily obtained in the reaction flywheel executable within the range may cause flywheel torque saturation phenomenon occurs, resulting in motor tasks can not be performed.

[0004] 另外一种常用的方法为二次规划法,二次规划方法能够很好地处理受限条件下的复杂控制分配问题,且有较强的物理意义。 [0004] Another commonly used method for quadratic programming, quadratic programming method works well with complex control allocation under the limited conditions, and there is a strong physical meaning. 考虑到执行机构的不同特性,当执行机构偏转速率限制不一致情况下该方法更贴近工程实际。 Taking into account the different characteristics of the actuator, when the actuator is inconsistent to limit the yaw rate closer to the case of this method actually works. 但二次规划方法在处理控制分配问题的同时,将控制分配问题转化为非线性规划问题,由于传统解法复杂、且效率不高,因此限制了二次规划法的使用。 However quadratic programming process while controlling the allocation, the allocation control problem into a linear programming problem, since the conventional solution is complicated, and efficiency is not high, thus limiting the use of the secondary programming method.

发明内容· SUMMARY ·

[0005] 为了克服传统力矩分配方法不考虑飞轮自身角动量而可能导致飞轮力矩饱和以致无法完成任务的问题,也为了克服二次规划方法解法复杂且效率不高的问题,本发明提出了一种基于角动量裕度的单轴批量反作用飞轮力矩优化分配方法。 [0005] In order to overcome the torque distribution method does not consider itself a flywheel angular momentum flywheel torque may lead to saturation problems that can not complete the task, and to overcome the Quadratic Programming Solution complicated and inefficient problems, the present invention provides a uniaxial based batch reaction angular momentum flywheel torque margin allocation method optimized.

[0006] 所述基于角动量裕度的单轴批量反作用飞轮力矩优化分配方法包括以下步骤: [0006] The flywheel torque based on single batch reaction angular momentum margin optimal allocation method comprising the steps of:

[0007] 步骤一:建立单轴批量反作用飞轮力矩分配的数学模型。 [0007] Step one: a mathematical model of the uniaxial batch reaction flywheel torque distribution. 假设飞行器某个轴上装 Suppose a shaft installed aircraft

有η个反作用飞轮,则该飞轮组的安装矩阵能写为/ = μ 1...ΐχ|,系统对该轴的期望力 There η a reaction flywheel, the flywheel is mounted matrix group can be written as / = μ 1 ... ΐχ |, the system desired axial force

矩表示为U。 Moments expressed as U. ,每个飞轮分配到的指令力矩记为《w = [Wm1 Uw2...仏,,^1,则期望力矩与指 , The instruction assigned to each flywheel torque referred to as "w = [Wm1 Uw2 ... Fo ^ ,, 1, the desired torque and means

令力矩之间应满足Uc=ItUw,同时该式也是求导优化问题的约束条件。 Between the torque command should meet Uc = ItUw, while the formula is Constrained Optimization Problems guide.

[0008] 步骤二:推导能量优化分配方法。 [0008] Step Two: deriving energy optimization allocation method. 由于飞轮系的能量消耗与每个反作用飞轮的输 Since the energy consumption of each flywheel system input Reaction Wheel

出力矩息息相关,因此,利用飞轮力矩向量构造如下能量指标函数,则能量优化分配策略能表示成如下优化问题:[0009] Is closely related to the output torque, therefore, flywheel torque vector is constructed as follows using the index function of energy, the energy allocation algorithms for optimization problem can be expressed as follows: [0009]

Figure CN103345275AD00051

[0010] 采用拉格朗日乘子法构造拉格朗日函数为 [0010] The Lagrangian constructor method of Lagrange multipliers as functor

Figure CN103345275AD00052

将拉格朗日 The Lagrange

函数分别对Uw和λ求偏导能得出下式, Uw function and λ, respectively the partial derivative of the formula can be drawn,

[0011] [0011]

Figure CN103345275AD00053

[0012] 整理后得到 [0012] been finishing

Figure CN103345275AD00054

[0013] 联立能得到单轴批量反作用飞轮力矩优化分配策略,即: [0013] Simultaneous to get uniaxial batch reaction flywheel torque distribution optimization strategies, namely:

[0014] [0014]

