CN103033752B - Electric vehicle battery life prediction method and a method of extending - Google Patents

Electric vehicle battery life prediction method and a method of extending Download PDF

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CN103033752B
CN103033752B CN 201110298395 CN201110298395A CN103033752B CN 103033752 B CN103033752 B CN 103033752B CN 201110298395 CN201110298395 CN 201110298395 CN 201110298395 A CN201110298395 A CN 201110298395A CN 103033752 B CN103033752 B CN 103033752B
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battery
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life
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吴昌旭
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吴昌旭
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Abstract

本发明提供一种电动车锂电池寿命预测方法,根据获取的电池的工作温度,充放电频率以及司机一天驾驶所需电池能量与电池刚出厂时充满电后的能量的比值来预测电池寿命。 The present invention provides an electric vehicle lithium battery life prediction method, according to the acquired cell operating temperature, discharge frequency, and the ratio of the energy of the driver after the battery is fully charged and the battery power factory-fresh battery life predicting the required driving one day. 本发明还提供一种电动车锂电池寿命预测方法,包括根据获取的司机的性格参数,充电策略,环境温度,工作日及周末在高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离来预测电池寿命范围。 The present invention also provides a method to predict lithium battery life of electric vehicles, including the acquisition in accordance with the character of the parameters of the driver, charging strategy, ambient temperature, weekday and weekend driving on the highway and urban road distance to predict the life span of the battery. 本发明还根据上述公式提供电动车锂电池寿命延长方法。 The present invention also provides a method of extending the life of the lithium battery electric vehicle according to the above formula. 上述方法为锂电池寿命的准确预测提供基础;考虑驾驶员的行为特征来预测电动车的锂电池寿命,预测结果更加真实;不需要硬件就可以预测锂电池寿命,成本很低。 It provides the method for the accurate prediction of lithium battery life of the foundation; consider the characteristics to predict the behavior of the driver of lithium battery life of electric vehicles, more realistic predictions; no hardware can predict lithium battery life, low cost.

Description

电动车电池寿命预测方法以及延长方法 Electric vehicle battery life prediction method and a method of extending

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及电动车领域,尤其涉及一种电动车电池寿命预测方法以及延长方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to an electric vehicle, and more particularly relates to an electric vehicle battery life prediction method and the extension method.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 当前的环境问题和可能存在的石油产量问题促进了各种电动汽车的发展。 [0002] The current environmental problems and possible oil production problems contributed to the development of a variety of electric vehicles. 与传统汽车相比,电动车可以在减少污染物排放和能源消耗上发挥重要作用。 Compared with conventional vehicles, electric vehicles can play an important role in reducing energy consumption and pollutant emissions on. 在电动车中,车载电池的寿命和成本会直接影响电动车的性能、寿命和成本,预测电池的寿命已经成为当今一个重要问题。 In electric vehicles, vehicle battery life and cost of electric vehicles will directly affect the performance, life and cost, battery life prediction has become an important issue today.

[0003] 首先,现有研究中,研究人员仅仅用实验证明了电池寿命和相关因素之间的定性关系,没有为电池寿命提供数学上的定量预测。 [0003] First, the existing study, the researchers used only proved the qualitative relationship between battery life and related factors, did not provide quantitative predictions on mathematical battery life.

[0004] 另外,现有关于电池寿命的研究大多集中在电池的物理和化学过程,例如荷电状态(SOC)、工作温度、充放电次数,却忽视了司机的影响。 [0004] Further, conventional research on battery life is mostly concentrated in the physical and chemical processes of the battery, for example, the state of charge (the SOC), operating temperature, charge and discharge times, but they ignore the impact of the driver. 由于司机作为电动汽车的操作者, 其行为直接影响电池的寿命,所以,不考虑或者不充分考虑司机的行为特征将不能全面、真实的预测电动车的电池寿命。 As the driver as the operator of electric vehicles, their behavior directly affects the battery life, so do not consider or do not fully consider the behavioral characteristics of drivers will not be comprehensive, real predicted electric vehicle battery life.

[0005] 综上所述,现有技术中缺乏综合考虑电池寿命相关因素的数学上的电动车电池寿命定量预测方法,另外,现有技术中还缺少综合考虑驾驶员行为特征的电动车电池寿命预测方法。 [0005] In summary, the lack of prior art electric vehicle battery life on a quantitative prediction methods considering the battery life of the relevant factors of mathematics, in addition, the prior art also lacks features into account driver behavior of electric car battery life method of prediction.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0006] 本发明要解决的技术问题是提供一种电动车电池寿命预测方法,提供对电动车锂电寿命在数学上的定量预测。 [0006] The present invention is to solve the technical problem of providing a life prediction method for a battery electric vehicle, an electric vehicle to provide a quantitative prediction of the life of lithium mathematically.

[0007] 为解决上述问题,本发明提供一种电动车锂电池寿命预测方法,包括: [0007] In order to solve the above problems, the present invention provides a lithium battery life prediction method for an electric vehicle, comprising:

[0008] 步骤一、获取电池的工作温度,充放电频率以及司机一天驾驶所需电池能量与电池刚出厂时充满电后的能量的比值;和 [0008] a step of obtaining the operating temperature of the battery, the charging and discharging frequency, and the ratio of the energy of the driver driving one day after the battery is fully charged and the battery power required just the factory; and

[0009] 步骤二、根据下述方式预测电池寿命: [0009] Step two, estimated battery life based on the following manner:

Figure CN103033752BD00051

[0011] 其中,T表示电池的工作温度,单位是°C ;t表示经过的时间,即为电池从出厂到计算电池周期数时经过的时间长度,单位是天;Capacity(% )表示电池充电完全后的电量与电池刚出场时充满电后的能量的比值;f表示充放电频率; [0011] where, T is the operating temperature of the battery, the unit is ° C; t represents an elapsed time, the battery is the length of time elapsed from the factory to calculate the number of cycles of the battery, the unit is the day; Capacity (%) indicates the battery charge after completion of the charge when the battery energy ratio just played full charge; F represents the frequency of charge and discharge;

[0012] 假设当电池充满电后的电量已经无法提供汽车一天行驶所需能量时,表示电池寿命完结,则根据此临界点时的充电频率f、电池工作温度T、司机一天行驶所需电池能量与电池刚出厂时充满电后的能量的比值Capacity (% ),求出经过的时间t,该值即表示电池预测寿命。 [0012] Suppose when the battery is fully charged battery has been unable to provide the energy required for traveling the car one day, the battery end of life, in accordance with the charging frequency f at this critical point, battery temperature T, the battery energy required for traveling the driver one day ratio of energy of a full charge Capacity (%), calculated elapsed time t when shipped from the factory with the battery, i.e., the value indicates that the battery life prediction.

[0013] 可选的,电池的工作温度根据下述方式计算: [0013] Alternatively, the operating temperature of the battery is calculated according to the following manner:

Figure CN103033752BD00061

[0015] 其中,Tini 1131表示电池工作过程的初始温度,单位是°C ; t'表示电池一次连续工作时间,单位是秒;C表示电池放电率j表示电池组的产热率,单位是瓦;△ t表示相关仪器记录驾驶数据的时间间隔,单位是秒;N表示一个电池组中的电池数;Aheat表示相对空气制冷模块,其他类型的冷却模块产生的热衰减差异,单位是W/cell ;CP表示电池的热容,单位是J/kg/K〇 [0015] wherein, Tini 1131 represents the initial temperature of the cell operation, the unit is ° C; t 'represents a battery a continuous operation time (in seconds); C represents battery discharge rate, j represents heat generation rate of the battery pack, is Watt ; △ t represents the correlation instrument records time drive data interval, in seconds; N represents the number of cell of the battery pack; Aheat represents the relative air cooling module, the heat of other types of cooling module generates the difference in attenuation, in units of W / cell ; the CP represents the heat capacity of the battery, the unit is J / kg / K〇

[0016] 本发明要解决的另一个技术问题是提供一种电动车电池寿命预测方法,考虑驾驶员的行为特征,全面、真实的预测电动车的锂电池寿命。 [0016] Another technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide an electric vehicle battery life prediction method, considering the driver's behavioral characteristics, comprehensive, real predict lithium battery life of electric vehicles.

[0017] 为解决上述问题,本发明提供一种电动车锂电池寿命预测方法,包括: [0017] In order to solve the above problems, the present invention provides a lithium battery life prediction method for an electric vehicle, comprising:

[0018] 步骤一、获取司机的性格参数,充电策略,环境温度,工作日及周末在高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离; [0018] Step one, get a driver's personality parameters, charging strategy, ambient temperature, weekday and weekend driving on highways and urban roads distance;

[0019] 步骤二、根据下述方式预测电池寿命范围: [0019] Step two, the predicted life span of the battery according to the following manner:

[0020] Lifetime = pa+pb X Personal ity+pc X Charging+pd X Tinitial [0020] Lifetime = pa + pb X Personal ity + pc X Charging + pd X Tinitial

[0021] +pe X Dhd+pf X Dud+pg X Dhe+ph X Due [0021] + pe X Dhd + pf X Dud + pg X Dhe + ph X Due

[0022] 其中,Personality表示司机的性格参数,司机的性格参数的量化方式为:用_1,0 和1依次代表非冲动型,正常和冲动型;Charging表示充电策略,即电池充电前电池剩余的最少电量,值是一个百分比;!^,^表示环境温度;D hd和Dud表示工作日高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离,Dhe和D ue表示周末高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离,单位是mile ;pa为常数,pb~ph表示系数; [0022] wherein, Personality parameter represents the character of the driver, the quantization parameter mode drivers for the character: 1 and successively with _1,0 represents a non-impulse type, and normal impulse; Charging indicates the charging strategy, i.e. the battery before charging the battery remaining minimum power, value is a percentage;! ^, ^ is the ambient temperature; D hd and Dud represent driving on highways and city roads weekday distance, Dhe and D ue represent driving on highways and urban roads from the weekend, The unit is mile; pa constant, pb ~ ph represents a coefficient;

[0023] 其中,pa 范围在393. 7864±147· 2502 之间,pb 范围在-35. 1552±21· 9882 之间, pc 范围在-2. 85±2· 145 之间,pd 范围在-L 3822±1· 1946 之间,pe 范围在-9. 716±2· 7264 之间,Pf范围在-2. 5916±3· 2112之间,pg范围在-4. 3606±2· 7264之间,ph范围在-11. 533±4. 9872 之间。 . [0023] wherein, pa range between 393. 7864 ± 147 · 2502, pb range between -35 1552 ± 21 · 9882, pc range between -2 85 ± 2 · 145, pd range - between L 3822 ± 1 · 1946, pe range between -9. 716 ± 2 · 7264, Pf range between -2. 5916 ± 3 · 2112, pg range between -4. 3606 ± 2 · 7264 , ph range between -11. 533 ± 4. 9872.

[0024] 可选的,步骤二的公式为: [0024] Optionally, the step of formula II:

[0025] Lifetime = 393. 768-35. 1552Personality-2. 85Charging-l. 382Tinitial〇 [0025] Lifetime = 393. 768-35. 1552Personality-2. 85Charging-l. 382Tinitial〇

[0026] -9. 716Dhd-2. 592Dud-4. 361Dhe-ll. 533Due [0026] -9. 716Dhd-2. 592Dud-4. 361Dhe-ll. 533Due

[0027] 本发明要解决的又一个问题是提供一种延长电动车锂电池寿命的方法,通过电池配置优化和最优驾驶及充电行为延长电池寿命。 [0027] Yet another problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide an electric vehicle lithium battery life extension method, and by optimizing the configuration of the battery and charging the optimum operating behavior prolong battery life.

[0028] 为解决上述问题,本发明提供一种电动车锂电池寿命延长方法,包括: [0028] In order to solve the above problems, the present invention provides a method of extending the life of a lithium battery electric vehicle, comprising:

[0029] 步骤一、对权利要求2所述方法中的公式进行如下变形: [0029] Step I. A method of claim 2 in the formula requires the following modifications:

Figure CN103033752BD00062

[0031] 其中,CAPACITY是电池组刚出厂时充满电后的能量,单位是J ;E为一天的驾驶过程中总能量消耗,单位是J ;t是经过的时间,此处表示电池的目标寿命,单位是天; [0031] wherein, in CAPACITY energy is fully charged after the battery pack shipped from the factory, the unit is J; E consumption during driving of a day total energy unit is J; t is elapsed time, where represents the target life of the battery the unit is day;

[0032] 步骤二、获取每天驾驶所消耗的电池能量E,决策参考值DMR,充电频率; [0032] Step two, get battery energy consumed daily driving E, the DMR decision reference value, the charging frequency;

[0033] 步骤三、求解上述公式,得到电池最优配置,即到Cp,Δ heat和N的值。 [0033] Step three, solving the above equation, the optimum configuration to obtain cell, i.e. to Cp, Δ N and the values ​​of heat.

