CN102907643B - Tuber mustard salting technique - Google Patents

Tuber mustard salting technique Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102907643B
CN102907643B CN2012104081494A CN201210408149A CN102907643B CN 102907643 B CN102907643 B CN 102907643B CN 2012104081494 A CN2012104081494 A CN 2012104081494A CN 201210408149 A CN201210408149 A CN 201210408149A CN 102907643 B CN102907643 B CN 102907643B
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salting
lactic acid
salt
salts
acid bacteria
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CN2012104081494A
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CN102907643A (en
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何国庆
高世阳
孙志栋
陈权辉
杜新永
张国华
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浙江大学
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    • Y02A40/946

Abstract

The invention discloses a tuber mustard salting technique comprising the following steps of: primary salting: placing cleaned fresh vegetable heads in a salting container, adding table salt and introducing lactic acid bacteria, sealing and salting; and secondary salting: adding table salt and introducing lactic acid bacteria again after the primary salting until the salting is finished. Accordingto the invention, fractional lactic acid bacteria inoculation and fractional salt addition are combined in a tuber mustard salting process; compared with the traditional one-step inoculation salting method, the tuber mustard salting technique has the advantages that the brine pH (potential of hydrogen) at the later salting stage is prevented from rising again by the secondary lactic acid bacteriainoculation in the secondary salting process, in this way, the number of the beneficial lactic acid bacteria is increased, the peak value of nitrite is reduced, and the decomposition is better avoided; in addition, the amino state nitrogen content in the brine is increased and the flavor of tuber mustard is significantly improved. With the adoption of the tuber mustard salting technique, not onlyis the dosage of the table salt reduced, but also the salting time is greatly shortened.

Description

A kind of brine of pickled mustard tuber technology

Technical field

The invention belongs to food processing field, relate in particular to a kind of brine of pickled mustard tuber technology.

Background technology

Lactic acid bacteria is extensively approved as a kind of probio.Take in lactic acid bacteria human body is had multinomial physiological function: lactic acid bacteria can promote the absorption of nutriments such as protein, monose and calcium, magnesium, produces benefit materials such as B family vitamin; Lactic acid bacteria can recover colony balance in the human body intestinal canal, improves the human gastrointestinal tract function; Suppress the breeding of spoilage organisms, remove enterotoxin; Suppress cholesterol absorption, reducing blood lipid and hypotensive effect are arranged; Have immunoregulation effect, can strengthen body immunity and resistance.In addition, lactic acid bacteria has also had many functions external: lactic acid bacteria produces acid, can significantly suppress the growth of multiple putrefactive microorganisms, plays the corrosion-resistant effect; Can produce nitrite reductase, suppress the formation of nitrite, guarantee the safety of food; Have the fermentation function, can obviously improve and strengthen the local flavor of product.Lactic acid bacteria becomes bacterial classification commonly used in the food industry with its good physiological function, at dairy products, and fermenting plant food such as pickles, sauerkraut, important function has been brought into play in aspects such as ensilage.

Hot pickled mustard tube is the traditional vegetable food of a kind of China, is the non-fermentation salted vegetables of a kind of half-dried attitude, is that raw material is salted with stem with leaf mustard, and it has the history in more than 2,000 year.Hot pickled mustard tube and sweet sour wild cabbage, European cucumber preserved with soy paste are with classifying the world's three big salted vegetables as.Hot pickled mustard tube is tender and crisp tasty and refreshing, and the local flavor deliciousness is nutritious, have special tart flavour and salty delicate flavour, and contain the necessary protein of abundant human body, carrotene, dietary fiber, mineral matter etc., and 17 kinds of free amino acids such as glutamic acid, asparatate, the daily good merchantable brand of going with rice or bread of people become.Hot pickled mustard tube is wide in China's cultivated area, the output height, and Zhejiang area is one of major production areas of China's hot pickled mustard tube, and wherein the hot pickled mustard tube of Yuyao City is particularly famous, is cited as " township of Chinese hot pickled mustard tube ", and hot pickled mustard tube is one of local agriculture pillar industry.

