CN102815399A - Hummingbird-wing-flapping-imitating micro air vehicle - Google Patents

Hummingbird-wing-flapping-imitating micro air vehicle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102815399A
CN102815399A CN2012102824539A CN201210282453A CN102815399A CN 102815399 A CN102815399 A CN 102815399A CN 2012102824539 A CN2012102824539 A CN 2012102824539A CN 201210282453 A CN201210282453 A CN 201210282453A CN 102815399 A CN102815399 A CN 102815399A
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China
Prior art keywords
wing
rod
frame
links
parallel shafts
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Granted
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CN2012102824539A
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CN102815399B (en
Inventor
张卫平
杨宋渊
柯希俊
谭小波
陈文元
刘武
崔峰
吴校生
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Shanghai Jiaotong University
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Shanghai Jiaotong University
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Publication of CN102815399B publication Critical patent/CN102815399B/en
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Abstract

The invention discloses a mummingbird-wing-flapping-imitating micro air vehicle (MAV) which belongs to a biomimetic MAV field. The MAV comprises: a frame, a reduction gear set, a motor, a transmission mechanism, a parallel shaft structure, and a pair of wings. The reduction gear set, the motor, and the parallel shaft structure are directly arranged on the frame. The transmission mechanism is arranged between the reduction gear set and the parallel shaft structure, and is used for converting continuous rotation outputted by the reduction gear set into reciprocative rotation of the parallel shaft structure. The pair of wings is arranged on the parallel shaft structure, such that self flapping movements can be realized. The pair of wings and other parts form a complete wing-flapping MAV. According to the invention, the flapping movements of the two wings are completely symmetric, such that influences of vibration on the performance of the MAV are greatly reduced, and control difficulty of the MAV is reduced. Also, the MAV provided by the invention has advantages of simple and reasonable structure and convenient processing. The MAV can easily be improved, such that complicated tasks can be completed.

Description

The imitative little aircraft of hummingbird flapping wing
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of technical field of bionical little aircraft, specifically, what relate to is the little aircraft of a kind of imitative hummingbird flapping wing.
Background technology
Little aircraft is a kind of one type of aircraft that can yardstick in any direction all be not more than 15cm, and it has at military, industry and civil area, and very purposes---it can go to accomplish many tasks such as search and rescue, investigation, supervision widely.Along with the progress of science and technology, little aircraft also to stable more, more flexibly, more energy-conservation direction develops.
For little aircraft, modal several kinds of flying methods are no more than the flight of fixed-wing formula, rotor flight and flapping flight.Utilize little aircraft of preceding two kinds of flight mechanism to emerge, but can not deny that these two kinds of flying methods have inherent limitation in little aircraft field.For example, the little aircraft of fixed-wing is faced with the destabilization problems under wind speed, and the little aircraft of rotor is faced with the problem that quality factor reduces.Compare with these two kinds of flying methods, flapping flight has impayable advantage in little aircraft field; Utilize the birds and the insect of this flight mechanism then the model to be provided for the research of the little aircraft of flapping wing.Not only differentiability is good for the little aircraft of flapping wing, manoevreability is high, and has the high speed characteristics of the little aircraft of fixed-wing and the function of hovering of the little aircraft of rotor concurrently, has become the research focus of each development group in the world now.
Retrieval through to prior art is found; Northwestern Polytechnical University has designed a kind of little aircraft of novel bionic flapping-wing based on " crank-rocking bar " structure in 2008; And this aircraft has been realized free flight, and (particular content can be with reference to Liu; L.& Z.Fang & Z.He.Optimization Designof Flapping Mechanism and Wings for Flapping-Wing MAVs [J] .Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2008,5314:245-255).But the beating campaign of two wings of the little aircraft of this flapping wing is also not exclusively symmetrical, has all brought very big problem to dimensionally-optimised with subsequent control, and then has had a strong impact on the performance of aircraft.In addition, the structure of this aircraft also is difficult to further improve, thereby just is difficult to accomplish following various complex tasks.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to solve above-mentioned deficiency of the prior art; Provide a kind of imitative hummingbird flapping wing little aircraft, this Flight Vehicle Structure is compact, size is reasonable, and the total interchangeability is high; Be easy to assembling, maintenance, improve, reduce production costs thereby be convenient to produce in enormous quantities.