[0034] 为解决上述问题,本发明还提供一种电动车锂电池寿命延长方法,包括: [0034] In order to solve the above problems, the present invention also provides a method of extending the life of a lithium battery electric vehicle, comprising:

[0035] 步骤一、对权利要求2所述方法中的公式进行如下变形: [0035] Step I. A method of claim 2 in the formula requires the following modifications:

Figure CN103033752BD00071

[0037] 其中,CAPACITY是电池组刚出厂时充满电后的能量,单位是J ;E为一天的驾驶过程中总能量消耗,单位是J ;t是经过的时间,此处表示电池的目标寿命,单位是天; [0037] wherein, in CAPACITY energy is fully charged after the battery pack shipped from the factory, the unit is J; E consumption during driving of a day total energy unit is J; t is elapsed time, where represents the target life of the battery the unit is day;

[0038] 步骤二、获取每天驾驶所消耗的电池能量E,电池配置N、Cp、Δ heat,初始温度Tinitial; [0038] Step two, get battery energy E consumed daily driving, battery configuration N, Cp, Δ heat, initial temperature Tinitial;

[0039] 步骤三、求解上述公式,得到最优Cj和f ; [0039] Step three, solving the above equation, the optimal Cj and F;

[0040] 步骤四、由最优C得到最优I,再由下述公式得到最优P : [0040] Step four, the most optimal C I, then the optimal P by the following equation:

Figure CN103033752BD00072

[0042] 其中,P表示车辆电池组的功率消耗,单位是W j表示电池组的产热率,单位是W ;1 表示电池组的电流,单位是A ;U_表示电池组的开环电压,Ucip表示电池组在负载条件下的工作电压,单位是volt ; [0042] wherein, P represents power consumption of the vehicle battery, the unit is W j represents heat generation rate of the battery pack, the unit is W is; represents a current of the battery pack 1, the unit is A; U_ represents the open circuit voltage of the battery pack , UCIP indicates battery operating voltage under load, the unit is Volt;

[0043] 步骤五、通过下述公式得到最优驾驶速度V和加速度a : [0043] Step 5 obtained by the following equation optimum operating speed V and acceleration a:

Figure CN103033752BD00073

[0045] 其中,P表示电动汽车运动功率消耗,单位是W ;m表示质量,单位是Kg ;a表示车辆加速度,单位是m/s2, P海平面空气每立方米大致空气重量,单位是Kg/m3;v表示速度,单位是m/s ;(^表示车辆的阻力系数;A表示车辆迎风面积,单位是m 2, Cit表示轮胎滚动阻力的无量纲系数,g表示重力加速度,单位是m/s2, [0045] where, P represents the electric power consumption of the vehicle movement, the unit is W; m represents mass, in units of Kg; A represents the vehicle acceleration, in units of m / s2, P substantially air per cubic meter of air at sea level weight, the unit is Kg / m3; v represents the speed, in units of m / s; (^ denotes the drag coefficient of the vehicle; a represents the frontal area of ​​the vehicle, the unit is m 2, Cit represents a dimensionless tire rolling resistance coefficient, g represents gravitational acceleration, in m / s2,

[0046] 根据求得的充电频率f,速度V和加速度a指导驾驶员行为,从而延长电动车锂电池寿命。 [0046] The obtained charging frequency F, the velocity V and acceleration of a driver's behavior guidance, thereby extending the life of the lithium battery electric vehicles.

[0047] 与现有技术相比,本发明的优点在于: [0047] Compared with the prior art, advantages of the present invention:

[0048] 第一、提出了人-电动车模型,该模型综合考虑了驾驶员的行为特征以及其他影响车载电池寿命的因素,为锂电池寿命的准确预测提供基础; [0048] First, the proposed human - electric car model, which considers the characteristics of the driver's behavior and other factors affecting the onboard battery life, provide the basis for accurate prediction of lithium battery life;

[0049] 第二、考虑驾驶员的行为特征来预测电动车的锂电池寿命,预测结果更加真实; [0049] Second, consider the characteristics to predict the behavior of the driver of lithium battery life of electric vehicles, more realistic predictions;

[0050] 第三、不需要硬件就可以预测锂电池寿命,成本很低; [0050] Third, no hardware lithium battery life can be predicted, the cost is very low;

[0051] 第四、以往延长电池寿命的方法主要集中在电池设计本身,而本发明通过驾驶速度、加速度、充电频率来延长电池寿命并得到电池的最优设计。 [0051] Fourth, the conventional method to extend the battery life mainly in battery design itself, but the present invention is by driving speed, acceleration, charging frequency prolong battery life and optimal battery design.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0052] 图1是本发明一个实施例中提供的理论模型的推导过程示意图; [0052] FIG. 1 is a theoretical model derivation embodiment provides a schematic embodiment of the present invention;

[0053] 图2是本发明一个实施例中提供的人的因素与电池寿命相关性的分析示意图。 [0053] FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a correlation analysis provided in the Examples human factor and battery life embodiment of the present invention.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0054] 定义: [0054] Definition:

[0055] (1)驾驶员的生活日程:工作日、周末在高速公路和城市上的驾驶时间和距离。 Life Schedule [0055] (1) driver: weekday, weekend driving time and distance on the highway and city.

[0056] (2)充电策略:电池充电前电池剩余的最少电量,值是一个百分比。 [0056] (2) charging strategy: the least amount of remaining battery before charging the battery is a percentage value.

[0057] (3)决策参考值:在驾驶实验中,驾驶员需要选择自己想要以高于限速多少英里/ 小时的速度行驶,与选项同时呈现的是相应的"若收到罚单的货币成本"以及"若未收到罚单获得的安全和时间上的收益"。 [0057] (3) decision reference values: driving test, the driver need to choose what you want higher than the speed limit how many miles / hour speed driving, while the options presented are appropriate "if the received ticket money cost "and" If you do not receive benefits "on security and time to get the tickets. 驾驶员通过综合考虑这两个因素决定在出现一个限速标志时新的驾驶速度,这个新的驾驶速度与限速的差值即为"决策参考值",单位为英里/小时。 Driver by considering these two factors in the emergence of a new speed limit signs when driving speed, the driving speed and the difference between the new speed limit is the "decision-making reference value", in miles / hour.

[0058] (4)人-电动车经验模型:体现驾驶员行为特征、电池配置和电池寿命之间的关系的公式。 [0058] (4) people - empirical models of electric vehicles: embodying features of driver behavior, the relationship between the battery configuration formula and battery life.

[0059] 为了使本发明的目的、技术方案及优点更加清楚明白,以下结合附图,对本发明进一步详细说明。 [0059] To make the objectives, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent hereinafter in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, the present invention is described in further detail. 应当理解,此处所描述的具体实施例仅仅用以解释本发明,并不用于限定本发明。 It should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are only intended to illustrate the present invention and are not intended to limit the present invention.

[0060] 律立理论樽铟 [0060] Li Law theory bottles indium

[0061] 根据上述发现,本发明一个实施例中提供一种理论模型来计算电动车锂电池的寿命。 [0061] The embodiment provides a theoretical model to calculate the lifetime of the lithium battery electric vehicles found, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. 如图1所述,其中连接符号始端的因素值的变化会导致连接符号末端因素值的变化。 As shown in FIG 1, wherein the values ​​of variables connected to the starting end of the sign factor values ​​lead to a change of the connection terminal symbol. 该模型的建立过程为如下: The model building process is as follows:

[0062] 1.连接(H),日常驾驶数据与能量消耗的关系: [0062] 1. Connect (H), the daily energy consumption data driving relationship:

[0063] 当加速度为负值和非负值时车辆运动所需的功率可分别用Peterson (Peterson, SB , J. Apt,and J. ffhitacre, Lithium-ion battery cell degradation resulting from realistic vehicle and vehicle-to-grid utilization. Journal of Power Sources, 2010. 195(8) :p. 2385-2392.)等人提出的公式6和7描述,如下述公式6、7 : [0063] When the acceleration is negative and non-negative values ​​of the desired movement of the vehicle when power can be respectively Peterson (Peterson, SB, J. Apt, and J. ffhitacre, Lithium-ion battery cell degradation resulting from realistic vehicle and vehicle- to-grid utilization Journal of Power Sources, 2010. 195 (8):... equation p 2385-2392), who proposed 6 and 7 is described as the following equation 6 and 7:

Figure CN103033752BD00081

[0066] 其中,P表示电动汽车运动功率消耗(单位是w),m表示质量(单位是Kg),a表示车辆加速度(单位是m/s2),P海平面空气每立方米大致空气重量(单位是Kg/m3),V表示速度,(^表示车辆的阻力系数,A表示车辆迎风面积(单位是m 2),C"表示轮胎滚动阻力的无量纲系数,g表示重力加速度(单位是m/s2)。 [0066] where, P represents the electric power consumption of the vehicle movement (in a w), m represents the mass (in units of Kg), a represents the vehicle acceleration (unit is m / s2), P per cubic meter of air at sea level generally the weight of air ( units Kg / m3), V represents the speed, (^ denotes the drag coefficient of the vehicle, a represents the frontal area of ​​the vehicle (in units of 2 m), C "represents the dimensionless coefficient of rolling resistance of the tire, g represents gravitational acceleration (in m / s2).

[0067] 上述小写p电表示电动车运动功率消耗,当汽车加速度为负时,使用公式6,加速度为非负时,使用公式7。 [0067] The lower case p represents the electric power consumption of the electric vehicle movement, when the vehicle acceleration is negative, the equation 6, when the non-negative acceleration using Equation 7. 下述内容中,大写P表示汽车电池组输出功率。 Following, P represents uppercase automotive battery output power. 其中电池组输出功率包括汽车运动消耗P,以及与车辆运动无关的设备的功率消耗。 Wherein the battery pack comprises a power output Motorsport consumption power consumption P, irrespective of the vehicle, and motion of the device.

[0068] 根据Peterson等人的研究,可以得到: [0068] According to Peterson, et al., Can be obtained:

[0069] m = 1590kg,P = I. 23kg/m3, Cd= 0· 28,A = 2. 67m2, Crr= 0· 01,g = 9. 8m/s 2。 [0069] m = 1590kg, P = I. 23kg / m3, Cd = 0 · 28, A = 2. 67m2, Crr = 0 · 01, g = 9. 8m / s 2.

[0070] 则基于公式6/7可以在已知车辆的速度/加速度数据后计算功率和能量的消耗。 [0070] 6/7 may calculate the power and energy consumption in the known vehicle speed / acceleration based on the formula data.

[0071] 2.连接(E),能量消耗与SOC的关系: [0071] 2. The connector (E), the relationship between energy consumption and the SOC:

[0072] SOC表示荷电状态或充电状态,等于电池中的剩余量电量除以电池充满电时的电量。 [0072] SOC represents the state of charge or the state of charge, an amount equal to the battery remaining amount is divided by the time of power battery is fully charged.

[0073] 3.连接(D),SOC与电压的关系: [0073] 3. The connector (D), the relationship between SOC and voltage:

[0074] 电池开环电压包括电池输出电压和电池内部阻抗消耗的电压。 [0074] The open circuit voltage comprises a voltage battery output voltage and the battery internal impedance of the battery consumption.

[0075] 电池开环电压很大部分取决与电池的S0C,开环电压可以由公式18计算: [0075] The battery open-circuit voltage of the battery depends much of S0C, open-circuit voltage can be calculated from Equation 18:

[0076] Uocvr = -I. 031e 35XS0C+3. 658+0. 2156XSOC [0076] Uocvr = -I. 031e 35XS0C + 3. 658 + 0. 2156XSOC

[0077] -0. 1178XS0C2+0. 321X SOC3 (18) [0077] -0. 1178XS0C2 + 0. 321X SOC3 (18)

[0078] 电池输出电压可以用公式19表示,单电池在负载条件下的工作电压为: [0078] The output voltage of the battery 19 can be represented by the formula, the cell operating voltage under load conditions as follows:

Figure CN103033752BD00091

[0080] 其中,Ucip'表示单电池在负载条件下的工作电压(单位是volt),U_'表示单电池的开环电压(单位是volt),"表示单电池的电流(放电时">0),ZJ表示电池内阻抗。 [0080] wherein, Ucip 'represents a single battery voltage under load (units of volt), U_' represents a single cell open circuit voltage (in units of volt), "represents a single cell current (discharge"> 0 ), ZJ indicate the battery impedance.

[0081] 那么,电池组输出电压可以用公式9表示: [0081] Then, the output voltage of the battery 9 can be represented by the formula:

Figure CN103033752BD00092

[0083] 其中,Ucip表示电池组在负载条件下的工作电压(单位是volt),U_表示电池组的开环电压(单位是volt),I表示电池组的电流(放电时U > 0),Zq表示电池组内阻抗。 [0083] wherein, Ucip represents the operating voltage of the battery under load (units of volt), U_ represents the open circuit voltage of the battery pack (units of volt), I represents a (U discharging> 0) current of the battery pack , Zq represents the impedance of the battery pack.

[0084] 公式19中电池等效内部阻抗由一个串联电阻(RsctiJ,两个RC网络(包括R TMnslent_ s? ^Transient s? ^Transient 1和C TranslOTt_J组成,这些值依赖于电池的SOC并且可以通过由实验得出的经验公式计算,详见公式8 : Equivalent internal battery [0084] Equation 19 consists of a series impedance resistor (RsctiJ, two RC networks (including R TMnslent_ s? ^ Transient s? ^ Transient 1 and C TranslOTt_J composition, these values ​​are dependent on the SOC of the battery and can be calculated from the experimentally derived empirical formula, see formula 8:

Figure CN103033752BD00093

[0086] 从公式8可知Ze/依赖于电池的S0C。 [0086] apparent from equation 8 Ze / S0C rely on battery. 另外,从下面的描述中可知U是由电池功率和工作电压决定的。 Further, U is determined by the apparent power and the operating voltage of the battery from the following description. 综上,U。 In summary, U. /即单电池在负载条件下的工作电压依赖电池的S0C。 / Work i.e. the cell voltage under load dependent cell S0C.

