CN102159100A - Method for preparing fuel element for smoking article - Google Patents

Method for preparing fuel element for smoking article Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102159100A
CN102159100A CN2009801371773A CN200980137177A CN102159100A CN 102159100 A CN102159100 A CN 102159100A CN 2009801371773 A CN2009801371773 A CN 2009801371773A CN 200980137177 A CN200980137177 A CN 200980137177A CN 102159100 A CN102159100 A CN 102159100A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
fuel element
catalyst precursor
nitrate
smoking article
tobacco
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Pending
Application number
CN2009801371773A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
C·K·巴纳基
S·B·西尔斯
S·K·派克
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RJ Reynolds Tobacco Co
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RJ Reynolds Tobacco Co
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Application filed by RJ Reynolds Tobacco Co filed Critical RJ Reynolds Tobacco Co
Publication of CN102159100A publication Critical patent/CN102159100A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A24TOBACCO; CIGARS; CIGARETTES; SIMULATED SMOKING DEVICES; SMOKERS' REQUISITES
    • A24BMANUFACTURE OR PREPARATION OF TOBACCO FOR SMOKING OR CHEWING; TOBACCO; SNUFF
    • A24B15/00Chemical features or treatment of tobacco; Tobacco substitutes, e.g. in liquid form
    • A24B15/10Chemical features of tobacco products or tobacco substitutes
    • A24B15/16Chemical features of tobacco products or tobacco substitutes of tobacco substitutes
    • A24B15/165Chemical features of tobacco products or tobacco substitutes of tobacco substitutes comprising as heat source a carbon fuel or an oxidized or thermally degraded carbonaceous fuel, e.g. carbohydrates, cellulosic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A24TOBACCO; CIGARS; CIGARETTES; SIMULATED SMOKING DEVICES; SMOKERS' REQUISITES
    • A24BMANUFACTURE OR PREPARATION OF TOBACCO FOR SMOKING OR CHEWING; TOBACCO; SNUFF
    • A24B15/00Chemical features or treatment of tobacco; Tobacco substitutes, e.g. in liquid form
    • A24B15/18Treatment of tobacco products or tobacco substitutes
    • A24B15/28Treatment of tobacco products or tobacco substitutes by chemical substances
    • A24B15/287Treatment of tobacco products or tobacco substitutes by chemical substances by inorganic substances only
    • A24B15/288Catalysts or catalytic material, e.g. included in the wrapping material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A24TOBACCO; CIGARS; CIGARETTES; SIMULATED SMOKING DEVICES; SMOKERS' REQUISITES
    • A24FSMOKERS' REQUISITES; MATCH BOXES; SIMULATED SMOKING DEVICES
    • A24F40/00Electrically operated smoking devices; Component parts thereof; Manufacture thereof; Maintenance or testing thereof; Charging means specially adapted therefor
    • A24F40/40Constructional details, e.g. connection of cartridges and battery parts
    • A24F40/44Wicks

Abstract

The invention provides a method for making a fuel element (40) for a smoking article (10) comprising forming a combustible carbonaceous material into a fuel element adapted for use in a smoking article; incorporating a metal-containing catalyst precursor into the fuel element or onto the surface thereof to form a treated fuel element, the incorporating step occurring before, during, or after said forming step; and optionally heating or irradiating the treated fuel element at a temperature and for a time sufficient to convert the catalyst precursor to a catalytic metal compound. Examples of metal-containing catalyst precursors include iron nitrate, copper nitrate, cerium nitrate, cerium ammonium nitrate, manganese nitrate, magnesium nitrate, and zinc nitrate. Fuel elements treated according to the invention, and smoking articles including such fuel elements, are also provided.

Description

Be used to prepare the method for the fuel element of smoking article
Technical field
The present invention relates to tobacco product such as smoking article (for example cigarette).
Background technology
Common smoking article such as cigarette have the rod shaped structure of substantial cylindrical and comprise by the papery wrappage wrap such as the chopping tobacco (for example, the chopping form of bio-carrier) but smoking material charging, volume or column forms so-called " but smoking bar ", " tobacco rods " or " cigarette rod " thus.Usually, cigarette has the cylindrical filter element, and this filter element is aimed at tobacco rods the relation of end with the end.Preferably, filter element comprises the acetate tow by the plasticising that paper material surrounded that is called as " filter stick formation paper ".Some filter element can comprise polyalcohol.For example, referring to british patent specification 755,475.Some cigarette comprises the filter element with multistage, and in those sections one section can comprise activated carbon granule.For example, referring to the United States Patent (USP) 5,360,023 of authorizing people such as Blakeley with authorize 6,537,186 of Veluz.Preferably, filter element is attached to an end of tobacco rods by using the lapping that is called as " tipping paper " that surrounds.In order to dilute the main plume of suction with surrounding air, also hope butt joint package material and filter stick formation paper are bored a hole.People such as Davis show in (version) " tobacco production, chemistry and technology " (Tobacco Production, Chemistry and Technology) (1999) cigarette and various parts thereof are described.The smoker uses cigarette by an end of lighting cigarette and the tobacco rods that burns.Then, the smoker is air-breathing with in main his/her mouth of plume suction by going up in the opposite end of cigarette (for example, filter end).