The index that influences brine of pickled mustard tuber quality and curing process security has acidity, salinity (sodium chloride concentration), nitrite concentration, amino nitrogen content and bacterium colony number of variations.Hot pickled mustard tube rate of producing acid in curing process influences growth and the curing speed of spoilage organisms in the hot pickled mustard tube, and acid production speed is more fast, and is more good to the inhibition of spoilage organisms in the hot pickled mustard tube.Salinity is the key factor that keeps hot pickled mustard tube brittleness and hardness, and the quick immersion of salinity is conducive to reduce salting period.Hot pickled mustard tube some harmful microorganisms in curing process can be converted into nitrite with the nitrate that contains in the hot pickled mustard tube, these nitrite easily with bittern in the generation of free amine group acid reaction the nitrosamine of carcinogenicity is arranged, therefore, suppress content of nitrite in the curing process is key link in the brine of pickled mustard tuber always.Amino nitrogen content is relevant with final local flavor and nutrition leak.The after-ripening stage of brine of pickled mustard tuber process and the formation of hot pickled mustard tube special aroma are the results of beneficial microbe (mainly being lactic acid bacteria) effect, and the variation of lactic acid bacteria number in the hot pickled mustard tube also can reflect the quality of brine of pickled mustard tuber process.

The mode of pickling of Yuyao area hot pickled mustard tube has nature to pickle with the artificial infection lactic acid bacteria to pickle two kinds, pickles naturally namely to add a large amount of salt, and mainly be to be to suppress putrefactive microorganisms, but the absorption of too much salinity produce many adverse effects to human body easily; Artificial infection is pickled and is then adopted reduction salt amount and an inoculating lactic acid bacterium to pickle.Studies show that, once inoculation is pickled and is better than traditional pickling naturally, once advantages such as having minimizing salt use amount, reduction content of nitrite, increase acidity is pickled in inoculation, but the cycle of pickling is long, and once inoculating the later stage is prone to that pH gos up, lactic acid bacterium number descends, the nitrite peak value raises again, even corruption occurs.

Summary of the invention

The invention provides a kind of brine of pickled mustard tuber technology, this process using gradation inoculating lactic acid bacterium carries out brine of pickled mustard tuber, solved once inoculate in the prior art later stage be prone to that pH gos up, lactic acid bacterium number descends, the nitrite peak value raises, pickles problems such as the cycle is long again.

A kind of brine of pickled mustard tuber technology comprises:

Just salt down, the fresh vegetable head of cleaning is placed curing container, after adding salt and inserting lactic acid bacteria, seal and pickle;

Multiple salting down after the end that just salts down, added salt again and inserts lactic acid bacteria, finishes until pickling.

Inoculating lactic acid bacterium is in order to make lactic acid bacteria keep the flora advantage at the initial stage of pickling, to suppress the spoilage organisms growth when just salting down; Inoculating lactic acid bacterium is in order to make lactic acid bacteria control parameters such as hot pickled mustard tube acidity, content of nitrite, probio (being mainly lactic acid bacteria) number, amino nitrogen content in hot pickled mustard tube after-ripening stage performance function, to guarantee the security of hot pickled mustard tube quality and curing process when salting down again.

Described fresh vegetable head is preferably the fresh vegetable head in area, Ningbo, more preferably fresh and tender, fine and close, skin is thin, crude fibre is few, does not have evil mind, the mashed heart, gold zone, shape is spheroidal or oval-shaped fresh vegetable head.Divest thick Lao Pi and the muscle of fresh vegetable head base portion, do not injure the top rascal as far as possible, in circulating water, clean.It is 87%~91% moisture that the fresh vegetable head that obtains contains mass fraction percentage, meets the brine of pickled mustard tuber requirement.

