CN103278515A - Rotary X-ray layered photographic detection system and method - Google Patents

Rotary X-ray layered photographic detection system and method Download PDF

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CN103278515A
CN103278515A CN 201310181921 CN201310181921A CN103278515A CN 103278515 A CN103278515 A CN 103278515A CN 201310181921 CN201310181921 CN 201310181921 CN 201310181921 A CN201310181921 A CN 201310181921A CN 103278515 A CN103278515 A CN 103278515A
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object
rotary
detected
stage
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陈忠
梁嘉辉
张宪民
唐岳泉
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华南理工大学
东莞市科隆威自动化设备有限公司
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The invention provides a rotary X-ray layered photographic detection system and method. The rotary X-ray layered photographic detection system comprises an X-ray plane detector, an object stage, a rotating platform, a motion control and data computing device and an X-ray tube, wherein the rotating platform is positioned between the X-ray tube and the X-ray plane detector, the object stage is positioned on the rotating platform, and the motion control and data computing device controls the rotating platform to rotate in the Z-axis direction and do translational motion in the X-axis direction, the object stage to do the translational motion in the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction, and the X-ray plane detector to do the translational motion in the X-axis direction, and is used for processing X-ray images obtained by the X-ray plane detector. The detection method comprises the steps of: carrying out rotating scanning on a detected object, and obtaining multi-angle X-ray imaging of a detected object after the detected object rotates for a circle; and combining and overlapping the imaging of a horizontal section to rebuild the section of the detected object. The rotary X-ray layered photographic detection system and method can be used for determining welding spot defects according to the size of the detection horizontal area of the detected object and the set criterion, and rebuilding a three-dimensional model of the detected object.

Description

旋转式X射线分层摄影检测系统与方法 The rotary X-ray laminography inspection system and method

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及工业产品检测的图像成像方法,特别是涉及电路板组装中的一种用于检测BGA焊点和其他插接件焊点的X射线分层摄影检测方法与系统。 [0001] The present invention relates to an image forming method for testing industrial products, in particular, it relates to an X-ray laminography system and method for detecting a circuit board assembly for detecting BGA joint and the other connector pads.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] X射线分层摄影(Laminography)技术是目前电路板联装领域的主流检测技术,该技术是以多个角度的X射线透视图像来重建出被检测物体焦平面上的截面图像。 [0002] X-ray laminography (Laminography) detection technology is the mainstream art-mounted circuit board, the technology is based on X-ray fluoroscopic image a plurality of angles to reconstruct a sectional image on the focal plane of the detection object. 每一个透视图像都包含了被检测物体焦平面上的截面,且位于X射线检测器上的固定位置,而焦平面上下各层的截面在不同位置上,不同层的图像经过不同角度的透视,会造成上下层图像的偏移,叠加不同角度的透视图像,将得到一个清晰的焦平面截面图像。 Each image contains a cross-sectional perspective view of the object to be detected on the focal plane, and in a fixed position on the X-ray detector, the focal plane of the vertical cross section of each layer at different locations, different layers of the image through different perspective angles, offset will cause the lower layer image, a fluoroscopic image is superimposed at different angles and the resulting cross section of a clear image focal plane. 通过分层摄影方法,可以方便地获的被检测物体的截面图像,对物体内部隐藏结构和微细结构进行检测。 By the layered imaging method, it can be easily obtained by detecting the cross-sectional image of the object, hiding the internal structure of the object detection and fine structure. 随着电子产品向轻、薄、小的方向发展,印刷电路板上的电子元件体积小、分布密度高,采用了大量BGA(球栅列阵),CSP (芯片级封装)等具有隐藏结构的新型封装芯片,X射线分层摄影技术正好弥补AOI (自动光学检测)无法对隐藏结构进行检测的缺点。 As electronic products to light, thin and small in the direction of the electronic components on the printed circuit board small size, high density distribution, uses a large number of BGA (ball grid array), the CSP (Chip Scale Package) or the like with hidden structure new chip package, X-ray photography layered make up the AOI (AOI) detection of the disadvantages can not be hidden structure.

[0003] 在电路板联装领域内,根据不同角度透视图像的获得方法进行区分,X射线分层摄影方法主要分为五大类: [0003] In the field-mounted circuit board, to distinguish different angles according to a method of obtaining fluoroscopic images, X-ray laminography method is mainly divided into five categories:

[0004] I)被检测物体作直线运动,X射线管和X射线探测器保持静止,从而获得被测物体多个角度的X射线透视图像。 [0004] I) for linear motion detection object, the X-ray tube and the X-ray detector remains stationary, thereby obtaining a plurality of measured X-ray fluoroscopic image angle of an object. 美国专利US55839042采用了类似的分层摄影技术,该技术需使用线阵探测器,获取图像的速度较慢,需要更多的探测器以获得高质量的图像,而且不能与2/2.5维X射线检测系统结合,因此该类系统成本较高。 U.S. Patent No. US55839042 uses a similar hierarchical photographic technique need to use linear array detector, image acquisition slower, requires more detectors to obtain high quality images, and can not rays and 2 / X 2.5D binding detection system, a higher cost of such systems.

[0005] 2)X射线探测器和X射线管保持相对静止,围绕位置保持固定的被检测物体作同步圆周运动,X射线从不同方向以相同的角度穿透被检测物体,得到被检测物体多个角度的透视图像。 [0005] 2) X-ray detector and the X-ray tube remains relatively stationary, moving synchronously circumferential position around the object to be detected remains stationary, the X-ray penetration same angle detected object from different directions, to give a multi-object to be detected angles of the fluoroscopic image. 美国专利US4936452采用了类似的分层摄影技术,不同点在于该系统运用电子束的电磁偏转实现X射线的圆周同步旋转,而X射线管保持不动。 U.S. Patent US4936452 uses a similar hierarchical photography, except that the system utilizes an electromagnetic deflection of the electron beam, X-rays circumferential synchronous rotation, while the X-ray tube remains stationary. 但X射线探测器的同步圆周运动仍需要复杂且精确的机械运动,而且实现电磁偏转需要额外的装置,使系统变得复杂和昂贵。 However, synchronous circular motion of the X-ray detector still requires complex and precise mechanical motion, and the electromagnetic deflection requires an additional device, so that the system becomes complicated and expensive.