Year in year out, people have proposed to change the whole bag of tricks of tobacco master plume composition.In the PCT Shen Qing Publication of authorizing Bereman WO02/37990 number, but advised and metallic particles and/or carbonaceous particles can have been covered in the smoking material of cigarette, to attempt to reduce the amount of some compound in the smog that produces by cigarette.In No. the 2005/0066986th, the U.S. Patent Application Publication of authorizing people such as Nestor, advised that tobacco rods can comprise and the smokable filler that forms combination of materials such as the aerosol of glycerine.
The United States Patent (USP) of authorizing people such as Shafer has proposed a kind of cigarette with tobacco rods that paper bag wraps up in for the 6th, 874, No. 508, and this tobacco rods has the end of crossing (such as saleratus, sodium chloride or potassium phosphate) with additive treating.
Someone has proposed various tobacco substitute material, and the roughly inventory of these examples of material is found in No. the 4th, 079,742, United States Patent (USP) authorizing people such as Rainer and authorizes the 4th, 771, No. 795 of people such as White.In the background technology part of No. the 2007/0215168th, the U.S. Patent Application Publication of authorizing people such as Banerjee, also explained the described tobacco substitute of list of references.
Many lists of references have proposed to produce mixture type or the form of change or the various smoking articles of structure of fragrance, visible aerosol or fragrance and visible aerosol.For example, referring to those lists of references of following background technology part at the U.S. Patent application 2007/0215168 of authorizing people such as Banerjee.In addition, some type of this smoking article is sold on market with trade (brand) name " A Kede " (" Accord ") with trade (brand) name " the general Mil of reining in " and " Airy general this " (" Premier " and " Eclipse ") and by Philip Morris Co., Ltd (Philip Morris Inc.) by R.J. Rainolds Tobacco CO. (R.J.Reynolds Tobacco Company).Recently, the carbonaceous fuel element of having advised those type cigarette can comprise the ultra-fine grain of metal and metal oxide.For example, referring to No. the 2005/027439th, the U.S. Patent Application Publication of authorizing people such as Banerjee, this patent application with referring to mode include this paper in.
The smoking article of employing tobacco substitute material and the thermal source of employing except that (burning) tobacco cut filler produce tobacco aroma or the smoking article of the visible aerosol of tobacco aroma are arranged, and all do not obtain extensively success of coml.Yet, extremely needing to provide a kind of smoking article, this smoking article is indicated as many benefits and the advantage that the smoker provides traditional cigarette smoking to be had, and reduces the ability that imperfect combustion and high temperature pyrolysis product produce simultaneously.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides a kind of method that is used to prepare the carbon containing combustible fuel element, this fuel element comprises catalytic metal compound and can be suitable for using in smoking article.Catalytic metal compound can comprise some gas phase composition that reduces main plume in the smoking article process of the fuel element that catalyst treatment is crossed in use.In the present invention, can heat the containing metal catalyst precursor that resolves into catalytic metal compound and add in the fuel element, but not directly handle fuel element with catalytic metal compound.When fuel element is done heat treatment, because thermal decomposition forms catalytic metal compound.Precursor compound can (promptly when using smoking article) change into active catalyst in high temperature pyrolysis/combustion fuel process.Perhaps, handled that fuel can carry out heat pre-treatment so that transform.
Many catalytic metal compounds, especially metal and metal oxide water insoluble (with many other usual vehicles), and therefore more difficult one-tenth evenly is applied to fuel element.In contrast, many precursor compounds have the high dissolubility in water and other usual vehicle, and therefore can more easily cover in the fuel.In addition, catalyst precursor unlikely can be owing to environmental exposure lost efficacy.