The kinds of lactobacillus of fermentation usefulness is various, and it is 10 that the present invention selects cell concentration for use 6~10 7The lactobacillus plantarum ferment of cfu/g adds sterilized water according to 100mL/g in this leavening, use after 37 ℃ of-40 ℃ of warm water activate half an hour.In the curing process, if thalline content is very few, pickle comparatively slow; If thalline content is too much, can produce too much lactic acid at short notice, in lactic acid bacteria, form intraspecies combat, influence the hot pickled mustard tube local flavor.

In 1kg fresh vegetable head, the inoculum concentration that just salts down is preferably 0.15~0.35g, and the multiple inoculum concentration that salts down is preferably 0.15~0.35g; More preferably, the inoculum concentration that just salts down is 0.35g, and the multiple inoculum concentration that salts down is 0.15g.Inoculum concentration can make lactic acid bacteria keep the flora advantage at the initial stage of pickling more greatly when just salting down, to suppress the spoilage organisms growth; When salting down again, pickle the lactic acid bacteria that has contained some in the bittern, therefore needn't insert too many thalline.Inoculation can make and pickle bittern pH in the hot pickled mustard tube after-ripening stage and descend rapidly again, obviously suppresses spoilage organisms, reduces the nitrite peak value simultaneously, increases and pickles amino nitrogen content in the bittern, significantly improves the hot pickled mustard tube ferment local-flavor.

The a large amount of acidic materials that utilize lactic acid bacteria to produce can effectively suppress varied bacteria growing, therefore, can reduce the use amount of salt in brine of pickled mustard tuber technology of the present invention.The present invention does not have specific (special) requirements to employed salt, can be commercially available curing salt, can be refined salt, but the curing salt low price is cost-saved yet.

When just salting down for making salinity fully fast immerse the fresh vegetable head, going into the pond, every placement one deck fresh vegetable head just spreads one deck salt, and is folded mutually layer by layer, avoids occurring because salinity in the pond is inhomogeneous local corruption.

In 1kg fresh vegetable head, the described salt adding amount that just salts down is preferably 30~50g, and the multiple salt adding amount that salts down is preferably 30~50g.More preferably, the described salt adding amount that just salts down is 50g, the described multiple salt adding amount 30g that salts down.The curing salt of this content can promote separating out of moisture in the dish head, can not produce inhibitory action to the growth of lactic acid bacteria.

When just salting down, after finishing with salt and inoculating lactic acid bacterium, add an amount of cold boiling water.The addition of cold boiling water is being advisable by complete submergence dish head.For avoiding the dish head in curing process, to emerge, produce corruption, can use weight to push down the dish head.Multiple salting down finished again with behind salt and the inoculating lactic acid bacterium, also can add cold boiling water as required.

The gradation inoculating lactic acid bacterium makes whole hot pickled mustard tube after-ripening stage pH be stabilized in 3.6~3.8, reduces the corruption Risk of hot pickled mustard tube, has accelerated the process of pickling.As preferably, the described fate of pickling that just salts down is 14~15 days, and the multiple fate of pickling that salts down is 12~13 days, pickles temperature and is 25~30 ℃.Too high for exempting to pickle temperature, influence the hot pickled mustard tube local flavor, curing process should carry out in the cool.

The present invention also provides a kind of hot pickled mustard tube that utilizes described pickling process to make, and content of nitrite is low in this hot pickled mustard tube, amino nitrogen content height, and local flavor is splendid, can directly cook to eat after cleaning, and also can obtain the hot pickled mustard tube goods through sterilization treatment, vacuum packaging.

Compared with prior art, beneficial effect of the present invention is:

(1) the present invention is in the brine of pickled mustard tuber process, the gradation inoculating lactic acid bacterium is combined with salt with gradation, pickle method with respect to traditional once inoculation, when salting down again again inoculating lactic acid bacterium can prevent from pickling later stage bittern pH and go up, increase probiotic lactobacillus quantity, reduce the nitrite peak value, prevent corruption better, and can increase amino nitrogen content in the bittern, significantly improve the hot pickled mustard tube local flavor.