Figure CN103345275AD00055

[0015] 步骤三:结合角动量裕度的概念,推导出批量优化分配方法。 [0015] Step Three: Concept angular momentum binding margin derived batch allocation method optimized. 假设飞轮系的角动 Suppose the angular momentum flywheel system

量初值为Hwci= [HwcilHwci2-HffJ,则定义飞轮组的角动量裕度向量为 The amount of the initial value Hwci = [HwcilHwci2-HffJ, defines a flywheel angular momentum vector margin is set

Figure CN103345275AD00056

其中Hwm为飞轮能达到的最大角动量,Hw= [HwlHw^Hwn]为飞轮组的输出角动量,其中: Wherein Hwm flywheel maximum achievable angular momentum, Hw = [HwlHw ^ Hwn] to output angular momentum wheel group, wherein:

Figure CN103345275AD00057

对于飞行器系统,由于其姿态变化速度较慢,控制周期较短的特点,能将该 For aircraft systems, due to the slow rate of change in its posture, the shorter control cycle characteristics, to the

式写为:Hwi=Uwi.At, At为飞行器的系统控制周期,因此Hw=Uw At。 Formula written as: Hwi = Uwi.At, At cycle control system of the aircraft, and therefore Hw = Uw At.

[0016] 然后将角动量裕度指标与能量指标相结合,利用权系数优化方法,提出批量优化 [0016] The angular momentum and energy margin index index combining weights using optimization methods presented QUANTITY

指标: index:

Figure CN103345275AD00058

,其中1=(^( P η P 12— P ln)为各个飞轮的能量权系 , Where 1 = (^ (P η P 12- P ln) of each flywheel energy weight based

数,_2_^=diag(p 21 P 22...P2n)为各个飞轮的角动量裕度权系数。 Number, _2 _ ^ = diag (p 21 P 22 ... P2n) angular momentum margin weights for each flywheel.

[0017] 因此,批量优化分配方法能表示为如下优化问题: [0017] Thus, batch optimization allocation optimization problem can be expressed as follows:

[0018] [0018]

Figure CN103345275AD00059

[0019] 则拉格朗日函数为H=J+ λ (ItUw-Uc),将各个量的具体表达式代入拉格朗日函数得到 [0019] Lagrangian function is H = J + λ (ItUw-Uc), the respective amount of the particular expression into Lagrangian give

[0020] [0020]

Figure CN103345275AD000510

[0021] [0021]

Figure CN103345275AD00061

[0025] 其中Hws=IHwm-Hwtl,将拉格朗日函数分别对Uw和λ求偏导得到: [0025] wherein Hws = IHwm-Hwtl, the Lagrangian and λ, respectively Uw partial derivative obtained:

Figure CN103345275AD00062

[0027]整理后得到:" [0027] After finishing obtained: "

Figure CN103345275AD00063

[0028] 将(I)式展开能得到: [0028] The formula (I) can be expanded to give:

Figure CN103345275AD00064

[0031] 将该式代入(2)式中得到 [0031] is substituted into the formula (2) obtained in

Figure CN103345275AD00065

[0034] 将λ代入(3)式中能得到批量优化分配方法的解析表达式: [0034] The λ into (3) can be obtained in a batch allocation method optimized analytical expression:

[0035] [0035]

Figure CN103345275AD00066

[0037] 上式中,At为飞行器的系统控制周期。 [0037] In the above formula, At is a system for an aircraft control cycle. [0038] 步骤四:权系数的选取;对于能量权系数見i,对于第i个飞轮,其能量权系数选取为上一时刻该飞轮的输出力矩与上一时刻所有飞轮的输出力矩的均值的比,即 [0038] The four steps of: selecting weight coefficients; for energy weights see i, for the i th flywheel energy weighting coefficient select output torque of the moment of the flywheel at time t and the mean output torque of all the flywheel than that

Figure CN103345275AD00071

,而对于初始时刻I1选取为单位对角阵,即iiajzdiagai...f 二I , But it is selected for the initial time units I1 diagonal, i.e., two I iiajzdiagai ... f

Dnxn ;对于角动量裕度权系数对于第i个飞轮,其角动量裕度权系数选取为上一时刻该飞轮的角动量裕度与上一时所有飞轮的角动量裕度的均值的比,即 Dnxn; angular momentum margin weighting coefficient for the i-th flywheel angular momentum margin weighting coefficient selected angular momentum margin of the flywheel and the upper one time the mean ratio of the moment all the flywheel momentum margin angle, i.e.,