In one embodiment, method of the present invention comprises and makes the compound that comprises the carbon containing combustible fibrous material form the fuel element be suitable for using in smoking article; Metallic catalyst precursor is covered in the fuel element or fuel element of having handled to form is gone up on its surface, comprise step occur in before the described formation step, in or afterwards; And the fuel element of having handled with the temperature and time heating that enough catalyst precursor is changed into catalytic metal compound selectively.Do not carry out before the fuel of having handled is covering in the smoking article under the situation of heat treated, when using smoking article, the thermal decomposition of catalyst precursor can take place in combustion fuel element process.
Comprising step can realize in the following manner: with can being that catalyst precursor with aqueous solution form applies established fuel element (the fuel element bar that for example pushed), or by before forming, catalyst precursor being mixed into (such as by coming the mixed catalyst presoma with carbon fiber-containing material, adhesive and any selectable component (image-stone China ink, aluminium oxide, tobacco powder and salt)) in the fuel element compound.
In certain embodiments, comprise step and be included in and mix metallic catalyst precursor with packing material or graphite (or both combinations) before forming step, to form the graphite that the packing material that applies has applied.After this, this processed material (i.e. the graphite of packing material of Tu Fuing or coating) can produce the fuel element compound with carbon fiber-containing material and binder combination before forming step.Selectively, can calcine processed material before or after assigning to mix processed material, catalyst precursor is changed into catalytic metal compound with the remainder of fuel element compound.
Selectable heating steps will typically relate to the decomposition temperature of precursor compound and in inert atmosphere (for example nitrogen atmosphere) heating and handle fuel element; Preferably a period of time of decomposing is fully guaranteed in heating.The heat treatment of fuel element causes catalyst precursor to change into the active catalytic metal compound, (comprise alkali metal such as metal, alkaline-earth metal, transition metal in IIIB, IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB, VIIIB, IB and the IIB family, IIIA family element, IVA family element, lanthanide series or actinides) various oxides.Final catalytic metal compound typically catalytic oxidation (such as reaction of carbon monoxide) to form carbon dioxide.
Metallic catalyst precursor is preferably the form that can thermal decomposition becomes the organo-metallic compound or the slaine of catalytic metal compound.Illustrative metal salt comprises citrate, nitrate, ammonium nilrite, sulfate, cyanate, hydride, amide, mercaptides, carbonate and halide.In certain embodiments, metallic catalyst precursor is ferric nitrate, copper nitrate, cerous nitrate, cerium ammonium nitrate, manganese nitrate, magnesium nitrate, zinc nitrate or its combination.With catalyst precursor handle fuel element can with combine with second catalytic metal (such as VIIIB family metallic compound (for example palladium, platinum or rhodium and halide thereof or nitric acid thing)) processing.
In another embodiment, the invention provides a kind of method that is used to prepare the fuel element of smoking article, this method comprises that the containing metal catalyst precursor that mixes carbonaceous material, adhesive, aluminium oxide or graphite and metallic salt form is to form the fuel element mixture; And make the fuel element mixture form the combustible fuel elements bar that is suitable in smoking article, using.In another embodiment, handled bar and heat-treated (for example in inert atmosphere, and catalyst precursor was changed under the time and temperature conditions of catalytic metal compound (such as metal oxide)).Heating steps can relate to for example makes bar heat at least 200 ℃ temperature and inert atmosphere.Selectively, the fuel element compound also can comprise VIIIB family metallic compound, such as palladium, platinum or rhodium and halide or nitric acid thing.
According to any method in the said method, the fuel element of processing of gained can cover in the smoking article.For example, fuel element can be the form with the bar that is suitable for introducing the size in the smoking article, this smoking article have with such as the related overall dimension of traditional smoking article of cigarette.
On the other hand, the invention provides a kind of fuel element that is used for according to the smoking article of preceding method preparation, such as the fuel element that comprises carbon containing combustible material and containing metal catalyst precursor.For example, catalyst precursor can be tectal form exist, this cover layer is stacked and placed at least a portion on fuel element surface or is dispersed on the whole carbonaceous material in the fuel element.In another embodiment, the containing metal catalyst precursor comes carrier band in fuel element by the particle of graphite or packing material (or both).
In addition, the present invention includes smoking article, it comprises: light end; The mouth end; Aerosol forms system, this aerosol formation system comprises that aerosol forms section and heating section, described heating section comprises fuel element, each section physically separately and be in the heat exchange relationship, wherein fuel element comprises and catalytic metal compound that is produced by the thermal decomposition of containing metal catalyst precursor or the tight carbon containing combustible material that contacts of containing metal catalyst precursor.Aerosol forms section can comprise glycerine, propane diols or its combination.