(2) the present invention not only can reduce the salt use amount, saves cost, also can obviously shorten salting period.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the schematic flow sheet of technology of the present invention.

The specific embodiment

1, brine of pickled mustard tuber

The concrete steps of brine of pickled mustard tuber technology of the present invention are:

(1) (the happy U.S. lactic acid bacteria bacterium powder of Sichuan Gaofuji Biotechnology Co., Ltd.'s bubble, viable count is 10 at lactobacillus plantarum ferment 6~10 7Cfu/g) in, add sterilized water according to 100mL/g, place 37 ℃ of-40 ℃ of warm water to activate half an hour, standby.

(2) the fresh vegetable head is gone into the pond after flushing, and layer by layer with salt and inoculate the Lactobacillus plantarum of above-mentioned activation, Feng Chichu salted down 15 days in proportion;

(3) in the pond that salts down in proportion again with salt and inoculate activated Lactobacillus plantarum, Feng Chifu salted down 12 days, obtained finished product dish embryo.

Brine of pickled mustard tuber is divided into 6 groups to carry out, and the use amount of every group of fresh vegetable head is 300 kilograms, every group arrange one parallel, salt adding amount and the Lactobacillus plantarum inoculum concentration of respectively pickling group see Table 1.

Table 1 is respectively pickled salt adding amount and the Lactobacillus plantarum inoculum concentration of group

Annotate: salt adding amount (%)=adding salt quality/fresh vegetable head quality * 100%

Inoculum concentration (%)=lactobacillus plantarum ferment quality/fresh vegetable head quality * 100%

In the curing process, every three days the fermentation bittern of respectively pickling group is sampled, its bacterium colony number, acidity, nitrite concentration and amino nitrogen content are carried out kinetic measurement, respectively pickle security and the hot pickled mustard tube quality of group with assessment.

2, lactic acid bacteria number dynamic change in the curing process

Adopt plate streak that the lactic acid bacteria in the fermentation bittern is counted.It is 10 that bittern is diluted with physiological saline -5, 10 -6, 10 -7, 10 -84 gradients pick dilution respectively and rule on the MRS culture medium, and 37 ℃ of following anaerobism are cultivated 24h, choose the plate count of clump count between 30~300, every group three times parallel, calculating mean value.Measurement result sees Table 2.

Lactic acid bacteria number changes (unit: Log in table 2 curing process 10Cfu/mL)

By table 2 as seen, when just salting down, the lactic acid bacteria number growth rate is apparently higher than inoculation group not in the inoculation group, and lactic acid bacteria enters stationary phase rapidly through the logarithmic growth after date, and the bacterium number can reach 1.3 * 10 8Cfu/mL.But after just salting down 14 days, downward trend has appearred in lactic acid bacteria number in the inoculation group, mainly is that acidity is not enough owing to nutriment in the bittern reduces, and spoilage organisms grows, and has had a strong impact on the lactic acid bacteria vigor.And in the spontaneous fermentation group, lactobacter growth is slow, and just salting down, the bacterium number has only 1.8 * 10 when finishing 5Cfu/mL.

When salting down again, inoculation group 1,2,3 groups are inoculated again, lactic acid bacteria number slightly rises in the bittern, and multiple salting down finished the final clump count in back and can reach 1.6 * 10 8Cfu/mL; And have only 4 groups of the inoculation that just salts down in the later stage that salts down again, and the trend that reduces appears in clump count, and final bacterium number has only 4.6 * 10 6Cfu/mL.Spontaneous fermentation group lactic acid bacteria number then slowly rises, but final bacterium number has only 5.0 * 10 5Cfu/mL.

In sum, the gradation inoculation is pickled to be better than once to inoculate to pickle with spontaneous fermentation and is pickled, and wherein, 3 groups is optimum inoculation group.

3, pH dynamic change in the curing process

Adopt pHS-25 digital display pH meter directly to measure the pH value of fermentation bittern, every group three times parallel, average.Measurement result sees Table 3.