Figure CN103345275AD00072

而对■于補台时刻h选取为单位对■角阵,BP^(t0)=diag(ll-1)ηΧη° ■ supplemented station while the selected units of time h ■ diagonal, BP ^ (t0) = diag (ll-1) ηΧη °

[0039] 该方法利用权系数优化方法,综合考虑系统能量消耗与各飞轮输出裕度,根据能量消耗与每个飞轮的输出裕度而给每一项赋予合适的权系数,在力矩分配的过程中调节权系数,以达到减少能量消耗的同时,防止飞轮饱和,既有利于提高飞轮系输出能力又能一定程度上节省燃料。 [0039] The method using the weight coefficient optimization method, considering the system margin and output the energy consumption of each flywheel energy consumption based on the output margin of each flywheel and suitable for each given a weight coefficient, the torque distribution process in adjusting the weighting coefficients, in order to achieve while reducing energy consumption, to prevent saturation of the flywheel, the flywheel system helps improve the output capability while saving the fuel to a certain extent.

具体实施方式: detailed description:

[0040] 1.建立单轴批量反作用飞轮力矩分配的数学模型。 [0040] 1. The mathematical model of uniaxial batch reaction flywheel torque distribution. 假设飞行器某个轴上装有η个反作用飞轮,则该飞轮组的安装矩阵能写为J = [l I…Iti,系统对该轴的期望力矩表 Η is assumed that the aircraft is equipped with a counter shaft of a flywheel, the flywheel is mounted matrix can be written as a group J = [l I ... Iti, the system table of the desired torque shaft

示为U。 Shown as U. ,每个飞轮分配到的指令力矩记为》w = [«wl Uw2...«WB;L,则期望力矩与指令力矩之间应满足Uc=ItUw,同时该式也是求导优化问题的约束条件。 , The instruction assigned to each flywheel torque referred to as "w = [« wl Uw2 ... «WB; L, it is desirable to comply Uc = ItUw between the torque and the torque command, while the derivative of formula is constrained optimization problem condition.

[0041] 2.推导能量优化分配方法。 [0041] 2. Derive energy optimization allocation method. 由于飞轮系的能量消耗与每个反作用飞轮的输出力矩息息相关,因此,利用飞轮力矩向量构造如下能量指标函数α=|«>.,则能量优化分配策略能表示成如下优化问题: Since the energy consumption of the flywheel system is closely related to the output torque of the flywheel of each reaction, therefore, flywheel torque utilizing an energy vector constructed as follows merit function α = | «>, the energy allocation algorithms for optimization problem can be expressed as follows:

[0042] [0042]

Figure CN103345275AD00073

[0043] 采用拉格朗日乘子法构造拉格朗日函数为丑〖馬.+1(,1,-")将拉格朗日函数分别对Uw和λ求偏导能得出下式, [0043] Lagrange multiplier Lagrangian constructor method is ugly functor 〖MA + 1 (1 - "). The Lagrangian Uw and λ, respectively the partial derivative can be obtained by the following formula ,

[0044] [0044]

Figure CN103345275AD00074

[0045] 整理后得到: [0045] Finishing get:

Figure CN103345275AD00081

[0046] 联立能得到单轴批量反作用飞轮力矩优化分配策略,即: [0046] Simultaneous to get uniaxial batch reaction flywheel torque distribution optimization strategies, namely:

Figure CN103345275AD00082

[0048] 3.结合角动量裕度的概念,推导出批量优化分配方法。 [0048] 3. The concept of angular momentum binding margin derived batch allocation method optimized. 假设飞轮系的角动量 Suppose angular momentum wheel system

初值为 The initial value

Figure CN103345275AD00083

则定义飞轮组的角动量裕度向量为 Defines a flywheel angular momentum vector margin is set

Figure CN103345275AD00084

其中Hwm为飞轮能达到的最大角动量,Hw= [HwlHw^Hwn]为飞轮组的输出角动量,其中:H 对于飞行器系统,由于其姿态变化速度较慢,控制周期较短的特点,能将该 Wherein Hwm flywheel maximum achievable angular momentum, Hw = [HwlHw ^ Hwn] to output angular momentum wheel group, wherein: H for the aircraft systems, due to its slow rate of change in the posture control shorter cycle characteristics, can that

式写为=Hwi=Uwi.At,At为飞行器的系统控制周期。 The system control cycle is a write type = Hwi = Uwi.At, At is an aircraft.