Description of drawings
After always describing the present invention, refer now to the accompanying drawing that needn't draw in proportion, wherein:
Fig. 1 is the longitudinal sectional view of expression first smoking article of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the longitudinal sectional view of expression second smoking article of the present invention; And
Fig. 3 represents fuel element loss in weight figure in heat treatment process.
The specific embodiment
Now will be described in more detail below the present invention.Yet the present invention can specifically be implemented as many multi-form, and do not should be understood to embodiment described here is not limited; On the contrary, provide these embodiment to make that the present invention will be detailed and complete, and will transmit scope of the present invention for a person skilled in the art fully.In whole accompanying drawing, represent identical parts with identical Reference numeral.As adopting in this specification and claims, singulative " ", " one " and " described " comprise plural implication, unless clear expression is arranged in the literary composition in addition.
The invention provides a kind of method for preparing combustible fuel elements (being also referred to as thermal source in the literary composition), fuel element comprises and covering wherein or the catalytic metal compound on it like this.The existence of catalytic metal compound can reduce the concentration of some gaseous state composition of the main plume that produces when use comprises the smoking article of fuel element.As used herein such, " catalytic metal compound " refers to the containing metal compound, its can be directly with one or more gas phase compositions reactions of the main plume that produces by smoking article can catalysis relate to the reaction of gas phase composition of main plume or both all can, the concentration of gas phase composition is reduced like this.For example, some catalytic metal compound can be oxidized to CO by catalysis CO when oxygen is arranged 2To reduce CO level in the main plume (being oxidation catalyst).Describe the smoking article that comprises the fuel element of handling with the cerium oxide particulate in the U.S. Patent application 2007/0215168 of authorizing people such as Banerjee, this paper is included in this patent application by reference in full in.The cerium oxide particulate reduces the CO content of being emitted when use comprises the smoking article of handling fuel element.The United States Patent (USP) the 6th of authorizing McCormick, 503, in 475, authorize the 6th of McCormick, 503,475 neutralize authorizes the 7th of people such as Li, 011, in 096, in No. the 2002/0167118th, the U.S. Patent Application Publication of authorizing people such as Billiet, authorize in No. 2002/0172826 of people such as Yadav, authorize in No. 2002/0194958 of people such as Lee, authorize in No. 2002/014453 of people such as Lilly Jr., No. 2003/0000538 neutralization of authorizing people such as Bereman authorized in No. 2005/0274390 of people such as Banerjee and described additional catalytic metal compound, and this paper is included in these patents and patent application by reference in full in.
The example of the metal ingredient of catalytic metal compound includes but not limited to transition metal, IIIA family element, IVA family element, group of the lanthanides and the actinides in alkali metal, alkaline-earth metal, IIIB, IVB, VB, VIB VIIB, VIIIB, IB and the IIB family.The metallic element of particular exemplary comprises Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Re, Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Y, Ce, Na, K, Cs, Mg, Ca, B, Al, Si, Ge and Sn.Catalytic metal compound can be used in the following multiple solid particulate form, comprise precipitation of gold metal particles, metal oxide particle (for example iron oxide, cupric oxide, zinc oxide and cerium oxide) and the catalyst granules that is supported, wherein catalytic metal compound disperses in porous bearing materials.Can use the composition (such as the combination of palladium catalyst and cerium oxide) of catalytic metal compound.The granular size of catalytic metal compound can change, but typically between about 1 nanometer to 1 micron.
The amount that covers the catalytic metal compound in the fuel element can change.For example, typically being coated to or covering the scope of the amount of the catalytic metal compound in the representative fuel element can be from about 0.1 milligram to about 80 milligrams.Generally, this amount is at least about 1 milligram, and often is at least about 5 milligrams.Typically, this amount is no more than about 50 milligrams, and often is no more than about 25 milligrams.Usually, this amount can be from about 5 milligrams to about 20 milligrams.
In the method for the invention, handle fuel element with catalytic metal compound presoma (catalyst precursor hereinafter referred to as), this presoma is that thermal decomposition is to form any precursor compound of catalytic metal compound.Exemplary catalyst precursor comprises slaine (for example metal citrate, hydride, mercaptides, amide, nitrate, ammonium nitrate, carbonate, cyanate, sulfate, bromide, chloride with and hydroxide) and comprises the metallo-organic compound (for example metal alkoxide, beta-diketon hydrochlorate, carboxylate and oxalates) of the metallic atom that is attached to organic group.The U.S. Patent application of authorizing people such as Gedevanishvili discloses for No. 2007/0251658 and can be used for multiple catalyst precursor of the present invention, and this paper is included in this patent application by reference in full in.Spendable illustrative metal salt comprise ferric nitrate, copper nitrate, cerous nitrate, cerium ammonium nitrate, manganese nitrate, magnesium nitrate, zinc nitrate with and hydroxide.The combination of the combination of multiple catalyst precursor or catalyst precursor and catalytic metal compound can be used for handling fuel element.Under the situation of using multiple catalyst precursor and/or catalytic metal compound, the various compositions of combination can be together or are separately added to fuel element.