PH dynamic change in table 3 curing process

By table 3 as seen, when just salting down, inoculation group 1,2,3,4 groups of pH decrease speeds are faster than 5 groups of the inoculating lactic acid bacterium not of just salting down and spontaneous fermentation group, as seen insert lactic acid bacteria and can obviously accelerate acid production speed.

Wherein, the pH decrease speed is the fastest is maximum 4 groups of inoculum concentration that just salt down.

When salting down again, 1,2,3 group the pH stable maintenance is at 3.6-3.8 behind inoculating lactic acid bacterium again, and this is the best pH of brine of pickled mustard tuber, and has only 4 groups of the inoculation that just salts down in the later stage that salts down again, and pH gos up, and acidity reduces, and corrupt sign is arranged.

From the final numerical value of pH, inoculation group is lower than spontaneous fermentation group pH, and again 1,2,3 of inoculating lactic acid bacterium group than 4 groups of an inoculating lactic acid bacterium pickle later stage acidity keep more stable, 3 groups of the bests wherein.

4, content of nitrite dynamic change in the curing process

Adopt hydrochloric acid-naphthalene-ethylenediamine method (GB) to measure content of nitrite in the fermentation bittern.Every group three times parallel, average.

Nitrite dynamic change (mg/L) in table 4 curing process

Pickle the initial stage, content of nitrite of each group is all in rising trend, but the appearance of inoculation group 1,2,3,4 groups of nitrite peak values is than the fast 2-3 of spontaneous fermentation group days, and lower than the latter, only is half of the latter.This is that the nitrate in the vegetables is reduced to nitrite because of the effect of some assorted bacterium in the curing process; Lactic acid bacteria has degradation to nitrite, is divided into the enzyme degraded at the initial stage of pickling and pickles the acid degradation in later stage.The pH that pickles the initial stage inoculation group descends fast, and the pH that activity of nitrous acid reductase is stronger is 4.5-4.0, so inoculation group can promote the nitrite peak value to occur in advance, and significantly reduces peak value; Along with curing process carries out, the lactic acid bacteria of inoculation group enters exponential phase very soon, acid producing ability is strong, make pH be reduced to below 4.0 rapidly, nitrite has also carried out acid degradation in the activity that suppresses assorted bacterium, reduced the content of nitrite again, therefore nitrite peak value and the content of inoculation group is lower in the whole process.

When salting down again, each group still has the appearance of nitrite peak value, still, when salting down again again inoculating lactic acid bacterium 1,2,3 group and 5 groups of the multiple inoculation that salts down in the nitrite peak value be starkly lower than the spontaneous fermentation group and have only 4 groups of the inoculation that just salts down, and all in safe range, meet the GB requirement.

This shows that inoculation group is better than the spontaneous fermentation group, the gradation inoculation group is better than inoculation group one time, wherein 3 groups of best results.

5, pickle amino nitrogen assay in the end bittern

After pickling end, get and pickle bittern, adopt formaldehyde method (GB) to measure the content of amino nitrogen in the bittern.Every group establish three times parallel, calculating mean value, measurement result sees Table 5.

Table 5 is pickled and is finished amino nitrogen content (g/100mL) in the bittern

Numbering Amino nitrogen content (g/100mL) Inoculation group 1 ??0.435±0.05 Inoculation group 2 ??0.472±0.05 Inoculation group 3 ??0.481±0.05 Inoculation group 4 ??0.466±0.05 Inoculation group 5 ??0.442±0.05 Spontaneous fermentation group 6 ??0.412±0.05

Amino nitrogen content has determined delicate flavour and the fragrance of hot pickled mustard tube, test result shows, all are pickled group and all meet the GB requirement, the final amino nitrogen content of inoculation group will be higher than the spontaneous fermentation group, and the gradation inoculation group is better than inoculation group one time, wherein 3 groups of final amino nitrogen content that produce are the highest, so 3 groups is best group.

