CN102577462B - Methods and apparatus for deriving, communicating and/or verifying ownership of expressions - Google Patents

Methods and apparatus for deriving, communicating and/or verifying ownership of expressions Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102577462B
CN102577462B CN201080046009.6A CN201080046009A CN102577462B CN 102577462 B CN102577462 B CN 102577462B CN 201080046009 A CN201080046009 A CN 201080046009A CN 102577462 B CN102577462 B CN 102577462B
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China
Prior art keywords
described
expression formula
pki
communication
input
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CN201080046009.6A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102577462A (en
Inventor
W·M·哈达德
G·齐尔特西斯
V·D·帕克
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高通股份有限公司
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Priority to US12/540,982 priority Critical patent/US8769285B2/en
Priority to US12/540,982 priority
Application filed by 高通股份有限公司 filed Critical 高通股份有限公司
Priority to PCT/US2010/044281 priority patent/WO2011019549A1/en
Publication of CN102577462A publication Critical patent/CN102577462A/en
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Publication of CN102577462B publication Critical patent/CN102577462B/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04WWIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • H04W12/00Security arrangements, e.g. access security or fraud detection; Authentication, e.g. verifying user identity or authorisation; Protecting privacy or anonymity ; Protecting confidentiality; Key management; Integrity; Mobile application security; Using identity modules; Secure pairing of devices; Context aware security; Lawful interception
    • H04W12/06Authentication
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L63/00Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security
    • H04L63/08Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for supporting authentication of entities communicating through a packet data network
    • H04L63/0823Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for supporting authentication of entities communicating through a packet data network using certificates
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L63/00Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security
    • H04L63/14Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security for detecting or protecting against malicious traffic
    • H04L63/1441Countermeasures against malicious traffic
    • H04L63/1466Active attacks involving interception, injection, modification, spoofing of data unit addresses, e.g. hijacking, packet injection or TCP sequence number attacks
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L9/00Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication
    • H04L9/08Key distribution or management, e.g. generation, sharing or updating, of cryptographic keys or passwords
    • H04L9/0861Generation of secret information including derivation or calculation of cryptographic keys or passwords
    • H04L9/0866Generation of secret information including derivation or calculation of cryptographic keys or passwords involving user or device identifiers, e.g. serial number, physical or biometrical information, DNA, hand-signature or measurable physical characteristics
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L9/00Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication
    • H04L9/14Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication using a plurality of keys or algorithms
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L9/00Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication
    • H04L9/32Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system or for message authentication, e.g. authorization, entity authentication, data integrity or data verification, non-repudiation, key authentication or verification of credentials
    • H04L9/3236Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system or for message authentication, e.g. authorization, entity authentication, data integrity or data verification, non-repudiation, key authentication or verification of credentials using cryptographic hash functions
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L9/00Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication
    • H04L9/32Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system or for message authentication, e.g. authorization, entity authentication, data integrity or data verification, non-repudiation, key authentication or verification of credentials
    • H04L9/3263Cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system or for message authentication, e.g. authorization, entity authentication, data integrity or data verification, non-repudiation, key authentication or verification of credentials involving certificates, e.g. public key certificate [PKC] or attribute certificate [AC]; Public key infrastructure [PKI] arrangements
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L2209/00Additional information or applications relating to cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication H04L9/00
    • H04L2209/26Testing cryptographic entity, e.g. testing integrity of encryption key or encryption algorithm
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L2209/00Additional information or applications relating to cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication H04L9/00
    • H04L2209/80Wireless
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L2463/00Additional details relating to network architectures or network communication protocols for network security covered by H04L63/00
    • H04L2463/081Additional details relating to network architectures or network communication protocols for network security covered by H04L63/00 applying self-generating credentials, e.g. instead of receiving credentials from an authority or from another peer, the credentials are generated at the entity itself
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L63/00Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security
    • H04L63/12Applying verification of the received information
    • H04L63/126Applying verification of the received information the source of the received data

Abstract

Methods and apparatus for generating, communicating, and/or verifying ownership of expressions are described. Various embodiments are well suited for use in a wireless peer to peer communications systems in which expressions are communicated, e.g., broadcast, in discovery intervals. A first communications device generates an expression from a first public key and an additional input, said first public key corresponding to a private key known to said first communications device. The first device transmits the generated expression on a communications channel used for discovery. A second communications device receives the transmitted expression from the first device. The second device transmits a request signal to the first device associated with the expression; and receives from the first device a signed communication signed using a private key known to said first communications device. The second device uses information from the signed communication to determine if said first communication device owns said expression.

Description

For deriving to expression formula, transmitting and/or verify the method and apparatus of ownership

Technical field

Put it briefly, each embodiment relates to communication, and specifically, each embodiment relates to the method and apparatus that may be used for generating, transmit and/or verify ownership to expression formula.

Background technology

In a wireless communication system, communication equipment may wish by the information of the miscellaneous equipment that can be used near its this locality (such as, existence information, identification information, positional information, information on services, request, supply etc.) announcement in crowd.This information of advertisement can be carried out, to find and to take subsequent action for miscellaneous equipment.Such as, based on the identifier corresponding with interested information or project detected, the equipment of interested discovery information detected, can attempt connecting with the equipment sending this discovery information interested.In the wireless peer communication system lacking centerized fusion, need equipment can be identified in the existence of other equipment interested near them, and the discovery channel realizing being used for this object may be favourable.

Except transmitting except discovery information with reliable fashion, also need to provide the mechanism preventing malicious node, wherein malicious node may be attempted cheating.Based on discussion above, need to provide the method and apparatus about confirming the information transmitted in discovery communication channel.Specifically, whether the information received is corresponding with specific node in some way to need that receiving equipment can be confirmed, the transmission (such as, the expression formula of transmission) that wherein which makes receiving node can guarantee that this specific node docks the information received has control or authorizes.

Summary of the invention

This application describes and whether to the transmission of the expression formula received, there is the method and apparatus controlling or authorize for generating expression formula, transmission expression formula and/or checking node.Verify whether specific node has control for the transmission of specific expression formula or authorize, and is sometimes referred to as and determines or verify whether this specific node has this expression formula.Therefore, in various embodiments, to allow the mode ownership of the expression formula received being verified to (such as, by carrying out one or more communication with the node of the owner being considered to this expression formula), expression formula is transmitted.The owner of expression formula received can be the node sending this expression formula, but in re-transmission or when being communicated by intermediate node, the owner of expression formula is not identical with the node receiving expression formula from it.The method and apparatus of various description is suitable for wireless peer communication system very much, wherein within the system, transmits (such as, broadcasting) in discovery time interval to expression formula.

According to some embodiments, a kind of illustrative methods of operation first communication device transfers information comprises: generate expression formula according to the first PKI and other input, the private key that described first PKI is known with described first communication equipment is corresponding; Communication channel for finding sends generated expression formula.According to some embodiments, a kind of exemplary first communication equipment comprises at least one processor, and the latter is configured to: generate expression formula according to the first PKI and other input, and the private key that described first PKI is known with described first communication equipment is corresponding; Communication channel for finding sends generated expression formula.In addition, this exemplary first communication equipment also comprises: the memory being couple at least one processor described.

According to some embodiments, a kind of operation first communication equipment comprises with the illustrative methods of the ownership verifying expression formula: send signal to the second communication equipment be associated with described expression formula; The communication of signature using the known private key of described second communication equipment to sign is received from described second communication equipment; Judge whether described second communication equipment has described expression formula.In some this embodiments, the described step judging whether described second communication equipment has described expression formula comprises: judge whether described expression formula is that use first PKI generates; Whether communication of having signed described in checking is use the private key corresponding with described first PKI to generate.According to some embodiments, a kind of exemplary first communication equipment comprises at least one processor, and the latter is configured to: send signal to the second communication equipment be associated with described expression formula; The communication of signature using the known private key of described second communication equipment to sign is received from described second communication equipment; Judge whether described second communication equipment has described expression formula.In some this embodiments, be configured to judge whether described second communication equipment has described expression formula and comprise and being configured to: judge whether described expression formula is that use first PKI generates; Whether communication of having signed described in checking is use the private key corresponding with described first PKI to generate.In addition, this exemplary first communication equipment also comprises: the memory being couple at least one processor described.