For realizing above-mentioned purpose, the little aircraft of a kind of imitative hummingbird flapping wing of the present invention comprises frame, train of reduction gears, motor, transmission device, parallel shafts structure and a pair of wing, and wherein: frame is that whole little aircraft provides a general frame; Train of reduction gears is directly installed on above the frame; Motor forms a unified integral body through interference fit and frame; The effect of restriction and the bearing of parallel shafts structure through geometric relationship and rack are together; The two ends of transmission device are connected with parallel axle construction with the big gear wheel of train of reduction gears respectively, and a pair of wing is connected with the parallel shafts structure through the wing attaching parts.
Described frame is formed by a plurality of part bondings, and perhaps the method through 3 D-printing is made.The processing mode of making frame through bonding mode is fairly simple, is convenient to implement; Method through 3 D-printing is made frame, can further improve precision.
Described train of reduction gears and motor are installed in above the frame.Motor adopts the drag cup motor, is installed in the place, hole that maximum gauge is arranged above the base through interference fit; Big gear wheel is common plastic gear, is installed in the place, hole that minimum diameter is arranged above the base, can rotate freely; Simultaneously, as with the interface of transmission device, be drilled with aperture above the big gear wheel, this makes big gear wheel play the effect of crank; Miniature gears also is a plastic gear, is installed in above the output shaft of motor, as reaction gear.
Described train of reduction gears is made up of plastic gear, and the big gear wheel of mouth links to each other with bar linkage structure as transmission device.
Described transmission device is made up of the bar linkage structure that a kind of " crank-sliding block " adds " slide block-rocking bar ", and the material that uses is resin.First connecting rod one end links to each other with big gear wheel, and the other end links to each other with second connecting rod, in " crank-sliding block " structure, plays a part connecting rod; Second connecting rod one end links to each other with first connecting rod, and an end links to each other with the frame attaching parts, and the other end links to each other with third connecting rod; In " crank-sliding block " and " slide block rocking bar " structure, all play a part slide block; Difference is, in the former, belongs to output element, in the latter, belongs to input element; Third connecting rod one end links to each other with second connecting rod, and the other end links to each other with the 4th connecting rod, in " slide block rocking bar " structure, plays a part connecting rod; The 4th connecting rod one end links to each other with third connecting rod, and the other end links to each other with parallel shafts in the parallel shafts structure through interference fit, drives the reciprocal rotation of parallel shafts realization.
Described parallel shafts structure is made up of a pair of stepped shaft, and this parallel shafts structure one end is connected frame bottom through bearing, and the other end is connected frame top through free-running fit, thereby can rotate freely around the axis of self.
Described a pair of wing shape is symmetry fully; And form by the vein of carbon fibre material and the film of polyimide material; The vein here comprises the master pulse of wing leading edge, the auxilliary arteries and veins of wing root and the auxilliary arteries and veins on wing surface; Through length and the diameter of regulating these three veins, just can the performance of wing be optimized.
The skeletal system that the present invention mainly imitates hummingbird designs the flapping wing structure of self.Particularly; The present invention utilizes the drag cup motor as motion output; And pass motion to wing through train of reduction gears, transmission device and parallel axle construction, and finally make the be achieved beating campaign of symmetry of two wings, make aircraft can carry out smooth flight.And the mounting arrangement of parts such as the crank motion of wing and drag cup motor is also mated, and makes lift that little aircraft produced and the gravity of self make a concerted effort to be able to be on the vertical curve, and this just nearer step has strengthened the stability of little aircraft.Simultaneously, for this member of wing attaching parts, we also can further improve design, thereby improve the controller performance and the aeroperformance of little aircraft.