[0006] 3) X射线管和X射线探测器作XY平面运动且保持相对静止,被检测物体保持固定位置,从而获得被测物体多个角度的X射线透视图像。 [0006] 3) X-ray tube and the X-ray detector for movement of the XY plane and remains relatively stationary, the detected object remains stationary, thereby obtaining a plurality of measured X-ray fluoroscopic image angle of an object. 美国专利US7529336B2和中国发明专利ZL200710140075.X采用了类似的分层摄影技术,该系统采用三个线阵探测器,需要按指定的路径扫描完成电路板联装件的检测。 U.S. Patent US7529336B2 and Chinese invention patent uses a similar hierarchical ZL200710140075.X photography, the system uses three linear array detector, necessary to scan the specified path completion detection circuit board-mounted member. 由于X射线管体积较大,X射线探测器和X射线管的同步运动需要庞大的机械运动系统。 Due to the large volume of the X-ray tube, X-ray detector and synchronous movement the X-ray tube requires a large mechanical movement system.

[0007] 4)被检测物体作XY平面运动,X射线管和X射线探测器保持静止,从而获得被测物体多个角度的X射线透视图像。 [0007] 4) as an object to be detected motion XY plane, the X-ray tube and the X-ray detector remains stationary, thereby obtaining a plurality of measured X-ray fluoroscopic image angle of an object. 该技术需采用多个小平面探测器或采用大面积的平板探测器,导致获得图像过程中探测器利用率低,提高了系统成本。 This technique requires the use of a plurality of facets detectors or large area flat panel detector, causing the detector to obtain an image during utilization is low, increase the system cost. 美国专利US6748046采用了类似的分层摄影技术。 US patent US6748046 uses a similar hierarchical photography.

[0008] 5)被检测物体和X射线探测器作XY平面运动,X射线管保持固定位置,从而获得被测物体多个角度的X射线透视图像。 [0008] 5) the object to be detected and X-ray detector for movement of the XY plane, the X-ray tube remains stationary, thereby obtaining a plurality of measured X-ray fluoroscopic image angle of an object. 日本专利JP2011191180A(CN102192918-A)采用了类似的分层摄影技术,该系统可根据检测需要设定不同的扫描路径,实现不同的X射线透视角度,获得良好的透视图像,但是按指定的路径扫描时,需要平面X射线探测器和被检测物体联动,运动控制较为复杂,且扫描速度较慢。 Japanese Patent No. JP2011191180A (CN102192918-A) uses a similar hierarchical photography, the system may need to set a different scanning path based on the detection, X-ray fluoroscopy to realize different angles, to obtain a good fluoroscopic image, but the specified path scanning when required plane X-ray detector and the detected object interaction, motion control is more complicated and slower scan.

[0009] 用于电路板联装缺陷检测的X射线检测技术还包括计算机断层成像方法(Computed Tomography, CT)和2/2.5维透视摄影方法。 [0009] X-ray detection techniques for circuit board-mounted defect detection method further comprising a computer tomography (Computed Tomography, CT), and 2 / 2.5 dimensional perspective view capturing method. X射线CT检测方法利用重建算法获得被检测物体的截面或三维图像,可准确检测其缺陷。 The method of detecting X-ray CT reconstruction algorithm using the obtained cross-sectional images or three-dimensional object to be detected can accurately detect defects. 然而重建过程需获得被检测物体每个角度的X射线成像,过于耗时,无法达到工业检测的速度要求,而且受电路板联装产品的扁平形状限制,需对检测物体进行局部切片,再进行离线CT检测,使得X射线CT方法无法应用在电路板联装自动线上。 However, the reconstruction process required to obtain X-ray imaging angle of each detected object, too time-consuming, can not achieve the required industrial speed detector, and a flat shape by the limiting circuit board-mounted products, the need for local sections of the object detected, then CT test offline, so that the X-ray CT method can not be applied in the circuit board-mounted automatic line. 2/2.5维X射线透视摄影通过被检测物体对X射线吸收率的线积分获得图像,其图像信息包含被检测物体整体在X射线平面探测器上的投影,因此可快速高效地检测BGA隐藏焊点的明显开焊、桥接短路、气泡、焊球大小等缺陷,而微小虚焊和一般虚焊等细节信息容易被背景信息覆盖,难以进行检测。 2 / 2.5-dimensional X-ray fluoroscope of the detected object is obtained by a line integral of the X-ray absorption image, the image information which is contained in the entire X-ray projection on the detector plane, thus quickly and efficiently detect BGA solder hidden object detector obviously open welding point, a short-circuit bridge, bubbles, ball size defects, and generally fine weld weld details like context likely to be covered, difficult to detect.

[0010] X射线分层摄影技术对于微小虚焊和一般虚焊等微细缺陷检测具有足够的可靠性,与2/2.5维X射线透视摄影技术结合,可获得高效、可靠的检测效果。 [0010] X-ray photography for the fine layered fine defects Weld and Weld and so generally detected with sufficient reliability, combined with the 2 / 2.5-dimensional fluoroscopic X-ray photography, obtained efficient and reliable detection results. 上述第五类X射线分层摄影方法使用平面X射线探测器,其中被检测物体和X射线探测器的XY平面运动,使其可获得类似于2/2.5维X射线透视摄影系统的透视图像,并且保证焦平面与运动平面平行,使截面重建算法简化。 The fifth class of X-ray imaging method using hierarchical plane X-ray detector, wherein the XY plane and the object to be detected moving X-ray detector, fluoroscopic image so obtained similarly-dimensional X-ray fluoroscope system of 2 / 2.5, and to ensure that the focal plane is parallel to the plane of motion, so that a simplified cross-sectional reconstruction algorithm. 因此,有必要对第五类分层摄影方法作出改进,提出一种具有2/2.5维X射线检测功能的、扫描速度更快的X射线分层摄影检测方法与系统。 Therefore, it is necessary to improve upon the fifth class hierarchy photographing method is proposed, faster scanning X-ray laminography system having a detection method 2 / 2.5-dimensional X-ray detecting function.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0011] 本发明的目的在于提出一种X射线分层摄影检测方法与系统,以克服现有方法与系统的一些缺点。 [0011] The object of the present invention is to provide a method for detecting the X-ray laminography system to overcome some of the disadvantages of prior methods and systems. 本发明的检测方法与系统可应用于电路板联装中的BGA等隐藏焊点的在线或离线检测。 The detection method of the present invention may be applied to hide the system's online or offline detection solder BGA-mounted circuit boards and the like in.