[0049] 然后将角动量裕度指标与能量指标相结合,利用权系数优化方法,提出批量优化 [0049] The angular momentum and energy margin index index combining weights using optimization methods presented QUANTITY

指标: 其中I1=Cliag (P n PP ln)为各个飞轮的能量权系 Index: where I1 = Cliag (P n PP ln) of each flywheel energy weight based

number

Figure CN103345275AD00085

为各个飞轮的角动量裕度权系数。 Momentum margin angle of each weighting coefficient to the flywheel.

[0050] 因此,批量优化分配方法能表示为如下优化问题: [0050] Thus, batch optimization allocation optimization problem can be expressed as follows:

[0052] 则拉格朗日函数为 [0052] The function of the Lagrangian

Figure CN103345275AD00086

将各个量的具体表达式代入拉格朗日函数得到 The specific amount of the individual Lagrangian resulting expression into

Figure CN103345275AD00087

[0058] 其中Hws=IHwm-Hwtl,将拉格朗日函数分别对Uw和λ求偏导得到: [0058] wherein Hws = IHwm-Hwtl, the Lagrangian and λ, respectively Uw partial derivative obtained:

Figure CN103345275AD00091

[0060]整理后得到 [0060] been finishing

Figure CN103345275AD00092

[0061] 将(4)式展开能得到: [0061] The equation (4) can be expanded to give:

Figure CN103345275AD00093

[0064] 将该式代入(5)式中得到 [0064] is substituted into the formula (5) obtained in

Figure CN103345275AD00094

[0067] 将λ代入(6)式中能得到批量优化分配方法的解析表达式: [0067] The λ into (6) can be obtained in a batch allocation method optimized analytical expression:

[0068] [0068]

Figure CN103345275AD00095

[0070] Δ t取系统控制周期。 [0070] Δ t fetch cycle control system.

[0071] 4.权系数的选取;对于能量权系数見i,对于第i个飞轮,其能量权系数选取为上一时刻该飞轮的输出力矩与上一时刻所有飞轮的输出力矩的均值的比,即 [0071] 4. Select weights; see energy weights for i, for the i th flywheel energy weighting coefficient select output torque of the flywheel on a time and a time average of the output torque of the flywheel than all , which is

Figure CN103345275AD00096

'而对于初始时刻I1选取为单位对角阵,即iJtc^diagaL...1=1 'Is selected for the initial time units I1 diagonal, i.e. iJtc ^ diagaL ... 1 = 1

Dnxn ;对于角动量裕度权系数对于第i个飞轮,其角动量裕度权系数选取为上一时刻该飞轮的角动量裕度与上一时所有飞轮的角动量裕度的均值的比,即 Dnxn; angular momentum margin weighting coefficient for the i-th flywheel angular momentum margin weighting coefficient selected angular momentum margin of the flywheel and the upper one time the mean ratio of the moment all the flywheel momentum margin angle, i.e.,

Figure CN103345275AD00101

而对于初始时刻I2选取为单位对角阵,即h (t0) =diag (II… [0072] 至此,所有变量均为已知,能对批量飞轮进行力矩分配。 For the initial time is selected in units of diagonal I2, i.e. h (t0) = diag (II ... [0072] At this point, all variables are known, the torque distribution can be performed on a batch flywheel.

Claims (1)