Although discuss various embodiment above in the mode of general introduction, should be understood that, not every embodiment must comprise identical feature, and more above-described features are not necessarily still expected in certain embodiments.In embodiment hereafter, by numerous further features of the various embodiment of discussion, realization and advantage.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the figure of the example wireless communications according to an exemplary embodiment.

Fig. 2 is the flow chart of the illustrative methods operating the first communication equipment according to exemplary embodiment.

Fig. 3 is the figure of exemplary first communication equipment according to an exemplary embodiment.

Fig. 4 be can (certain in certain embodiments) for the module collection of the first communication equipment shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5 operates the flow chart of the illustrative methods of the first communication equipment according to exemplary embodiment.

Fig. 6 is the figure of exemplary first communication equipment according to an exemplary embodiment.

Fig. 7 be can (certain in certain embodiments) for the module collection of the first communication equipment shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8 is depicted in relate to when deriving, transmit and verify the ownership of expression formula according to an embodiment, some exemplary signalings of exchange and the figure of intermediate object program.

Fig. 9 is depicted in relate to when deriving, transmit and verify the ownership of expression formula according to an embodiment, some exemplary signalings of exchange and the figure of intermediate object program, and wherein, the expression formula generated is based on group information.

Figure 10 is depicted in relate to when deriving, transmit and verify the ownership of expression formula according to an embodiment, some the exemplary signalings exchanged and the figure of intermediate object program, wherein, the expression formula generated is based on group information, and wherein, as a part for checking, communication of having signed receives from two group memberships.

Embodiment

Fig. 1 is the figure of the example wireless communications 100 (such as, peer wireless Communications system) according to an exemplary embodiment.Example wireless communications 100 comprises multiple Wireless Telecom Equipment (Wireless Telecom Equipment 1 102, Wireless Telecom Equipment 2 104, Wireless Telecom Equipment 3 106, Wireless Telecom Equipment 4 108, Wireless Telecom Equipment 5 110, Wireless Telecom Equipment 6 112, Wireless Telecom Equipment 7 114 ..., Wireless Telecom Equipment N 116).Some (such as, equipment 3 106 and equipment 6 112) in the Wireless Telecom Equipment of system 100 are couple to other network node and/or the Internet by backhaul network 122.Some in the Wireless Telecom Equipment of system 100 are mobile devices, such as equipment (102,104,108,110,114,116).In addition, example communication system 100 also comprises key server node 118, and the latter comprises both wave point and wired network interface.

Wireless Telecom Equipment (102,104,106,108,110,112,114,116) supports peer-to-peer communications, and realizes the reciprocity time structure comprising discovery time interval.First Wireless Telecom Equipment (such as, equipment 1 102) can (sometimes certain) use public-key with other input to generate expression formula, and sends the expression formula generated subsequently in discovery time interim.Such as, this expression formula can transmit and comprise below in the information of one: equipment identification information, user totem information, service advertisement, service request, Commdity advertisement, commodity request, supply, group identification information, positional information, device capability information or for interested out of Memory other peer device.

The second Wireless Telecom Equipment (such as, equipment 2104) can monitored discovery time blank signal, can receive sent expression formula, and may expect to verify the ownership of the expression formula detected.Second communication equipment receives and to have signed communication, and wherein this communication use is for private key known the first communication equipment.Second equipment judges whether the first communication equipment has this expression formula.In certain embodiments, this judges that operation comprises: judge whether the expression formula received is that use first PKI generates, and the communication of signing that checking receives is what to be generated by the private key corresponding with the first PKI.

In certain embodiments, judge that whether the expression formula that receives is comprising of generating of use first PKI: generate test value based on the information received in having signed communication at this, and this test value and the expression formula received are compared.In certain embodiments, what checking received sign, and communication is comprising of being generated by the private key corresponding with the first PKI: such as use standard public affairs-private key verification method to perform signature verification operations.

Fig. 2 is according to each exemplary embodiment, operates flow process Figure 200 that the first communication equipment carrys out the exemplary method of transmission information.Operation starts from step 202, and in step 202, the first communication equipment powers up and initialization, operates one (such as, according to specific embodiment) forwarding in step 204,206 and 208.In step 204, the first communication equipment is from certificate verification center (certificate authority) acceptance certificate (certificate), and wherein said certificate comprises one in private key and device identifier or user identifier.In step 206, the first communication equipment Generates Certificate in inside, and wherein said certificate comprises one in private key and device identifier or user identifier.In step 208, first communication equipment obtains certificate in the memory be included in described first communication equipment, this certificate has been included in described memory by the manufacturer of wherein said first communication equipment, and wherein this certificate comprises in private key and device identifier or user identifier.Operation forwards step 210 to from step 204,206 and 208.

In step 210, the first communication equipment obtains the first PKI from described certificate.Operation forwards step 212 to from step 210.In step 212, the first communication equipment generates expression formula according to described first PKI and other input, and the described private key that wherein said first PKI is known with described first communication equipment is corresponding.In certain embodiments, this other input is random number and time dependence input.

In certain embodiments, step 212 comprises sub-step 214.In certain embodiments, step 212 comprises sub-step 216.Turn back to sub-step 214, in sub-step 214, the input that the first communication equipment uses described first PKI and described input in addition to operate as one-way hash function, carry out fill order to hashing operation, the output of described hashing operation is generated expression formula.Turn back to sub-step 216, in sub-step 216, the input that first communication equipment uses described first PKI, the second PKI and described input in addition to operate as one-way hash function, carry out fill order to hashing operation, the output of wherein said hashing operation is the expression formula of described generation.Sub-step 216 comprises sub-step 218, wherein in sub-step 218, first communication equipment is except described first PKI of use, also use second PKI corresponding with the second member in group to derive described expression formula, wherein corresponding with the first PKI described device identifier or user identifier are members of described group.

Operation forwards step 220 to from step 212.In step 220, the first communication equipment sends generated expression formula in the communication channel for finding.In certain embodiments, corresponding for the discovery time interval in the communication channel that finds and peer communication system.In various embodiments, described transmit operation comprises: use transmitting set wirelessly to send described expression formula.

In certain embodiments, be the bit of predetermined quantity by the export-restriction of hashing operation, and step 220 comprise step 222.In step 222, the first communication equipment, in different peer-to-peer discovery time sections, sends the different piece of the expression formula generated.Operation forwards step 224 to from step 220.In step 224, the first communication equipment from second communication equipment Received signal strength, such as, for from second communication equipment sign communication request.Operation forwards step 226 to from step 224, and wherein in step 226, the first communication equipment uses described private key to sign to communication.In certain embodiments, described signed communication comprise below at least one: i) described PKI and ii) described device identifier or user identifier.In certain embodiments, this communication of having signed also comprises Hash information, and wherein said Hash information comprises the hash function for performing described hashing operation and at least one input for described hashing operation for generating described expression formula.In various embodiments, these multiple PKIs communicating and comprise for generating described expression formula of having signed.In certain embodiments, the detailed description of the mathematical function that each during this communication of having signed comprises for generating described expression formula parameter and the Hash for generating described expression formula use.In certain embodiments, this communication of having signed also comprises Hash information, described Hash information comprises for identifying or the information of the hash function for performing described hashing operation of deriving, and for generating at least one input for described hashing operation of described expression formula.Subsequently, in step 228, the first communication equipment sends this communication of having signed to described second communication equipment.

Fig. 3 is the figure of exemplary first communication equipment 300 according to an exemplary embodiment.Exemplary communication device 300 is one in the Wireless Telecom Equipment of such as Fig. 1.Exemplary communication device 300 can (sometimes certain) realize according to the method for flow process Figure 200 of Fig. 2.