As catalytic metal compound, catalyst precursor can be the form that selectively is bearing in the immobilized particles material on the particle matrix.Exemplary substrates comprises active carbon, aluminium oxide, cupric oxide and titanium oxide.For example, desired supporting substrate can apply with the suspension of catalyst precursor particles and dry in stove equably.The amount that catalyst precursor is loaded on the matrix can change, but will be typically from about 0.2% to about 10.0% (on basis of substrate coated overall dry weight).
Behind catalyst precursor processing fuel element, fuel element can be directly used in the smoking article.Presoma changes into catalyst and occurs in when using smoking article.In case light, the temperature of fuel element typically rises to and is higher than 800 ℃.The part heat that is produced by fuel is used to influence presoma and changes into catalyst compounds.
Perhaps, handled that fuel element is heat-treated so that catalyst precursor thermal decomposition and form desired catalytic metal compound, or carried out the microwave radiation so that catalyst precursor changes into catalytic metal compound with suitable wavelength, density and duration.Heat treatment step can carry out certain hour at a certain temperature, and this temperature and time enough makes catalyst precursor change into desired catalytic metal compound.In certain embodiments, treatment step causes transforming the catalyst precursor molecule at least about 50%, typically at least about 75%, is at least about 90% under the more susceptible condition, and be in most cases precursor molecule at least about 99%.Realize in that heat treatment step can have on any market, as can to control the rate of heat addition, whole temperature, the time of staying and the atmosphere smelting furnace.Heat treated fuel element can be directly used in the smoking article or store for using in the future.
The variable temperaturesization of heat treatment step.Treatment temperature depends primarily on the temperature that presoma decomposes.The general preferably presoma of low decomposition temperature.Temperature typically between about 100 ℃ and about 600 ℃, under the more susceptible condition between about 150 ℃ and about 450 ℃, and in most cases between about 200 ℃ and about 400 ℃.Temperature is typically greater than about 100 ℃, often greater than about 150 ℃, and usually greater than about 200 ℃.Temperature typically is lower than about 550 ℃, often is lower than about 500 ℃, and is usually less than about 450 ℃.
The vary in length of heat treatment step, but typically between about 0.25 hour and about 8 hours, under the more susceptible condition between about 0.5 hour and about 6 hours, and in most cases between about 1 hour and about 5 hours.Heat treatment step typically continued at least about 1 hour, under the more susceptible condition at least about 1.5 hours, and in most cases at least about 2 hours.
Heat treatment step typically occurs under the inert atmosphere, this means do not have basically can with the atmosphere or the headroom of the oxygen of carbon reaction in the fuel element.Can use gas such as nitrogen, argon gas and helium.
Catalyst precursor can solid particulate materials form or comprise that the suspension of solvent or the form of solution are coated to fuel element.Available solvent comprise water (for example deionized water), pentane, n-hexane, cyclohexylamine, dimethylbenzene, Mineral spirits, alcohols (for example methyl alcohol, ethanol, propyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and butanols) with and composition thereof.Stabilizing agent such as acetic acid, nitric acid and some organic compound can add to complex catalyst precursor liquid suspension or solution.It can be favourable that catalyst precursor is coated to fuel element as suspension or solution, this be because catalyst precursor to compare catalyst compounds solubility in water (or other usual vehicle) higher.Compare the fuel element of directly handling with catalyst compounds, the high-dissolvability of presoma causes active catalyst sites to tend to more to be evenly distributed in the interior whole fuel element of fuel element that presoma handled.
With catalyst precursor handle fuel element can by make fuel element in many ways make fuel element be configured as its net shape (for example rod) before, in or afterwards closely the contact catalyst granular precursor realize.Catalyst precursor particles is applied to or covers in the fuel element.Can or apply fuel element by injection, co-extrusion and be coated onto particle.Particle can mix with the fuel element composition, and particle is evenly distributed in randomly or basically in the fuel element or with the component that will cover in the fuel element and mixes like this.For example, will handle before graphite or packing material cover in the fuel element composition, particle can mix with granular graphite or the on-fuel packing material of particle (for example aluminium oxide or calcium carbonate) or its mixture.Particle can also be coated to or cover the heat-barrier material interior or other place in smoking article (for example in the thermal source downstream area) of the insulating assembly that surrounds fuel element.For example, in the manufacture process, just with before fuel contacts, catalyst precursor particles can be coated to the glass fibre pad of heat-barrier material.
