CN102797629B - Wind turbine generator control method, controller and control system of wind turbine generator - Google Patents

Wind turbine generator control method, controller and control system of wind turbine generator Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102797629B
CN102797629B CN201210276153.XA CN201210276153A CN102797629B CN 102797629 B CN102797629 B CN 102797629B CN 201210276153 A CN201210276153 A CN 201210276153A CN 102797629 B CN102797629 B CN 102797629B
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dem
torque
controller
wind
impeller
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CN201210276153.XA
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CN102797629A (en
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王建明
潘磊
汪正军
徐佳园
何杰
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国电联合动力技术有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction

Abstract

The invention provides a wind turbine generator control method, a controller and a control system of wind turbine generator. The method comprises the steps of acquiring the air velocity in front a hub by a distance two to three times the diameter of an impeller, the pitch angle of the impeller at the current moment as well as the rotation angular speed of the generator, calculating the pneumatic torque of the impeller, and calculating corresponding electromagnetic torque; acquiring the current torque given value and a pitch angle given value; and correcting the given value outputted by a torque controller or a variable-pitch controller. The controller comprises a pneumatic torque calculation module, a torque controller, a variable-pitch controller and a controller given value correcting module. The control system comprises a laser radar wind speed measurement instrument, a wind turbine generator, and the above controller. The wind turbine generator control system provided by the invention can respond to the wind speed change in advance to correct the variable-pitch and torque control effect so as to improve the wind energy utilization rate of the wind turbine generator, thereby obviating integral fatigue loads and power generation loss caused by impeller inertia and delay of the pitch-variable system.

Description

A kind of controlling method, controller and control system thereof of wind-powered electricity generation unit

Technical field

The present invention relates to technical field of wind power generation, particularly relate to a kind of controlling method, controller and control system thereof of wind-powered electricity generation unit.

Background technique

In recent years, along with the continuous progress of wind-power electricity generation relevant control technology, speed-changing oar-changing wind power generating set becomes main installation type at present with advantages such as its efficient wind energy utilization and larger single-machine capacities.

Speed-changing oar-changing wind-powered electricity generation unit is when low wind speed (below rated wind speed), the propeller pitch angle of blade is adjusted to optimum (or minimum) by master control system, adjust wheel speed by controlling generator electromagnetic torque, blower fan is operated under optimum tip speed ratio state, to realize maximal wind-energy capture; After wheel speed arrives rated speed, rotating speed can not increase along with the increase of wind speed, need to wheel speed be remained near rated speed by increasing generator electromagnetic torque, makes wind-powered electricity generation unit enter permanent rotary speed area.When wind speed increases to rated wind speed, it is specified that torque reaches, and generator reaches rated power simultaneously, and now, if wind speed continues to increase, master control system can increase propeller pitch angle to reduce the wind energy of catching, and guarantees generator set nonoverload, enters the output-constant operation stage.

In wind-powered electricity generation unit actual moving process, due to the existence of turbulent flow and fitful wind, when wind speed, be engraved in fluctuation, guarantee the operation point of running of wind generating set in design, control generator torque and propeller pitch angle that need to be correct according to current wind speed.Because the rotary inertia of impeller is larger, the variation of wind speed is reflected to wheel speed, then is used for regulating torque and propeller pitch angle often to lag behind the long period.Especially while operation below rated wind speed, in order to follow the tracks of optimum tip speed ratio, need to constantly regulate wheel speed according to wind speed, but in existing master control system, the torque in this stage is to obtain according to the product of the optimum gain coefficient of vane airfoil profile property calculation and generator speed square, be equivalent to a kind of open loop control mode, the torque value being obtained by the method is difficult to accurately follow the tracks of optimum tip speed ratio, causes wind energy utilization on the low side.When rated wind speed is above, also can cause propeller pitch angle not mate with the wind speed at current impeller place because of the hysteresis of rotation speed change and pitch-controlled system according to wheel speed control propeller pitch angle, make impeller and tower cylinder place bear larger load.Therefore, if the wind speed that can measure impeller front also calculates the aerodynamic torque at impeller place in advance, in order to revise the output of torque and change oar controller, the fatigue load that can guarantee wind-powered electricity generation unit when rated wind speed has higher wind energy utilization can reduce high wind speed again below, has become one of important research target of current related domain.