  1. 1.一种基于角动量裕度的单轴批量反作用飞轮力矩优化分配方法,其特征在于: 所述优化分配方法包括以下几个步骤: 步骤一:建立单轴批量反作用飞轮力矩分配的数学模型;飞行器某个轴上装有η个反作用飞轮,则该飞轮组的安装矩阵写 1. Based on the margin of angular momentum flywheel torque reaction batch uniaxial optimal allocation method, wherein: the optimal allocation method comprising the following steps: Step 1: Create a uniaxial batch reaction mathematical model of flywheel torque distribution; a shaft with a η aircraft reaction flywheel, the flywheel is mounted matrix set write
    Figure CN103345275AC00021
    飞轮组对该轴的期望力矩表示为u。 Group represents the desired torque to the flywheel axis is u. ,每个飞轮分配到的指令力矩记为H1, uw2..."K.,,Hi,期望力矩与指令力矩之间应满足Ue=I1Uw ;步骤二:利用飞轮力矩向量构造如下能量指标函数 ., Assigned to command each flywheel torque referred to as H1, uw2 ... "K ,, Hi, between the desired torque and the command torque must satisfy Ue = I1Uw; Step 2: Using vector constructor flywheel torque as a function of energy index
    Figure CN103345275AC00022
    ,则能量优化问题: , The energy optimization problem:
    Figure CN103345275AC00023
    采用拉格朗日乘子法构造拉格朗日函数为 Lagrangian constructor method using the Lagrange multiplier of functor
    Figure CN103345275AC00024
    利用该函数得到单轴批量反作用飞轮指令力矩优化分配策略,即: This function is obtained by using a uniaxial batch reaction flywheel torque command allocation algorithms, namely:
    Figure CN103345275AC00025
    步骤三:设飞轮系的角动量初值为 Step Three: flywheel angular momentum system provided initial value
    Figure CN103345275AC00026
    则定义飞轮组 It defines flywheel group
    Figure CN103345275AC00027
    的角动量裕度向量为碰=wm HW°21,其中Hwm为飞轮能达到的最大角动量, The angular momentum vector is avoidance margin = wm HW ° 21, wherein Hwm flywheel maximum achievable angular momentum,
    Figure CN103345275AC00028
    为飞轮组的输出角动量,其中: An output angular momentum wheel group, wherein:
    Figure CN103345275AC00029
    ,该式简写为: The abbreviated formula:
    Figure CN103345275AC000210
    ,Λ t为飞行器的系统控制周期; 将角动量裕度指标与能量指标相结合,利用权系数优化方法,提出批量优化指标:,其中A=治呢(Ai Pi2...为各个飞轮的能量权系数,P2 =diag(p21 P22…P2n)为各个飞轮的角动量裕度权系数; 因此,批量优化分配方法表示为如下优化问题: , Λ t is the period of the aircraft control system; combining the angular momentum and energy margin index index, a method using the weight coefficient optimization, batch proposed optimization index: where A = treatment it (Ai Pi2 ... for each energy of the flywheel weights, P2 = diag (p21 P22 ... P2n) margin of angular momentum flywheel respective weighting coefficient; therefore, batch optimization allocation optimization problem expressed as follows:
    Figure CN103345275AC000211
    ,采用到拉格朗日乘子法,得到拉格朗日函数 , Using the method of Lagrange multipliers, to give Lagrangian
    Figure CN103345275AC000212
    将各个量的具体表达式代入拉格朗日函数,其中Hws=IHwm-Hwtl,得到批量优化分配方法的解析表达式: The amount of each specific expression into Lagrangian function where Hws = IHwm-Hwtl, allocation method optimized to obtain bulk analytical expression:
    Figure CN103345275AC00031
    步骤四:权系数的选取;对于能量权系数Α,对于第i个飞轮,其能量权系数选取为上一时刻该飞轮的输出力矩与上一时刻所有飞轮的输出力矩的均值的比, Step Four: selecting weight coefficients; for energy weights [alpha], for the i th flywheel energy weights on a selected output torque of the flywheel and the moment in time than the output torque of a flywheel mean all,
    Figure CN103345275AC00032
    '而对于初始时刻选取为单位对角阵,即 'Select the time units for the initial diagonal matrix, i.e.,
    Figure CN103345275AC00033
    对于角动量裕度权系数β,对于第i个飞轮,其角动量裕度权系数选取为上一时刻该飞轮的角动量裕度与上一时所有飞轮的角动量裕度的均值的比,即 For angular momentum margin weights beta], for the i th flywheel angular momentum margin weighting coefficient selected mean and momentum margin the moment all the flywheel angle on a moment angular momentum margin of the flywheel and the upper, i.e.,
    Figure CN103345275AC00034
    ; '而对于初始时刻选取为单位对角阵,即 ; 'Select the initial time units diagonal matrix, i.e.,
    Figure CN103345275AC00035
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