Communication equipment 300 comprises and is coupled in processor 302 together and memory 304 by bus 309, and wherein unit (302,304) can come swap data and information by bus 309.Communication equipment 300 also comprises the input module 306 and output module 308 that can be couple to processor 302, as shown in the figure.But in certain embodiments, input module 306 and output module 308 are positioned at the inside of processor 302.Input module 306 can receive input signal.Input module 306 (certain in certain embodiments) can comprise wireless receiver and/or for receiving the wired of input or light input interface.Output module 308 can comprise (really comprising in certain embodiments) transmitting set and/or for sending the wired of output or light output interface.

Processor 302 is configured to: generate expression formula according to the first PKI and other input, and the private key that wherein said first PKI is known with described first communication equipment is corresponding.In addition, processor 302 is also configured to: in the communication channel for finding, send generated expression formula.In certain embodiments, corresponding for the discovery time interval in the communication channel that finds and peer communication system.In various embodiments, as being configured to the part sending described expression formula, processor 302 is configured to wirelessly send described expression formula.In certain embodiments, this other input is in random number and time dependence input value.

In certain embodiments, as being configured to the part generating expression formula, processor 302 is configured to: use described first PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function, perform the operation of described one-way hash function, the output of wherein said hashing operation is generated expression formula.In certain embodiments, be the bit of predetermined quantity by the export-restriction of described hashing operation; As being configured to the part sending the expression formula generated, processor 302 is configured to: in different peer-to-peer discovery time sections, send the different piece of described expression formula.

In certain embodiments, processor 302 is configured to: obtain described first PKI from the certificate of comprised described private key and device identifier or user identifier.In various embodiments, processor 302 is also configured to from certificate described in certificate verification receive centre.In certain embodiments, processor 302 is configured to generate described certificate in inside.In certain embodiments, described certificate is stored in the memory included by described first communication equipment by the manufacturer of described first communication equipment; Processor 302 is configured to from memory, obtain stored certificate.

In addition, processor 302 is also configured to: from second communication equipment Received signal strength; Described private key is used to sign to communication; And to communication of having signed described in described second communication equipment transmission.In certain embodiments, described communication comprise below at least one: i) described PKI and ii) described device identifier or user identifier.In various embodiments, this communication of having signed also comprises Hash information, and wherein said Hash information comprises the hash function for performing described hashing operation and at least one input for described hashing operation for generating described expression formula.

In certain embodiments, corresponding with the first PKI described device identifier or described user identifier are the members organized; Generate the part of expression formula as being configured to, processor 302 is configured to: except using described first PKI, and also use second PKI corresponding with second member of described group is derived described expression formula.In some this embodiments, as being configured to the part generating expression formula, processor 302 is configured to: use described first PKI and described second PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function to perform the operation of described one-way hash function, the output of described hashing operation is generated expression formula.

Fig. 4 be can (certain in certain embodiments) for the module collection 400 of the first communication equipment 300 shown in Fig. 3.Module in set 400 can be implemented in the hardware in the processor 302 of Fig. 3, such as, is embodied as each circuit.Or these modules can use software simulating, and be stored in the memory 304 li of the first communication equipment 300 shown in Fig. 3.Although be single-processor (such as, computer) shown in Fig. 3 embodiment, should be understood that, processor 302 can be embodied as one or more processor (such as, computer).When implemented in software, these modules comprise when being executed by a processor, realize the code of the function corresponding with this module for configuring this processor (such as, computer) 302.In certain embodiments, processor 302 is configured to each module of realizing in module collection 400.Be stored in the embodiment of memory 304 at module collection 400, memory 304 is the computer programs comprising computer-readable medium, wherein said computer-readable medium comprises for making at least one computer (such as, processor 302) realize the code of the function corresponding with these modules, such as, for each code of each module.

Can use completely based on hardware or completely based on the module of software.But, should be understood that, the combination in any of software and hardware (such as, the circuit of realization) module can be used to realize these functions.Should be understood that, the module controls shown in Fig. 4 and/or configuration the first communication equipment 300 or unit wherein (such as, processor 302) perform the function of the corresponding steps described in method flow Figure 200 of Fig. 2.

It is one or more that module collection 400 comprises in module 404,406 and 408.Module 404 is for the module from certificate verification receive centre certificate, and wherein said certificate comprises one in private key and device identifier or user identifier.Module 406 is the modules for Generating Certificate in inside, and wherein said certificate comprises one in private key and device identifier or user identifier.Module 408 is the modules for obtaining certificate in the memory be included in described first communication equipment, this certificate has been included in described memory by the manufacturer of wherein said first communication equipment, and wherein said certificate comprises one in private key and device identifier or user identifier.

In addition, module collection 400 also comprises: module 410, for obtaining the first PKI from described certificate; Module 412, for generating expression formula according to described first PKI and other input, the private key that wherein said first PKI is known with described first communication equipment is corresponding; And module 420, it sends generated expression formula in the communication channel for finding.In certain embodiments, this other input is in random number and time dependence input value.In various embodiments, corresponding for the discovery time interval in the communication channel that finds and peer communication system.

In certain embodiments, module 412 comprises module 414, the latter is for using described first PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function, and perform the operation of described one-way hash function, the output of wherein said hashing operation is generated expression formula.In various embodiments, module collection 412 comprises module 416, the latter is for using described first PKI, the second PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function, perform the operation of described one-way hash function, the output of wherein said one-way hash function operation is the expression formula of described generation.In certain embodiments, module 416 comprises module 418, the latter is used for except described first PKI of use, also use described expression formula of deriving with corresponding the second PKI of the second member organized, wherein, corresponding with the first PKI described device identifier or described user identifier are the members of described group.

In various embodiments, module 420 comprises module 421, and the latter is used for wirelessly sending described expression formula.In certain embodiments, module 420 comprises module 422, and the latter is used in different peer-to-peer discovery time sections, sends the different piece of the expression formula of described generation.In some this embodiments, be the bit of predetermined quantity by the export-restriction of hashing operation.

In addition, module collection 400 also comprises: module 424, for from second communication equipment Received signal strength; Module 426, signs to communication for using described private key; Module 428, for communication of having signed described in sending to described second communication equipment.In various embodiments, described communication comprise below at least one: i) described PKI and ii) described device identifier or user identifier.In certain embodiments, this communication of having signed also comprises Hash information, and wherein said Hash information comprises hash function and at least one input for described hashing operation for generating described expression formula.In certain embodiments, this communication of having signed also comprises Hash information, and described Hash information comprises for identifying or the information of hash function of deriving, and for generating at least one input for described hashing operation of described expression formula.

Fig. 5 is that operation first communication equipment is so that the flow chart 500 to the exemplary method that the ownership of expression formula is verified.Operation starts from step 502, and in step 502, the first communication equipment powers up and initialization, and operation forwards step 504 to.In step 504, the first communication equipment receives described expression formula from second communication equipment.In certain embodiments, step 504 comprises sub-step 506, and in sub-step 506, the first communication equipment receives the different piece of described expression formula in different peer-to-peer discovery time sections.In some this embodiments, be the bit of predetermined quantity by the export-restriction of Hash expression formula.Operation forwards step 508 to from step 504.

In step 508, the first communication equipment sends signal (such as, for the request communicated of signing) to the second communication equipment be associated with this expression formula.Operation forwards step 510 to from step 508.In step 510, the first communication equipment receives the communication of signature using the known private key of described second communication equipment to sign from described second communication equipment.In certain embodiments, the first corresponding with this private key PKI is included in during this has signed and communicate.In various embodiments, this communication of having signed comprises multiple PKIs that will be used for generating test value.In various embodiments, this communication of having signed comprises Hash information, and wherein said Hash information instruction will be used for the one-way Hash function generating test value.In various embodiments, this communication of having signed comprises Hash information, and wherein said Hash information instruction will be used for the information of the one-way Hash function generating test value for identifying or deriving.In certain embodiments, this communication of having signed comprises the detailed description for generating the mathematical function that each in the parameter of test value and the Hash for generating described test value use.

In certain embodiments, operate and forward step 512 to from step 510, and in other embodiments, operate and forward step 514 to from step 510.Turn back to step 512, in step 512, signed and communicate the identifier that comprises to obtain described first PKI described in the first communication equipment uses, described identifier is one in device identifier and user identifier.In various embodiments, the first PKI obtains from the memory of the first communication equipment.In certain embodiments, the first PKI obtains from another source (such as, public key server).Operation forwards step 514 to from step 512.

