CN103340019A - Tunable fusion blanket for load following and tritium production - Google Patents

Tunable fusion blanket for load following and tritium production Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103340019A
CN103340019A CN2012800065274A CN201280006527A CN103340019A CN 103340019 A CN103340019 A CN 103340019A CN 2012800065274 A CN2012800065274 A CN 2012800065274A CN 201280006527 A CN201280006527 A CN 201280006527A CN 103340019 A CN103340019 A CN 103340019A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
fusion
chamber
section
renewing zone
wall
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Pending
Application number
CN2012800065274A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
J·F·拉特科韦斯基
K·J·克莱默
J·A·德穆茨
K·莫里斯
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Lawrence Livermore National Security LLC
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Lawrence Livermore National Security LLC
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Filing date
Publication date
Priority claimed from US201161437508P external-priority
Priority claimed from PCT/US2011/059814 external-priority patent/WO2012064767A1/en
Application filed by Lawrence Livermore National Security LLC filed Critical Lawrence Livermore National Security LLC
Publication of CN103340019A publication Critical patent/CN103340019A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G21NUCLEAR PHYSICS; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
    • G21BFUSION REACTORS
    • G21B1/00Thermonuclear fusion reactors
    • G21B1/11Details
    • G21B1/13First wall; Blanket; Divertor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E30/00Energy generation of nuclear origin
    • Y02E30/10Nuclear fusion reactors

Abstract

A fusion chamber for an inertial confinement fusion power plant is disclosed. The chamber includes regions for the flow of coolant around the exterior of the chamber, together with compartments of high temperature refractory metal alloys such as tungsten and vanadium which contain tin or other materials having the desired neutron interaction properties. The tin can be inserted and removed to increase or decrease the thermal power output and increase or decrease the corresponding tritium breeding ratio.