[0087] 4.连接(F),能量消耗、电压与电流的关系: [0087] 4. The connector (F.), Power consumption, voltage and current relationships:

[0088] 从下述公式9我们可以发现电池的电流是由电池功率和工作电压决定的: [0088] 9 we can see from the following formula is determined by the battery current and the operating voltage of the battery power:

Figure CN103033752BD00094

[0090] 其中,参数V表示单电池的输出功率,Ucip'表示单电池在负载条件下的工作电压,U表示单电池的电流(放电时U >0)。 [0090] where the parameter V represents the output power of the cell, Ucip 'represents a single battery voltage under load conditions, U denotes (U discharging> 0) of the cell current.

[0091] 如果我们假设在电池组中串联的电池数为n,那么可以通过公式10得到电流值: [0091] If we assume that the number of cells in series in the battery pack is n, then the current value can be obtained by the equation 10:

Figure CN103033752BD00095

[0093] 其中,P表示电池组的输出功率,Ucip表示电池组在负载条件下的工作电压,I表示电池组的电流(放电时I > 0),η表示电池组中串联电池数,IT ^表示单电池在负载条件下的工作电压。 [0093] where, P denotes the output power of the battery pack, Ucip indicates battery operating voltage under load conditions, I represents the current (discharge I> 0) of the battery pack, η represents the battery in series in the number of cells, IT ^ It represents a single battery voltage under load conditions.

[0094] 5.连接(C),电压、电流和产生的热量的关系: [0094] 5. The connector (C), the voltage, current and heat generated by the relationship:

[0095] 电池产生的热量取决于电池的放电过程,见公式5 : [0095] The heat generated during discharge of the battery depends on the battery, as shown in Equation 5:

Figure CN103033752BD00101

[0097] 其中,U表示单电池产生的热量(单位是Kg/m3),U表示单电池的电流(放电时"> 〇)(单位是A),U。。/表示单电池的开环电压(单位是volt),U。/单电池在负载条件下的工作电压(单位是volt),T表示电池的工作温度(单位是°(:)。 [0097] wherein, U represents the heat generated in the unit cells (the unit is Kg / m3), U represents a single cell current (discharge "> square) (units A), U ../ represents the open circuit voltage of the cell (units of volt), U. / operating voltage of a single cell under load (units of volt), T represents a cell operating temperature (unit is ° (:).

[0098] 因此我们可以得到电池组的产热率〗。 [0098] Therefore, we can obtain a heat rate of the battery pack〗. 当电池组的开环电压变换率难以获得时,公式5的微分部分可以被忽略。 When the conversion rate of the open circuit voltage of the battery is difficult to obtain, a differential equation 5 may be ignored. 这样,简化后的电池组产热率可以从公式11获得: Thus, heat generation of the battery pack can be obtained from the simplified formula 11:

Figure CN103033752BD00102

[0100] 其中,纟表示电池组的产热率,I表示电池组的电流(放电时I > 0),1]。 [0100] where Si represents the heat generation of the battery, I represents the current (discharge I> 0), 1] of the battery pack. "表示电池组的开环电压,Ucip表示电池组在负载条件下的工作电压。 "Represents the open circuit voltage of the battery pack, Ucip indicates battery operating voltage under load conditions.

[0101] 6.连接(I),电流与放电率之间的关系: [0101] 6. The connector (I), the relationship between the current rate of discharge:

[0102] 放电率C用来表示电池放电时电流大小的比率,即倍率。 [0102] C is used to indicate the ratio of the discharge rate of the battery discharge current magnitude, i.e., rate. 如1200mAh的电池,0. 2C 表示放电电流为240mA(1200mAh的0. 2倍率),IC表示1200mA(1200mAh的1倍率)。 The battery 1200mAh, 0. 2C represents the discharge current of 240mA (1200mAh magnification of 0.2), IC represents 1200mA (1200mAh magnification of 1).

[0103] 7.连接(G),电池产生的热量与电池工作温度的关系: [0103] 7. The connector (G), and the heat generated by the battery cell operating temperatures of the relationship:

[0104] 大功率输出的锂电池会产生大量的热,这会导致电池温度的剧烈升高,从而对电池造成危害,因此电池中包括热量管理模块。 Lithium [0104] The power output will generate a lot of heat, which can lead to dramatic increase in the battery temperature, thereby causing harm to the battery, the battery module includes a thermal management. 热量管理系统的作用是给电池组提供一个最佳的平均温度和均匀分布的温度。 Effect thermal management system is to provide an optimal temperature and average temperature uniformly distributed to the battery pack. 电动车中的这个模块也可以使电池的温度保持在一个最佳平均值上,从而不会缩短电池寿命。 This electric vehicle may be the temperature of the battery module is maintained at an optimum average value, so as not to shorten the battery life.

[0105] Pesaran(Pesaran, AA , BATTERY THERMAL MANAGEMENT IN EV ANDHEVS:ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS. BATTERY MAN,2001.43(5) :p. 34-49.)研究了在一个模块中不断产生的热量的瞬态温度上升,他使用了空气冷却模块,实验结果表明产生的热量、放电率和热容量对温度上升的影响。 [0105] Pesaran (Pesaran, AA, BATTERY THERMAL MANAGEMENT IN EV ANDHEVS: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS BATTERY MAN, 2001.43 (5):... P 34-49) studied the transient temperature of heat generated in a module is increased continuously he uses the heat in the air cooling module, the experimental results show that the resulting influence of the heat capacity and the discharge rate of temperature rise. 不断产生的热量、放电率或小热容电池会产生更大的温度升高。 Heat is continuously generated, the discharge rate of the battery or a small heat capacity leads to greater temperature rise. 这些解释了从方框"热容"到"工作温度"的连接(G),和从方框"放电率"和"产生的热"到方框"工作温度"的连接(G)。 These explanations from the block "heat capacity" to the "working temperature" connection (G), and the block "the discharge rate" and the "heat generation" block to the "working temperature" connection (G).

[0106] 因此我们可以从Pesaran的数据得到这些相关因素之间的线性关系,即发明人总结出公式12 : [0106] Therefore, we can obtain a linear relationship between these factors from Pesaran data, i.e., the inventors summed Equation 12:

Figure CN103033752BD00103

[0110] 其中,T表示电池的工作温度,Tinitla^示电池工作过程的初始温度,可简化为环境温度,AT表示电池组工作时升高的温度,C表示电池一次连续工作时间,C表示电池放电率,At表示相关仪器记录驾驶数据的时间间隔,N表示一个电池组中的电池数,C p表示电池的热容。 [0110] where, T is the operating temperature of the battery, Tinitla ^ initial temperature operation of the cell illustrated, simplified to ambient temperature, the AT indicates an elevated operating temperature of the battery group, C represents a continuous battery operation time, C indicates that the battery discharge rate, At represents the correlation time of the recording device driving data interval, N denotes the number of cells in a battery pack, C p denotes the heat capacity of the battery.

[0111] 通过Pesaran提供的实验结果,我们估计了回归系数ta,tt,t R,%和te的值,它们分别为〇. 0339,0. 004,0. 001,2. 385和-0. 004。 [0111] The experimental results provided Pesaran, we estimate ta, tt, t R, and the values ​​of te% of regression coefficients, which are square. 0339,0. 004,0. 001,2. 385 and -0. 004. 在SPSS的线性回归分析结果中调整的R平方值为0.842。 SPSS adjusted in the linear regression analysis of the R-squared value of 0.842.

[0112] 由于Pesaran仅应用空气冷却模块进行试验,我们假定不同冷却模块会产生不同的热衰减。 [0112] Since only the air cooling module Pesaran application test, we assume different cooling modules may have different thermal decay. 我们在公式12中增加一项Aheat用来表示不同类型冷却模块相对于空气冷却模块产生的热衰减差异,见公式13。 We Aheat an increase in Equation 12 is used to indicate different types of modules with respect to the hot cooling air generated by the attenuation differences cooling module, as shown in Equation 13. Aheat的单位是W/cell。 Aheat unit is W / cell.

Figure CN103033752BD00111

[0115] 8.连接(J),电池的工作温度与电池寿命之间的关系: [0115] 8. The connector (J), the relationship between the operating temperature of the battery and battery life:

[0116] Ramadass (Ramadass, P. , et al. , Capacity fade of Sony 18650cells cycled at elevated temperatures::Part I. Cycling performance. Journal of Power Sources, 2002. 112(2) :p. 606-613. )(Ramadass, P. , et al., Capacity fade of Sony 18650cells cycled at elevated temperatures::Part II. Capacity fade analysis. Journal of Power Sources,2002. 112(2) :p. 614-620.)等人做过一个Sony 18650 (1800mAh)锂电池温度升高45-55°C时充放电循环的完整的容量衰减分析,他们在研究中阐明800次充放电周期后,单电池会在25°(:和45°(:时失去31%和36%的初始容量。电池在50°(:充放电600次后会失去超过60 %的初始容量,在55 °C充放电500次后会失去70 %的初始容量。 [0116] Ramadass (. Ramadass, P., et al, Capacity fade of Sony 18650cells cycled at elevated temperatures :: Part I. Cycling performance Journal of Power Sources, 2002. 112 (2):.. P 606-613.) (Ramadass, P., et al, Capacity fade of Sony 18650cells cycled at elevated temperatures :: Part II Capacity fade analysis Journal of Power Sources, 2002 112 (2):...... p 614-620), who do after Sony 18650 had a complete charge-discharge cycle capacity fade analysis (1800mAh) lithium battery temperature rises 45-55 ° C, they clarify 800 charge and discharge cycles in the study, the cell will be at 25 ° (: 45 and loses 31% and 36% of the initial capacity of the battery at 50 ° (:: ° (. after the charge and discharge 600 times will lose more than 60% of the initial capacity, at 55 ° C 500 charging cycles will lose 70% of the initial capacity .

[0117] 我们可以得出结论,更长的经过的时间和更高的工作温度会导致电池更多的容量损失。 [0117] we can conclude that the longer the elapsed time and higher operating temperatures will cause more battery capacity loss. 如果我们用电池充满电后的电容量来表示它的寿命,那么电池的寿命在更高的放电温度下会损失的更快。 Capacity after the battery is fully charged if we are to represent its life, the battery life at higher discharge temperatures will lose faster. 这就能解释从方框"工作温度"到"电池寿命"的连接(J)。 This could explain the connection block from the "working temperature" to "Battery life" in (J).

[0118] 根据Ramadass等人的研究,我们建立了公式14和15。 [01] According to Ramadass and others, we have established formulas 14 and 15.

Figure CN103033752BD00112

[0121] 其中,Cb,(^和Cn2是未定系数,Capacity(%)表示单电池被充满电后的能量与电池刚出场时充满电后的能量的比值,T表示电池的工作温度,彥示充放电周期数, LT(% )表示电池寿命与刚电池刚出厂时寿命的比值。 [0121] wherein, Cb, (^ and Cn2 are undetermined coefficients, Capacity (%) represents the ratio of the energy of a full charge, T is the battery operating temperature of the energy after the cell is fully charged and the battery just played, Yan shown number of charge-discharge cycles, LT (%) represents a ratio of battery life and the life of factory-fresh battery immediately.

[0122] 根据Ramadass提供的数据我们估计了Cb,4和C N2的值,并且在下面的公式16和17中用t · f^ging来代替N,得到公式16和17。 [0122] The data provided Ramadass we estimated value of Cb, and 4 C N2, and in the following formulas 16 and 17 by t · f ^ ging instead of N, we get Equation 16 and 17. 在SPSS的线性回归分析结果中,调整的R平方为〇. 805, P值为0. 000。 SPSS linear regression analysis of the results, the adjusted R-squared is square. 805, P value is 0.000.

[0123] capacity (%)= 167. 583-1. 264T-0. 097 · t · f (16) [0123] capacity (%) = 167. 583-1. 264T-0. 097 · t · f (16)

[0124] LT(%)= 167. 583-1. 264T-0. 097 · t · f (17) [0124] LT (%) = 167. 583-1. 264T-0. 097 · t · f (17)

[0125] 9.连接(A),能量消耗与充放电频率的关系: [0125] 9. The connector (A), the relationship between energy consumption and the discharge frequency:

[0126] 电池电量减少到某一预定的阈值(与驾驶员的性格有关,不同的驾驶员有不同的阈值)时将会为其充电。 Charging will reduce its [0126] battery power to a predetermined threshold value (the driver related to the character, different drivers have different threshold). 因为我们可以基于驾驶员在驾驶过程中的速度和加速度数据来计算行驶中的能量消耗,也就可以获取每天行驶后电池中的剩余电量。 Because we can based on the velocity and acceleration data of the driver in driving the process to calculate the energy consumption of traveling, it can acquire the remaining charge in the battery after driving every day. 一旦剩余电量少于预定的阈值时,驾驶员会选择为电池充电。 Once the remaining power is less than a predetermined threshold value, the driver may choose to charge the battery. 这样,就可以得到一个特定时间段内的充放电频率。 Thus, the charging and discharging frequency can be obtained in a specific time period.

[0127] 通过经过的时间长度和充放电频率可以计算得出充放电周期数,即时间长度乘以充放电频率等于充放电周期数。 [0127] can be calculated by passing through the charge-discharge cycles and charge-discharge length of time frequency, i.e. the length of time multiplied by the charging and discharging frequency is equal to the number of charge-discharge cycles. 其中,经过的时间即为电池从出厂到计算电池周期数时经过的时间长度。 Wherein the elapsed time is the length of time elapsed when the battery cell number from the factory to the computing cycle.