In step 514, the first communication equipment judges whether described second communication equipment has described expression formula.Step 514 comprises step 516 and step 528.In step 516, the first communication equipment judges whether described expression formula is that use first PKI generates.Step 516 comprises step 518 and 526.In step 518, the first communication equipment generates test value according to described first PKI and other input, and described input is in addition one during random number and time dependence input.

In certain embodiments, step 518 comprises in step 520 and 522.In step 520, the first communication equipment uses described first PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function, perform the operation of described one-way hash function, and the output of described hashing operation is described test value.In step 522, the first communication equipment uses described first PKI, the second PKI and described input in addition to perform the operation of described one-way hash function as the input operated for one-way hash function, and the output of described one-way hash function operation is described test value.Step 522 comprises step 524, wherein in step 524, first communication equipment is except described first PKI of use, also use described second PKI corresponding with the second member of group to generate described test value, wherein corresponding with described first PKI device identifier or user identifier are members of described group.

Operation forwards step 526 to from step 518, and wherein in step 526, described test value and described expression formula compare by the first communication equipment, and to judge whether they mate, wherein the described expression formula of coupling instruction uses described first PKI to generate.Operation forwards step 528 to from step 516.In step 528, the first communication equipment executable operations, to verify that this communication of having signed uses the private key corresponding with described first PKI to generate, such as, the first communication equipment uses standard public affairs-private key verification method to perform signature verification.

In certain embodiments, wherein, second communication equipment is the member of described group, this illustrative methods can (sometimes certain) comprise: the first communication equipment sends the step of signal to second member of described group, and first communication equipment receive from second member of described group second having signed the step communicated of using known the second private key (the second such as, corresponding with the second PKI private key) of the second members of this group to sign.In some this embodiments, test value uses the information recovered from both has been signed in described communication and second of having signed to generate.In certain embodiments, generate multiple test value, and test for received expression formula, such as, use according to the first test value of information communicating and recover of signing from second communication equipment, and use the second test value of the information recovered that to communicate according to having signed from second member's of described group second.Sign in each embodiment of communication receiving second from second member of described group, the first communication equipment also executable operations, to verify that the second communication of having signed uses second private key corresponding with the second PKI to generate.

Fig. 6 is the figure of exemplary first communication equipment 600 according to an exemplary embodiment.Exemplary communication device 600 is one in the Wireless Telecom Equipment of such as Fig. 1.Exemplary communication device 600 can (sometimes certain) realize according to the method for the flow chart 400 of Fig. 4.

Communication equipment 600 comprises and is coupled in processor 602 together and memory 604 by bus 609, and wherein unit (602,604) can come swap data and information by bus 609.Communication equipment 600 also comprises the input module 606 and output module 608 that can be couple to processor 602, as shown in the figure.But in certain embodiments, input module 606 and output module 608 are positioned at the inside of processor 602.Input module 606 can receive input signal.Input module 606 (certain in certain embodiments) can comprise wireless receiver and/or for receiving the wired of input or light input interface.Output module 608 can comprise (really comprising in certain embodiments) transmitting set and/or for sending the wired of output or light output interface.

Processor 602 is configured to: send signal to the second communication equipment be associated with expression formula; The communication of signature using the known private key of described second communication equipment to sign is received from second communication equipment; And judge whether described second communication equipment has described expression formula.Judge whether described second communication equipment has a part for described expression formula as being configured to, processor 602 is configured to: judge whether described expression formula is that use first PKI generates, and communication of having signed described in checking uses the private key corresponding with described first PKI to generate.

In addition, judge whether described expression formula is the part that use first PKI generates as being configured to, processor 602 is also configured to: generate test value according to described first PKI and other input, and described input is in addition one in random number and time dependence input value; And described test value and described expression formula are compared, to judge whether they mate, wherein the described expression formula of coupling instruction uses described first PKI to generate.

In certain embodiments, described first PKI can (sometimes certain) be included in described in signed in communication, and processor 602 is also configured to: from communication of signing, recover the first PKI.In certain embodiments, processor 602 is also configured to: the communicate identifier that comprises of having signed described in use obtains described first PKI from another source of such as memory or such as public key server and so on, and wherein said identifier is one in device identifier and user identifier.

In certain embodiments, as being configured to the part generating described test value, processor 602 is also configured to: use described first PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function, perform the operation of described one-way hash function, the output of described hashing operation is described test value.In various embodiments, be the bit of predetermined quantity by the export-restriction of described hashing operation; And as being configured to the part receiving described expression formula, processor 602 is also configured to: in different reciprocity discovery time sections, receive the different piece of described expression formula.

In certain embodiments, described communication of having signed also comprises Hash information, and wherein said Hash information instruction will be used for the one-way Hash function generating described test value.In some this embodiments, processor 602 is configured to recover Hash information from communication of signing.

In certain embodiments, corresponding with described first PKI device identifier or user identifier can (sometimes certain) be the members organized; And as being configured to the part generating described test value, processor 602 is configured to: except described first PKI of use, second PKI corresponding with second member of described group is also used to generate described test value.In some this embodiments, as being configured to the part generating test value, processor 602 is configured to: use described first PKI and described second PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function to perform the operation of described one-way hash function, the output of wherein said hashing operation is described test value.

Fig. 7 be can (certain in certain embodiments) for the module collection 700 of the first communication equipment 600 shown in Fig. 6.Module in set 700 can be implemented in the hardware in the processor 602 of Fig. 6, such as, is embodied as each circuit.Or these modules can use software simulating, and be stored in the memory 604 li of the first communication equipment 600 shown in Fig. 6.Although be single-processor (such as, computer) shown in Fig. 6 embodiment, should be understood that, processor 602 can be embodied as one or more processor (such as, computer).When implemented in software, these modules comprise when being executed by a processor, realize the code of the function corresponding with this module for configuring this processor (such as, computer) 602.In certain embodiments, processor 602 is configured to each module of realizing in module collection 700.Be stored in the embodiment of memory 604 at module collection 700, memory 604 is the computer programs comprising computer-readable medium, wherein said computer-readable medium comprises for making at least one computer (such as, processor 602) realize the code of the function corresponding with these modules, such as, for each code of each module.

Can use completely based on hardware or completely based on the module of software.But, should be understood that, the combination in any of software and hardware (such as, the circuit of realization) module can be used to realize these functions.Should be understood that, the module controls shown in Fig. 7 and/or configuration the first communication equipment 600 or unit wherein (such as, processor 602) perform the function of the corresponding steps described in the method flow diagram 500 of Fig. 5.

Module collection 700 comprises: module 704, for receiving described expression formula from second communication equipment; Module 708, for sending signal (such as, for the request communicated of signing) to the second communication equipment be associated with this expression formula; Module 710, for receiving the communication of signature using the known private key of described second communication equipment to sign from second communication equipment; And module 714, for judging whether described second communication equipment has described expression formula.In various embodiments, the first corresponding with the first private key PKI be included in that module 710 receives during signature communicates.In certain embodiments, the communication of signature that module 710 receives comprises Hash information, and wherein said Hash information instruction will be used for the one-way Hash function generating test value.

In certain embodiments, module collection 700 also comprises module 712, the latter obtains the first PKI for included identifier in communication of having signed described in using from another source of such as memory or such as public key server and so on, and wherein said identifier is one in device identifier and user identifier.

In certain embodiments, module 704 comprises module 706, and the latter is used in different peer-to-peer discovery time sections, receives the different piece of described expression formula.In certain embodiments, be the bit of predetermined quantity by the export-restriction of described hashing operation, and module 706 is in different peer-to-peer discovery time sections, receives the different piece of described expression formula.