[0012] 为实现本发明的目的,本发明采用如下技术方案: [0012] To achieve the object of the present invention, the present invention employs the following technical solutions:

[0013] 旋转式分层摄影检测系统,包括:X射线平面探测器、载物台、旋转台、运动控制与数据计算装置、X射线管,在与载物台顶面平行的平面建立直角坐标系的X轴和Y轴,并以该坐标系的原点、X轴和Y轴建立空间直角坐标系,其特征在于旋转台位于X射线管与X射线平面探测器之间,载物台位于旋转台上,被检测物体位于载物台上:χ射线平面探测器中心、载物台中心和X射线管的辐射点S在同一条直线上;运动控制与数据计算装置控制旋转台的Z轴方向旋转和X轴方向平动,载物台X轴方向和Y轴方向平动,以及X射线平面探测器的X轴方向平动,并处理X射线平面探测器获得的X射线图像;其中,通过旋转台的Z轴方向旋转获得被检测物体多角度的X射线成像。 [0013] Rotary laminography inspection system, comprising: X-ray flat panel detector, the stage, the turntable, and the motion control data calculating means, X-ray tube, in a plane orthogonal coordinate establishment stage parallel to the top surface thereof X-axis and Y-axis lines, and a spatial rectangular coordinate system with the origin, the X-axis and Y-axis of the coordinate system, characterized in that the turntable is located between the X-ray tube and an X-ray plane detector, the rotating stage stage, the detected object is located on the stage: χ-ray detector center plane, the radiation spots S and the center stage in the X-ray tube on the same line; means controls the Z-axis direction of the rotary table motion control data and calculation and the X axis parallel to the direction of rotation movement, the stage X-axis direction and the Y-axis movable parallel to the direction, the X-axis and the X-ray detector plane parallel to the direction of movement, and processing X-ray image obtained by X-ray plane detector; wherein, by Z-axis direction of the rotation of the turntable to obtain X-ray imaging of the object to be detected multi-angle.

[0014] 进一步地,X射线管的最前端为所述的X射线管辐射点S。 [0014] Further, the foremost end of the X-ray tube for the X-ray tube radiation spot S.

[0015] 进一步地,XY截面由载物台的X运动方向、Y运动方向和所设定的重建截面高度h共同确定。 [0015] Further, XY cross section of the X direction movement of the stage, Y direction and the reconstructed motion-section height h of co-determined set.

[0016] 进一步地,所述运动控制与数据计算装置叠加多角度X射线成像,在XY截面内重建被检测物体的截面。 [0016] Furthermore, the motion control and multi-angle data calculating means superimposes the X-ray image reconstruction section of the object to be detected in the XY cross-section.

[0017] 旋转式分层摄影检测方法,包括步骤:对被检物体进行旋转扫描,获得被检测物体的多角度X射线成像;对所述的XY截面的成像进行组合叠加,以重建被检测物体的截面;通过拟合得到被检测物体XY截面的图像;根据被检测物体的检测水平截面面积,判定被检测物体所存在的缺陷;针对预定的局部区域,进行三维模型重建,所述三维模型由该局部区域多个不同高度的XY特定截面通过拟合所得。 [0017] Rotary laminography detection method comprising the steps of: scanning the inspected object is rotated to obtain a multi-angle X-ray image of the object to be detected; XY section of the imaging combination be superimposed to reconstruct the object to be detected cross section; the detected object image is obtained by fitting the XY cross-section; according to the detected object detected horizontal cross-sectional area, the defects are determined by detecting the presence of an object; for a predetermined local region, reconstruction of three-dimensional model, the three-dimensional model by the the local region a plurality of different heights of the specific XY-sectional obtained by fitting.

[0018] 进一步地,XY截面成像进行叠加前,计算每幅X射线成像的平移系数、旋转系数,以对图像进行校正。 Before [0018] Further, XY cross-sectional image are superimposed, panning coefficient is calculated for each X-ray imaging of the web, rotation coefficient, to correct the image.

[0019] 进一步地,平移系数、旋转系数由旋转台的旋转角以及X射线平面探测器、载物台、X射线管辐射点间的几何参数确定。 [0019] Further, the translation factor, factor rotation angle of the rotary table by the rotation of the plane and the X-ray detector, the stage, between the geometric parameters of the X-ray tube radiation point determination.

[0020] 进一步地,所述被检测物体的检测水平截面根据载物台的X运动方向、Y运动方向和所设定的重建截面高度h决定。 [0020] Further, the object to be detected detecting the X-direction of movement of the horizontal cross section of the stage, Y and the direction of movement of the set section height h reconstruction decisions.

[0021] 进一步地,所述被检测物体的检测水平截面至少包括上、中、下三个检测水平面。 [0021] Further, the detected object includes detecting at least an upper horizontal cross section, middle and lower level detection.

[0022] 进一步地,所述被测物体包括BGA焊点,所述缺陷包括BGA焊点的虚焊和轻微开焊。 [0022] Further, the object to be measured comprises a BGA joint, comprising the BGA joint Weld defects and slightly open welding.

[0023] 上述的X射线分层摄影检测方法针对预定的局部区域,如BGA芯片焊点,采用被测物体的Z轴方向旋转完成BGA芯片焊点的多角度射线扫描成像。 [0023] The X-ray laminography method for detecting a predetermined local region, such as the BGA chip solder joints using Z-axis direction of the measured object rotation angle of a multi-chip BGA pads completion ray scan imaging. 对每幅透视图像进行相应的平移和旋转完成校正,然后通过叠加获得焊点特定的截面图像。 Fluoroscopic image of each piece of corresponding translation and rotation correction is completed, and then the specific cross-sectional image obtained by superimposing pad. 针对焊点虚焊、轻微开焊,本发明根据焊点在上、中、下三个截面水平下的截面面积,根据设定的判定准则,判定轻微开焊、虚焊或其他焊点缺陷。 For Weld joints, slightly open welding, the bonding pad according to the present invention, in cross-sectional area of ​​the cross section at three levels, depending on the setting of decision criteria, determines slightly open solder, soldered joints, or other defects. 通过对不同高度的截面图像边缘曲线进行拟合,获得焊点的三维轮廓。 Fitting of different heights by a cross-sectional image of the edge profile, to obtain a three-dimensional profile of the solder joint.