The present invention the time need set an initial angle of attack in flight, make wing along from below, the place ahead to the top, rear this direction carry out reciprocal beating campaign.Simultaneously, wing owing to flexible existence can deform, thereby produces passive rotation in the process of fluttering up and down, makes that the angle of attack takes place constantly to change.So, little aircraft will not only can produce lift upwards, can also produce thrust forward, support aircraft flight.
Compact conformation of the present invention, size are reasonable, are applicable on the little aircraft of flapping wing.Frame can be carried out integrated processing, also can be combined by simple part, has the simple and high characteristics of accuracy of positioning of processing, helps realizing whole micro-miniaturisation; The existence of wing attaching parts for follow-up improvement provides very big performance space, can make wing realize various complicated motion in future; Gear cluster, bearing and drag cup motor have all adopted standard element, change very convenient; The drag cup motor does not need very high power line voltage as drive source of the present invention, oneself carries power supply thereby be convenient to little aircraft.Total interchangeability of the present invention is high, is easy to assembling, maintenance, improves, and reduces production costs thereby be convenient to produce in enormous quantities.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is an embodiment of the invention integral shaft mapping.
Fig. 2 is an embodiment of the invention rack construction scheme drawing.
Fig. 3 is embodiment of the invention gear cluster and motor scheme of installation.
Fig. 4 is an embodiment of the invention transmission device scheme drawing.
Fig. 5 is embodiment of the invention parallel shafts structure and wing attaching parts scheme of installation.
Fig. 6 is an embodiment of the invention wing structural representation.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment technical scheme of the present invention is done further to explain, but following content is not used in qualification protection scope of the present invention.
As shown in Figure 1, present embodiment provides a kind of imitative hummingbird flapping wing little aircraft, comprises frame 1, train of reduction gears 2, motor 3, transmission device 4, parallel shafts structure 5 and a pair of wing 6, and wherein: frame 1 provides a general frame for whole little aircraft; Train of reduction gears 2 is directly installed on above the frame 1; Motor 3 forms a unified integral body through interference fit and frame 1; Parallel shafts structure 5 is assembled together through the restriction of geometric relationship and the effect and the frame 1 of bearing; The two ends of transmission device 4 are connected with parallel axle construction 5 with the big gear wheel of train of reduction gears 2 respectively, and a pair of wing 6 is connected with parallel shafts structure 5 through a wing attaching parts.
As shown in Figure 2, described frame 1 is made up of with 10 of a pair of base baffles top ceiling 7, attaching parts 8, base 9.The two ends of attaching parts 8 will be respectively and top ceiling 7 and base 9 bonding being in the same place, and constitutes the basic framework of frame 1; Hole above the top ceiling 7 is used for locating parallel shafts structure 5; Rectangular channel on the attaching parts 8 is used for retraining the degree of freedom of transmission device 4; Hole on the base 9 is installed with motor 3, parallel shafts structure 5 and train of reduction gears 2 respectively by descending order; Base baffle 10 is bonded in below the base 9, plays the effect of the bearing of supports parallel axle construction 5.The processing mode that attention is made frame through bonding mode is fairly simple, is convenient to implement; Also can frame be worked it out, can further improve precision like this through the method for 3 D-printing.
As shown in Figure 3, described train of reduction gears 2 and motor 3 are installed in above the frame 1.Motor 3 adopts the drag cup motor, is installed in the place, hole that maximum gauge is arranged above the base 9 through interference fit; Big gear wheel 11 is common plastic gear, is installed in the place, hole that minimum diameter is arranged above the base 9, can rotate freely; Simultaneously, as with the interface of transmission device 4, be drilled with aperture above the big gear wheel 11, this makes big gear wheel play the effect of crank; Miniature gears 12 also is a plastic gear, is installed in above the output shaft of motor 3, as reaction gear.