Module 714 comprises: module 716, for judging whether described expression formula is that use first PKI generates; And module 728, for executable operations, be use the private key corresponding with described first PKI to generate with communication of having signed described in verifying.Module 716 comprises: module 718, and for generating test value according to described first PKI and other input, described input is in addition one in random number and time dependence variable; And module 726, for described test value and described expression formula being compared, to judge whether they mate, wherein the described expression formula of coupling instruction uses described first PKI to generate.

In certain embodiments, it is one or more that module 718 comprises in module 720 and module 722, wherein, module 720 is for using described first PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function to perform the operation of described one-way hash function, the output of described hashing operation is described test value, module 722 is for using described first PKI, the second PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function to perform the operation of described one-way hash function, and the output of described one-way hash function operation is described test value.Module 722 comprises module 724, the latter is except described first PKI of use, also use described second PKI corresponding with the second member of group to generate described test value, wherein, the device identifier corresponding with described first PKI or user identifier are members of described group.

In certain embodiments, module collection 700 also comprises: module 730, for sending signal (such as, for the request of communication of signing) to second member of described group; And module 732, use second of the second known private key signature of the second member of this group to have signed communication for receiving from second member of described group.Such as, the second private key that second member of described group is known is the private key corresponding with the second PKI.In some this embodiments, when generating the test value compared with the expression formula that receives, module 714 use from described first signed communication and described second signed communicate the information of recovery.In various embodiments, for judging that the module 714 whether described second communication equipment has a described expression formula also comprises module 734, the latter is used for executable operations, to verify that the second communication of having signed uses second private key corresponding with the second PKI to generate.

Fig. 8 is depicted in when generating, transmit and verify the ownership of expression formula according to an embodiment, some exemplary signalings of exchange and Figure 80 0 of intermediate object program.Figure 80 0 depicts two example wireless peer communications devices (device A 802, equipment B 804).Such as, equipment 802,804 is any one in Wireless Telecom Equipment in the system 100 of Fig. 1.Equipment 802,804 can realize the one or more methods according to flow process Figure 200 of Fig. 2 and/or the flow chart 500 of Fig. 5.Can one or more in the element described in Fig. 3,4,6 and/or 7, realize equipment 802,804.

Device A 802 comprises certificate 806, and the latter comprises PKI (PKA), corresponding private key A and identification information.Such as, this identification information is in device identifier or user identifier.Device A 802 is expected to send discovery information; Therefore, device A 802 generates expression formula 812.Device A 802 generates this expression formula according to its PKI PKA 808 and other input.In certain embodiments, generate expression formula and comprise: use PKA and carry out fill order to hashing operation for the other input of one-way hash function operation, the output of wherein this one-way hash function operation is generated expression formula.Device A 802 generates and finds signal 814, transmits generated expression formula 812.Device A 802 passes through the discovery communication channel 816 in the air link resources of realized congruent loop time-frequency structure, sends it and finds signal 814.To the equipment B 804 that the discovery signal from miscellaneous equipment is monitored, detect that device A finds signal, indicated by arrow 818.Equipment B 804 is recovered the expression formula detected, as illustrated in block 820.

Equipment B 804 wishes that Authentication devices A 802 has the ownership of this expression formula.Equipment B 804 generates the request 822 for communication of signing, and sends request signal 824 by non-discovery control channel 826 to device A 802.In certain embodiments, non-discovery control channel 826 is after paging channel, link establishment channel and link establishment in control channel.Device A 802 receives this request signal (as shown in arrow 828), and the request (as illustrated in block 830) for communication of signing that recovery receives.Responsively, device A 802 uses the one or more conduct inputs in Hash information 834, PKA 808 and id information 838, generates communication 832.Such as, id information 838 is equipment and/or user identifier.Such as, Hash information 834 comprises the information with following content: the hash function used when performing the hashing operation for generating generated expression formula 812, and for generating at least one input of expression formula 812.Give one example, at least one input used when Hash information 834 comprises such as identifying the information of hash function and generating expression formula 812, wherein uses this hash function to perform the hashing operation for generating generated expression formula 812 again.

Subsequently, device A 802 uses its private key A 840 to sign to generated communication 832, and it causes generating communication 842 of having signed.Device A 802 generates the generated signal 844 communicating and transmit of signing, and is sent by non-discovery control channel 846.In certain embodiments, non-discovery control channel 846 is after page response channel, link establishment channel and link establishment in control channel.Equipment B 804 receives the signal carrying this communication of having signed, as shown in the signal 848 of reception.The signature communication of equipment B 804 to this reception recovers, as shown in square frame 850.Equipment B 804 uses by the received information communicating and transmit of signing, and generates test value, as shown in square frame 852.Generated test value and the expression formula 820 detected are compared, and obtains comparison match result 854.In this case, device A 802 has the expression formula sent, and matches with the PKI originally used when generating the expression formula sent for the private key generating this communication of having signed.In this case, the test value 852 generated matches with the expression formula 820 detected.In addition, equipment B 804 also such as uses the public and private key verification method of standard to perform signature verification, as shown in square frame 856.

Fig. 9 is depicted in when generating, transmit and verify the ownership of expression formula according to an embodiment, some exemplary signalings of exchange and Figure 90 0 of intermediate object program.Figure 90 0 depicts two example wireless peer communications devices (device A 902, equipment B 904).Such as, equipment 902,904 is any one in Wireless Telecom Equipment in the system 100 of Fig. 1.Equipment 902,904 can realize the one or more methods according to flow process Figure 200 of Fig. 2 and/or the flow chart 500 of Fig. 5.One or more in element described in Fig. 3,4,6 and/or 7 can realize equipment 902,904.

Device A 902 comprises certificate 906, and the latter comprises PKI (PK a), corresponding private key A and identification information.Such as, this identification information is in device identifier or user identifier.Device A 902 is members for the group comprising equipment C and equipment D.Device A 902 comprises the PKI (PK for equipment C c) 903 and PKI (PK for equipment D d) 905.Device A 902 is expected to send discovery information; Therefore, device A 802 generates expression formula 912.Device A 902 is according to its PKI PK a908, PK c903, PK d910 and other input generate this expression formula.In certain embodiments, generate expression formula to comprise: use PK a, PK c, PK dcarry out fill order to hashing operation with the other input operated for one-way hash function, and the output of this one-way hash function operation is generated expression formula.Device A 902 generates and finds that signal 914 transmits generated expression formula 912.Device A 902 passes through the discovery communication channel 916 in the air link resources of realized congruent loop time-frequency structure, sends it and finds signal 914.To the equipment B 904 that the discovery signal from miscellaneous equipment is monitored, detect that device A finds signal, indicated by arrow 918.Equipment B 904 is recovered the expression formula detected, as shown in square frame 920.

Equipment B 904 wishes that Authentication devices A 902 has the ownership of this expression formula.Equipment B 904 generates the request 922 for communication of signing, and sends request signal 924 by non-discovery control channel 926 to device A 902.In certain embodiments, non-discovery control channel 926 is after paging channel, link establishment channel and link establishment in control channel.Device A 902 receives this request signal (as shown in arrow 928), and the request (as shown in block 930) for communication of signing that recovery receives.Responsively, device A 902 uses Hash information 934, PK a908, PK c903, PK d905 and id information 938 in one or more as input, generate communication 932.Such as, id information 938 is equipment and/or user identifier.Such as, Hash information 934 comprises the information with following content: the hash function used when performing the hashing operation for generating generated expression formula 912, and for generating at least one input of expression formula 912.Give one example, at least one input used when Hash information 934 comprises such as identifying the information of hash function and generating expression formula 912, wherein uses this hash function to perform the hashing operation for generating generated expression formula 912 again.

Subsequently, device A 902 uses its private key A 940 to sign to generated communication 932, and it causes generating communication 942 of having signed.Device A 902 generates the generated signal 944 communicating and transmit of signing, and is sent by non-discovery control channel 946.In certain embodiments, non-discovery control channel 946 is after page response channel, link establishment channel and link establishment in control channel.Equipment B 904 receives the signal carrying this communication of having signed, as shown in the signal 948 of reception.The signature communication of equipment B 904 to this reception recovers, as shown in square frame 950.