[0024] 作为优选实施例,进行整个BGA芯片焊点的分层摄影检测,通过载物台X、Y方向递进,逐个区域进行多角度扫描,以分层摄影方法,分别得到BGA芯片各行焊点的上、中、下三个XY特定截面图像,并依据提取的不同焊点截面水平下的界限面积,依据设定的判定准贝U,逐个区域判定每个焊点是否存在轻微开焊、虚焊或其他缺陷。 [0024] As a preferred embodiment, the entire detector stratified photography BGA chip solder joints, through the stage X, Y direction progressive, multi-angle scanning region by region, in a layered imaging method, each row were obtained BGA chip bonding the point, in the XY particular three cross-sectional images, and based on the boundaries of a cross-sectional area at different levels of the extracted solder, based on the determination of the quasi-shell set U, one at each solder joint is determined whether there is a region slightly open welding, Weld or other defects.

[0025] 本发明的系统与方法具有运动形式简单、检测精度高、模块化强、经济合理的特点,具有类似传统2/2.5维X射线透视检测系统的结构,可实现其相同功能。 [0025] Systems and methods according to the present invention has a simple form of motion, high precision, modular strong, economical features with similar conventional 2 / 2.5-dimensional X-ray fluoroscope inspection system configuration, which can realize the same function. 与现有的技术相比,具有如下优点: Compared with the prior art, it has the following advantages:

[0026] (I)本发明可实现传统的2/2.5维X射线检测平台同样功能,充分发挥对BGA焊点桥接短路、焊球过大过小、明显开焊等得高速高效检测能力,通过模块化功能增强对局部预定区域的BGA焊点的虚焊、轻微开焊等微细缺陷的强化检测能力; [0026] (I) of the present invention may be implemented in a conventional internet dimensional X-ray detector 2 the same functions / 2.5, full bridge short circuit of BGA joint, the ball is too large too small, significantly high-speed detection capability bloom welding and the like, by weld modular enhancements predetermined local region of the BGA joint, slightly open micro-defect detection capability of strengthening welding and the like;

[0027] (2)本发明的分层检测方法与系统具有明显的运动简单、检测快速的优势; [0027] (2) hierarchical detection method and system of the present invention has obvious simple motion, the advantages of fast detection;

[0028] (3)本发明的分层检测方法与系统可用于隐藏焊点的虚焊、轻微开焊等缺陷的在线与离线检测与分析。 [0028] (3) hierarchical detection method and system of the present invention may be used to hide the Weld joints, online and offline detection and analysis of defects slightly open welding.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0029] 图1是本发明优选实施例的X射线分层摄影系统示意图; [0029] FIG. 1 is a schematic view of an X-ray imaging system layered preferred embodiment of the present invention;

[0030] 图2是本发明优选实施例的X射线分层摄影特定截面图像重建原理示意图; [0030] FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the principle of X-ray laminography sectional image reconstruction particular preferred embodiment of the present invention;

[0031] 图3是本发明优选实施例的X射线分层摄影平移系数推导示意图; [0031] FIG. 3 is an X-ray laminography panning coefficient deriving schematic of a preferred embodiment of the present invention;

[0032] 图4是本发明优选实施例的X射线分层摄影的递进扫描检测示意图; [0032] FIG. 4 is a schematic view of an X-ray detector progressive scan laminography preferred embodiment of the present invention;

[0033] 图5A、图5B、图5C、图是本发明优选实施例的BGA焊点XY特定截面重建示意图;图5A是本发明所重建的XY特定截面所在的位置,根据检测需要可适当增加XY特定截面重建数量;以获得更可靠的检测结果。 [0033] FIG. 5A, FIG. 5B, FIG. 5C, BGA joint reconstruction schematic cross section of a particular embodiment of the XY preferred embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 5A is the position of the reconstructed cross section of the present invention where the XY particular, according to the required detection can be increased number of specific XY sectional reconstruction; to obtain more reliable results. 图5B是根据所重建的上、中、下三个检测水平上XY特定截面,分别为503、504、505,对应的截面面积为ApA2、A3 ;图5C是根据计算出的截面面积A3 = O,判断焊点开路的示意图;图是根据计算出的截面面积A3 <设定阀值判断焊点虚焊的示意图; 5B is reconstructed on, in, XY particular cross section on the lower three levels of detection, respectively, 504, 505, corresponding to the cross-sectional area of ​​ApA2, A3; FIG. 5C is a cross-sectional area A3 = O calculated determining a schematic view of the solder joint open; FIG is A3 <weld joints schematic determination threshold set in accordance with the calculated cross-sectional area;

[0034] 图6是本发明优选实施例的X射线分层摄影BGA焊点检测流程示意图。 [0034] FIG 6 is an X-ray laminography BGA joint detection process of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, FIG.

[0035] 图7是本发明优选实施例的X射线分层摄影成像重叠示意图。 [0035] FIG. 7 is an X-ray image forming overlapping layered schematic of a preferred embodiment of the present invention.

[0036] 图8A、图SB是本发明优选实施例的X射线分层摄影BGA焊点三维模型重建原理和流程示意图。 [0036] Figures 8A, SB is an X-ray laminography BGA joint 3D Reconstruction principles and process of the preferred embodiment of the present invention, FIG.

[0037] 图中示出:101-X射线平面探测器,102-载物台,103-被检物体,104-运动控制与数据计算装置,105-X射线管,106-旋转台;401-BGA焊点,402-锥束X射线;501_BGA芯片焊盘,502-BGA电路板焊盘,503-焊点上检测水平,504-焊点中检测水平,505-焊点下检测水平。 [0037] is shown: 101-X-ray flat panel detector, stage 102-, 103- computing device is inspected object, the motion control and data 104-, 105-X-ray tube, 106- turntable; 401 BGA solder joint, 402- cone beam X-rays; 501_BGA die pad, 502-BGA circuit board pads, the solder joint detection level 503-, 504- solder joint detection level, the level of detection in 505- pads.