The amount that is added to the catalyst precursor of fuel element will depend on the desired amount of catalytic metal compound in the fuel element at least in part.The scope that typically is coated to or covers the amount of the catalyst precursor in the representative fuel element can be changed to about 200 milligrams from about 1 milligram.In general, this amount is at least about 5 milligrams, and often is at least about 10 milligrams.Typically, this amount is no more than about 100 milligrams, and often is no more than about 50 milligrams.Usually, this amount can be from about 5 milligrams to about 20 milligrams.
About using the combination of catalyst precursor and/or catalytic metal compound, a kind of example combinations is the combination such as the catalyst precursor of cerous nitrate and VIIIB family catalytic metal compound (such as palladium, platinum, rhodium, its halide (for example palladium bichloride or platinum chloride) or its nitrate (for example palladium nitrate or platinum nitrate)).Two kinds of compositions can be separated to be coated to or to cover in the fuel element.Perhaps, two kinds of compositions can be added to fuel element together, such as by add two kinds of compositions when the fuel combination element component and before fuel element is squeezed into its net shape.In general, the amount of catalytic metal compound (for example VIIIB family metal or metal halide) to the ratio between the amount of catalyst precursor about 1: 2 to about 1: 10000 (on weight basis).The amount of the catalytic metal compound of every kind of fuel element typically at about 1 μ g to about 100mg, under the more susceptible condition at about 10 μ g to about 10mg, in most cases at about 50 μ g about 1mg extremely.
In one embodiment, the fuel element dip-coating has the suspension of catalyst precursor particles.Can realize that dip-coating is to provide uniform surface-coated to fuel element.In another embodiment, the fuel element of formation can be with dry powder particle disposal surface or with suspension or solution spraying surface.Perhaps, catalyst precursor particles can contact with the fuel element extrudate after extrudate leaves extrusion die at once.In addition, catalyst precursor particles can the dry powder form or is directly directly mixed in the carbonaceous material that mixes with other extruding component with solution or form of suspension.
Fuel element can be arranged to by concentrating particulate component closely to contact with catalyst precursor particles at least one vertical passage or circumference groove, and passage or groove extend through the length of fuel element or at least in part along its extension.For example, fuel element can comprise core/shell structure, and shell comprises the carbonaceous material around the carbonaceous material kernel thus, and kernel comprises catalyst precursor.Perhaps, for example fuel element can comprise the circumference groove of the one or more longitudinal extensions that comprise catalyst precursor.
Mixing with remaining ingredient, one or more components that are mixed to form fuel element can be done preliminary treatment with catalyst precursor particles with before forming the fuel element composition.In one embodiment, by for example usefulness comprises liquid suspension or the solution coated particle filler or the graphite material of catalyst precursor or by solid catalyst precursor body particle is mixed with granular filler or graphite material, graphite or on-fuel packing material (for example clay material or calcium carbonate) or its composition can preferably be handled with catalyst precursor with particle form.Before or after the remaining ingredient that makes pretreated material with the fuel element compound mixes, or even after forming fuel element, can calcine the filler handled or graphite material so that catalyst precursor is changed into catalytic metal compound as mentioned above.Perhaps, in the fuel element manufacture process, do not carry out calcining step, and can in combustion fuel element process, change into catalytic metal compound.Fuel element formation component with catalyst precursor preliminary treatment such as graphite or filler also can be optionally by realizing do preliminary treatment with VIIIB family metallic compound simultaneously.
Typically, the fuel element of handling in the present invention comprises such as the carbon containing combustible material that grinds carbon dust.Preferable carbonaceous material mainly is made of carbon, typically has the carbon content greater than about 60%, generally greater than about 70%, often greater than about 80%, and usually greater than about 90% (on basis of dry weight).Fuel element can comprise the composition except that the carbon containing combustible material of the above-mentioned type.Exemplary annexing ingredient comprises the tobacco component such as powdered tobacco or tobacco extract; Fumet; Salt such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride and sodium carbonate; Non-burning filler such as calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate; Clay such as bentonite, glass fiber or aluminium oxide; Thermally-stabilised graphite fibre; Ammonium source such as ammonium salt; And/or such as the adhesive of guar gum, ammonium alginate and alginates.Representative fuel element has about 12 millimeters length and about 4.2 millimeters overall overall diameter.Representative fuel element can use and grind or extruding of powder carbonaceous material or chemical combination, and has greater than about 0.5g/cm 3Density, often greater than about 0.7g/cm 3Density, and usually greater than about 1/cm 3Density (on the basis of dry weight).