The information that equipment B 904 uses the communication 950 of signing received to transmit, generates test value, as shown in square frame 952.Generated test value and the expression formula 920 detected are compared, and obtains comparison match result 954.In this case, device A 902 has the expression formula sent, and matches with the PKI originally used when generating the expression formula sent for the private key generating this communication of having signed.In this case, the test value 952 generated matches with the expression formula 920 detected.In addition, equipment B 904 also such as uses the public and private key verification method of standard, performs signature verification, as shown in square frame 956 to the received communication of signature.

Figure 10 is depicted in when generating, transmit and verify the ownership of expression formula according to an embodiment, some the exemplary signalings exchanged and Figure 100 0 of intermediate object program, the expression formula of wherein said generation is based on group information, as a part for checking, communication of having signed receives from two group memberships.Figure 100 0 depicts three exemplary peer communications devices (device A 902, equipment B 904, equipment C1002).Such as, equipment 902,904,1002 is any one in Wireless Telecom Equipment in the system 100 of Fig. 1.Equipment 902,904,1002 can realize the one or more methods according to flow process Figure 200 of Fig. 2 and/or the flow chart 500 of Fig. 5.Can one or more in the element described in Fig. 3,4,6 and/or 7, realize equipment 902,904.

Device A 902 comprises certificate 906, and the latter comprises PKI (PK a), corresponding private key A and identification information.Such as, this identification information is in device identifier or user identifier.Device A 902 is members for the group comprising equipment C and equipment D.Device A 902 comprises the PKI (PK for equipment C c) 903 and PKI (PK for equipment D d) 905.Equipment C 1002 comprises certificate, and the latter comprises PKI C, private key C 1003 and id information.Equipment C 1002 also comprises PKI A and PKI D.Device A 902 is expected to send discovery information; Therefore, device A 802 generates expression formula 912.Device A 802 is according to PKI PK a908, PK c903, PK d905 and other input 910 generate this expression formula.In certain embodiments, generate expression formula to comprise: use PK a, PK c, PK dcarry out fill order to hashing operation with the other input operated for one-way hash function, the output of wherein this one-way hash function operation is generated expression formula.Device A 902 generates and finds signal 914, transmits generated expression formula 912.Device A 902 passes through the discovery communication channel 916 in the air link resources of realized congruent loop time-frequency structure, sends it and finds signal 914.To the equipment B 904 that the discovery signal from miscellaneous equipment is monitored, detect that device A finds signal, indicated by arrow 918.Equipment B 904 is recovered the expression formula detected, as shown in square frame 920.

Equipment B 904 wishes that Authentication devices A 902 has the ownership of this expression formula.Equipment B 904 generates the request 922 for communication of signing, and sends request signal 924 by non-discovery control channel 926 to device A 902.In certain embodiments, non-discovery control channel 926 is after paging channel, link establishment channel and link establishment in control channel.Device A 902 receives this request signal (as shown in arrow 928), and the request (as shown in block 930) for communication of signing that recovery receives.Responsively, device A 902 uses Hash information 934, PK a908, PK c903, PK d905 and id information 938 in one or more as input, generate communication 932.Such as, id information 938 is equipment and/or user identifier.Such as, Hash information 934 comprises the information with following content: the hash function used when performing the hashing operation for generating generated expression formula 912, and for generating at least one input of expression formula 912.Give one example, at least one input used when Hash information 934 comprises such as identifying the information of hash function and generating expression formula 912, wherein uses this hash function to perform the hashing operation for generating generated expression formula 912 again.

Subsequently, device A 902 uses its private key A 940 to sign to generated communication 932, and it causes generating communication 942 of having signed.Device A 902 generates the generated signal 944 communicating and transmit of signing, and is sent by non-discovery control channel 946.In certain embodiments, non-discovery control channel 946 is after page response channel, link establishment channel and link establishment in control channel.Equipment B 904 receives the signal carrying this communication of having signed, as shown in the signal 948 of reception.The signature communication of equipment B 904 to this reception recovers, as shown in square frame 950.

In response to the expression formula 920 detected, equipment B 904 also generates the request of the communication of signing for another member from (belonging to device A 902) group.In this example, equipment B 904 generates the request of the communication of signing for equipment C 1004.Such as, equipment C 1002 may happen to be in this time and be near this locality of equipment B 904, and it can be used for help and verifies.Equipment B 904, by non-discovery control channel 1008, sends the request signal 1006 carrying request 1004 to equipment C 1002.Equipment C 1002 receives this request signal (as shown in arrow 1010), and recovers the received request for communication of signing.Responsively, equipment C 1002 uses Hash information, PK a, PK b, PK c, and id information in one or more as input, generate communication.

Subsequently, equipment C uses and its PKI C PK ccorresponding its private key C 1003, signs to generated communication, and it causes generating communication 1012 of having signed.Equipment C 1002 generates the generated signal 1014 communicating and transmit of signing, and is sent by non-discovery control channel 1016.Equipment B 904 receives the signal carrying this communication of having signed, as shown in the signal 1018 of reception.Equipment B 904 is recovered, as shown in square frame 1020 the received communication of signature.

The information that equipment B 904 uses the communication 1020 of signing of signing communication 950 and/or reception received to transmit, generates test value, as shown in square frame 952.Generated test value and the expression formula 920 detected are compared, and obtains comparison match result 954.In this case, device A 902 has the expression formula sent, and matches with the PKI originally used when generating the expression formula sent for the private key generating this communication of having signed.In this case, the test value 952 generated matches with the expression formula 920 detected.In addition, equipment B 904 also such as uses the public and private key verification method of standard, performs signature verification, as shown in square frame 956 to the received communication of signature from device A 902.In addition, equipment B 904 also such as uses the public and private key verification method of standard, performs signature verification, as shown in square frame 1022 to the received communication of signature from equipment C 1002.

Each embodiment is directed to and allows to derive the method and apparatus of one group of expression formula from certificate.In certain embodiments, this group expression formula is closely limited by peculiar parameter in certificate (such as, PKI), its validity (validity) can be verified by carrying out inspection to the signature on the certificate of being signed by least one certificate verification center (CA), and by checking that the signature carrying the message of this certificate verifies its ownership.Derived expressions from certificate, has two main advantages:

1, the owner palming off this expression formula is very difficult (if not impossible), and this is because the first step for verifying expression formula verifies this certificate.This means the proof (proof) of the ownership that malicious node must provide private-public key right, and this means that it must have the private key used when signing to the message of carrying this certificate.

2, carrying out that checking becomes to this group expression formula is directly (straightforward) and be easy to operate.In certain embodiments, by verifying certificate and checking PKI ownership, this group expression formula is verified.In certain embodiments, if these two are tested the result all obtaining affirmative, then by simple one (or several) one-way Hash function, come to check these expression formulas simply.

Derive the 3rd advantage of expression formula of certificate is used to be: certificate can also be (self-generated) that (certain in certain embodiments) generates voluntarily.In this scene, certification authentication is reduced to the proof to PKI ownership, that is, an only signature.Unavailable and/or not accessible situation that this scene can be applied to (and in certain embodiments for) certificate verification center (CA).

Derive the 4th advantage of expression formula of certificate is used to be: to use more than one certificate to derive the possibility of particular expression formula.This process can be called " chain type " (" chaining "), this is because it allows one group of prespecified people (each private-public key with his/her to) to have specific expression formula.

Except use PK generates except expression formula, in certain embodiments, also there is other important parameter that can be used for identical object.Such as, HIT (that is, Hash (PK)) is 128 bit parameter, and it can be inserted in one-way Hash function together with other random value.In this case, described expression formula will be the result of Hash.It should be noted that HIT carries as possessory identity (or at least one identity) by certificate usually.

Another important parameter is the Hash of certificate oneself, such as, and front 128 bits.

In addition, can also according to parameter of deriving from the certificate of its derived expressions.In fact, as long as the ownership of such parameter can be proved, just they can be used.This virtual hierarchy between certificate and expression formula for privacy object may be useful (namely, the situation of group expression formula), this is because sender is checking the certificate of other peer-to-peer (such as, when paired), do not need first to disclose its identity (that is, main if it were not for its PKI).