Description

The adjustable fusion renewing zone that is used for the preparation of Steam Generator in Load Follow and tritium
Be the research subsidized in federal government or the rights statement of exploitation about the present invention
U.S. government is according to the contract number No.DE-AC52-07NA27344 about Lao Lunsilifu mole National Laboratory of USDOE and Lao Lunsilifu mole national security Co., Ltd, and U.S. government enjoys rights to the present invention.
Laterally quoting of related application
This U.S. Patent application relates to and requires to enjoy U.S. Provisional Patent Application, the U. S. application No.61/437 of more morning of the submission of submitting to 28 days commonly assigned January in 2011 that is entitled as " Tunable Fusion Blanket Offering the Ability to Produce Extra Tritium and Load Follow ", the priority that is entitled as " Inertial Confinement Fusion Chamber " PCT patent application serial numbers No.US2011/059814 that on November 8th, 508 and 2011 submitted to.These two applications are hereby incorporated by.
Background technology
The present invention relates to use fusion reaction to make electric energy.Especially, the present invention relates to the fusion power station of inertia confinement, wherein allow to continue to regulate in real time fusion energy and tritium productivity ratio.
Country's igniter (NIF) is as the maximum and laser system of energy at most in the world, can operate in the Lao Lunsilifu mole National Laboratory (LLNL) of the sharp good fortune mole of California now.A target of NIF running is to prove the fusion igniting in the laboratory for the first time.Calculate initial experiment to produce the output of 20MJ grade according to the self propagation fusion combustion wave of having lighted a fire.The feasible output that can obtain at last up to 150-200MJ of the ability of device.NIF is designed to study instrument, wherein carries out single " shooting " in the target that contains deuterium-tritium in the research.In the article of 2011 the 60th volumes of fusion science and technology 11-16 page or leaf and citing document wherein, can find description to NIF people such as Moses.
Has the demand of quick growth for energy, especially for clean energy resource.At LLNL, the engineering that is called laser inertia confinement fusion energy (often is called: LIFE) operate and be intended to will introduce America's economy based on the power station of fusion before the year two thousand thirty, and take to prepare commercial power plant form before this herein.The LIFE technology provides a kind of approach to the development of global carbon-free power supply.The carbon-free energy of cleaning will be provided with safety and continuable mode, and not have the risk of nuclear proliferation.
About the challenge of LIFE, as for generation of any technology of the electric power that will be dispensed to a large amount of consumers, be need to distinguish in different time, the electric power amount that for example provides in the different dates.The consumer wishes to have electric power highly reliably, requires the power station to produce more electric power, for example is used for being used for air-conditioning during compare with 1 year other times hot month or date.The public utilities that the result provides this electric power must increase or reduce the electric power amount that their equipment is produced.Thereby, provide mechanism about one of challenge of fusion energy, can provide reliable, long-life fusion chamber by means of it, in the fusion chamber, fusion reaction takes place, yet it can provide more or less heat at the different time that produces electric power.
In the techniques described herein, the fusion power station is equipped with the fusion chamber, and per second repeatedly will comprise the capsule of the fuel of deuterium and tritium to be introduced wherein.Along with the center that is contained in each fuel capsule arrival chamber in the hole (" target "), laser group is lighted target, and heating and compressed fuel are to form fusion reaction.Catch the heat that fusion reaction produces by coolant circulating around in the fusion chamber.Subsequently, this heat for generation of.The required aspect of power station operation is to produce tritium to substitute the part of burning in last target.
We realize that the method for the structure of fusion chamber has adopted the branch section tubular design of first wall, as more detailed described in above-mentioned commonly assigned patent application of quoting " Inertial Confinement Fusion Chamber ".The fusion chamber that this design provides has effective thermal coupling, lower mechanical stress and higher strength-weight ratio.The modular method of fusion chamber also will make itself and optical system break away from, and allow to remove rapidly and replace renewing zone and first wall module, be connected and only need to form with the fracture pipeline, rather than reconfigure light path accurately.Use cycles through the liquid lithium of the various piece of fusion chamber, and cooling fusion chamber.
The present invention is by filling and empty the zone in the fusion renewing zone, and provides the additional flexibility of regulating tritium breeding ratio and thermal power to the operator in fusion power station.These are regulated and allow fusion power station Steam Generator in Load Follow, and allow to regulate the fusion renewing zone and be delivered to transmission line in real time with thermal power and corresponding electric power with the difference amount, and the output of control tritium.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 shows the fusion chamber and divides the section design;
Fig. 2 is the perspective view of half one of a section of fusion chamber;
Fig. 3 is the viewgraph of cross-section of a section of the fusion chamber shown in Fig. 2; And
Fig. 4 is another viewgraph of cross-section of a section of the fusion chamber shown in Fig. 2, shows be used to the additional compartment that provides the control of power output and tritium propagation.
Embodiment
Fig. 1 is the figure that the master-plan that can be used for implementing fusion of the present invention chamber 20 is shown.This chamber 20 will be in as common unsettled U.S. Patent application that submit to, that be entitled as " Inertial Confinement Fusion Power Plant Which Decouples Life-Limited Components From Plant Availability " on November 8th, 2011, sequence number PCT US2011/059820, the content of described document is hereby incorporated by.
As shown in fig. 1, the fusion chamber comprises a plurality of identical sections 100.Each section 100 can be manufacturer's manufacturing and use conventional transporting equipment to be transported to the place, power station.In the on-site maintenance device described in the common pending application of above-mentioned reference, modularization chamber section is installed in the usual support frames.Chamber and framework that transportation assembling is subsequently finished are used for being installed in the vacuum tank that surrounds the fusion chamber.The installation of fusion chamber only needs and will cool off each 1/4th section that inlet tube and outlet are connected to the fusion chamber, and it is taken over independently.
Fig. 2 is the perspective view of half section 100 of fusion chamber 10.As shown in the figure, section has first wall, and it comprises the pipe 110 that be arranged in parallel, and it covers substructure, and the lithium cooling agent circulates therein.Also show the beam hole opening 120 in the section.At first lithium is delivered in the chamber, its with coolant feed to whole fusion chamber 1/4th.At first cooling agent is delivered to the first wall pipeline, wherein it has experienced maximum heat flux.After leaving the first wall pipe, the lithium circulation is entered renewing zone entrance 130.The cooling agent that leaves the renewing zone also enters by port one 40.Four 1/4th sections of whole fusion chamber pipeline independently connect.