Summary of the invention

The object of the invention is controlling method, controller and control system thereof by a kind of wind-powered electricity generation unit, torque setting value when it can make rated wind speed move below is on the one hand more reasonable, accurately follows the tracks of optimum tip-speed ratio, improves wind energy utilization; On the other hand, while operation, can shift to an earlier date the size that rationally regulates propeller pitch angle more than rated wind speed, effectively reduce the fitful wind at impeller place or pitch-controlled system and postpone the impeller that causes and the loss of pylon fatigue load and generated energy.

For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the controlling method of a kind of wind-powered electricity generation unit of the present invention, comprises the following steps:

A, obtain the airspeed V of wheel hub front impeller diameter 2-3 times distance wind, the propeller pitch angle β of impeller current time, and generator rotational angular velocity ω m, to calculate the pneumatic torque of impeller, and calculate corresponding electromagnetic torque, formula is

Q M = πρ R 5 C p ( λ , β ) 2 λ 3 G 3 ω M 2

Wherein, ρ is air density, and R is impeller radius, C p(λ, β) is power coefficient, and λ is tip speed ratio, and G is uni-drive gear box velocity ratio, ω munit be rad/s;

B, obtain the torque setting value T of current torque controller output dem;

C, obtain the propeller pitch angle setting value P of current change oar controller output dem;

The setting value of D, correction torque controller or change oar control output,

D1, when the generated output of current fan operation is below rated power, and Q mbe less than the specified of generator or peak torque Q etime, by T dembe modified to T ' dem=T dem+ (Δ T/t w) × t step, wherein, Δ T=Q m-T dem, t wfor the time of air-flow arrival impeller, t stepfor the output cycle of controller, work as Q mwith Q ewhile equating, stop revising,

D2, when the generated output of current fan operation is below rated power, and Q mbe greater than the specified of generator or peak torque Q etime, by P dembe modified to P' dem=P min+ (Δ P'/t w) × t step, wherein, P minfor minimum propeller pitch angle, Δ P'=P des-P opt, P desfor V windcorresponding design propeller pitch angle value, P optfor current optimum propeller pitch angle, work as Q mwith Q eequate, or P demwith P ' demwhen identical, stop revising,

The generated output of D3, current running of wind generating set is more than rated power, and Q mwhile being greater than the current torque value of generator, by P dembe modified to P' dem=P dem+ (Δ P/t w) × t step, wherein, Δ P=P des-P dem, work as Q mwith Q eequate, or P demwith P' demwhen identical, stop revising,

The generated output of D4, current running of wind generating set is more than rated power, and Q mwhile being less than the current torque value of generator, by P dembe modified to P' dem=P dem+ (Δ P/t w) × t step, work as Q mwith Q eequate, or P demwith P ' demidentical, or reach P mintime, stop revising.

As further improvement, described V windto utilize lidar air speed measuring apparatus to record.

In addition, the present invention also provides a kind of controller of wind-powered electricity generation unit, comprise: pneumatic torque calculation module, for obtaining the airspeed of wheel hub front impeller diameter 2-3 times distance, propeller pitch angle and the generator rotational angular velocity of generator current time, the pneumatic torque of calculating generator, and calculate corresponding electromagnetic torque; Torque controller, for exporting torque setting value; Become oar controller, for exporting propeller pitch angle setting value; And controller setting value correcting module, for revising torque controller or becoming the setting value that oar control is exported.

Finally, the present invention also provides a kind of control system of wind-powered electricity generation unit, comprises lidar air speed measuring apparatus, wind-powered electricity generation unit and above-mentioned controller.