The common trait of parameter set is above: when verifying certificate and signature (that is, the ownership that private-public key is right), can verify each in them.

A kind of generic way creating expression formula is application following formula:

(Y)=First[m,Hash(M|RAN)] (1)

Wherein:

-First (size, input) indicates the truncation (truncation) of " input (input) " data, and (that is, m) individual bit is still used to make " size " only.

-Hash () is one-way Hash function

-M will carry out by receiver the parameter verified.It can represent the Hash of the PKI of sender, HIT, certificate, etc.

-" | " instruction connects by byte

-RAN is 128 random bit parameter

Note: obtain immediately from (1), can derive from PK (Y) of unrestricted quantity.This feature makes sender can to derive as required expression formula as much as possible, and can not weaken its lsafety level.

Each embodiment is directed to communication system (such as, peer wireless Communications system).Expression formula can (certain in certain embodiments) derive from device certificate.In some peer communication system, expression formula plays key player when declaring existence and the degree of approach, in addition, its also by specific information announcement in crowd.

But, to one group of receiver send (X, Y) do not get rid of malice sender in certain stage to described parameter to cheating, to attempt confusing (confuse) one group of receiver, or disclose relation in social networks situation.

Our motivation is to provide certain mechanism, and this mechanism makes the reception function of expression formula easily verify that described expression formula belongs to the equipment sent it, that is, prevent the equipment not having them from carrying out expression formula deception.

The various aspects of exemplary peer protocol are now described.Expression formula (E) can be described as a pair parameter (X, Y), wherein (X) is information itself, and (Y) is shared key.This shared key is used for by it being merged in the Hash of (X) together with current time, strengthens the privacy of advertising node.In order to this object, by this to (X, Y) (such as, the host identification label (HIT) of sender is with together and is distributed to one group of receiver outward, and wherein said identifier is by carrying out hashing operation acquisition to its PKI (PK) with identifier.This is tied to corresponding HIT to (X, Y) by each receiver.Each receiver should accept this to (X, Y) before, with height the identity of trust to sender verify.

Become from the above it is clear that shared key (Y) by make sender he/her only for identifiable design this group receiver and traceable, in the privacy strengthening sender oneself, play the part of the role of key.For the receiver outside designed set, any prompting that the information of institute's advertisement will not provide about identity of the sender, does not provide yet and makes the possibility (that is, except except specific situation) that is mutually related between different advertisements.

In certain embodiments, the solution of advising comprises: from the certificate of sender's equipment (other parameter such as, in the PKI of this equipment or this certificate), derive (Y).

In some communication systems (such as, some peer communication system), step is below used to set up communication between devices:

1) find: during this process, equipment is such as by sending and monitor " expression formula " to find each other.

2) match: once device discovery each other, then use pairing process to set up safe communication channel between devices.

3) link establishment and more high-rise.Once match, then start more high-rise to allow exchanges data.

True below some exemplary embodiments equipment that is very suitable for making can prove during the pairing stage: they have certain expression formula sent in discovery phase.In certain embodiments, this is realized by the expression formula used in discovery phase of deriving according to the certificate belonging to source device.

Now, by providing the certificate in the source of expression formula Y and signature (it demonstrates the ownership of described certificate) to miscellaneous equipment, can prove that expression formula Y belongs to the source of this expression formula.

Mode below can be used, expression formula (Y) of having come to derive from the PK of sender:

(Y)=First[m,Hash(PK|RAN)] (2)

Wherein:

-First (size, input) indicates the truncation of " input (input) " data, and (that is, m) individual bit is still used to make " size " only.

-Hash () is one-way Hash function

-PK is the PKI of sender

-" | " instruction connects by byte

-RAN is 128 random bit parameter

Note: obtain immediately from formula (2), can derive the expression formula (Y) of unrestricted quantity from PKI (PK).This feature makes sender can to derive as required expression formula as much as possible, and can not weaken its lsafety level.

After derived expressions (Y), it is shared to its selected reception unit by sender together with its HIT.As previously mentioned, importantly, any payload of carrying these parameters is signed.Otherwise receiver should be refused.(Y) is tied to the HIT of sender by each receiver, and can be used it start new advertisement of deriving, wherein supposition transmission or advertisement (that is, sender can determine not carry out advertisement) of using this new when carrying out paging to sender.

When the session with sender initiated by receiver (R), before any packet of exchange, between these two peer-to-peers, set up Security Association.Can occur when the certificate of checking sender the checking of expression formula (Y).This certificate provides the proof of the ownership of PK to receiver (R).Walk abreast with certification authentication, sender can disclose RAN parameter, and the latter makes receiver (R) can recalculate expression formula (Y) according to authentic PK and RAN.

To derive the spoofing attack that expression formula (Y) can prevent for (Y) according to PKI (PK), this be due to malicious node also must prove its oneself to the ownership of PK, and this is considered to substantially to be difficult to realize.

In certain embodiments, RAN is sent together with expression formula (Y) and HIT.Although it should be noted that HIT should be relevant to PK, can sign to the message of each of carrying in these parameters with another private key.In this case, to the checking of PK, receiver (R) can impliedly be verified immediately to each expression formula (Y) being limited by PK.

The technology of the various embodiment of the application can realize by the mode of software, hardware and/or software and hardware combining.In certain embodiments, module is embodied as physical module.In some this kind of embodiments, each physical module is with hardware (such as, as circuit) or comprise hardware (such as, circuit) and some softwares and realize.In other embodiments, these modules are embodied as the software module that storage performs in memory and by processor (such as, all-purpose computer).The various embodiment of the application is aimed at device, such as: access point, server and/or the communication system of the mobile node (wherein cell phone is only an example) that static radio node, such as movement access terminal, the base station such as comprising one or more tie point and so on.The various embodiment of the application is also directed to method, such as, control and/or operate the method for the access point, server node and/or the communication system (such as, main frame) that comprise mobile and/or the Wireless Telecom Equipment of stationary node, such as base station and so on.The various embodiment of the application is also directed to machine (such as, computer) computer-readable recording medium, such as ROM, RAM, CD, hard disk etc., and these machine readable medias comprise the machine readable instructions of the one or more steps for control machine implementation method.

Should be understood that, the particular order in process disclosed in the application or step level are an example of exemplary method.Should be understood that, according to design preference, the particular order in these process or step level can be rearranged, and these are still within protection scope of the present invention.Appended claim to a method provides various step element with example sequence, but and does not mean that the restriction of its particular order provided or level.

In various embodiments, node described by the application uses the one or more modules performing the step corresponding with one or more method to realize, such as: generate expression formula according to the first PKI and other input, described first PKI is corresponding with private key known for described first communication equipment; Communication channel for finding sends generated expression formula.

Therefore, in certain embodiments, module is used to realize various feature.These modules can use the mode of software, hardware or software and hardware combining to realize.Many above-described methods or method step can use and be included in such as that memory devices is (such as, RAM, floppy disk etc.) and so on machine readable media in machine-executable instruction (such as, software) realize, these machine-executable instruction control machine (such as, tool is with or without the all-purpose computer of other hardware) in such as one or more node, realize all parts or a part for method described above.Therefore, specifically, the various embodiment of the application is the machine readable media for comprising machine-executable instruction, and wherein these machine-executable instructions make machine (such as, processor and the hardware that is associated) perform one or more steps in method described above.Some embodiments are aimed at the equipment (such as, communication equipment) comprising processor, wherein said processor be configured to realize in one or more methods of the present invention one, multiple or institute in steps.

Some embodiments are the computer programs for comprising computer-readable medium, described computer-readable medium comprises the code making a computer or multiple computer realize various function, step, action and/or operation (such as, one or more step as described above).According to these embodiments, computer program (sometimes certain) can comprise different code for performing each step.Therefore, computer program (sometimes certain) can comprise the code of each the independent step for a kind of method (such as, controlling the method for communication equipment or node).These codes can be kept in the computer-readable medium of such as RAM (random access memory), ROM (read-only memory) or other type memory device with the form of machine (such as, computer) executable instruction.Except being directed to computer program, some embodiments are directed to processor, and it is one or more that this processor is configured to realize in the various functions of one or more methods as described above, step, action and/or operation.Therefore, some embodiments are aimed at the processor (such as, CPU) of the some or all of steps being configured to realize method described in the application.This processor can be used in communication equipment such as described in the application or miscellaneous equipment.