[0038] 图中其他符号说明: [0038] FIG other symbols Description:

[0039] SX射线福射点;F_焦平面;L_特定截面;Θ -旋转台的旋转角;0_被检物体的旋转中心;0具、O2M2-被检物体不同高度的XY特定截面;0M-被检物体在XY平面上的投影;O1,M/、02,m2,、o,-被检物体的平面探测器成像在XZ平面的投影Amo,,-被检物体在平面探测器上的成像;β -X射线的成像角度Mtl-X射线辐射点S到焦平面F的距离;Η-平面探测器到焦平面F的距离;h-特定截面L到焦平面F的距离;(\_经过O点的X射线与特定截面L的交点。 [0039] SX-ray emitting point Fu; F_ focal plane; L_ up section; Θ - angle of rotation of the turntable; 0_ the rotation center of the inspected object; 0, O2M2- different heights XY is a cross-sectional sample specific object ; 0M- inspected object projected on the XY plane; O1, M /, 02, m2,, o, - Amo XZ plane is projected in the plane of the detector imaging the subject ,, object - the object is in the object plane of the detector the image; ray imaging angles β -X-X-ray radiation spot Mtl S from the focal plane F; eta-plane from the focal plane F of the detector; H- certain distance from the focal plane F to the cross section of L; ( \ _ L O through the point of intersection of the X-ray with a particular cross-section.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0040] 为了更好地理解本发明,下面结合附图对本发明作进一步的描述,但本发明的实施方式不限于此。 [0040] For a better understanding of the present invention, DRAWINGS The invention will be further described, but embodiments of the present invention is not limited thereto.

[0041] 作为本发明提出的优选实施例,如图1所示,该X射线透视检测平台的分层摄影系统包括X射线管105、x射线平面探测器101、载物台102、旋转台106、和运动控制与数据计算装置104。 [0041] As a preferred embodiment of the present invention proposed, as shown in FIG. 1, the X-ray fluoroscopic imaging system hierarchical detection platform includes an X-ray tube 105, x-ray flat detector 101, the stage 102, the turntable 106 and motion control data calculating means 104. 其中,被检物体103位于载物台102上;载物台102位于旋转台106上;旋转台106可作旋转运动,其旋转中心在载物台102运动平面上的投影与X射线管辐射点S和平面探测器101中心在同一条直线上。 Wherein the test object 103 is located in the loading on the stage 102; stage 102 is located on the rotating table 106; rotary table 106 may be rotational movement, the rotational center of the stage 102 motion of the plane and the X-ray tube radiation spot S and the detector 101 in the central plane on the same line. 载物台可实现XY向的精密平面运动,旋转台和X射线平面探测器可实现X轴的平动。 Stage provides precision XY planar motion to the rotary table, and an X-ray plane detector may be implemented translational X axis. 运动控制与数据计算装置104负责旋转台z轴方向旋转和X射线平面探测器图像获取的协同控制,X摄像管105、旋转台106、载物台102和X射线平面探测器101相对位置的控制,以及焊点截面重建与焊点缺陷检测。 And motion control data calculating means 104 is responsible for the turntable and the z-axis direction of the rotation plane of the X-ray detector cooperative control image acquisition, X imaging tube 105, rotary table 106, to control the relative position of the loading table 102 and the X-ray flat panel detector 101 and solder pads with a cross-sectional reconstruction of the defect detection.

[0042] 当被检的BGA焊点中心在焦平面F上的投影O位于X射线管辐射点S和平面探测器中心连线上时,按图2所示重建被检BGA焊点在特定截面L上的XY特定截面。 [0042] When the BGA joint center of the subject on the focal plane F of the X-ray tube projection O is located and the plane of the radiation spots S on the center of the detector when connected, as shown in Figure 2 BGA joint reconstruction of the subject in a particular cross-section specific cross section in the XY L. 图2显示被检BGA焊点旋转角度Θ时,焊点不同高度截面在探测平面获得的透视图像。 Figure 2 shows, when the rotation angle Θ subject BGA solder joint, the solder joint section in a highly different perspective images obtained in the detection plane. 在旋转扫描运动中,X射线平面探测器的成像平面需保证与旋转台的旋转轴垂直。 In rotational scanning motion, the imaging plane of the X-ray detector plane perpendicular to the need to ensure the rotation shaft of the turntable. 同时,图2也显示点在图像平面上对应的点为O',即俯视图中图像平面的中心O”。XY特定截面O具、O2M2对应的在图像平面上的成像为O1,M/、02,M2',即俯视图中图像平面上的Ο/'ΜΛ 02,,Μ2,,。 Meanwhile, FIG. 2 also shows the point on the image plane corresponding to point O ', i.e. a plan view of the center O "of the image plane .XY specific cross section O with, O2M2 corresponding imaged on the image plane is O1, M /, 02 , M2 ', i.e., a plan view o / image plane' ΜΛ 02,, Μ2 ,,.

[0043] 为了重建焊点的XY特定截面O1M1,需要计算图像平面上特定截面L的平移系数L eh和旋转系数Se。 [0043] In order to reconstruct a particular XY sectional O1M1 solder joints, the need to calculate the particular cross-sectional panning coefficient L and L EH rotation coefficient Se on the image plane. 其推导过程如下: Which is derived as follows:

[0044] 焊点的XY特定截面O1M1在图形平面的成像为O/'M/',为对其进行重建,需将其成像平移到图像平面中心O”。因此,图像平面上特定截面L的平移系数。Leh = O^O'如图3所示,(\是直线S0'与特定截面L的交点,根据三角形Λ SOA和ASO/ O'是相似三角形,得0/0' = SCVSO1 '.01Ol,同时,SCVSO1 ' = (H0+h) / (H0+H),O1Ol = cot β.0O1, OO1=h,0/ O' = 0广0”所以,图像平面上特定截面L的平移系数为 [0044] The solder joint specific XY plane in the graphics O1M1 sectional imaging of O / 'M /', is subjected to reconstruction, which need to be moved to the level of imaging the image plane center O. "Thus, the particular cross-section on the image plane L panning coefficient .Leh = O ^ O 'shown in Figure 3, (\ rectilinear S0' L an intersection with a particular cross section, according to a triangular Λ SOA and ASO / O 'is similar triangles give 0/0' = SCVSO1 '. 01Ol, while, SCVSO1 '= (H0 + h) / (H0 + H), O1Ol = cot β.0O1, OO1 = h, 0 / O' = 0 0 wide "Therefore, the particular cross-section of L panning coefficient on the image plane for

[0045] L0h = (H0+h) / (H0+Η).cot β.h。 [0045] L0h = (H0 + h) / (H0 + Η) .cot β.h.