[0128] 10.连接(B),充放电频率与电池寿命的关系: [0128] 10. The connector (B), the relationship between the frequency of charging and discharging the battery life:

[0129] Takeno(Takeno, K. , et al. , Influence of cycle capacity deterioration and storage capacity deterioration on Li-ion batteries used in mobile phones. Journal of Power Sources,2005. 142(1-2) :p. 298-305.)等人研究过移动电话中裡电池的循环能量衰退和存储能量衰退。 [0129] Takeno (Takeno, K., et al, Influence of cycle capacity deterioration and storage capacity deterioration on Li-ion batteries used in mobile phones Journal of Power Sources, 2005 142 (1-2):... P 298. -305.), who studied in the mobile phone battery recycling energy storage and energy recession recession. 他们发现当电池的充放电周期长度减小,电池能量的减少率增大。 They found that when the battery charge and discharge cycle length decreases, the battery power reduction rate is increased. 也就是说经过同样的时间,电池能量的下降会随着充放电周期数成比例增长。 That is the same elapsed time, battery power will decrease with increase of the number of charge and discharge cycles proportional. 见公式1 : See Equation 1:

Figure CN103033752BD00121

[0131] 其中,capacity表示单电池被充满电后的能量与电池刚出场时充满电后的能量的比值(%),f表示充放电频率,表示充放电周期数。 [0131] wherein, after the energy Capacity represents a single cell battery is fully charged and the ratio of energy just played full charge (%), f represents the frequency of charge and discharge, the charge-discharge cycle number represents.

[0132] 通过Takeno的实验数据,我们估计了公式1中参数Ca,Cf,C ni的值。 [0132] Takeno by experimental data, we estimate a parameter Ca, Cf, the value of C ni formula. 在SPSS的线性回归分析结果中,调整后R2的值为0.920, P值为0.000。 SPSS linear regression analysis of the results, adjusted R2 value of 0.920, P = 0.000. 其中,R 2为判定系数或者测定系数,定义为回归平方和与总平方和的商,表示回归自变量对因变量的拟合程度的好坏。 Wherein, R 2 is the coefficient of determination or determining factor, defined as the sum of squares regression with the total sum of squares of providers, independent variables indicating the degree of regression fit is good or bad on the dependent variable. P 值就是当原假设为真时所得到的样本观察结果或更极端结果出现的概率,P值越小,表明结果越显著。 P value is the null hypothesis when true sample observation probability of the obtained results or appears more extreme, the smaller the P value, the more significant the results show. P <0.05,回归模型具有统计学意义。 P <0.05, statistically significant regression model. 因为这个线性模型可以很好的描述电池能量、充放电时间和充放电周期数之间的关系,我们将这个线性模型应用在电动车电池上。 Because the linear model can describe the energy battery, charge and discharge time and the charge-discharge cycle number of the relationship between, the linear model will be used in electric vehicle batteries.

[0133] 如果我们用t · f代替Nw假定电池充电完全后的电量可以表示电池剩余的寿命,公式1就可以被改写为公式2 : [0133] If we assume that t · f Nw replaced after the battery is fully charged battery may indicate the remaining life of the battery, Equation 1 can be rewritten as Equation 2:

Figure CN103033752BD00122

[0136] 其中,capacity(% )表示电池寿命与刚电池刚出厂时寿命的比值(% ),f表示充放电频率,t表示经过的时间(即为电池从出厂到计算电池周期数时经过的时间长度)。 [0136] wherein, capacity (%) represents a ratio of life (%) of battery life and the battery immediately shipped from the factory, f denotes the frequency of charge and discharge, t represents the elapsed time (i.e. the number of cells after cell cycle calculated from the factory to length of time).

[0137] 11.连接(K)(未示出),电流到过充/放电保护、电压到过充/放电保护、SOC到电池寿命、过充/放电保护到电池寿命: [0137] 11. The connector (K) (not shown), to the current overcharge / discharge protection, over-voltage to the charge / discharge protection, the SOC of the battery life, overcharge / discharge protection to the battery life:

[0138] 随着电动车的普及,避免电池的过充、放电和保证电池足够的SOC成为了保证电池有效使用的主要因素,电池的SOC估计在延长电池寿命和用户再次充电前显示可用电量方面其重要作用。 [0138] With the popularity of electric vehicles, to avoid excessive battery charging and discharging and to ensure a sufficient SOC of the battery has become a major factor to ensure efficient use of the battery, the battery SOC estimation terms of the available charge display before extending battery life, and user recharged its important role. Mills (Mills,A. and S. Al-Hallaj,Simulation of passive thermal management system for lithium-ion battery packs. Journal of Power Sources, 2005. 141(2) :p. 307-315.)等人通过"软"过充技术研究了锂电池的过充/放电。 Mills (. Mills, A and S. Al-Hallaj, Simulation of passive thermal management system for lithium-ion battery packs Journal of Power Sources, 2005. 141 (2):... P 307-315) and others by "soft "overcharge studied art lithium battery overcharge / discharge. 他们发现在达到150%容量的过充电后,锂电池会产生剧烈的、不可逆转的变化。 They found that the capacity after 150% overcharging, the lithium battery will produce severe, irreversible changes. 研究显示电池工作在过充/放电情况下,产生的热量和散热不相等时会发生热失控高过充/放电率会导致电池在短反应时间内热失控并产生大量的热。 Studies show in battery overcharge / discharge conditions, and the heat generated when the heat dissipation is equal to the thermal runaway would be higher than the charge / discharge rate and runaway heat can cause the battery to generate a lot of heat in a short reaction time.

[0139] 12.电池寿命预测理论模型: [0139] The battery life prediction theoretical models:

[0140] 从图中可以发现,对电池寿命的直接影响因素是充放电频率,工作温度以及经过时间。 [0140] It is found from the drawing, a direct impact on the battery life is a factor in the charging and discharging frequency, temperature and elapsed time. 电池的初始温度,开环电压,工作电压,工作电流,热管理模块以及热容会影响电池的工作温度。 The initial temperature of the battery, open circuit voltage, working voltage, current, heat capacity and thermal management module will affect the cell operating temperature. 而开环电压,工作电压和工作电流又被SOC所影响。 And the open circuit voltage, working voltage and current is in turn affected SOC.

[0141] 综上,电池的电量可用综合公式2和公式16得到的公式3来描述,其中T可由公式13获得。 [0141] In summary, the available power obtained integrated battery Equations 2 and 3 will be described Equation 16, Equation 13, where T may be obtained. 电池的剩余电量可用下述公式3来描述。 The remaining battery power available to the following formula 3 is described.

[0142] 对于公式3,在充电频率为f、电池工作温度为T的情况下,经过时间t后,可以计算得出电池被充满电后的能量与电池刚出厂时充满电后的能量的比值。 [0142] For Formula 3, the charging frequency is f, a case where the battery operating temperature T, the elapsed time t, can be calculated the ratio of the energy when the battery is fully charged and the battery power factory-fresh full charge stars . 我们认为当电池充满电后的电量已经无法提供被试(即实验中的被试者)一天驾驶所需能量时,电池寿命完结;某司机一天驾驶所需电池能量与电池刚出厂时充满电后的能量的比值将成为临界点, 并可以作为已知量来反求其他参数。 We believe that when the battery is fully charged after power has been unable to provide subjects (ie, subjects in the experiment) one day driving required energy, the battery end of life; when the battery is fully charged battery factory-fresh energy and a driver to drive for one day ratio of energy will be the critical point, and may be a known amount of reverse other parameters. 所以,如果已知充电频率为f、电池工作温度为T,某司机一天驾驶所需电池能量与电池刚出厂时充满电后的能量的比值Capacity(% ),即可求出电池寿命t。 Therefore, if the known charging frequency is f, the battery temperature is T, one day a driver driving energy ratio required full charge Capacity (%), the battery life can be obtained when the battery power and the battery t fresh from the factory.

Figure CN103033752BD00131

[0144] 公式3中,T表示电池的工作温度,t表示经过的时间(即为电池从出厂到计算电池周期数时经过的时间长度),f表示充放电频率,!^,^表示电池工作过程的初始温度(简化为环境温度),C表示电池一次连续工作时间,C表示电池放电率,彳表示电池组的产热率,At表示相关仪器记录驾驶数据的时间间隔,N表示一个电池组中的电池数,Aheat表示相对空气制冷模块,其他类型的冷却模块产生的热衰减差异,C p表示电池的热容。 In [0144] Equation 3, T represents the cell operating temperature, t represents the elapsed time (i.e. the length of time elapsed from the cell factory to calculate the number of cycles when the battery), f represents the frequency of charge and discharge,! ^, ^ Indicates that the battery the initial temperature of the process (to simplify the ambient temperature), C represents a battery a continuous operation time, C indicates the battery discharge rate, left foot showing heat generation rate of the battery pack, At represents the correlation instrument records the time of driving the data interval, N denotes a battery pack the number of cells, Aheat represents the relative air cooling module, other types of thermal cooling module is attenuated difference, C p denotes the heat capacity of the battery.

[0145] 至此,理论模型(即公式3)就建立完成了。 [0145] Thus, the theoretical model (ie, Equation 3) to establish complete.

[0146] 上述1-11步骤中所示出推导都是针对锂电池的,总结了关于锂电池的使用寿命的各参数的客观规律,因此具有通用性,所以根据上述1-11步骤所理论推导的公式3反映了锂电池使用寿命的客观规律,对于锂电池的应用具有普适性。 [0146] deriving the above steps 1-11 are shown for lithium batteries, lithium summarizes the objective law of various parameters on the life, so versatile, so that the above theoretical analysis steps 1-11 equation 3 reflects the objective law of life lithium battery, lithium battery for applications is universal. 本申请中,将该公式应用于锂电池电动车中。 In the present application, this formula is applied to lithium batteries in electric vehicles.

[0147] 在实验中,可以获取驾驶速度、加速度、驾驶时间。 [0147] In the experiment, the driver can obtain the speed, acceleration, driving time. 通过这些值,根据公式6、7可以得到每个被试在既定高速公路以及城市道路距离的条件下对电动车电池的能量消耗。 With these values, according to the formula 6,7 ​​can get under each subject in a given highway and from the city's road conditions on the energy consumption of electric vehicle batteries. 这样,我们就可以得到每一位被试在高速公路和城市道路上驾驶的平均功率(单位:W/ mile)。 In this way, we can get every subjects on the highway and city driving average power (unit: W / mile). 被试在接下来的问卷中会回答每天自己的真实驾驶距离,包括高速公路距离以及城市道路距离。 In the following subjects will answer questionnaires every day their true driving distance, including highways and urban roads from a distance. 通过之前计算的驾驶平均功率,可以计算得出每一位被试每天驾驶需要消耗的电池能量。 Driving through the previously calculated average power can be calculated every day is try to drive consumes battery power. 在驾驶结束后,所有被试还要回答"电池电量低于百分之多少以后,你会为电池充电"。 After driving end, all subjects have to answer "after the battery is below what percentage, you will charge the battery." 通过这个问题的答案,我们可以计算得出每一位被试每一次充电前已经消耗了多少能量,这个能量值除以被试每天消耗的能量即可得出每一位被试的充放电频率f。 By answer to this question, we can each be calculated for each trial on a single charge before how much energy has been consumed, the energy value divided by the subjects consumed daily energy can be derived every charge and discharge frequency of subjects f. 我们假设,当电池充满电后的电量已经无法提供被试一天驾驶所需能量时,这个电池的寿命结束。 We assume that when the battery is fully charged after power has been unable to provide the energy needed to test one day when driving, the end of the battery life. 被试一天驾驶所需能量值除以电池刚出厂充满电后的能量值即为公式3中的capaicity(% ),假定这个比值可以表示电池剩余可寿命与电池刚出厂时电池寿命的比值。 Is divided by the required energy battery factory-fresh full charge energy value is the equation 3 capaicity (%), assuming that the ratio of the ratio of remaining battery life of the battery can be factory-fresh battery life may represent one day test drive. 这样,当已知电池配置(:、1八以&丨、(;、环境温度1' 1@131、每次连续驾驶时间1、驾驶模拟器实时记录驾驶数据的时间间隔△ t时,我们可通过公式3或4求出电池寿命t。 Thus, when the cell configuration is known (:, 1 & Shu to eight, (ambient ;, 1 '@ 131 1, 1 with each successive driving time, driving simulator in real-time driving data recording time interval △ t, we can t is determined by equation 3 or 4 battery life.