In order to allow laser beam to arrive center, fusion chamber, 48 openings 120 of total and about 5% solid angle are provided.At the beam port place, the first wall pipe is radially outwards carried, and they are wrapped in the back side of renewing zone subsequently.Top and bottom in the fusion chamber provide additional opening, are used for joining with target injecting systems and chip cleaning/vacuum pumping/target acquisition system respectively.
Fig. 3 is the cross section by the mid point of common section 100, and it is the section that does not comprise feature of the present invention.The degree of the adjusting of breeding according to the preparation of required electric power and tritium, only some sections of fusion chamber can comprise feature of the present invention.On the other hand, by in all sections of chamber, comprising feature of the present invention, can realize greater flexibility, a this section has been shown among Fig. 4 below.
Figure 3 illustrates first wall pipeline 110, and substructure 150.The liquid lithium cooling agent enters pipeline 110 by chamber 160, and described chamber 160 is coupled to all pipelines of section 100.After liquid lithium is by pipeline 110, collect liquid lithium at the similar chamber (not shown) on the opposite side of section.In case lithium leaves first wall pipeline 110, it can recirculation enter substructure 150, is used for additionally heats coolant.In an alternate embodiment, all lithiums of recirculation, this causes section 100 needs cooling circuit only.If desired, first wall pipeline 110 and substructure 150 pipeline independently are connected, to satisfy different cooling requirements and/or to allow to use alternative cooling agent.
To the Cooling Design of substructure 150 is feasible the coldest cooling agent is delivered to structural material.This realizes that by using " skin cooling " wherein cooling agent enters the renewing zone from the top, and to flow downward by less cooling duct at a high speed.When cooling agent arrives the bottom of renewing zone, turn to, and upwards flow through body region 170 with slower speed subsequently.Low temperature in the skin area and high speed provide the most effective cooling.Introduce the renewing zone cooling agent by port one 30, and extract out from similar port one 40.
Described in more detail in the patent application of quoting as this paper, the cooling agent that enters 470 ℃ first wall pipe will leave first wall, and enter about 510 ℃ substructure (renewing zone).Cooling agent arrives about 550 ℃ in the bottom of renewing zone.Adopt naked steel, cooling agent is heated to 575 ℃ outlet temperature at the top of renewing zone.By using non-structural insulation board, can realize higher temperature.For example, tungsten and liquid lithium compatibility are to realize being higher than 1300 ℃.Naked steel is used in our design, and provides that to leave temperature be 575 ℃ lithium.Yet by suitably selecting material, following fusion chamber design will allow even higher temperature.
According to ASME pipeline standard design fusion chamber.Especially, the fusion chamber be designed to have given material final tension intensity 1/3rd, 2/3rds of its yield strength, 2/3rds of its creep rupture strength, and per 1000 hours 0.01% creep ratio.In this assessment, use the attribute that depends on temperature.
The invention provides a kind of fusion chamber, by filling or drain the zone in the fusion renewing zone, its operator to the power station provides the flexibility of regulating the tritium rate of increase and thermal power.When the additional tritium of needs preparations, for example with overcome by be lower than expection productivity ratio or be higher than shortcoming that the expected loss rate produces or the preparation tritium when providing fuel to new fusion facility, need these real-time adjustings.These are regulated and allow the fusion power station to carry out Steam Generator in Load Follow, allow it to regulate with thermal power and corresponding electrical power with the difference amount and are delivered to transmission line in real time.
Tin by will having required neutron reaction attribute or other materials are filled in the compartment that enters in the fusion renewing zone, for example compartment 170, and realize the real-time adjusting to the tritium rate of increase and thermal output.Can insert or remove material to desired level and export to increase or to reduce thermal power, and increase or reduce the corresponding tritium rate of increase.Employed material can be stagnation, flowing liquid or solid movably.If desired, additional neutron produces material, such as beryllium or beryllium titanium compound (Be 12Ti) can further improve performance.By allowing the fusion renewing zone to catch neutron and energy that fusion reaction discharges, the energy of described collection can convert tritium to and be used for the preparation of new fusion fuel and become thermal power with the formal transformation of the high temperature coolant that flows.
Fig. 4 shows an execution mode of compartment 200.Compartment 200 is made by the insoluble metal alloy, to allow maximum thermal power preparation, keeps the high strength of structural element simultaneously.These alloys comprise tungsten and vanadium, and other materials.Can adopt the exotic material such as tin or gadolinium, optionally fill or empty compartment.
In the inertial fusion energy engine formerly, suggestion is by reducing the output of fusion target, reduce the repetition rate in fusion source or using the too much thermal power of cooling tower removal to reduce thermal power.Each this method has influenced the economy in power station negatively.On the contrary, our method allows to regulate thermal power and tritium output, and does not influence the economy in power station negatively.
In the embodiment shown in fig. 4, in tungsten chamber 200, adopt tin.Tin is stagnated, but it can be pumped to suitable position or drain (or other modes are inserted and removed) to convert fusion engine to remove the tin situation " tritium propagation pattern " from " power mode " that has the tin situation.We have been shown to the analysis of the tritium rate of increase and main material gain in following table.In first row, illustrated, used the cooling renewing zone be liquid lithium, be all sections tritium rate of increase and gain as shown in Figure 3 of fusion chamber.Second row and the third line at form show the tritium rate of increase and the gain with the tungsten compartment that comprises tin (with emptying tin).At last, last two row at form show loading or have drained Be 12The tungsten compartment of Ti/Sn renewing zone.
Design The tritium rate of increase Gain
Be the lithium renewing zone 1.48 1.12
The tin renewing zone is housed 1.15 1.21
Drain the tin renewing zone 1.33 1.14
Be is housed 12The Ti/Sn renewing zone 1.02 1.32
Drain Be 12The Ti/Sn renewing zone 1.18 1.27
Opposite with art methods, our invention allows to regulate in real time.Can be as required, heat of fusion power and the tritium following the trail of constantly and produce with the operator scheme exchange prepare rate, are used for the too much tritium that new power station starts to produce, and perhaps reduce the power yield in power station during low demand stage.
It above is description of the preferred embodiment of the present invention.Should recognize, can change in the mode of adding material to the fusion renewing zone or therefrom removing material, to allow the output of control thermal power and the tritium rate of increase.Therefore, scope of the present invention is limited by the claim of enclosing.