[0046] 如图2所示,X射线成像角度β由X射线管辐射点S和焦平面原点O的相对位置决定,且,tani3 = 0Q0/HQ,通过旋转台106和X射线平面探测器101的X轴方向协调平动,改变OtlO的距离,从而选择不同的X射线成像角度β。 [0046] As shown, the X-ray imaging angle β determined by the relative position of the two radiation spots X-ray tube S and the origin O of the focal plane, and, tani3 = 0Q0 / HQ, ray flat panel detector 106 and the turntable 101 by X coordination of translation X-axis direction, changing the distance of OtlO to select a different X-ray imaging angle β.

[0047] 焊点的XY特定截面O1M1在图形平面的成像为0/1/',为使O1M1在不同旋转角度下所得的成像重合,需将其成像旋转至X轴上。 [0047] XY sectional O1M1 particular solder joint is imaged graphics plane 0/1 / ', such that the resulting overlap O1M1 imaged at different rotational angles, which need to be imaged to the X-axis rotation. 如图2所示,0/'Μ/' Il 0Μ,所以图像平面上特定截面L的旋转系数为 As shown, 0 / 'Μ /' Il 0Μ 2, so the rotation of the image plane L factor for a particular section

[0048] S0 = Θ。 [0048] S0 = Θ.

[0049] 根据以上推导的单次成像后图像平面上特定截面L的平移系数L θ h和旋转系数S θ的计算方法,可对各个角度的扫描图像进行平移与旋转,然后叠加,就可得到被检焊点XY特定截面L的截面图像。 [0049] The calculation method of the coefficient L θ h and the specific rotation of the L-section panning coefficient S θ may be made in accordance with the image on the imaging plane after a single scanned image derived above for each translation and rotation angle, and then superimposed, can be obtained the specific cross-sectional image of the subject pads XY cross section of L. 如图7A所示,为被检焊点不同旋转角度所得的成像,对其进行平移旋转并叠加,得图7B所示的图像,其中XY特定截面O1M1因叠加而得到加强,在背景中得以显示。 As shown, the subject of the resulting joints forming different angles of rotation, and its rotation is superimposed translation 7A, 7B have the image shown in FIG, wherein the specific XY sectional O1M1 be strengthened by superimposing, to be displayed in the background . ` `

[0050] 参照图5A,根据以上焊点XY特定截面成像的平移与缩放,可重建BGA上焊盘501和BGA下焊盘502间的多个BGA焊点XY特定截面。 [0050] Referring to Figure 5A, in accordance with the above specific cross-sectional imaging of the XY pad pan and zoom, can be reconstructed on a BGA pad 501 and a plurality of BGA pads specific XY cross section between the BGA pad 502. 为了解决传统2/2.5维X射线在线检测微弱焊点开焊和虚焊的困难,建立以下基于本发明分层摄影算法的检测方法。 In order to solve the conventional 2 / 2.5 dimensional X-ray line detector difficult open solder joints and Weld weak, establishing the detection algorithm based on hierarchical photography present invention. 如图5B所示,选取BGA焊点上、中、下检测水平,分别为503、504、505,得到焊点截面面积为A1' A2, A3。 5B, the selection on the BGA joints, in the detection level, 504, 505, respectively, to obtain cross-sectional area of ​​solder joint A1 'A2, A3. 如图5C所示,针对轻微焊点开焊建立判定准则=A3 = O。 5C, for open solder joints slightly established decision criteria = A3 = O. 当焊点实际A3 = O时,即可判定该焊点开焊。 When the actual solder joint A3 = O, can be determined that the open solder joints. 如图所示,针对焊点虚焊,建立判定准则:A3 <设定阀值As。 For Weld joints, as shown in FIG establishing decision criteria: A3 <set the threshold As. 设定阀值As可为人为设定常数或等于ξ Atlt5其中,Atl为理想常数阀值,ξ为焊点XY中心截面的错位系数,可表达为:Α2' /A200其中,Α2'为焊点XY中心截面错位后的焊点实际截面面积A2, A2tl为焊点XY中心截面没有错位的焊点实际截面面积Α2。 As threshold setting may be set manually or equal to the constant ξ Atlt5 wherein, of Atl is constant over the threshold, [xi] is the offset coefficient XY center of the section joints, may be expressed as: Α2 '/ A200 wherein, Α2' for the pad the actual cross-sectional area solder joints after the actual cross-sectional area of ​​the central cross section XY offset A2, A2tl an XY cross-sectional center of the pad is not displaced Α2. 本领域人员应该理解设定阀值As不限于所列方法。 It should be understood by those skilled in the art As set threshold is not limited to the methods listed.

[0051] 如图4所示,本发明通过载物台102的以步长ΛΧ、Λ Y完成X方向、Y方向步进,使得辐射点S发出锥束402逐步覆盖被检BGA焊点401。 [0051] As shown in FIG 4, the present invention is by stage 102 to step ΛΧ, Λ Y complete X direction, Y direction step, so that the radiation spots S cone beam 402 emitted gradually cover the subject BGA joints 401.

[0052] 如图6所示,根据本发明提出焊点XY截面重建方法,按以下步骤完成整个BGA焊点的缺陷检测,特别焊点轻微开焊、虚焊的检测。 [0052] As shown in FIG. 6, the XY cross-sectional solder proposed reconstruction method according to the present invention, the following steps to complete the entire BGA solder joint defects detected, particularly joints slightly open welding, Weld detected.

