Regular arrangement optimization method of fans in flat terrain
The invention belongs to the wind power plant design field, relate in particular to a kind of level terrain blower fan planning optimizing method for disposing.
Level terrain be commonly defined as the wind-powered electricity generation place and around in the 5km radius its Terrain Elevation poor less than 50m, simultaneously the landform ruling grade is less than 3 ° landform, in fact, for around upper (coming) wind direction of site prevailing wind particularly, the landform that does not have large massif or steep cliff and so on still can be used as level terrain and processes.
In wind energy turbine set design and construction process, wind-powered electricity generation unit positional alignment is very important link.Wind-powered electricity generation unit positional alignment (being unit layout) mainly contains two basic purposes, and the one, optimize electric weight, mainly be the wind energy resources that takes full advantage of wind energy turbine set; Another is reduce the risk, mainly is to reduce wake flow, the Turbulent Flow Effects that is produced by the phase mutual interference between landform or blower fan and the unsafe factor of avoiding the other influences fan operation.When the wind energy turbine set that is positioned at level terrain is arranged, general ranks or the blossom type regular arrangement of adopting, and the spacing between each ranks equates, when adopting ranks or blossom type to arrange, general recommendations is no more than 3 rows being parallel to predominant wind direction, but in the real work, owing to limited by wind energy turbine set self form range, usually need to be at the blower fan that is parallel to more than predominant wind direction layout 3 rows, this usually causes the blower fan wake flow of blower fan middle part and lower wind direction excessive.So-called wake flow or wake effect refer to that wind through being mechanical energy with the part kinetic transformation behind the wind-powered electricity generation unit, is converted into electric energy again, thereby wind speed is reduced, and the wind-powered electricity generation unit generated energy of back are exerted an influence, i.e. wake effect.Because the impact of wake flow, the wind speed that is located wind-powered electricity generation unit on the leeward will be lower than the wind-powered electricity generation unit wind speed that is seated in upwind, generally be referred to as wake effect (Wake effects), as shown in Figure 2, the wind-powered electricity generation unit is installed in the X=0 place, and X is along the distance of wind speed direction apart from wind-powered electricity generation unit mounting points; R is the wind power generation unit blade radius; RW is the wake flow radius at X point place; V
XBe respectively the wind speed that blows to and leave the wind-powered electricity generation unit.The reason that produces wake effect is that the wind-powered electricity generation unit has absorbed portion of energy in the wind, causes the wind speed decreased of leaving the wind-powered electricity generation unit, and the wind-powered electricity generation unit is nearer apart, and the wind-powered electricity generation unit of front is larger on the impact of the wind-powered electricity generation unit wind speed of back.The operating experience of California, USA wind energy turbine set shows that the representative value of the energy loss that wake flow causes is 10%.For taking full advantage of wind energy resources and performance scale and benefit, Large Scale Wind Farm Integration has tens usually to hundreds of typhoon group of motors, is subjected to place and these wind-powered electricity generation units of other condition restriction again can not be at a distance of too far away.Therefore when wind energy turbine set planning and designing and definite Power Output for Wind Power Field, must consider wake effect.
Present stage, the principle of wind-powered electricity generation unit arranged was as follows for the wind energy turbine set of level terrain:
The conditions such as the prevailing wind direction that (1) shows according to wind energy turbine set wind rose map and wind energy rose, annual mean wind speed are determined predominant wind direction, and unit is arranged should be vertical with predominant wind direction.
(2) to smooth, open site, but single row or multiple rows are arranged the wind-powered electricity generation unit, should be " quincunx " during arranged in rows as far as possible and arrange, to reduce the impact of wake flow between the wind-powered electricity generation unit.
(3) the substantially constant wind field of prevailing wind direction adopts " quincunx " to arrange, 5～9 times of rotor diameters of unit spacing on prevailing wind direction, 3～5 times of rotor diameters of unit spacing on the vertical prevailing wind direction.
(4) prevailing wind direction is not the wind field of a direction, adopts row arranged and " quincunx " are arranged.
It is excessive (as shown in Figure 1 that this method for arranging causes being positioned at the blower fan wake flow of arranging middle part and lower wind direction easily, wherein arrow is depicted as upwind, circle represents the wind-powered electricity generation unit, box indicating wind field scope, irregular Hexagon represents the wake effect upper zone), affect fan operation and reduce generated energy.
Common wake effect mathematical model has Jensen model and Lissaman model, the former simulate the level terrain wake effect, and the latter more is applicable to the Simulation of Complex landform.The Jensen model is proposed by the N.O.Jensen in rope in the Denmark (Riso) laboratory, and its mathematic(al) representation is:
TFunction, so wake effect is relevant with the aerodynamic characteristics of wind-powered electricity generation unit.In the formula, C
TBe wind-powered electricity generation unit thrust coefficient, relevant with the wind-powered electricity generation set structure with wind speed; K is the wake flow descent coefficient, is directly proportional with the turbulence intensity of wind.Wherein:
In the formula: d is the wind speed decreased coefficient; σ
0Be respectively the turbulent flow of wind-powered electricity generation unit generation and the mean square deviation of natural turbulent flow, generally, σ
0=0.12U, U are mean wind velocity, k
wBe an experience constant, formula is
In the formula: h is hub height; Z is roughness of ground surface, is generally 0.002.