As shown in Figure 4, described transmission device 4 is made up of the bar linkage structure that a kind of later-model " crank block " adds " slide block rocking bar ", and the material that uses is resin.Connecting rod 13 1 ends link to each other with big gear wheel 11, and an end links to each other with connecting rod 14, in " crank-sliding block " structure, play a part connecting rod; Connecting rod 14 1 ends link to each other with connecting rod 13, and an end links to each other with attaching parts 8, in " crank-sliding block " and " slide block-rocking bar " structure, all play a part slide block, and difference is, in the former, belongs to output element, in the latter, belongs to input element; Connecting rod 15 1 ends link to each other with connecting rod 14, and an end links to each other with connecting rod 16, in " slide block-rocking bar " structure, play a part connecting rod; Connecting rod 16 1 ends link to each other with connecting rod 15, and an end links to each other with parallel shafts in the parallel shafts structure 5 through interference fit, drive the reciprocal rotation of parallel shafts realization.
As shown in Figure 5, described parallel shafts structure 5 is installed on the frame 1, and described wing attaching parts 19 is installed on the parallel shafts of parallel shafts structure 5.Bearing 17 adopts prevailing deep groove ball bearing to get final product, and mainly is used for bearing axial load; Parallel shafts 18 belongs to the representative type stepped shaft, the mouth of transmission device 4 not only is installed above it, and the wing attaching parts is installed, thereby make wing realize patting motion; Wing attaching parts 19 is used for wing and parallel shafts 18 are linked together, and belongs in this embodiment to be fixed together.
As shown in Figure 6, described wing 6 is made up of the auxilliary arteries and veins 23 of master pulse 20, the wing of wing attaching parts 19, wing leading edge surperficial auxilliary arteries and veins 21, parachute 22 and wing root.Master pulse 20, auxilliary arteries and veins 21, auxilliary arteries and veins 23 all adopt carbon fibre material, and 22 of parachutes adopt polyimide material; Master pulse 20, auxilliary arteries and veins 23 are bonded in the edge of parachute 22 through epoxide-resin glue, and orthogonal; Auxilliary arteries and veins 22 is bonded in the wing surface through epoxide-resin glue, has a certain degree with master pulse 20; The structure of like this " vein+parachute " can improve the aeroperformance of wing well.
The skeletal structure of the flapping wing mechanism imitation hummingbird of the little aircraft of imitative hummingbird flapping wing according to the invention is easy to realize flight flexibly, and is convenient to carry out follow-up improvement.This device adopts a drag cup motor 3 as motion output; And utilize train of reduction gears 2, transmission device 4 and parallel axle construction 5 to pass motion to wing 6; Finally make two wings be achieved the symmetry the beating campaign, make aircraft can carry out smooth flight.The structural constituent of this device is simpler, has adopted a part of standard element, and the remaining part shape specification is also simpler; What material adopted is materials such as plastics, resin, carbon fiber and Kapton; Handling ease is convenient to adopt the little manufacturing batch production of numerical control, helps the structural entity micro-miniaturisation.In addition, the drag cup motor that this device adopts does not need very high power line voltage as drive source, and common on the market poly-lithium battery just can be used as power supply, and this is convenient to little aircraft and oneself carries power supply.
Although content of the present invention has been done detailed introduction through above-mentioned preferred embodiment, will be appreciated that above-mentioned description should not be considered to limitation of the present invention.After those skilled in the art have read foregoing, for multiple modification of the present invention with to substitute all will be conspicuous.Therefore, protection scope of the present invention should be limited appended claim.

Claims (10)

1. little aircraft of imitative hummingbird flapping wing; Comprise frame, train of reduction gears, motor, transmission device, parallel shafts structure and a pair of wing; It is characterized in that: said train of reduction gears is directly installed on above the frame; Motor forms a unified integral body through interference fit and frame; The effect of restriction and the bearing of parallel shafts structure through geometric relationship and rack together, the two ends of transmission device are connected with parallel axle construction with the big gear wheel of train of reduction gears respectively, a pair of wing passes through a wing attaching parts and is connected with the parallel shafts structure.
2. the little aircraft of a kind of imitative hummingbird flapping wing according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described frame is formed by a plurality of part bondings, and perhaps the method through 3 D-printing is made.