Compared with prior art, the present invention has following beneficial effect:

1, introduce the wind speed that comparatively the laser windfinding radar of maturation has carried out flow path direction to impeller front and measure, make the control system of wind-powered electricity generation unit can respond in advance the variation of wind speed;

2, set up the aerodynamic torque computation model of impeller according to parameters such as the aerofoil profile parameter of wind-powered electricity generation unit, optimum tip speed ratio and optimum power coefficients, accurately calculate the aerodynamic torque that this section of air-flow can produce by the speed of impeller front air-flow and the running state such as wheel speed, propeller pitch angle of current blower fan, revise the effect that becomes oar and torque control, improve the wind energy utilization of wind-powered electricity generation unit;

3, can adjust in advance the output of variable blade control system according to the wind speed in impeller front, contribute to solve the complete machine fatigue load and the generated energy that postpone to cause due to impeller inertia and pitch-controlled system and lose.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Above-mentioned is only the general introduction of technical solution of the present invention, and in order to better understand technological means of the present invention, below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment, the present invention is described in further detail.

Fig. 1 is the composition schematic diagram of the present invention with the control system of wind turbines of the gentle dynamic torque computing module of lidar anemoscope.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the specific embodiment of the present invention is further illustrated:

Refer to shown in Fig. 1, the control system of a kind of wind-powered electricity generation unit of the present invention, comprises lidar air speed measuring apparatus, PLC controller and wind-powered electricity generation unit.

Wherein, lidar air speed measuring apparatus is arranged on wheel hub, for measuring the airspeed of front impeller diameter 2-3 times distance.

Wind-powered electricity generation unit mainly comprises generator, current transformer, pitch-controlled system and impeller, according to torque setting value and propeller pitch angle setting value control generator and the impeller through revising of the output of PLC controller.

PLC controller, i.e. the controller of wind-powered electricity generation unit of the present invention, it is built-in with torque controller, becomes oar controller, pneumatic torque calculation module and controller setting value correcting module.The controlling method of wind-powered electricity generation unit according to the present invention, the workflow of above-mentioned module comprises the following steps.

Step 1, by lidar air speed measuring apparatus, generator and impeller, obtains respectively the airspeed V of wheel hub front impeller diameter 2-3 times distance wind, the propeller pitch angle β of impeller current time, and generator rotational angular velocity ω m, calculate the pneumatic torque of impeller, and calculate corresponding electromagnetic torque.

At present, in wind-powered electricity generation unit design process, the aerodynamic characteristic of impeller is mainly analyzed according to foline theory, for consistent with design performance, adopts the output of calculating and revise torque controller based on the pneumatic torque model of foline theory.

Theoretical and the actuator dial concept according to the foline in aerodynamics, the pneumatic torque that impeller place produces is:

Q A = 1 2 ρAR U 2 C p ( λ , β ) λ

Wherein: ρ is air density;

A is impeller wind sweeping area, is A=π R 2;

R is impeller radius;

U is the wind speed at impeller place;

C p(λ, β) is power coefficient, and λ is tip speed ratio, and β is propeller pitch angle.

Due to the blade complexity of air-flow around, directly not too reliable with change oar controller and torque control in wind speed participation master controller, conventionally according to tip speed ratio, use: wind speed in replacement calculating, thereby:

Q A = 1 2 ρπ R 5 C p ( λ , β ) λ 3 ω B 2

Wherein ω bfor wheel rotation angular velocity, unit is rad/s.

Because in actual motion, the measuring accuracy of wheel speed is not high, and normally controls generator electromagnetic torque and control running of wind generating set state, in conjunction with the characteristic of wind-powered electricity generation unit transmission system, can convert out wheel speed by generator speed, and then calculate corresponding generator electromagnetic torque and be:

Q M = πρ R 5 C p ( λ , β ) 2 λ 3 G 3 ω M 2

Wherein: ω mfor generator rotational angular velocity;

G is uni-drive gear box velocity ratio.