[0148] 律立人-电动车经验樽铟 [0148] Liren law - the electric car experience indium bottles

[0149] 分析经验樽铟: [0149] Empirical Analysis indium bottles:

[0150] 人的性格对腿部肌肉(控制刹车和油门)速度控制的影响在之前不同的研究都得到了很好的建立,在多种性格库中,肌肉速度和性格之间的关系与不同行为范式中埃克森人格系统中的E和N量尺基本一致。 [0150] personality of the leg muscles (brake and throttle control) affect the speed control before the different studies have been well established in a variety of character library, the relationship between the speed and character of different muscles Exxon consistent behavior paradigm Personality system E and N ruler. Bachorowski和Newman (Bachorowski,JA and JP Newman,Impulsive motor behavior:Effects of personality and goal salience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,1990. 58(3) :p. 512-518.)曾报告说冲动的人(有E+和N+的特点)在一个要求缓慢控制运动的任务中比非冲动的(在两个尺度上都分数更低)人具有更快的肌肉运动速度。 Bachorowski and Newman (Bachorowski, JA and JP Newman, Impulsive motor behavior: Effects of personality and goal salience Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1990 58 (3):.... P 512-518) has reported an impulsive ( there are N + E + and characteristics) having a faster rate than non-motoric impulse (scores are lower in two dimensions) a person require slow motion control task. 而且当行为的结果被展现出来时,这种现象更加明显。 And when the result of the behavior is to show up, this phenomenon is more pronounced. 在Wu(C. Wu. and Zhao,G,Mathematical Modeling of Average Driver Speed Control and Individual Driver Differences with the Integration of Queuing Network-Model Human Processor and Rule-Based Decision Field Theory (Part I. Model Development), unpublished) (2010)等人的研究中,他们使用一个性格特点变量来体现人的冲动程度,或者说没有深思熟路就迅速行动的倾向。 In Wu (C. Wu. And Zhao, G, Mathematical Modeling of Average Driver Speed ​​Control and Individual Driver Differences with the Integration of Queuing Network-Model Human Processor and Rule-Based Decision Field Theory (Part I. Model Development), unpublished) study (2010) and others, they use a variable to reflect the character traits degree impulsive person, or do not have a tendency to ponder beaten track to act quickly. 也就是说司机的性格(冲动型,正常型,非冲动型)会影响司机的驾驶行为。 That driver's personality (impulsive type, normal, non-impulsive type) will affect driver behavior.

[0151] 实验中,所有被试都要完成一系列调查问卷。 [0151] In the experiment, all subjects must complete a series of questionnaires. 第一个调查问卷是用来获取被试的人口统计学基本情况(例如年龄,性别等)和驾驶经历(例如大致的累积驾驶里程,获取驾照的年份等)。 The first questionnaire was used to obtain the basic subjects of demographic situation (such as age, gender, etc.) and driving experience (for example, substantially cumulative driving range, get a driver's license of the year, etc.). 然后他们将要建立一个主观价值矩阵。 Then they will establish a subjective value matrix. 矩阵中每个元素的值代表了每一个驾驶速度对被试的价值。 Value of each element of the matrix represents the value of each of the driving speed of the subjects. 与每个速度选择一起呈现的是收到罚单的货币成本,以及若没有收到罚单所获得的安全和时间上的收益。 With each speed selection is presented with the cost of money receive a ticket, and if does not receive income on security and time tickets are available. 最后根据修订后埃克森人格问卷(EPQR-S) 将所有被试分成三类:正常(测试结果为E+和N-,或E-和N+,共计6人);冲动型(测试结果为E+和N+,共计3人);非冲动型(测试结果为E-和N-,共计三人)(注:埃克森人格测试问卷已在全世界使用35年以上,是测量人类性格的标准问卷/量表,它测量人类的性格均有较高的信度(先后测的稳定性高)和效度(有效反映不同性格类型),其所测得的结果可同时得到多种实验心理学研究的印证,早在1981年已有中国修订版,详见: Hans Jilrgen Eysenck&Sybil BG Eysenck(1975). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. London:Hodder and Stoughton)〇 Finally, according to the revised Houaikesen Personality Questionnaire (EPQR-S) all the subjects divided into three categories: normal (test results E + and N-, E- and or N +, 6 total); impulse (test results E + and N +, a total of three people); non-impulsive type (test results for E- and N-, a total of three) (Note: Exxon personality test questionnaire has been used for more than 35 years in the world, is a measure of the standard of human personality questionnaire / scale, which measures human character has a higher degree of channel (measured has high stability) and validity (effectively reflect the different character types), their measured results can be obtained at the same time a variety of experimental psychology research the proof, as early as 1981, China has revised edition, see: Hans Jilrgen Eysenck & Sybil BG Eysenck (1975) Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire London:.. Hodder and Stoughton) billion

[0152] 在实际生活中,驾驶员自己决定的开车速度往往不等于该道路的限速。 [0152] In real life, the driver decided to drive their own speed is often not equal to the speed limit of the road. 因此,在驾驶实验中,驾驶员需要选择自己想要以高于限速多少英里/小时的速度行驶,与选项同时呈现的是相应的"若收到罚单的货币成本"以及"若未收到罚单获得的安全和时间上的收益"。 Therefore, in the driving test, the driver need to choose what you want higher than the speed limit how many miles / hour speed driving, while the options presented is a corresponding "received a ticket if the cost of money," and "If you do not receive income "on the security and time to get the tickets. 驾驶员通过综合考虑这两个因素决定在出现一个限速标志时决定的自己汽车的驾驶速度(比如100英里/小时),这个驾驶员自己决定的驾驶速度与限速(比如85英里/小时)的差值即为"决策参考值"(DMR),单位为英里/小时(可转换成公里/小时)。 Driver by considering these two factors determine the car's own driving speed (such as 100 miles / hour) when a speed limit sign appears, the driving speed and the speed limit the driver's own decision (such as 85 miles / hour) the difference is the "decision-making reference value" (DMR), in miles / hour (which can be converted into km / h). 另外, 驾驶员在实验中需要提供个人的生活日程,即工作日、周末在高速公路和城市上的驾驶时间和距离。 In addition, the driver in the experiment need to provide personal life agenda, namely weekday, weekend driving time and distance on the highway and city. 也就是说司机的决策参考值也会影响司机的驾驶行为。 That driver's decision-making reference value will also affect driver behavior.

[0153] 除了驾驶行为影响电池寿命,充电策略、电池配置和生活日程将影响电池的寿命。 [0153] In addition to driving behavior affect battery life, charging strategy, configuration and battery life schedule will affect battery life. 假设驾驶员工作日在高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离为D hd和D ud,周末在高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离为Dhe和D ^综上所述,可以提出下述经验模型: It assumed that the driver weekday driving distance on motorways and urban roads for the D hd and D ud, weekend driving on the highway and urban road distance Dhe and D ^ summary, we can propose the following empirical model:

[0154] Lifetime = paXPersonality+pbXDMR+pcXCharging+pdXCp+pdX Aheat [0154] Lifetime = paXPersonality + pbXDMR + pcXCharging + pdXCp + pdX Aheat

[0155] +pf X N+ph X Timtlal+pi X Dhd+pj X Dud+pkX Dhe+pl X Due [0155] + pf X N + ph X Timtlal + pi X Dhd + pj X Dud + pkX Dhe + pl X Due

[0156] 其中,personality表示性格,DMR表示决策参考值,Charging表示充电策略,C p表示电池热容,A heat表示热衰减差异,N表示电池组中单电池个数,!^,^表示环境温度,Dhd 和Dud表示驾驶员工作日在高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离,D he和D ue表示驾驶员周末在高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离,pa~pi表示系数。 [0156] wherein, Personality represents a character, the DMR decision represents the reference value, represents Charging charging strategy, C p denotes the heat capacity of the battery, A heat difference represents thermal decay, N denotes the number of battery cells in the battery pack,! ^, ^ Represents the environment temperature, Dhd and Dud indicates that the driver weekday driving on highways and urban roads distance, D he and D ue indicates that the driver weekend driving on highways and urban roads distance, pa ~ pi represents a coefficient.

[0157] 实验环境和实验讨稈: [0157] experimental environment and experimental discuss stalk:

[0158] 实验中使用STISIM®驾驶模拟器(STism)RIVE M100K,Systems Technology Inc,Hawthorne,CA)。 [0158] STISIM® driving simulator used in the experiment (STism) RIVE M100K, Systems Technology Inc, Hawthorne, CA). 它包括一个有力反馈的Logitech M〇m〇®方向盘,一个油门踏板和一个刹车踏板。 It includes a powerful feedback Logitech M〇m〇® steering wheel, a gas pedal and a brake pedal. 油门踏板的静止位置为38. 2° (踏板表面和地面的角度),最大油门输入角度为15. 2°。 The rest position of the accelerator pedal 38. 2 ° (angle to the ground and the tread surface), the maximum throttle angle input 15. 2 °. 刹车踏板的静止位置为60. Γ,最大刹车输入角度为28.6°。 The rest position of the brake pedal 60. Γ, the maximum angle of the brake input 28.6 °. 此外,驾驶场景显示在一个27英寸1920 X 1200像素分辨率的IXD显示器上。 In addition, the driving scene is displayed on a 27 inches 1920 X 1200 pixel resolution display IXD. 驾驶模拟器可以在实验过程中自动采集行为数据,这些数据有:时间(秒),速度(英尺/秒),加速度(英尺/秒2)和距离(英尺)。 Driving simulator behavior data may be automatically acquired in the course of the experiment, the data are: Time (seconds) Speed ​​(ft / sec), acceleration (ft / sec 2) and distance (feet). 这些数据可以用来计算电池的输出功率和S0C。 These data can be used to calculate the output power and the battery S0C.

[0159] 实验场景为一个模拟的一车道(每个方向)环境,包括城市道路和高速公路,其中没有其他车辆、行人或道路标示(例如停止标志)。 [0159] experimental scene as a simulation of a lane (in each direction) environment, including urban roads and highways, where there are no other vehicles, pedestrians or road signs (such as a stop sign). 据报道美国平均单程通勤时间为26 分钟(平均距离为16英里)。 It is reported that the US average one-way commute time of 26 minutes (average distance of 16 miles). 因此被试者需要在实验中驾驶16英里。 Thus subjects were required to drive 16 miles in the experiment. 还有报道称在美国55%的汽油消耗在城市道路上,45%在高速公路上。 There are reports that 55 percent of US gasoline consumption on city roads, 45% on the highway. 为了模拟一般性的通勤个案,场景顺序依次为30 %城市道路,45 %高速公路,最后为25 %城市道路。 In order to simulate the general commuter case, the scene in the order of 30% of urban roads and 45% highway, 25% city last road. 限速为城市道路30mph,高速公路45mph,限速会出现在司机前方200英尺的位置。 Speed ​​limit for urban roads 30mph, highways 45mph, the speed limit will be 200 feet in front of the driver's position. 被试者被要求同真实驾驶一样在见到限速标志时调整速度。 Subjects were asked to rate the same as adjusted in real time to drive to see the speed limit sign. 另外,整个实验场景的场景密度一直保持一致。 In addition, the density of the entire scene scene of the experiment has been consistent.

[0160] 为了计算电池在驾驶过程中被消耗了多少能量,我们假定车辆具有2008年丰田卡美瑞的物理特性:质量1588kg (35001bs),drag系数为0. 28,车辆迎风面积为2. 7m2。 [0160] In order to calculate the battery while driving how much energy is consumed, we assumed that the vehicle has a 2008 Toyota Camry card physical characteristics: quality 1588kg (35001bs), drag coefficient of 0.28, the frontal area of ​​the vehicle is 2. 7m2 . 轮胎的无量纲滚动阻力系数为〇. 01,这个系数把阻力作为一个法向力和运动联系了起来。 Tire rolling resistance coefficient is dimensionless billion. 01, the coefficient of the resistance as a normal force and movement link up. 通过再生制动向电池传输的能量假定为40%,从电池到方向盘的传输效率为80%。 Assuming the battery by regenerative braking to the energy transfer is 40%, transmission efficiency from the steering wheel to the battery is 80%. 电池组能量假定为16kWh(即雪佛兰公司生产的Volt)。 The battery pack is assumed to 16kWh of energy (i.e. produced by Chevrolet Volt). 空气密度取自于美国海平面标准大气密度。 In U.S. sea level air density from the standard atmospheric density. 我们在电动车上加载一个800W的恒定负载,用来表示与车辆运动无关的各项活动,例如暖风、空调,照明和其他附件。 We load a constant load of 800W electric car, used to represent activities not related to the movement of the vehicle, such as heaters, air conditioning, lighting and other accessories. 当加速度为负值和非负值时车辆运动所需的能量可用上述公式6和7来描述。 When the energy required for the acceleration is negative and non-negative values ​​when the vehicle is moving from the above formula 6 and 7 will be described.

[0161] 此后,被试者将回答电动车的电量减少到多少时他们一定会为电池充电。 [0161] Thereafter, the subjects answered the electric vehicle battery to reduce how much they will charge the battery. 因为我们可以基于被试者在驾驶过程中的速度和加速度数据来计算每个被试在通勤过程中的能量消耗,每天通勤后电池中的剩余电量也就可以被获取。 Because we can based on the velocity and acceleration data subjects while driving to calculate each subject in the process of commuting energy consumption, battery charge remaining can also be acquired after commuting every day. 一点剩余电量少于被试者一定会充电的电量值,被试者一定会选择为电池充电。 A little less than the remaining power amount will be charged the value of the subject, the subject will choose to charge the battery.

[0162] 每一位被试都将提供他们的生活日程,包括工作日的通勤距离和时间,工作日和周末除通勤外的驾驶活动,和每月及每年的生活日程,例如是否会在特定的日子驾车旅游。 [0162] Every subjects will provide a schedule of their lives, including commuting distance and time of the working day, weekdays and weekends except for commuter driving activities, and monthly and annual schedule of life, such as whether a particular day driving tour. 我们在实验中尽可能详细的收集被试的驾驶数据,以此来建立他们每年的驾驶数据大致的框架。 We try to gather detailed driving data subjects in the experiment, in order to establish a general framework for their annual driving data.

[0163] 根据个案研究中计算的能量消耗,以及被试者的充电策略和生活日程,我们可以获取模拟的电池寿命。 [0163] According to a case study in computing energy consumption, as well as the subject's life and charging policy agenda, we can get a simulated battery life.