[0053] I)系统运动控制与数据计算装置104执行进程601,控制旋转台和载物台运动并把欲检测的BGA的初始位置定位在旋转台的旋转轴上; [0053] I) the motion control system and the data computing device 104 performs process 601, controlling the turntable and the stage motion and the initial position of the BGA to be detected is positioned on the rotary shaft of the turntable;

[0054] 2)系统运动控制与数据计算装置104执行进程602,设定检测参数,如虚焊判定阀值A3、逐步检测BGA焊点时载物台步长ΛΧ和ΛΥ、各种几何参数等; [0054] 2) the motion control system and the data computing device 104 performs process 602 to set the detection parameters, such as Weld determination threshold A3, when gradually BGA joint detection step ΛΧ stage and ΛΥ, various geometrical parameters;

[0055] 3)系统运动控制与数据计算装置104执行进程603,旋转台旋转扫描该位置BGA焊点,得到多幅不同角度的X射线成像图;[0056] 4)系统运动控制与数据计算装置104执行进程604,根据本发明在优选实施例中提出的焊点XY截面重建方法,完成截面重建; [0055] 3) the motion control system and the computing device 104 performs the data process 603, the scanning of the rotational position of the turntable BGA solder joint, to give X-ray imaging FIG plurality of different angles; [0056] 4) and the motion control system data calculating means 104 executes a process 604, according to a cross-sectional reconstruction of joints XY embodiment set forth in the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a cross-sectional complete reconstruction;

[0057] 5)系统运动控制与数据计算装置104执行进程605,通过进行图像分析,计算参数A1, A2, A3,根据本发明在优选实施例中提出的缺陷判定方法,进行该位置焊点的缺陷判定; [0057] 5) the motion control system and the data computing device 104 performs process 605, by image analysis, calculation parameters A1, A2, A3, according to the method of determining defects in a preferred embodiment set forth in the embodiment of the present invention, a position of the solder joint defect determination;

[0058] 6)系统运动控制与数据计算装置104执行进程606,判定该BGA焊点是否全部扫描完毕。 [0058] 6) the motion control system and the data computing device 104 performs the process 606, it is determined whether all the BGA pads scanned. 若条件判定为“是”,则执行608,输出检测结果。 If the condition determination is "YES", 608, outputs the detection result is performed. 若条件判定为“否”,则执行进程707系统运动控制与数据计算装置104控制载物台102完成ΛΧ和Λ Y步进,定位到下一检测位置BGA焊点。 If the condition determination is "NO", process 707 is executed with the motion control system data calculating means 104 controls the stage 102 is completed and Λ Y ΛΧ step, to locate the next detection position BGA joints. 然后,系统运动控制与数据计算装置104控制再次执行进程603。 Then, the system control and motion control data calculating means 104 performs the process 603 again.

[0059] 如图8Α所示,完成缺陷检测后,可对预定的区域进行三维重建,通过获得焊点多个不同高度的XY特定截面801,并对其进行拟合,重建该区域的三维模型。 [0059] As shown in FIG 8a, after the completion of defect detection may be made three-dimensional reconstruction of the predetermined region, by obtaining three-dimensional model of the region of a plurality of different heights specific XY pad section 801, and subjected to fitting reconstruction . 按图SB所示步骤完成三维重建。 Reconstruction is completed by the steps shown in FIG SB.

[0060] I)系统运动控制与数据计算装置104执行进程801,控制旋转台和载物台运动并把欲检测的BGA的预定区域定位在旋转台的旋转轴上; [0060] I) the motion control system and the data computing device 104 performs process 801, controlling the turntable and the stage movement to be detected and a predetermined region of the BGA is positioned on the rotary shaft of the turntable;

[0061] 2)系统运动控制与数据计算装置104执行进程802,进行检测参数的设定,如XY特定截面距离Ah、获取图像数量、各种几何参数等; [0061] 2) the motion control system and the data computing device 104 performs process 802 to set the detection parameters, such as the specific XY-sectional distance Ah, the number of images acquired, various geometrical parameters;

[0062] 3)系统运动控制与数据计算装置104执行进程803,旋转台旋转扫描该位置BGA焊点,得到多幅不同角度的X射线成像图; [0062] 3) the motion control system and the computing device 104 performs the data process 803, the scanning of the rotational position of the turntable BGA solder joint, to give X-ray imaging FIG plurality of different angles;

[0063] 4)系统运动控制与数据计算装置104执行进程804,根据本发明在优选实施例中提出的焊点XY截面重建方法,完成焊点多个不同高度XY特定截面的重建; [0063] 4) motion control system and the data computing device 104 performs process 804, according to a cross-sectional reconstruction of joints XY embodiment set forth in the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a plurality of pads of different heights to complete a particular XY sectional reconstruction;

[0064] 5)系统运动控制与数据计算装置104执行进程805,通过对多个不同高度XY特定截面进行拟合,获得焊点的三维模型; [0064] 5) the motion control system and the data computing device 104 performs process 805, by a plurality of different cross-sectional height to fit the specific XY obtain three-dimensional model of pad;

[0065] 6)系统运动控制与数据计算装置104执行进程806,输出预定区域的三维模型。 Three-dimensional model 806, output means 104 performs a predetermined process area [0065] 6) System control and motion data calculation.

[0066] 本发明可实现传统的2/2.5维X射线检测平台的功能,充分发挥其对BGA焊点桥接短路、焊球过大过小、明显开焊等得高速高效检测能力。 [0066] The present invention can realize the function of the conventional 2 / 2.5 dimensional X-ray detection platform, its full BGA solder bridge short circuit, the solder ball is too large too small, too high-speed welding and other significant open efficient detection capability. 针对大面积电路板联装件的局部预定的检测区域,尤其是传统的2/2.5维X射线透视检测很难进行的轻微开焊、虚焊的检测,提出一种重建焊点XY截面的分层摄影方法及其焊点缺陷检测方法与系统,具有检测运动简单、检测迅速、检测精度高、模块化强、经济合理的特点,可替代传统的2/2.5维X射线透视检测,具有广阔的应用前景。 Slightly open welding for detecting a partial area of ​​a predetermined area of ​​the circuit board with large attachments, in particular dimensional X-ray fluoroscopy detected conventional 2 / 2.5 difficult and Weld detection divisional a reconstituted XY pad section tomography method and solder defect detection methods and systems, having a motion detector simple, rapid detection, high precision, modular strong, economical characteristics, can replace the conventional 2 / 2.5-dimensional fluoroscopic X-ray detector, having a wide prospects.