In wind-powered electricity generation unit design process, its acceptable operating point has often all been determined and is corresponding with wind speed, therefore can set up wind speed and optimum tip speed ratio λ, propeller pitch angle β and power coefficient C after generator capacity is determined with vane airfoil profile data pmapping table, i.e. λ and β when measuring the airspeed in impeller front and just can obtain its arrival impeller place, and then can calculate corresponding torque Q m.

Step 2, obtains the torque setting value T of current torque controller output dem.

Step 3, obtains the propeller pitch angle setting value P of current change oar controller output dem.

Step 4, by controller setting value correcting module, revises torque controller or becomes the setting value that oar control is exported.

Specifically, if the generated output of current fan operation is below rated power:

(1) work as Q mbe less than the specified of generator or peak torque Q etime, according to calculated value Q mwith current torque controller output T dempoor Δ T=Q m-T dem, in conjunction with the time t of air-flow arrival impeller wand controller output cycle t stepadjusting generator torque setting value is T ' dem=T dem+ (Δ T/t w) × t step.Work as Q mwith Q ewhile equating, stop revising.

(2) work as Q mbe greater than the specified of generator or peak torque Q etime, show wind speed increase, wind-powered electricity generation unit be about to from below rated power to the above transition of rated power, the measuring wind V that should table look-up and ask windcorresponding design propeller pitch angle value P des, calculate and current optimum propeller pitch angle P optdifference DELTA P'=P des-P opt, in conjunction with the time t of air-flow arrival impeller wand controller output cycle t step, adjust propeller pitch angle setting value

P' dem=P min+(ΔP'/t W)×t step

Wherein, P minfor minimum propeller pitch angle.

Until the pneumatic torque of impeller of calculating is identical with nominal torque or become the output of oar controller and stop when identical with revised propeller pitch angle setting value the output of correction change oar controller.

If the generated output of current running of wind generating set is in the time that rated power is above:

(3) work as Q mwhile being greater than the current torque value of generator, show that the wind speed in impeller front increases, need to continue to increase propeller pitch angle and reduce catching of impeller place wind energy, the measuring wind V that should table look-up and ask windpropeller pitch angle value P when corresponding design deswith current P demdifference DELTA P=P des-P dem, in conjunction with the time t of air-flow arrival impeller wand controller output cycle t stepadjust propeller pitch angle setting value P' dem=P dem+ (Δ P/t w) × t step.Until the pneumatic torque of impeller of calculating is identical with nominal torque or become the output of oar controller and stop when identical with revised propeller pitch angle setting value the output of correction change oar controller, make pitch-controlled system can respond in advance the increase of wind speed, reduce fatigue load.

(4) work as Q mwhile being less than the current torque value of generator, show that the wind speed in impeller front reduces, need to reduce propeller pitch angle and increase catching of impeller place wind energy, the measuring wind V that should table look-up and ask windpropeller pitch angle value P when corresponding design deswith current P demdifference DELTA P=P des-P dem, in conjunction with the time t of air-flow arrival impeller wand controller output cycle t stepadjust propeller pitch angle setting value P' dem=P dem+ (Δ P/t w) × t step.Until the pneumatic torque of impeller of calculating is identical with nominal torque or to become the output of oar controller identical with revised propeller pitch angle setting value or stop the output of correction change oar controller while reaching minimum propeller pitch angle, make pitch-controlled system can respond in advance reducing of wind speed, avoid the loss of generated energy.

The invention provides a kind of wind-powered electricity generation unit controlling method, controller and control system thereof based on pneumatic torque calculation model, its wheel hub in wind power generating set installs lidar air speed measuring apparatus additional, wind speed to the about impeller diameter 2-3 times distance in wheel hub front is measured, as the input of aerodynamic torque computing module; Aerodynamic torque computing module calculates by the wind speed measured and the rotating speed of current impeller and propeller pitch angle the aerodynamic torque that the following moment of impeller can produce; Controller setting value correcting module, comprise the correction of generator torque setting value and the correction of propeller pitch angle setting value, calculate this part air-flow according to the air speed value of measuring and arrive the time of impeller and the impeller air power torque of correspondence, compare to revise generator torque and become oar setting value with the output of current torque controller, make blower fan can respond in advance the variation of wind speed, on the one hand below rated wind speed time, can follow the tracks of preferably optimum tip-speed ratio, improve wind energy utilization; While operation on the other hand, become the output of oar controller according to the adjustment that is related to of calculating torque and generator specified (or maximum) torque more than rated wind speed, respond in advance the variation of wind speed, thereby effectively reduce the loss of fatigue load or generated energy.