When carrying out the calculating of wind energy turbine set wake flow, calculate the wake effect between many Fans.The people such as Katic propose that many wake flows calculate the wake flow collective model that can use " quadratic sum of velocity variations " and calculate.The initial N.O.Jensen model that is used for WindPRO PARK module and WAsP/Park module calculates the wake flow comprehensive function with the quadratic sum of velocity variations.Many wake flows comprehensive effect is:
In the formula, δ
VBe velocity variations, be defined as (1-V/U), wherein U is free wind speed; N is windward wind-powered electricity generation unit number.Can find out the wake effect of wind-powered electricity generation unit, except relevant with the blower fan spacing, when many typhoons group of motors influenced each other in wind energy turbine set, windward wind-powered electricity generation unit number was also influential to it.Be positioned at the blower fan of lower wind direction because windward wind-powered electricity generation unit number is more, its wake effect changes the blower fan that is positioned at the layout edge for upwind blower fan spacing and wants responsive.So reduce edge blower fan spacing to widen middle part blower fan spacing, cause edge blower fan wake effect rising δ 1, make simultaneously mid-rear portion blower fan wake effect decline δ 2, when δ 2＞δ 1, can obtain the less and higher optimized project of overall generated energy of overall wake losses.
Summary of the invention
How to reduce wake effect in order solving, take full advantage of wind energy resources and to improve the technical problem of generated energy, the present invention to the original arrangement scheme of input to widen middle part blower fan spacing, to reduce edge blower fan spacing as the basis, carry out the adjustment of various step-lengths and calculate, to the result of calculation screening of sorting, thereby it is less to obtain wake flow, the unit layout scheme that generated energy is higher, the schematic representation of this scheme as shown in Figure 3, among Fig. 3, arrow represents the direction of the wind comes from, circle represents the wind-powered electricity generation unit, the box indicating wind energy turbine set.
For this reason, the present invention proposes a kind of regular arrangement optimization method of fans in flat terrain, the method comprises: step S1 obtains the initial placement scheme of wind electric field blower, and calculates the wake flow value of each blower fan position in the initial placement scheme; Step S2, obtain the position at the blower fan place of wake flow value maximum, adjust line by line/by column the ranks spacing of blower fan of the upwind of the blower fan be positioned at described wake flow value maximum: to after every row/row are adjusted, acquisition makes the adjustment result of the blower fan place row or column wake flow minimum of described wake flow value maximum, on this adjustment result's basis, next line/row are proceeded to adjust, and the each gross generation of adjusting the wind energy turbine set of result and correspondence of record; Step S3 sorts the gross generation that records, and obtains adjustment result corresponding to optimum total power.
Put forward the methods aspect according to the present invention in step S1, can be calculated or the artificial initial placement scheme that obtains of arranging by software, and the blower fan that this initial placement scheme is regular arrangement is arranged matrix.
Put forward the methods aspect according to the present invention, determine to adjust line-spacing according to the prevailing wind direction of wind energy turbine set and still be listed as distance, if prevailing wind direction perpendicular to row to, need to be to row apart from adjusting, if prevailing wind direction perpendicular to row to, need to adjust line-spacing, if prevailing wind direction be not orthogonal to row to also out of plumb and row to or a plurality of prevailing wind directions are arranged, need to adjust apart from both line-spacing and row, adjust first line-spacing and adjust again the row distance or adjust first row apart from adjusting again line-spacing.
Put forward the methods aspect according to the present invention, among the step S2, concrete adjusting method is as follows:
A arranges the adjustment step-length, and the initial value of i is set to 2, and this adjustment step-length is the distance that each row or column moves, and i is that described blower fan arranges that matrix is along the line number of upwind or row number;
B circulation adjust described blower fan arrange matrix along the i of upwind capable/the i row: with i capable/i be listed as to i-1 capable/the mobile adjustment of i-1 row step-length, adjustment result behind the record move and corresponding total charge value calculate the wake flow value that the blower fan of described wake flow value maximum is expert at/is listed as; Until stop this circulation adjustment when satisfying one of following condition: i capable/have the unit wake flow to be higher than a first threshold in the i row; I capable/i row in the nearest not enough Second Threshold of blower fan spacing of row/row;
The wake flow value ordering of c to calculating among the step b, obtain minimum adjustment result corresponding to wake flow value, adjust on result's the basis at this, whether the value of judging i equals the line number at blower fan place of described wake flow value maximum or row number, if equal, then stop step S2, if be not equal to, the value of i is added 1, continue execution in step b.
Put forward the methods aspect according to the present invention, wherein, described first threshold is 10%, described Second Threshold is three times impeller diameter.
Put forward the methods aspect according to the present invention, wherein, described adjustment step-length scope is more than or equal to 0.1 times of line-spacing or row distance less than 1 times.