For example, type, prescription and the design of the fuel element composition of being set forth for the 5th, 551, No. 451 referring to the United States Patent (USP) of authorizing people such as Riggs, the full content of this patent with referring to mode include this paper in.
The amount that covers the carbon containing combustible material in the fuel element can be located at fuel element weight at least about 50%, often at least about 60%, and usually at least about 70% (on dry basis).In certain embodiments, fuel element can comprise up to about 15 weight %, frequent adhesive up to about 10 weight %; Up to 15 weight %, frequent additive such as tobacco powder, salt etc. up to about 10 weight %; Up to 20 weight %, frequent component such as graphite or aluminium oxide up to about 15 weight %; And at least up to 50 weight %, often up to the carbonaceous material of the high-carbon content of about 65 weight %.Yet, in certain embodiments, fuel element can be not in No. the 5th, 178,167, the U.S. Patent application of authorizing people such as Riggs the amount of the sodium of explaination; And/or the graphite of explaination in No. the 5th, 551,451, the U.S. Patent application of authorizing people such as Riggs and/or the amount of calcium carbonate.In certain embodiments, fuel element comprise such as the component of graphite or aluminium oxide about 10 to about 20 parts by weight, and the carbon containing combustible material about 60 to about 75 parts by weight.For example, representative fuel element can have about 66.5% carbonaceous material, about 18.5% graphite, about 5% tobacco section, about 10% guar gum and about 1% sodium carbonate (on dry basis).
As mentioned above, catalyst precursor particles can dry powder form or the directly mixing in the carbon that mixes with other fuel element component before extruding with solution or form of suspension.Referring to No. the 2005/0274390th, the U.S. Patent application of authorizing people such as Banerjee with authorize composition and the technology of describing in people's such as Banerjee No. the 2007/0215168th, the U.S. Patent application, this with referring to mode introduce above-mentioned two patent application full contents.
Fuel element can have or not have the circumferential surface groove of longitudinal extension; And this fuel element can have or not have at least one to be positioned at air duct middle, longitudinal extension.Some fuel element can have the shape of general tube shape; The groove that has the centre gangway of relatively large diameter and do not have circumference to extend.For example, those fuel elements do not have the form or the structure of the type of explaining in the U.S. Patent application the 4th, 989,619 of authorizing people such as Clearman.Some fuel element has the circumference groove of longitudinal extension, and groove can have the cross sectional shape of semicircle, triangle or rectangle, and perhaps total shape of cross section of fuel element can be commonly referred to as " snowflake " in nature like this.Some other fuel element can have the surface that does not comprise groove and selectively comprise centre gangway.Other fuel element also can have the surface that does not comprise groove, and fuel element is solid (for example not having any centre gangway) basically, as for example columniform fuel element.
No. the 4th, 714,082, the U.S. Patent application of authorizing people such as Banerjee; Authorize people such as Clearman the 4th, 756, No. 318; Authorize people such as Clearman the 4th, 881, No. 556; Authorize people such as Clearman the 4th, 989, No. 619; Authorize people such as Farrier the 5th, 020, No. 548; Authorize people such as Clearman the 5th, 027, No. 837; Authorize people such as Banerjee 5,067, No. 499; Authorize people such as Clearman 5,099, No. 861; Authorize people such as Banerjee 5,105, No. 831; Authorize people such as White 5,129, No. 409; Authorize people such as Best 5,148, No. 821; Authorize people such as Clearman 5,156, No. 170; Authorize people such as Riggs 5,178, No. 167; Authorize people such as Shannon 5,211, No. 684; Authorize people such as Clearman 5,247, No. 947; Authorize people such as Clearman 5,345, No. 955; Authorize people such as Barnes 5,469, No. 871; Authorize people such as Riggs 5,551, No. 451; Authorize people such as Meiring 5,560, No. 376; Authorize people such as Meiring 5,706, No. 834; The mode and the method for authorizing the suitable fuel element of explaination in 5,727, No. 571 of people such as Meiring and its representative composition, design and structure and producing those fuel elements and composition thereof; The full content of these patents with referring to mode include this paper in.Exemplary carbonaceous fuel element comprises that being included in by R.J. Rainolds Tobacco CO. (R.J.Reynolds Tobacco Company) is those fuel elements in those cigarette of selling of trade (brand) name with " the general Mil of reining in " and " Airy general this " (" Premier " and " Eclipse ") on market.