3. the little aircraft of a kind of imitative hummingbird flapping wing according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: described frame is made up of top ceiling, attaching parts, base and a pair of base baffle; Being in the same place with top ceiling and base are bonding respectively in the two ends of attaching parts, constitutes the basic framework of frame; Hole above the top ceiling is used for locating the parallel shafts structure; Rectangular channel on the attaching parts is used for retraining the degree of freedom of transmission device; Hole on the base is installed with motor, parallel shafts structure and train of reduction gears respectively by descending order; Base baffle then is bonded to below the base, has played the effect of the attached bearing of supports parallel axle construction.
4. the little aircraft of a kind of imitative hummingbird flapping wing according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: described parallel shafts structure is made up of a pair of stepped shaft; And this parallel shafts structure one end is connected the frame bottom through bearing; The other end is connected frame top through free-running fit, thereby can rotate freely around the axis of self.
5. the little aircraft of a kind of imitative hummingbird flapping wing according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described train of reduction gears is made up of plastic gear, and the big gear wheel of mouth links to each other with bar linkage structure as transmission device.
6. the little aircraft of a kind of imitative hummingbird flapping wing according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described motor adopts the drag cup motor, is installed in the place, hole that maximum gauge is arranged above the base through interference fit; Big gear wheel is common plastic gear, is installed in the place, hole that minimum diameter is arranged above the base, can rotate freely; Simultaneously, as with the interface of transmission device, be drilled with aperture above the big gear wheel, this makes big gear wheel play the effect of crank; Miniature gears also is a plastic gear, is installed in above the output shaft of motor, as reaction gear.
7. according to the little aircraft of each described a kind of imitative hummingbird flapping wing of claim 1-6, it is characterized in that: described transmission device is made up of bar linkage structure, and this bar linkage structure belongs to the structure that " crank-sliding block " adds " slide block-rocking bar ".
8. the little aircraft of a kind of imitative hummingbird flapping wing according to claim 7; It is characterized in that: described bar linkage structure comprises four connecting rods compositions; Wherein an end of first connecting rod links to each other with big gear wheel, and the other end links to each other with second connecting rod, in " crank-sliding block " structure, plays a part connecting rod; One end of second connecting rod links to each other with first connecting rod, and an end links to each other with the frame attaching parts, and the other end links to each other with third connecting rod, in " crank-sliding block " and " slide block-rocking bar " structure, all plays a part slide block; Third connecting rod one end links to each other with second connecting rod, and the other end links to each other with the 4th connecting rod, in " slide block-rocking bar " structure, plays a part connecting rod; The 4th connecting rod one end links to each other with third connecting rod, and the other end links to each other with parallel shafts in the parallel shafts structure through interference fit, drives the reciprocal rotation of parallel shafts realization.
9. according to the little aircraft of each described a kind of imitative hummingbird flapping wing of claim 1-6; It is characterized in that: described a pair of wing shape is symmetry fully; And form by the vein of carbon fibre material and the film of polyimide material; The vein here comprises the master pulse of wing leading edge, the auxilliary arteries and veins of wing root and the auxilliary arteries and veins on wing surface, through length and the diameter of regulating these three veins, just can the performance of wing be optimized.
10. the little aircraft of imitative hummingbird flapping wing according to claim 9 is characterized in that: said wing attaching parts has been connected wing with having realized the parallel shafts structure of patting motion, realizes that the beating campaign of two wings is symmetrical fully.