Claims (6)

1. brine of pickled mustard tuber method comprises:
Just salt down, the fresh vegetable head of cleaning is placed curing container, after adding salt and inserting lactic acid bacteria, seal and pickle;
Multiple salting down after the end that just salts down, added salt again and inserts lactic acid bacteria, finishes until pickling;
The described salting period that just salts down is 14~15 days, and the multiple salting period that salts down is 12~13 days;
Described lactic acid bacteria is Lactobacillus plantarum;
The cell concentration of described lactobacillus plantarum ferment is 10 6~10 7Cfu/g, the inoculum concentration that just salts down is 0.15~0.35g/kg fresh vegetable head, the inoculum concentration that salts down again is 0.15~0.35g/kg fresh vegetable head;
The salt addition that just salts down is 30~50g/kg fresh vegetable head, and the salt addition that salts down again is 30~50g/kg fresh vegetable head.
2. brine of pickled mustard tuber method as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the method for lactobacillus inoculum is: lactobacillus plantarum ferment is added in the curing container with 37~40 ℃ of warm water activation backs.
3. brine of pickled mustard tuber method as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the described lactobacillus plantarum ferment inoculum concentration that just salts down is 0.35g/kg fresh vegetable head, and the inoculum concentration that salts down again is 0.15g/kg fresh vegetable head.
4. brine of pickled mustard tuber method as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the salt addition that just salts down is 50g/kg fresh vegetable head, and the salt addition that salts down again is 30g/kg fresh vegetable head.
5. brine of pickled mustard tuber method as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the water content of described fresh vegetable head is 87%~91%.
6. the hot pickled mustard tube that makes as the arbitrary described brine of pickled mustard tuber method of claim 1~5.
CN2012104081494A 2012-10-23 2012-10-23 Tuber mustard salting technique CN102907643B (en)

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CN103989117A (en) * 2013-02-19 2014-08-20 宜宾市南溪区三江食品有限公司 Method for employing in-situ fermentation technology to produce tuber mustard
CN104026600B (en) * 2014-05-21 2017-01-04 广西陆川县泓源食品有限公司 The preparation method of dish braised pork is wiped by a kind of the Hakkas
CN104664294A (en) * 2015-02-11 2015-06-03 重庆市武隆县民得食品有限责任公司 Production method for hot pickled tuber mustards
CN104982871A (en) * 2015-06-03 2015-10-21 安徽小菜一碟食品有限公司 Low-salt, delicious and crisp green-plum hot pickled mustard tuber and preparation method thereof
CN105166788A (en) * 2015-06-04 2015-12-23 安徽小菜一碟食品有限公司 Grapefruit appetizing low-salt crispy mustard and preparation method thereof
CN105124492A (en) * 2015-06-04 2015-12-09 安徽小菜一碟食品有限公司 Pumpkin seed kernel low-salt fragrant crisp Chinese preserved vegetables and preparation method thereof
CN105029309A (en) * 2015-06-04 2015-11-11 安徽小菜一碟食品有限公司 Low-salt preserved shelled buckwheat crispy tuber mustard for reducing blood glucose and preparation method of preserved shelled buckwheat crispy tuber mustard
CN104996941A (en) * 2015-06-04 2015-10-28 安徽小菜一碟食品有限公司 Panax ginseng lamb chop low-salt, fragrant and crisp tuber mustard and preparation method thereof
CN105211805A (en) * 2015-11-18 2016-01-06 湖南尔康制药股份有限公司 A kind of less salt salted vegetables and preparation method thereof

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JPH0328173B2 (en) * 1985-02-04 1991-04-18 Shizuokaken
CN1795752A (en) * 2004-12-20 2006-07-05 吴祖芳 Lactic acid bacteria technique applied for preparation of preserving hot pickled mustard tuber and new technique of production
CN101518320B (en) * 2009-03-26 2011-06-15 浙江省农业科学院 Preparation method of long shelf life fermented pickled vegetable
CN101669609A (en) * 2009-09-25 2010-03-17 重庆市涪陵辣妹子集团有限公司 Process for producing pickled mustard tuber by low-salt fermentation

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