Claims (10)

  1. 1.旋转式X射线分层摄影检测系统,包括:x射线平面探测器、载物台、旋转台、运动控制与数据计算装置、X射线管,在与载物台顶面平行的平面建立直角坐标系的X轴和Y轴,并以该坐标系的原点、X轴和Y轴建立空间直角坐标系,其特征在于,旋转台位于X射线管与X射线平面探测器之间,载物台位于旋转台上,被检测物体位于载物台上:x射线平面探测器中心、载物台中心和X射线管的辐射点S在同一条直线上;运动控制与数据计算装置控制旋转台的Z轴方向旋转和X轴方向平动,载物台X轴方向和Y轴方向平动,以及X射线平面探测器的X轴方向平动,并处理X射线平面探测器获得的X射线图像;其中,通过旋转台的Z轴方向旋转获得被检测物体多角度的X射线成像。 1. The rotary X-ray laminography inspection system, comprising: x-ray detector plane, the stage, the turntable, and the motion control data calculating means, the X-ray tube, in a plane at right angles to the establishment stage of the top surface thereof is parallel X-axis and Y-axis coordinates, and the origin of the coordinate system, the X-axis and Y-axis spatial rectangular coordinate system established, characterized in that the rotary table disposed between the X-ray tube and an X-ray plane detector stage the rotating table, the detected object is located on the stage: x-ray detector center plane, the radiation spots S and the center stage in the X-ray tube on the same line; control and motion control data calculating means turntable Z axis direction and the X axis parallel to the direction of rotation movement, the stage X-axis direction and the Y-axis movable parallel to the direction, the X-axis and the X-ray detector plane parallel to the direction of movement, and processing X-ray image obtained by X-ray plane detector; wherein , X-ray imaging is obtained rotating object to be detected by the multi-angle Z-axis direction of the turntable.
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的旋转式X射线分层摄影检测系统,其特征在于,X射线管的最前端为所述的X射线管辐射点S。 The rotary X-ray laminography inspection system according to claim 1, characterized in that the foremost end of the X-ray tube for the X-ray tube radiation spot S.
  3. 3.根据权利要求1所述的旋转式X射线分层摄影检测系统,其特征在于,XY截面由载物台的X运动方向、Y运动方向和所设定的重建截面高度h共同确定。 3. The rotary X-ray laminography inspection system according to claim 1, wherein, XY cross section of the X direction movement of the stage, Y direction and the reconstructed motion-section height h of co-determined set.
  4. 4.根据权利要求1所述的旋转式X射线分层摄影检测系统,其特征在于,所述运动控制与数据计算装置叠加多角度X射线成像,在XY截面内重建被检测物体的截面。 The rotary X-ray laminography inspection system according to claim 1, wherein said motion control data calculating means and the multi-angle X-ray image is superimposed, the reconstruction section of the object to be detected in the XY cross-section.
  5. 5.采用权利要求1至4所述检测系统的旋转式分层摄影检测方法,其特征在于,包括步骤:对被检物体进行旋转扫描,获得被检测物体的多角度X射线成像;对所述的XY截面的成像进行组合叠加,以重建被检测物体的截面;通过拟合得到被检测物体XY截面的图像;根据被检测物体的检测水平截面面积,判定被检测物体所存在的缺陷;针对预定的局部区域,进行三维模型重建,所述三维模型由该局部区域多个不同高度的XY特定截面通过拟合所得。 5. The use of claim rotary laminography method of detecting the detection system 1 to 4, characterized in that, comprising steps of: rotationally scanning the object to be inspected, to obtain a multi-angle X-ray image of an object to be detected; the XY cross-sectional imaging may be combined superimposed to reconstruct the section of the object to be detected; the detected object image is obtained by fitting the XY cross-section; according to the detected object detected horizontal cross-sectional area, the defects are determined by detecting the presence of an object; for a predetermined the local area, a reconstruction of three-dimensional model, different heights of the specific XY-section of the three-dimensional model obtained by fitting a plurality of the local area.
  6. 6.根据权利要求5所述的旋转式分层摄影检测方法,其特征在于,XY截面成像进行叠加前,计算每幅X射线成像的平移系数、旋转系数,以对图像进行校正。 The rotary laminography detecting method according to claim 5, wherein, XY sectional imaging before superposition, panning coefficient is calculated for each X-ray imaging of the web, rotation coefficient, to correct the image.
  7. 7.根据权利要求6所述的旋转式分层摄影检测方法,其特征在于,平移系数、旋转系数由旋转台的旋转角以及X射线平面探测器、载物台、X射线管辐射点间的几何参数确定。 The rotary laminography detection method according to claim 6, characterized in that the translational factor, factor rotation angle of the rotary table by the rotation of the plane and the X-ray detector, the stage, between the X-ray tube radiation spot geometric parameters determined.
  8. 8.根据权利要求5所述的旋转式分层摄影检测方法,其特征在于所述被检测物体的检测水平截面根据载物台的X运动方向、Y运动方向和所设定的重建截面高度h决定。 8. The rotary laminography detecting method according to claim 5, characterized in that the horizontal section of the object is detected based on detected motion of the stage X direction, Y-direction and the reconstructed motion set-section height h decision.
  9. 9.根据权利要求5所述的旋转式分层摄影检测方法,其特征在于,所述被检测物体的检测水平截面至少包括上、中、下三个检测水平面。 9. A method for detecting the rotary laminography as claimed in claim 5, wherein said detected object comprises a section of at least the level of detection, the middle and lower level detection.
  10. 10.根据权利要求5所述的旋转式分层摄影检测方法,其特征在于,所述被测物体包括BGA焊点,所述缺陷包括BGA焊点的虚焊和轻微开焊。 10. A method for detecting the rotary laminography as claimed in claim 5, wherein said detected object comprises a BGA joint, comprising the BGA joint Weld defects and slightly open welding.
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