[0164] 确宙经验公式: [0164] universe indeed empirical formula:

[0165] (1)验证理论樽铟: [0165] (1) To verify the theoretical indium bottles:

[0166] 在本发明的一个实施例中,结合上述实验环境,根据公式3计算电池寿命t,模拟的电池寿命见表1。 [0166] In one embodiment of the invention, in combination with the above-described experimental environment, according to Equation 3 in Table 1 calculates the battery life t, simulated battery life.

[0167] 因为TimtlaJP AHeat会持续变化,电池的工作温度很难计算,我们简单的假设电池的热管理模块可以将电池的工作温度保持在恒定水平。 [0167] continues to change as TimtlaJP AHeat, the operating temperature of the battery is difficult to calculate, we assume a simple thermal management module of the battery cell operating temperature may be maintained at a constant level. ! ^,^被假定为30°C,Cp = 1000. 4J/kg/K,Aheat = I. 33W/cell,N = 200。 ^, ^ Is assumed to be 30 ° C, Cp = 1000. 4J / kg / K, Aheat = I. 33W / cell, N = 200. 在实验中,假设高速公路驾驶距离为7. 2 英里,城市道路驾驶距离为8. 8英里,每位被试驾驶距离均相同。 In the experiment, it is assumed highway driving distance is 7.2 miles, city driving distance is 8.8 miles, per drive distance are the same subjects. 假设如果电池充满电后的电量不能维持一天通勤的能量消耗,此电池就必须被更换,即寿命终止。 If you assume that the battery is fully charged battery can not maintain the energy consumption of one day commuting, this battery must be replaced, terminated life. 我们用一天通勤总共消耗电池能量E除以电池出厂充满电时的电量得到公式3中Capacity (%)的值。 We commute one day total energy E divided by the power consumption of the battery when the battery is fully charged the factory to get the value of Capacity (%) Equation 3. 将电池配置和温度代入公式3可计算得到电池寿命t。 The configuration and temperature of the battery 3 into the equation to obtain calculated battery life t. 在分析过程中,性格因素被量化,具体来说,用_1,〇和1依次代表非冲动型,正常和冲动型。 During the analysis, personality factors were quantified, specifically, with _1, followed by 1 billion and representatives of non-impulsive type, normal and impulse.

[0168]表1.T initial 10°c时被试的特点和电池寿命 [0168] Table 1.T initial 10 ° c and the characteristics of the test battery life

Figure CN103033752BD00161

[0171 ] 电池寿命的实验结果是通过公式3计算得到的。 Experimental Results [0171] Battery life is calculated by the formula 3. 我们比较了模拟的电池寿命和由通用电气公司提供的96个月的期望的电池寿命,电池寿命的实验结果在独立样本T检测中得到的显著水平值为0. 184( > 0. 05),因此实验结果和通用电气公司期望的电池寿命无显著不同。 We compared the simulated and battery life of 96 months provided by GE desired battery life, the battery life of the experimental results obtained in independent sample T is detected in the 0.184 significance level (> 0.05), Thus General Electric company and the results desired battery life not differ significantly.

[0172] (2)回归分析、确宙经验樽铟: [0172] (2) regression analysis, indeed the experience bottles indium universe:

[0173] 接着,我们将每位被试不同的生活日程加以考虑,假设实验中被试在高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离分别为4和du,在高速公路和城市道路上消耗的电池能量分别为eh 和eu,又有被试在问卷中给出每天在在高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离分别为队和D u, 那么被试实际每天在高速公路和城市道路上消耗的电池能量EjP E u分别为 [0173] Next, we will each be tested different life schedules to be considered, assuming the experiment subjects on the highway and urban road driving distances of 4 and du, consumption on the highway and city roads battery power respectively, and eh eu, there are subjects in the questionnaire given day driving distance on motorways and urban roads respectively, for the team and D u, then the actual test battery energy consumed every day on highways and city roads EjP E u respectively

Figure CN103033752BD00171

[0175] 则有每天实际消耗总电量: [0175] The total power consumption of the actual day:

Figure CN103033752BD00172

[0177] 假设如果电池充满电后的电量不能维持一天通勤的能量消耗,此电池就必须被更换,即寿命终止。 [0177] After the assumption of power if the battery is fully charged one day commuting can not maintain energy consumption, the battery must be replaced, terminated life. 由公式21,用E除以电池出厂充满电时的电量得到公式3中Capacity (% ) 的值。 By the formula 21, when the battery is fully charged the battery factory obtained by dividing the value E in Capacity (%) Equation 3. 将电池配置Cp= 707J/kg/K,Aheat = I. 33W/cell,N = 200,环境温度Tinitlal = KTC代入公式3,可以计算出公式3中变量t的值,即被试实际生活中电动车电池的寿命。 The battery configuration Cp = 707J / kg / K, Aheat = I. 33W / cell, N = 200, the ambient temperature Tinitlal = KTC into Equation 3, Equation 3 can be calculated value in the variable t, i.e. the test in real life electric car battery life. 被试特点、生活日程及电池寿命结果见表1I。 Test characteristics, life and schedule battery life results are shown in Table 1I.

[0178] 表1I. Tinitlal= 10°C,考虑被试生活日程时电池寿命计算结果 [0178] Table 1I. Tinitlal = 10 ° C, battery life is considered when calculating the results of life test schedule

Figure CN103033752BD00173

[0180] 大多数被试的电池寿命的计算结果高于GM期望电池寿命,原因在于之前实验中, 每天通勤距离(高速公路和城市道路)均按照美国人均通勤距离16英里(高速公路7. 2 英里,城市道路8. 8英里)设置。 [0180] Most of the results were tested battery life battery life is higher than the desired GM, experiment, commuting distance (highways and urban roads) are in accordance with a day before because the average American commute 16 miles from (motorway 7.2 mile urban road 8.8 miles) setting. 在表1I中可见,大部分被试通勤距离远小于16英里,这使得充电频率大大降低,这是电池寿命GM高于GM期望电池寿命的原因。 In Table 1I seen, most of the test is much less than 16 miles commuting distance, which makes the charging frequency is greatly reduced, which is why the battery life than GM GM desired battery life.

[0181] 变换表1I的电池配置、温度参数,对电池寿命共进行了16组、192次计算,得到表III。 [0181] 1I conversion table cell configuration, temperature parameters, for a total of 16 battery life group 192 is calculated to give the table III. 其中,Cp= 707J/kg/K 或1019J/kg/K,Aheat = I. 33W/cell 或4. 45W/cell,N = 200 或228, Tinitlal= 10°C或30°C,通过软件SPSS,线性回归分析(回归分析结果见表1II,表ΠΙ中,*或**表示该变量对电池寿命影响显著)的结果显示了对电池寿命产生显著影响的因素,我们可以通过这个分析结果建立电池寿命关于这些因素的线性方程,见公式8。 Wherein, Cp = 707J / kg / K or 1019J / kg / K, Aheat = I. 33W / cell or 4. 45W / cell, N = 200 or 228, Tinitlal = 10 ° C or 30 ° C, by software SPSS, linear regression analysis (regression analysis results in table 1II, table ΠΙ in, * or ** indicates that the variable significant effect on battery life) results show the factors that have a significant impact on battery life, we can build the battery life by this analysis linear equations of these factors, see equation 8.

[0182] Lifetime = 393. 768-35. 1552Personality-2. 85Charging-l. 382Tinitial (8) [0182] Lifetime = 393. 768-35. 1552Personality-2. 85Charging-l. 382Tinitial (8)

[0183] -9. 716Dhd-2. 592Dud-4. 361Dhe-ll. 533Due [0183] -9. 716Dhd-2. 592Dud-4. 361Dhe-ll. 533Due

[0184] 其中参数为性格Personality,充电策略Charging,环境温度Tinitlal,工作日高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离为D hd和D ud,周末高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离为Dhf^PD%。 [0184] in which the parameters for the character Personality, driving on the charging strategy Charging, ambient temperature Tinitlal, highways and urban roads weekday ud distance as D hd and D, driving on highways and city roads on weekends distance Dhf ^ PD% . 其中,表1II中非标准化系数即为公式8中各变量的系数。 Wherein the coefficients of the variables in Table 8 1II Africa normalization coefficient is the formula.

[0185] 公式8的系数是根据已知被试的特点(性格,决策参考值,充电策略,生活日程), 和电池配置(热容,单电池数量,初始温度,热衰减差异)以及由公式3得来的电池寿命拟合而来。 [0185] Equation 8 are coefficients according to the known characteristics of the subjects (character decision reference value, charging strategy, life schedule), and a battery arranged (the heat capacity, the number of unit cells, the initial temperature, the thermal difference in attenuation) and by the formula 3 battery life come from the fitting. 因为公式3中q来源于被试驾驶行为(速度、加速度),这些驾驶行为在以前的研究中无法预测,因而以前的研究无法在不驾驶电动车的情况下预测电池寿命。 Because the formula is derived from the 3 q test driving behavior (speed, acceleration), the driving behavior can not be predicted in previous studies, which previous studies could not predict battery life without driving an electric car. 在这里,我们通过回归分析,可以直接通过被试特点以及环境温度得到电池寿命。 Here, our regression analysis, can be directly tested by the characteristics and the ambient temperature to get the battery life. 也就是说,有了公式8, 我们不需要被试驾驶电动车就能得到电动车电池的寿命,可以极大的降低预测电池寿命的成本。 In other words, with Equation 8, we do not need to be driving electric cars will be able to try to get the electric car battery life, it can greatly reduce the cost of battery life prediction.

[0186] 在SPSS的线性回归分析结果中,调整后的R2值为判定系数或者测定系数,表示回归自变量对因变量的拟合程度的好坏,此处R 2值为〇. 8,P值为0. 000,也就是说公式8可以很好的拟合公式3计算得到的电池寿命,并可以预测电池寿命。 [0186] In SPSS linear regression analysis, the R2 value of the adjusted coefficient of determination or determining coefficients representing the quality of the fit regression of the independent variables on the dependent variable, where R 2 is square. 8, P value is 0.000, that is, equation 8 can be well fitted battery life equation 3 is calculated, and the battery life can be predicted. 性格、充电策略、环境温度、 工作日及周末在高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离的显著值都小于〇. 05,这就说明它们的系数在统计上显著非〇,每一个量的变化都确实改变电池寿命。 Character, charging strategy, ambient temperature, weekdays and weekends significant value in driving distance on highways and urban roads are less than billion. 05, which shows their coefficients are statistically significant non-square, each a variation amount of all battery life has really changed.

[0187] 由于计算过程采用了2008年丰田卡美瑞的物理特性,然而其中某些物理特性如m、P会随着司机以及外界环境的变化而变化。 [0187] Since the calculation process uses the physical characteristics of the 2008 Toyota Camry card, however, some physical properties such as m, P will change with the driver as well as the external environment changes. 当公式8应用在其他车型上时,这些物理特性也会有所变动,此时我们应对系数进行调整。 When Equation 8 applied to other models, these physical properties will be subject to change, at this time we deal coefficients are adjusted. 因此,在这里我们给出各系数范围,使得公式8能更广泛的应用于丰田卡美瑞的物理特性有所变动时或将公式8应用于其他车型时。 So here we give each factor range, making the formula 8 can be more widely used in the Toyota Camry card subject to change physical characteristics or other models used in formulas 8:00. 表1II中,非标准化系数(B) 土系数标准差(Std. Deviation)所得值即为该系数的范围,由此我们可以得到电池寿命的范围。 Table 1II, the Soil Coefficient normalization factor (B) standard deviation (Std. Deviation) The resulting value is the range of the coefficient, whereby we can obtain a range of battery life. 所以,经验模型(公式8)可以进一步写为: Therefore, the empirical model (Equation 8) can be further written as:

[0188] Lifetime = pa+pb X Personal ity+pc X Charging+pd X Tinitial [0188] Lifetime = pa + pb X Personal ity + pc X Charging + pd X Tinitial

[0189] +pe X Dhd+pf X Dud+pg X Dhe+ph X Due [0189] + pe X Dhd + pf X Dud + pg X Dhe + ph X Due

[0190] 统计学上,正态分布中99. 7%的样本落在"均值±3倍标准差"的范围内,因此根据表1II,公式8的系数范围为"非标准化系数(B) ±3X系数标准差(Std. Deviation) " 其中,pa 范围在393. 7864±147· 2502 之间,pb 范围在-35. 1552±21· 9882 之间,pc 范围在-2. 85±2· 145 之间,pd 范围在-L 3822±1· 1946 之间,pe 范围在-9. 716±2· 7264 之间,Pf范围在-2. 5916±3· 2112之间,pg范围在-4. 3606±2· 7264之间,ph范围在-11. 533±4. 9872 之间。 [0190] Statistically 99.7% of the normal distribution of the sample falls within the "mean ± 3 times the standard deviation" in the range, Table 1II, the range of coefficients of Equation 8 as "non normalization factor (B) ± 3X standard deviation coefficient (Std. Deviation) "where, pa range between 393. 7864 ± 147 · 2502, pb range between -35. 1552 ± 21 · 9882, pc in the range of -2. 85 ± 2 · 145 between, pd range between -L 3822 ± 1 · 1946, pe range between -9. 716 ± 2 · 7264, Pf range between -2. 5916 ± 3 · 2112, pg range from -4. between 3606 ± 2 · 7264, ph range between -11. 533 ± 4. 9872.

[0191] 电动车锂电池寿命预测方法 [0191] Lithium battery life prediction method of an electric vehicle

[0192] 本发明一个实施例中,提供一种电动车锂电池寿命预测方法,包括: [0192] An embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an electric vehicle lithium battery life prediction method, comprising:

[0193] 步骤一、给定个人性格参数、充电策略,初始温度,生活日程; [0193] Step one, given personality parameters, charging strategy, initial temperature, life schedule;

[0194] 步骤二、根据公式8,计算电池寿命。 [0194] Step two, according to Equation 8 to calculate battery life.