In certain embodiments, the par-ticular processor of one or more equipment (such as, the communication equipment of such as wireless terminal and so on) or some processors (such as, CPU), be configured to the step performing method described in the application, as performed by these communication equipments.Therefore, some but not all embodiment is aimed at the equipment (such as, communication equipment) with processor, wherein said processor comprises the module corresponding with each step of the various described method that the equipment comprising this processor performs.At some but in not all embodiment, equipment (such as, communication equipment) comprises the module corresponding with each step of the various described method that the equipment comprising described processor performs.These modules can use software and/or hardware to realize.

Although various feature describes round ofdm system, at least some method and apparatus of the various embodiment of the application is applicable to diversified communication system, and these communication systems comprise multiple non-OFDM and/or non-cellular systems.

Considering above description, for the person of ordinary skill of the art, is all apparent to other modification numerous of the method and apparatus of various embodiment described above.These modification should be considered within the protection range of the application.These method and apparatus can in (certain in various embodiments) communication technology for CDMA, OFDM (OFDM), GSM and/or other type various, wherein these communication technologys may be used between access node and the Wireless Telecom Equipment of such as mobile node, provide wireless communication link (such as, WAN wireless communication link) and radio communication.These method and apparatus can in (certain in various embodiments) communication technology for CDMA, OFDM (OFDM), GSM and/or other type various, wherein these communication technologys may be used between the Wireless Telecom Equipment comprising counterpart interface, provide wireless communication link (such as, direct peer wireless Communications link).In certain embodiments, comprise the Wireless Telecom Equipment of Wide Area Network interface and peer network interface, use the different communication technologys for different interfaces, such as, be used for wan interface based on a kind of technology in CDMA and GSM, the technology based on OFDM is used for counterpart interface.In certain embodiments, access node is embodied as the base station using CDMA, GSM and/or OFDM and mobile node to set up communication link.In various embodiments, in order to realize the method for the application, mobile node being embodied as notebook, personal digital assistant (PDA) or comprising other portable set of receiver/transmitter circuitry and logic and/or routine.

Claims (17)

1. operate the method that the first communication equipment carrys out transmission information, described method comprises:
Expression formula is generated according to the first PKI and other input, the private key that described first PKI is known with described first communication equipment is corresponding, the step generating described expression formula comprises: use described first PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function to perform the operation of described one-way hash function, the output of described hashing operation is generated expression formula;
Communication channel for finding sends generated expression formula;
From second communication equipment Received signal strength;
Described private key is used to sign to communication; And
Communication of having signed is sent to described second communication equipment, described communication of having signed comprises Hash information, and wherein said Hash information comprises the hash function for performing described hashing operation and at least one input for described hashing operation for generating described expression formula.
2. method according to claim 1, wherein, described first PKI obtains from the certificate of comprised described private key and device identifier or user identifier.
3. method according to claim 1, wherein, at least one in below described communication comprises:
I) described PKI and
Ii) device identifier or user identifier.
4. operate the method that the first communication equipment carrys out transmission information, described method comprises:
Expression formula is generated according to the first PKI and other input, the private key that described first PKI is known with described first communication equipment is corresponding, the step generating described expression formula comprises: use described first PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function to perform the operation of described one-way hash function, the output of described hashing operation is generated expression formula;
Communication channel for finding sends generated expression formula;
Wherein, corresponding with described first PKI described first communication equipment or user are the members organized; And
Wherein, generate the step of expression formula and comprise: except described first PKI, also use second PKI corresponding with second member of described group to derive described expression formula.
5. method according to claim 4, wherein, the step generating expression formula comprises:
Use described first PKI and described second PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function to perform the operation of described one-way hash function, the output of described hashing operation is generated expression formula.
6. the first communication equipment, comprising:
For generating the unit of expression formula according to the first PKI and other input, the private key that described first PKI is known with described first communication equipment is corresponding, the described unit for generating expression formula comprises: for using described first PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function to perform the unit of described one-way hash function operation, the output of described hashing operation is generated expression formula;
For sending the unit of generated expression formula in the communication channel for finding;
For the unit from second communication equipment Received signal strength;
For using described private key to the unit of signing that communicates; And
For sending the unit of communication of having signed to described second communication equipment, described communication of having signed comprises Hash information, and wherein said Hash information comprises the hash function for performing described hashing operation and at least one input for described hashing operation for generating described expression formula.
7. the first communication equipment according to claim 6, wherein, described first communication equipment corresponding with described first PKI or user are the members organized; And
Wherein, the operation generating expression formula comprises: except described first PKI, also uses second PKI corresponding with second member of described group as the input operated for described one-way hash function to described expression formula of deriving.
8. the first communication equipment according to claim 6, wherein, described first PKI obtains from the certificate of comprised described private key and device identifier or user identifier.
9. operation receives the equipment of expression formula to verify a method for the ownership of described expression formula, and described method comprises:
Signal is sent to the communication equipment be associated with described expression formula;
The communication of signature that the private key using the described communication equipment that is associated with described expression formula known carries out signing is received from the described communication equipment be associated with described expression formula; And
Judge whether the described communication equipment be associated with described expression formula has described expression formula, and described determining step comprises:
Judge whether described expression formula is that use first PKI generates, describedly judge that whether described expression formula is that the step that use first PKI generates comprises: generate test value according to described first PKI and other input, described input is in addition one in random number and time dependence input value, and described test value and described expression formula are compared to judge whether they mate, it is use described first PKI to generate that coupling indicates described expression formula; And
Communication of having signed described in checking is what to be generated by the private key corresponding with described first PKI.
10. method according to claim 9, wherein, the step generating described test value comprises: use described first PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function, and perform the operation of described one-way hash function, the output of described hashing operation is described test value.
11. methods according to claim 10, wherein, described communication of having signed also comprises:
Hash information, described Hash information indicates the one-way Hash function that will be used for generating described test value.
12. methods according to claim 9,
Wherein, corresponding with described first PKI device identifier or user identifier are the members organized; And
Wherein, the step generating test value comprises: except described first PKI, also uses second PKI corresponding with second member of described group to generate described test value.
13. methods according to claim 12, wherein, the step generating test value comprises:
Use described first PKI and described second PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function to perform the operation of described one-way hash function, the output of described hashing operation is described test value.
14. 1 kinds of equipment receiving expression formula, comprising:
For sending the unit of signal to the communication equipment be associated with described expression formula;
For receiving the unit communicated of signing that the private key that uses the described communication equipment that is associated with described expression formula known is signed from the described communication equipment be associated with described expression formula;
For judging whether the described communication equipment be associated with described expression formula has the unit of described expression formula, the described unit for judging comprises:
For judging whether described expression formula is the unit that use first PKI generates, described for judging whether described expression formula is that the unit that use first PKI generates comprises: (i) is for generating the unit of test value according to described first PKI and other input, described input is in addition one in random number and time dependence input value, and (ii) unit for described test value and described expression formula are compared to judge whether they mate, it is use described first PKI to generate that coupling indicates described expression formula; And
For having signed described in verifying, communication is the unit generated by the private key corresponding with described first PKI.
15. equipment according to claim 14, wherein, the described unit for generating described test value comprises: for using described first PKI and described input in addition as the input operated for one-way hash function, perform the unit of described one-way hash function operation, the output of described hashing operation is described test value.
16. equipment according to claim 15, wherein, described communication of having signed also comprises:
Hash information, described Hash information indicates the one-way Hash function that will be used for generating described test value.
17. equipment according to claim 14,
Wherein, corresponding with described first PKI device identifier or user identifier are the members organized; And
Wherein, the described unit for generating test value comprises: for except described first PKI, also uses second PKI corresponding with second member of described group to generate the unit of described test value.
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