CN201210282453.9A 2012-08-09 2012-08-09 Hummingbird-wing-flapping-imitating micro air vehicle Expired - Fee Related CN102815399B (en)

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CN104477383A (en) * 2014-12-02 2015-04-01 西北工业大学 Three-dimensional flapping flapping-wing drive mechanism
CN104971505A (en) * 2014-04-08 2015-10-14 李哲 Bionic toy with multiple flapping wings
CN105197121A (en) * 2015-10-14 2015-12-30 中国人民解放军国防科学技术大学 Multi-degree-of-freedom bionic mechanism
CN106005405A (en) * 2016-07-18 2016-10-12 上海交通大学 High-frequency flapping-wing bionic insect aircraft with controllable passive torsion
CN106167095A (en) * 2016-07-18 2016-11-30 上海交通大学 A kind of high frequency flapping wing Bionic insect flight device with anti-dislocation mechanism
CN108275270A (en) * 2018-02-09 2018-07-13 西北工业大学 One kind is sculled formula flapping wing control mechanism
CN108438218A (en) * 2018-02-11 2018-08-24 北京航空航天大学 A kind of bionical hummingbird aircraft
CN108820207A (en) * 2018-05-10 2018-11-16 北京科技大学 A kind of flapping flight robot driver and flapping flight robot
WO2019126507A1 (en) * 2017-12-20 2019-06-27 The Texas A & M University System Hover-capable flapping-wing aircraft
CN110008639A (en) * 2019-04-24 2019-07-12 东莞理工学院 A kind of micro flapping wing air vehicle wing intelligent parameter design method
CN110143280A (en) * 2019-05-29 2019-08-20 南开大学 A kind of driving mechanism of the imitative hummingbird flapping wing unmanned vehicle based on link mechanism
CN112078790A (en) * 2020-09-03 2020-12-15 哈尔滨工业大学(深圳) Flapping wing driving device and aircraft
CN112078791A (en) * 2020-09-10 2020-12-15 哈尔滨工业大学(深圳) Flapping wing aircraft

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CN103482066A (en) * 2013-10-14 2014-01-01 厦门大学 Micro ornithopter based on ionic polymer metal composite driving
CN104971505A (en) * 2014-04-08 2015-10-14 李哲 Bionic toy with multiple flapping wings
CN104477383A (en) * 2014-12-02 2015-04-01 西北工业大学 Three-dimensional flapping flapping-wing drive mechanism
CN104477383B (en) * 2014-12-02 2017-04-26 西北工业大学 Three-dimensional flapping flapping-wing drive mechanism
CN105197121A (en) * 2015-10-14 2015-12-30 中国人民解放军国防科学技术大学 Multi-degree-of-freedom bionic mechanism
CN106005405A (en) * 2016-07-18 2016-10-12 上海交通大学 High-frequency flapping-wing bionic insect aircraft with controllable passive torsion
CN106167095A (en) * 2016-07-18 2016-11-30 上海交通大学 A kind of high frequency flapping wing Bionic insect flight device with anti-dislocation mechanism
CN106167095B (en) * 2016-07-18 2019-01-25 上海交通大学 A kind of high frequency flapping wing Bionic insect flight device with anti-dislocation mechanism
CN106005405B (en) * 2016-07-18 2019-01-25 上海交通大学 It is a kind of with the high frequency flapping wing Bionic insect flight device controllably passively reversed
WO2019126507A1 (en) * 2017-12-20 2019-06-27 The Texas A & M University System Hover-capable flapping-wing aircraft
CN108275270A (en) * 2018-02-09 2018-07-13 西北工业大学 One kind is sculled formula flapping wing control mechanism
CN108438218B (en) * 2018-02-11 2020-09-04 北京航空航天大学 Bionic hummingbird aircraft
CN108438218A (en) * 2018-02-11 2018-08-24 北京航空航天大学 A kind of bionical hummingbird aircraft
CN108820207A (en) * 2018-05-10 2018-11-16 北京科技大学 A kind of flapping flight robot driver and flapping flight robot
CN110008639A (en) * 2019-04-24 2019-07-12 东莞理工学院 A kind of micro flapping wing air vehicle wing intelligent parameter design method
CN110143280A (en) * 2019-05-29 2019-08-20 南开大学 A kind of driving mechanism of the imitative hummingbird flapping wing unmanned vehicle based on link mechanism
CN110143280B (en) * 2019-05-29 2022-05-27 南开大学 Driving mechanism of hummingbird-flapping-wing-imitating unmanned aerial vehicle based on connecting rod mechanism
CN112078790A (en) * 2020-09-03 2020-12-15 哈尔滨工业大学(深圳) Flapping wing driving device and aircraft
CN112078790B (en) * 2020-09-03 2022-04-19 哈尔滨工业大学(深圳) Flapping wing driving device and aircraft
CN112078791A (en) * 2020-09-10 2020-12-15 哈尔滨工业大学(深圳) Flapping wing aircraft

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