[0195] 表1II.电池寿命回归分析结果 [0195] Table 1II. Battery life regression analysis

Figure CN103033752BD00191

Figure CN103033752BD00201

Figure CN103033752BD00211

[0200] 枏据公式3,给宙司机特点和电池目标寿命预测最优电池配詈 [0200] nan According to Equation 3, to the universe driver characteristics and optimum battery life prediction target cells with curse

[0201] 根据上述分析,本发明的一个实施例中,提供一种方法,在给定司机特点和电池目标寿命的条件下得到电池的最优配置。 [0201] According to the above analysis, an embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method, cells obtained under conditions of a given target driver characteristics and battery life optimal configuration.

[0202] 首先假设如果电池充满电后的电量不能维持汽车在一天中通勤所需的能量消耗,此电池就必须被更换。 [0202] First, assume that the battery is fully charged if the charge can not be maintained in the car energy consumption required for commuting day, the battery must be replaced. 从个案研究中,我们可以计算得出每一位司机每天驾驶所消耗的电池能量E,因此得到公式3中Capacity(%)的值。 From the case study, we calculated battery energy E every day chauffeur-driven consumption, and therefore get the value in Capacity (%) Equation 3. 进而可以利用Matlab软件中的" fminsearch "命令输入公式3,在已知司机特点即决策参考值DMR和充电策略Charging时, 得到电池的最优配置,即到Cp,Aheat和N的值,使得公式3中的Capacity (%)值尽可能的接近给定被试每天通勤中电池的能量消耗与电池刚出厂能量的比值。 Further possible using Matlab software "fminsearch" command input Equation 3, i.e. when the known characteristics of the driver and the charge decision-making reference value DMR Charging policy, to give optimal cell configuration, i.e., the value of Cp, Aheat and N, such that the formula 3 in Capacity (%) value is given as close to the battery test commute daily energy consumption and the ratio of the energy battery factory-fresh. 换句话说,求解给定司机特点和电池目标寿命时电池最优配置即求解公式22的近似零点。 In other words, when solving a given driver and battery characteristics of the target battery life i.e. solving the optimal configuration of the approximate formula 0:22.

Figure CN103033752BD00212

[0204] 其中CAPACITY是电池组刚出厂时充满电后的能量,E为一天的驾驶过程中总能量消耗,t是电池的目标寿命。 [0204] CAPACITY wherein energy is fully charged after the battery pack is shipped from the factory, E consumption during driving of a day total energy, t is the target of the life of the battery.

[0205] 当计算公式22中T的值时,Tinitlal会根据不同季节被设定为不同的常数,或者简单的设定为一个不变的常数。 [0205] When the calculated value of T 22, Tinitlal will be set depending on the season of different constants, or simply a constant set constant. At的值由个案研究中采用的模拟器决定。 At value simulator by using case studies determined.

[0206] 对于每个被试和给定电池目标寿命96个月,我们预测了环境温度TinitlalS KTC 时的电池的最优配置,结果见表1V。 [0206] For each test, and 96 months for a given target battery life, we predict the optimal configuration of the battery when the ambient temperature TinitlalS KTC, the results in Table 1V.

[0207] 表1V. Tinitlal= 10°C,给定司机特点和电池目标寿命时的最优电池配置 [0207] Table 1V. Tinitlal = 10 ° C, for a given battery configuration when the optimal characteristics of the driver and battery life goals

Figure CN103033752BD00213

Figure CN103033752BD00221

[0210] 我们可以在表1V中看出为了让电寿命接近目标寿命,最简单的方法就是改变电池模块中的电池数量,伴随而来的就是电池模块体积和陈本的变化。 [0210] we can see in Table 1V in order to make the life of electrical life close to the target, the easiest way is to change the number of cells in the battery module, is accompanied by changes in the battery module of this size and Chen. 单电池的尺寸为5英寸x7英寸,厚度少于四分之一英寸,电池组的体积变化可以由此获得。 Unit cell size was 5 inches x7 inches, a thickness less than a quarter inch, a volume change of the battery pack can thereby be obtained. 油的热传导率为空气的1. 5到3倍。 The thermal conductivity of oil is 1.5 to 3 times that of air. 水用在间接冷却时的热传导率是空气的15倍。 When using indirect cooling water, thermal conductivity is 15 times that of air. 可见不同类型的热管理模块将产生截然不同的热衰减,因此热管理模块也是一个延长电池寿命的方法。 Visible different types of thermal management module will generate a distinct decay heat, the thermal management module is also a method to extend the battery life. 不过开发一个方便高效的热管理模块同样需要一定的资金投入。 However, the development of a convenient and efficient thermal management module also need some capital investment. 典型的离电池热容为795J/kg/K, 这是由电池本身的化学和物理材料决定的。 Typical heat capacity of the battery from 795J / kg / K, which is determined by the battery itself chemical and physical materials. 最后一个延长电池寿命的方法就是发展电池本身。 Finally, a way to extend battery life is the development of the battery itself. 很多电池材料和性能方面的研究者都想要改进电池,这需要很多的资金投入,因此这也是优化电池寿命最难的方法。 Many cell materials and performance of the researchers want to improve battery, which requires a lot of capital investment, so this method is also the most difficult to optimize battery life.

[0211] 想要通过改变电池配置延长电池寿命,只需将电池目标寿命设定为高于电池生产厂家原来提供的电池寿命值,并求出使电池达到目标寿命的最优电池配置。 [0211] By changing the desired battery configuration extend battery life, the only life battery target value is set to be higher than the battery life of battery manufacturers to provide the original, and the battery is determined to achieve optimal battery life target configuration. 使用这组电池的最优配置,即可将电池寿命由电池厂家提供的原有寿命延长到目标寿命。 This set of optimal configuration of the battery, the battery life can be provided by battery manufacturers to extend the life of the original target life.

[0212] 枏据公式3,给宙电池配詈和电池目标寿命预测最优的司机行为(即驾驶时的谏度、加谏度,以及充电频率)和牛活日稈 [0212] According to Equation 3 nan, to curse the universe with battery and battery life prediction optimal target driver behavior (ie remonstrance degree while driving, plus remonstrance degree, and charging frequency) and live cattle stalk Day

[0213] 同样假设如果电池充满电后的电量不能维持汽车在一天中通勤所需的能量消耗, 此电池就必须被更换。 [0213] Also assume that the battery is fully charged if the charge can not be maintained in the car energy consumption required for commuting day, the battery must be replaced. 从个案研究中,我们可以计算得出每一位司机每天驾驶所消耗的电池能量E,因此得到公式3中Capacity (% )的值。 From the case study, we calculated battery energy E every day chauffeur-driven consumption, and therefore get the value in Capacity (%) Equation 3.

[0214] 进而可以利用Matlab软件中的"fminsearch"命令输入公式3,在已知电池配置N、Cp、Aheat、初始温度TinitlJt,得到最优C、4和f,使得公式3中的Capacity(% )值尽可能的接近给定被试每天通勤中电池的能量消耗与电池刚出厂能量的比值。 [0214] Further Matlab software can use "fminsearch" command to enter the formula 3, known battery configuration N, Cp, Aheat, initial temperature TinitlJt, optimal C, 4 and F, such that the formula 3 Capacity (% ) value is given as close to the test battery commute daily energy consumption of the battery energy ratio of factory-fresh. 换句话说,求解给定电池配置和电池目标寿命时最优C、4和f即求解公式22的近似零点。 In other words, to solve the optimal timing C target life and battery cell configurations, i.e. solving Equation 4 and f is approximately 0:22. 由最优C可得最优I,再由公式11得到最优P。 The most optimal available C I, and then by equation 11 to obtain the optimal P. 通过公式6、7可得到最优驾驶速度V和加速度a,V值减公路实际限速即为最优DMR。 6 and 7 is obtained by the equation optimum operating speed V and the acceleration a, V value minus the actual road speed limit is the optimal DMR.

[0215] 对于每个被试和给定电池目标寿命96个月,我们固定了电池配置使Cp = 1000. 4J/kg/K,Aheat = 43. 2W/cell,N = 200,和环境温度Tinitlal= 10°C,预测了司机最优驾驶行为和生活日程,结果见表1V。 [0215] For each test, and 96 months for a given target battery life, we make the fixed cell configuration Cp = 1000. 4J / kg / K, Aheat = 43. 2W / cell, N = 200, and ambient temperature Tinitlal = 10 ° C, predicted the driver optimal driving behavior and life schedule, results shown in Table 1V.

[0216] 表V. Tinitlal = KTC,给定电池配置和目标寿命时最优驾驶行为和生活日程 [0216] Table V. Tinitlal = KTC, the optimal driving behavior and life schedule given battery configuration and life goals

Figure CN103033752BD00231

[0218] 最优决策参考值为0意味着司机不应该使汽车速度超过速度限制,最优驾驶加速度为0m/s2意味着司机在驾驶过程中,当达到了期望速度后应使车速保持恒定。 [0218] Referring optimal decision value of 0 means that the driver should not the vehicle speed exceeds the speed limit, the optimal acceleration driving 0m / s2 driver during driving means, has reached the desired speed when the vehicle speed should be kept constant. 每天的最后驾驶距离为城市道路5英里,高速公路4英里。 The last day driving distance of five miles to city road, Highway 4 miles. 最后充电频率为0. 2次/天,也就是说电池应该每5天充一次电。 Finally, the charging frequency of 0.2 times / day, which means that the battery should be one charge every 5 days.

[0219] 使用最优充电频率,是达到电池目标寿命最简单的方法。 [0219] using the optimal charging frequency, the target cell is the easiest way to achieve life. 第二个方法就是改变决策参考值,使司机的驾驶速度不高于限速。 The second method is to change the decision-making reference value, the driver's driving speed is not higher than the speed limit. 性格和生活日程是另外两个影响电池寿命的因素。 Character and life schedule are two other factors that affect battery life. 生活日程与司机的日常生活和各目的地之间的距离密切相关,很难改变。 Life schedule is closely related to the distance between everyday life and each destination the driver, it is difficult to change. 因此我们认为给定电池配置时,更改司机的充电策略,决策参考值以及加速度是三个达到目标电池寿米功能的主要手段。 Therefore, we believe that given battery configuration, change the driver's charging policy, decision-making reference value and acceleration are the three main goals means battery life meter functions to achieve.

[0220] 当今考虑驾驶距离时,如果司机在高速公路或城市道路上驾驶距离更长,他们就会减少在城市道路或供速公路上的驾驶距离。 When the [0220] driving distance today to consider, if the driver is driving longer distances on highways or city roads, they will reduce driving on city roads or highways for distance. 驾驶距离的增加会导致充电频率的增加,从而减少电池寿命。 Increase leads to an increase of driving distance of the charging frequency, thus reducing battery life. 如果驾驶距离达到最优,充电频率的增加也会减少电池寿命。 If the optimal driving distance increases, the charging frequency will reduce battery life. 反之,电池寿命会延长。 Conversely, the battery life will be extended.

[0221] 因为生活日程很难改变,我们把它当作是和电池配置、电池目标寿命一样的输入值。 [0221] because life is difficult to change the schedule, and we use it as a battery configuration, the same battery life Enter the target value. 下一步,我们将不同的生活日程考虑进来再次预测司机的最优驾驶行为和充电策略,结果见表VI。 Next, we will schedule into account the different life again predict the driver's driving behavior and optimal charging strategy, the results in Table VI. 从表VI我们可以看到不论生活日程怎样,最优决策参考值和目标速度达到后的加速度都为0。 From Table VI we can see that no matter what life schedule, after the acceleration reference value and optimal decisions are reached the target speed is zero.

[0222] 表VI. Tinitlal= 10°C,给定电池配置、目标寿命和生活日程时最优驾驶和充电行为 [0222] Table VI. Tinitlal = 10 ° C, for a given battery configuration, when the target life and life schedule and the optimum operating charging behavior

[0223] [0223]

Figure CN103033752BD00241

[0225] 也就是说要使得电池寿命最优,司机应该尽量减少猛踩油门,保持车辆速度的恒定,并且驾驶速度不高于限速。 [0225] To say that the optimum battery life, the driver should minimize the pedal to the metal, maintaining a constant vehicle speed, and the driving speed is not higher than the speed limit. 通用汽车公司报告说一个240V的充电站可以在大约四小时内为电池充电完毕(120V的家用电源则需要10小时)。 GM reported a 240V charging station can be charged in approximately four hours to complete the battery (120V household power is required 10 hours). 因为目前充电站的数量很少,人们只能在每天的驾驶结束后充电。 Because the current number of charging stations is small, it can only be charged after the end of each day's driving. 因此现实生活中充电的间隔天数必须为整数,人们应该尽量使平均充电间隔接近最优值。 Therefore, the number of days between real life charging must be an integer, people should try to make the average charging interval close to the optimal value. 举例来说,如果最优充电间隔为2. 5天,充电的模式应该为2天-3天-2天-3天"随着快速充电站的发展,人们将可以在他们工作地点附近为电动车充电,这就能使充电更加方便,使充电频率更容易达到最优值。 For example, if the optimal charging interval was 2.5 days, charging mode should be 2 days to 3 days - 2 days to 3 days, "With the rapid development of charging stations, people will be in the vicinity of their place of work for the electric car charger, which can charge more convenient, make it easier to achieve the optimal charging frequency value.