Claims (16)

1. fusion chamber comprises:
A plurality of sections form the fusion chamber when described a plurality of sections are installed together, each described section comprises:
First wall, described first wall are arranged to the middle section towards the described fusion chamber that fusion reaction wherein takes place;
Renewing zone, described renewing zone are arranged in described first wall back, and comprise the passage that wherein is used for receiving fluid coolant; And
Wherein at least one section comprises additional areas, in described additional areas exotic material can be set, and is used for catching the additional neutron that the indoor fusion reaction of described fusion produces.
2. fusion according to claim 1 chamber, wherein said additional areas comprises be used to the compartment that holds described exotic material.
3. fusion according to claim 2 chamber, wherein said exotic material comprises tin.
4. fusion according to claim 2 chamber, wherein said exotic material comprises beryllium.
5. fusion according to claim 2 chamber, wherein said exotic material comprises beryllium titanium compound (Be 12Ti).
6. fusion according to claim 2 chamber, wherein said exotic material comprises gadolinium.
7. fusion according to claim 2 chamber, wherein said compartment comprise in tungsten and the vanadium one of at least.
8. fusion according to claim 1 chamber, wherein the first wall of each described section is included in the one group of pipe that is arranged in parallel on the antetheca of described section, each described pipe extends to second Room that is arranged on described antetheca back from first Room that is arranged on described antetheca back, and described first and second Room can be connected to the fluid coolant source for the described one group of pipe of cooling.
9. fusion according to claim 1 chamber, wherein each described section comprises additional areas, can be provided with exotic material in described additional areas, is used for catching the additional neutron that the indoor fusion reaction of described fusion produces.
10. fusion according to claim 1 chamber, wherein each described section also comprises: at least two openings are used for allowing laser beam to pass described section and the middle section that arrives described fusion chamber; And supporting construction, it is in place and form described fusion chamber be used for to support described section.
11. fusion according to claim 1 chamber, wherein said fluid coolant comprises liquid lithium.
12. method of regulating the power output of fusion chamber, described fusion chamber has to be arranged to towards the first wall of the middle section of the fusion chamber that fusion reaction wherein takes place and to comprise and be arranged on the first wall back and comprise that described method comprises for the renewing zone of the passage that receives fluid coolant:
Controllably will be for catching that material from the additional neutron of fusion reaction inserts described renewing zone or from wherein removing.
13. method according to claim 12 wherein controllably will be for catching that material from the additional neutron of fusion reaction inserts described renewing zone or from the further propagation of the tritium the described renewing zone of control of the step that wherein removes.
14. method according to claim 12, wherein said renewing zone also comprise the compartment be used to the described material of catching additional neutron.
15. method according to claim 14, wherein said material comprises tin or gadolinium.
16. method according to claim 15, wherein said fluid coolant comprises lithium.
CN2012800065274A 2011-01-28 2012-01-30 Tunable fusion blanket for load following and tritium production Pending CN103340019A (en)

Applications Claiming Priority (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US201161437508P 2011-01-28 2011-01-28
US61/437,508 2011-01-28
PCT/US2011/059814 WO2012064767A1 (en) 2010-11-08 2011-11-08 Inertial confinement fusion chamber
USPCT/US2011/059814 2011-11-08
PCT/US2012/023156 WO2012103548A1 (en) 2011-01-28 2012-01-30 Tunable fusion blanket for load following and tritium production

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WO (1) WO2012103548A1 (en)

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CN102301832B (en) 2009-02-04 2014-07-23 全面熔合有限公司 Systems and methods for compressing plasma
WO2011014577A1 (en) 2009-07-29 2011-02-03 General Fusion, Inc. Systems and methods for plasma compression with recycling of projectiles
KR20130131330A (en) * 2010-11-08 2013-12-03 로렌스 리버모어 내쇼날 시큐리티, 엘엘시 Indirect drive targets for fusion power
DE102017010927A1 (en) * 2017-11-27 2019-05-29 Heinrich Hora Clean laser Bor11 Fusion without secondary contamination
CN111863286B (en) * 2020-07-10 2022-07-26 中国科学院合肥物质科学研究院 Beryllium-based liquid cladding based on silicon carbide tube
CN111950177A (en) * 2020-07-22 2020-11-17 核工业西南物理研究院 Multi-physical-field coupling neutron automatic optimization method for solid tritium production cladding

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WO2012103548A1 (en) 2012-08-02
CA2822075A1 (en) 2012-08-02
JP2014508289A (en) 2014-04-03
RU2013133629A (en) 2015-01-27
EP2668831A1 (en) 2013-12-04

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Application publication date: 20131002