Put forward the methods aspect according to the present invention before step a, if the blower fan of wake flow value maximum is positioned at the 2nd row or the 2nd row along upwind, is not then adjusted.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 shows wind electric field blower and arranges initial scheme;
Fig. 2 shows the wake effect schematic representation;
Fig. 3 shows wind electric field blower layout optimization scheme;
Fig. 4 shows the key step of the inventive method.
Fig. 4 shows the key step of the inventive method, and as shown in Figure 4, method proposed by the invention comprises: step S1 obtains the initial placement scheme of wind electric field blower, and calculates the wake flow value of each blower fan position in the initial placement scheme; Step S2, obtain the position at the blower fan place of wake flow value maximum, adjust line by line and/or by column the ranks spacing of blower fan of the upwind of the blower fan that is positioned at described wake flow value maximum: to after every row/row are adjusted, acquisition makes the adjustment result of the blower fan place row or column wake flow minimum of described wake flow value maximum, on this adjustment result's basis, next line/row are proceeded to adjust, and the each gross generation of adjusting the wind energy turbine set of result and correspondence of record; Step S3 sorts the gross generation that records, and obtains adjustment result corresponding to optimum total power.
Concrete, included three steps of the present invention are as described below:
Step S1, obtain the initial placement scheme by the calculating of the softwares such as WINDFARMER or WINDSIM or by artificial layout, and utilize the wind energy software for calculation to calculate the wake flow of initial placement scheme, for example, as shown in Figure 1, the initial placement scheme is the matrix of the capable N row of M, total M * N blower fan, and on average arrange each row and each row, namely the line-spacing R of each row is identical, the row of each row are identical apart from C, utilize the wind energy software for calculation to calculate the wake flow of M * N blower fan position in the initial placement scheme.
Step S2 adjusts and calculates the ranks spacing of initial placement scheme according to the wake flow result of calculation of initial placement scheme, and concrete steps are as follows:
The first step finds the position at the blower fan place of wake flow maximum, and here, it is capable to suppose that this blower fan is positioned at m, the n row;
Second step is set step-length, is 0.1 as setting step-length, and then each distance of adjusting is 0.1R or 0.1C (R is line space, and C is column pitch), and this step-length can be set to more than or equal to 0.1 times of line-spacing or row distance less than 1 times.
In the 3rd step, adjust each ranks spacing of blower fan upwind of wake flow maximum according to the step-length of setting, and calculate each scheme wake flow result.
Specific operation are as follows:
The blower fan of regular arrangement arrange matrix from upwind side alee direction be defined as the 1st row, the 2nd row ... M is capable, in like manner definable the 1st row, the 2nd row ... the N row; Because it is capable that the blower fan of wake flow maximum is positioned at m, the n row, method of the present invention need to walk to the capable blower fan of m-1 and/or the 2nd row are adjusted to the blower fan of m-1 row to the 2nd, the below's hypothesis prevailing wind direction be listed as vertically, introduce concrete adjusting method to classify example as:
At first the 2nd row windward is moved to the step-length according to setting, an electric weight calculating is once carried out in every movement, the arrangement behind the record move and corresponding charge value, and stop when satisfying one of following condition: A has the unit wake flow to be higher than 10% in these row; B in these row with the impeller diameter of three times of nearest blower fan spacing less thaies;
After the 2nd row stop, find out the scheme of the blower fan column wake flow minimum that makes the wake flow maximum, on this scheme basis, move the 3rd row and calculate wake flow and charge value according to same principle, arrangement after record moves at every turn and corresponding charge value, by that analogy, will respectively be listed as all windward to mobile and calculate wake flow and charge value before the blower fan of wake flow maximum in the initial placement scheme respectively;
If wind energy turbine set has a plurality of prevailing wind directions, then continue to adjust line space, adjusting method is identical with the adjusting method of row.
Each generated energy result that step S3. will calculate above sorts, thereby obtains the optimum layout scheme.
As mentioned, the present invention, carries out the adjustment of various step-lengths and calculates the preferred arrangement scheme to widen middle part blower fan spacing, to reduce edge blower fan spacing as the basis the original arrangement scheme.The present invention has following advantage: 1. because the blower fan spacing of having dwindled the edge in the blower fan spacing in the middle of increasing, when optimizing, can accomplish that the total spacing between first air bells exhauster and last air bells exhauster is constant, so can not increase the layout area area, in other words can under the identical set area, reduce wake flow apart from method by the conventional ranks that wait, improve generated energy; 2. because the method can reduce wake flow, so the ranks such as can be in the situation of control wake flow, generated energy conventional reduce the layout scope apart from method, save floor space; 3. the method does not need extra input, and can increase hardly the expense that current collection circuit and road are implemented, and easily implements.
The method of the above-mentioned concrete adjustment row that goes out shown in the present/row is only for exemplary; not as the restriction to protection domain of the present invention; those skilled in the art can make the present invention according to various actual conditions and revise and adjust, and these modifications and adjustment fall within the scope of protection of the present invention equally.