[0226] 想要通过改变司机行为和生活日程延长电池寿命,只需将电池目标寿命设定为高于电池生产厂家原来提供的电池寿命值,并求出使电池达到目标寿命的最优司机行为和生活日程。 [0226] want to prolong life by changing driver behavior and schedule battery life, just the battery life setting target values ​​for the battery life than the original battery manufacturers to offer, and find the battery life to achieve optimal target driver behavior and life schedule. 使用这组最优的司机行为和生活日程,即可将电池寿命由电池厂家提供的原有寿命延长到目标寿命。 Use optimal set of driver behavior and life schedule, battery life can be provided by the manufacturer of the original battery life to extend target life.

[0227] 应该注意到并理解,在不脱离后附的权利要求所要求的本发明的精神和范围的情况下,能够对上述详细描述的本发明做出各种修改和改进。 [0227] It should be noted and understood that, without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention appended claims of claims, can make various changes and modifications of the invention described in detail above. 因此,要求保护的技术方案的范围不受所给出的任何特定示范教导的限制。 Thus, any of the specific exemplary teachings limit the scope of the claimed technical solution is not given.

[0228] 综上所述,根据公式8 (即经验模型),当给定目标电池寿命后,可以获取相关的电池最优配置、充电策略、驾驶日程等参数。 [0228] As described above, Equation 8 (i.e. empirical model), when the battery life of a given target can be acquired in accordance with the optimum configuration associated battery, charging policy, the driving schedule parameters. 从另一个方面理解,即可以通过优化电池配置、驾驶行为、充电策略来使电池寿命达到目标值。 From a further aspect appreciated that by optimizing cell configuration, driving behavior, charging strategy to reach the target value battery life.

[0229] 术语参数表 [0229] The term & datasheets

Figure CN103033752BD00251

Figure CN103033752BD00261

Figure CN103033752BD00271

Claims (6)

  1. 1. 一种电动车锂电池寿命预测方法,包括: 步骤一、获取电池的工作温度,充电频率以及司机一天驾驶所需电池能量与电池刚出厂时充满电后的能量的比值;和步骤二、根据下述方式预测电池寿命: An electric vehicle lithium battery life prediction method comprising: a step of obtaining the operating temperature of the battery, the charging frequency and the ratio of the energy of the driver driving one day after the battery is fully charged and the battery power required to just the factory; and step two, The estimated battery life in the following manner:
    Figure CN103033752BC00021
    其中,T表示电池的工作温度,单位是°(: ;f表示充电频率,单位是1/天; 假设当电池充满电后的电量已经无法提供汽车一天行驶所需能量时,0表示电池寿命完结,则根据所述充电频率f、电池工作温度T、司机一天行驶所需电池能量与电池刚出厂时充满电后的能量的比值Capacity(% ),求出经过的时间t,该值即表示电池预测寿命,单位是天。 Where, T is the operating temperature of the battery, the unit is ° (:; f represents the frequency of the charging unit is 1 / day; is assumed that when the battery is fully charged battery has been unable to provide the energy required for traveling the car one day, 0 indicates the end of battery life , the frequency F according to the charging, battery temperature T, the ratio of the energy required for traveling the driver one day after full charge Capacity (%) when the battery power and the battery shipped from the factory, the calculated elapsed time t, i.e., the value indicating the battery life prediction, in units of days.
  2. 2. 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其中,电池的工作温度根据下述方式计算: 2. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the operating temperature of the battery is calculated according to the following manner:
    Figure CN103033752BC00022
    其中,心^^表示电池工作过程的初始温度,单位是°(:<表示电池一次连续工作时间, 单位是秒;C表示电池放电率;4表示电池组的产热率,单位是瓦;Δt表示相关仪器记录驾驶数据的时间间隔,单位是秒;N表示一个电池组中的电池数;Aheat表示不同类型冷却模块相对空气制冷模块产生的热衰减差异,单位是瓦特每单个电池;Cp表示电池的热容,单位是J/kg/K〇 Wherein ^^ represents the initial core temperature of the battery during operation, the unit is ° (: <cell indicates a continuous working time, in seconds; C represents the discharge rate of the battery; 4 represents heat generation rate of the battery pack, is Watt; [Delta] t It represents the correlation instrument records time drive data interval, in seconds; N represents the number of cell of the battery pack; Aheat represent different thermal type cooling module relative air cooling module generates the attenuation difference in watts per single cell; Cp represents a battery heat capacity, units of J / kg / K〇
  3. 3. -种电动车锂电池寿命预测方法,包括: 步骤一、获取司机的性格参数,充电策略,环境温度,工作日及周末在高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离; 步骤二、根据下述方式预测电池寿命范围: Lifetime=pa+pbXPersonality+pcXCharging+pdXTinitial +peXDhd+pfXDud+pgXDhe+phXDue 其中,Lifetime表示电池预测寿命,单位是月,Personality表示司机的性格参数,司机的性格参数的量化方式为:用_1,〇和1依次代表非冲动型,正常和冲动型;Charging表示充电策略,即电池充电前电池剩余的最少电量,值是一个百分比;'^^表示环境温度; Dhd和Dud表示工作日高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离,Dhe和Due表示周末高速公路和城市道路上的驾驶距离,单位是英里;pa为常数,pb~ph表示系数; 其中,pa范围在393. 7864±147· 2502之间,pb范围在-35. 1552±2L9882之间,pc范围在-2. 85±2. 145之间,pd范围在-1. 382 3. - kind of electric car lithium battery life prediction method, comprising: Step one, get a driver's personality parameters, charging strategy, ambient temperature, weekday and weekend driving on highways and city roads distance; Step two, according to the following way to predict battery life span: lifetime = pa + pbXPersonality + pcXCharging + pdXTinitial + peXDhd + pfXDud + pgXDhe + phXDue which, lifetime indicates that the battery life prediction, in units of months, personality represents the character parameters of the driver, to quantify the way the character parameters of the driver is : _1, and 1 sequentially represents a non-square impulse, and normal impulse; charging indicates the charging strategy, i.e. the battery before charging the battery residual quantity minimum value is a percentage; '^^ represents the ambient temperature; and Dhd represented Dud driving distance on highways and urban roads days, and Dhe Due represent driving on highways and urban roads weekend distance, in miles; PA is a constant, pb ~ ph represents a coefficient; wherein, pa range 393. 7864 ± between 147 · 2502, pb range between -35. 1552 ± 2L9882, pc range between -2. 85 ± 2. 145, pd -1 range. 382 2±1. 1946之间,pe范围在-9. 716±2. 7264 之间,pf范围在-2· 5916±3· 2112之间,pg范围在-4· 3606±2· 7264之间,ph范围在-11. 533±4. 9872之间。 Between 2 ± 1. 1946, pe range between -9. 716 ± 2. 7264, pf range between -2 · 5916 ± 3 · 2112, pg range between -4 · 3606 ± 2 · 7264, ph range between -11. 533 ± 4. 9872.
  4. 4. 根据权利要求3所述的方法,其中,步骤二的公式为: Lifetime= 393. 768-35. 1552Personality-2. 85Charging-l. 382Tinitial -9. 716Dhd-2. 592Dud-4. 361Dhe-ll. 533Due〇 4. The method according to claim 3, wherein the step of formula II is:...... Lifetime = 393. 768-35 1552Personality-2 85Charging-l 382Tinitial -9 716Dhd-2 592Dud-4 361Dhe-ll . 533Due〇
  5. 5. 一种电动车锂电池寿命延长方法,包括: 步骤一、对权利要求2所述方法中的公式进行如下变形: A method of extending the life lithium battery electric vehicle, comprising: a step of, in the second method of Claim formulas modified as follows:
    Figure CN103033752BC00031
    其中,CAPACITY是电池组刚出厂时充满电后的能量,单位是J;E为一天的驾驶过程中总能量消耗,单位是J是经过的时间,此处表示电池的目标寿命,单位是天;T表示电池的工作温度,单位是°(:工^^表示电池工作过程的初始温度,单位是°(: ;t'表示电池一次连续工作时间,单位是秒;C表示电池放电率表示电池组的产热率,单位是瓦;At表示相关仪器记录驾驶数据的时间间隔,单位是秒;N表示一个电池组中的电池数;Δheat表示不同类型冷却模块相对空气制冷模块产生的热衰减差异,单位是瓦特每单个电池;Cp表示电池的热容,单位是J/kg/K; 步骤二、获取每天驾驶所消耗的电池能量E,充电频率f,单位是1/天; 步骤三、通过迭代求解上述公式,得到电池最优配置Cp,△heat和N的值。 Which, CAPACITY is the energy of the battery pack is fully charged when shipped from the factory, the unit is J; E a day of driving during the total energy consumption of the unit is J is the elapsed time, here represents the target battery life, the unit is day; T represents operating temperature of the battery, the unit is ° (: ENGINEERING ^^ represents an initial temperature of the battery during operation, the unit is ° (:; t 'represents a continuous battery operation time, in seconds; C represents a cell discharge rate, the battery pack the heat production rate, expressed in watts; At represents the correlation instrument records time drive data interval, in seconds; N represents the number of cell of the battery pack; Δheat represent different thermal type cooling module relative air cooling module generates the difference in attenuation, in watts per single cell; Cp represents heat capacity of the battery, the unit is J / kg / K; step two, get battery energy E per day driving consumed, the charging frequency F, in units of 1 / day; step three iterative solving the above equation, to obtain an optimal value of the battery configuration Cp, △ heat and N.
  6. 6. 一种电动车锂电池寿命延长方法,包括: 步骤一、对权利要求2所述方法中的公式进行如下变形: A method of extending the life lithium battery electric vehicle, comprising: a step of, in the second method of Claim formulas modified as follows:
    Figure CN103033752BC00032
    其中,CAPACITY是电池组刚出厂时充满电后的能量,单位是J;E为一天的驾驶过程中总能量消耗,单位是J是经过的时间,此处表示电池的目标寿命,单位是天;T表示电池的工作温度,单位是°(:工^^表示电池工作过程的初始温度,单位是°(: ;t'表示电池一次连续工作时间,单位是秒;C表示电池放电率;〗表示电池组的产热率,单位是瓦;At表示相关仪器记录驾驶数据的时间间隔,单位是秒;N表示一个电池组中的电池数;Δheat表示不同类型冷却模块相对空气制冷模块产生的热衰减差异,单位是瓦特每单个电池;Cp表示电池的热容,单位是J/kg/K;f表示充电频率,单位是1/天; 步骤二、获取每天驾驶所消耗的电池能量E,电池配置N、CP、Aheat,初始温度Tinitlal; 步骤三、通过迭代求解上述公式,得到最优C、#和f; 步骤四、由最优C得到最优I,再由下述公式得到最 Which, CAPACITY is the energy of the battery pack is fully charged when shipped from the factory, the unit is J; E a day of driving during the total energy consumption of the unit is J is the elapsed time, here represents the target battery life, the unit is day; T represents operating temperature of the battery, the unit is ° (: ENGINEERING ^^ represents an initial temperature of the battery during operation, the unit is ° (:; t 'represents a continuous battery operation time, in seconds; C represents the discharge rate of the battery; represents〗 heat generation rate of the battery pack, is watt; At represents the correlation instrument recording time driving data interval, in seconds; N represents the number of cell of the battery pack; Δheat represent different thermal type cooling module relative air refrigeration module is attenuated difference in watts per single cell; Cp represents heat capacity of the battery, the unit is J / kg / K; f represents the charging frequency, the unit is 1 / day; step two, get battery energy E per day driving consumed battery configuration N, CP, Aheat, initial temperature Tinitlal; step three, by iteratively solving the above equation, the optimal C, and F #; step four, the most optimal C I, then the most by the following formula P: P:
    Figure CN103033752BC00033
    其中,P表示车辆电池组的输出功率,单位是W;1表示电池组的电流,单位是A;1]_表示电池组的开环电压,表示电池组在负载条件下的工作电压,单位是volt; 步骤五、通过下述公式得到最优驾驶速度v和加速度a: Wherein, P is the output power of the vehicle battery, the unit is W is; current 1 denotes a battery pack, the unit is A; 1] _ represents the open circuit voltage of the battery pack, the battery group operating voltage under load, the unit is Volt; step 5 obtained by the following equation optimum operating velocity v and acceleration a:
    Figure CN103033752BC00041
    其中,P表示电动汽车运动功率消耗,单位是W;m表示质量,单位是Kg;a表示车辆加速度,单位是m/s2,P海平面空气每立方米大致空气重量,单位是Kg/m3;v表示速度,单位是m/s;(^表示车辆的阻力系数;A表示车辆迎风面积,单位是m2,C"表示轮胎滚动阻力的无量纲系数,g表示重力加速度,单位是m/s2, 根据求得的充电频率f,速度v和加速度a指导驾驶员行为,从而延长电动车锂电池寿命。 Wherein, P represents the electric power consumption of the vehicle movement, the unit is W; m represents mass, in units of Kg; a represents the acceleration of the vehicle, the unit is m / s2, P substantially air per cubic meter of air at sea level by weight of units of Kg / m3; v represents the velocity in units of m / s; (^ denotes the drag coefficient of the vehicle; a represents the frontal area of ​​the vehicle, the unit is m2, C "represents the rolling resistance of tires dimensionless coefficient, g represents gravitational acceleration, in units of m / s2, the obtained charging frequency F, velocity v and acceleration a driver behavior guidance, thereby extending the life of the lithium battery electric vehicles.
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