The above; it is only preferred embodiment of the present invention; not the present invention is done to any pro forma restriction, those skilled in the art utilize the technology contents of above-mentioned announcement to make a little simple modification, equivalent variations or modification, all drop in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. a controlling method for wind-powered electricity generation unit, is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
A, obtain the airspeed V of wheel hub front impeller diameter 2-3 times distance wind, the propeller pitch angle β of impeller current time, and generator rotational angular velocity ω m, to calculate the pneumatic torque of impeller, and calculate corresponding electromagnetic torque, formula is
Q M = πρ R 5 C p ( λ , β ) 2 λ 3 G 3 ω M 2
Wherein, ρ is air density, and R is impeller radius, C p(λ, β) is power coefficient, and λ is tip speed ratio, and G is uni-drive gear box velocity ratio, ω munit be rad/s;
B, obtain the torque setting value T of current torque controller output dem;
C, obtain the propeller pitch angle setting value P of current change oar controller output dem;
The setting value of D, correction torque controller or change oar control output,
D1, when the generated output of current fan operation is below rated power, and Q mbe less than the specified of generator or peak torque Q etime, by T dembe modified to T' dem=T dem+ (△ T/t w) × t step, wherein, △ T=Q m-T dem, t wfor the time of air-flow arrival impeller, t stepfor the output cycle of controller, work as Q mwith Q ewhile equating, stop revising,
D2, when the generated output of current fan operation is below rated power, and Q mbe greater than the specified of generator or peak torque Q etime, by P dembe modified to P' dem=P min+ (△ P'/t w) × t step, wherein, P minfor minimum propeller pitch angle, △ P'=P des-P opt, P desfor V windcorresponding design propeller pitch angle value, P optfor current optimum propeller pitch angle, work as Q mwith Q eequate, or P demwith P' demwhen identical, stop revising,
The generated output of D3, current running of wind generating set is more than rated power, and Q mwhile being greater than the current torque value of generator, by P dembe modified to P' dem=P dem+ (△ P/t w) × t step, wherein, △ P=P des-P dem, work as Q mwith Q eequate, or P demwith P' demwhen identical, stop revising,
The generated output of D4, current running of wind generating set is more than rated power, and Q mwhile being less than the current torque value of generator, by P dembe modified to P' dem=P dem+ (△ P/t w) × t step, work as Q mwith Q eequate, or P demwith P ' demidentical, or reach P mintime, stop revising, wherein, △ P=P des-P dem.
2. the controlling method of a kind of wind-powered electricity generation unit according to claim 1, is characterized in that described V windto utilize lidar air speed measuring apparatus to record.
3. a controller for wind-powered electricity generation unit, is characterized in that comprising:
Pneumatic torque calculation module, for obtaining the airspeed of wheel hub front impeller diameter 2-3 times distance, propeller pitch angle and the generator rotational angular velocity of impeller current time, calculates the pneumatic torque of impeller, and calculates corresponding electromagnetic torque;
Torque controller, for exporting torque setting value;
Become oar controller, for exporting propeller pitch angle setting value; And
Controller setting value correcting module, for revising torque controller or becoming the setting value that oar control is exported.
4. a control system for wind-powered electricity generation unit, is characterized in that comprising lidar air speed measuring apparatus, wind-powered electricity generation unit and controller claimed in claim 3.
CN201210276153.XA 2012-08-03 2012-08-03 Wind turbine generator control method, controller and control system of wind turbine generator CN102797629B (en)

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