Fuel element can by such as compression, compress or extrusion technique forms desired shape.For example, the pastel of wetted surface bulk can use single screw rod or twin (double) screw extruder (such as the extruder with stainless steel cylinder and screw rod), be pushed by high abrasion decreases and corrosion resistant ceramic material is made internal axle sleeve and ceramic die.The exemplary types of pressurizing unit comprises those types that those can be used as ICMA Senge Austria (ICMA San Giorgio) model No.70-16D or welding engineer (Welding Engineers) model No.70-16LD.For the element of extruded fuel that comprises high-caliber relatively carbonaceous material, can be by increasing the density that moistening level in the extruding mixture reduces fuel element slightly, thereby the die pressure in the reduction extruder, or in extruding mixture, comprise low-density relatively material.
Fuel element prepared according to the methods of the invention can be used for multiple smoking article, such as at No. the 2007/021516th, U.S. Patent application authorizing people such as Crooks or authorize any smoking article of being explained in No. the 2007/0215168th, U.S. of people such as Banerje, this paper comprises these documents with way of reference.With reference to Fig. 1, the representative smoking article 10 of the form of cigarette shown in the figure.Smoking article 10 has the shape of rod, and comprises and light end 14 and mouth end 18.For various accompanying drawings, the external packing of the thickness of various lappings and various smoking article and smoking article parts is by exaggerative.Best, lapping and external packing component are wrapped tightly around smoking article and smoking article parts to provide and closely cooperate and pleasing outward appearance attractive in appearance is provided.
But arrange longitudinal extension, be roughly columniform smoking and light end segments 22 lighting end 14 places, but this section comprises smoking material 26.But representativeness smoking material 26 can be a material (for example tobacco-containing material of chopping form of bio-carrier) of taking from plant.But end segments 22 comprises parcel or the charging or the volume of the smoking material 26 (for example tobacco cut filler) that is arranged in the papery lapping 30 and surrounded by papery lapping 30 but exemplary cylinder smoking is lighted.Like this, but provide cylindrical smoking to light the outer surface of the longitudinal extension of end segments 22 by lapping 30.Preferably, but section 22 both ends open becomes to expose smoking material 26.But end segments 22 can be configured to smoking material 26 and lapping 30 all extends along the whole length of end segments 22 but smoking is lighted.
But the heating section 35 of longitudinal extension, general cylindrical is positioned at smoking lights end segments 22 downstreams.Heating section 35 comprises thermal source or fuel element 40, this thermal source or fuel element typically have general cylindrical shape, surround by thermal barrier 42, this thermal barrier is by lapping 45 coaxial centering on.In certain embodiments, each thermal source section 35 comprises single-piece fuel element 40, and only a fuel element covers in each thermal source section.
The representational layer of thermal barrier 42 can comprise glass fiber or glass fibre.Thermal barrier 42 can be used as help and keeps thermal source 40 firm sheath on the throne in smoking article 10.Thermal barrier 42 can be set to comprise the internal layer of non-woven glass silk or fill up 47, reproduces the intermediate layer of cigarette paper 48 and the outer field multi-layer part of non-woven glass silk 49.The both ends open of preferably, heating section 35 becomes thermal source 40 and thermal barrier 42 are exposed to adjacent segment.Thermal source 40 and the length that can be configured to two kinds of materials around the thermal barrier 42 of thermal source are common extension the (end that is heat shield 42 are concordant with the respective end of thermal source 40, and especially in the downstream end of heating section).Selectively, although may not be preferably, thermal barrier 42 can extend beyond the one or both ends (for example exceeding about 0.5 millimeter to about 2 millimeters) of thermal source 40 slightly.In addition, in using smoking article 10 processes, but the cigarette that when end segments 22 burnings are lighted in smoking, produces can by the smoker on mouth end 18 during sucking-off easily through heating section 35.
But heating section 35 is adjacent with the downstream that end segments 22 is lighted in smoking, and those sections axially align with the relation of end to the end like this, preferably adjoin each other.But heating section 35 and smoking light end segments 22 closely near provide suitable heat exchange relationship (for example, but but like this burning smoking action of lighting the smoking material in the end segments 22 be used to light the thermal source of heating section 35).When observing transverse to the longitudinal axis of smoking article, but the external cross section shape and size of smoking section and heating section 22,35 can mutually the same basically (for example the both has columniform shape, and every section all has substantially the same diameter).
The shape of cross section and the size of heating section 35 can change before burning.Preferably, the cross-sectional area of thermal source 40 account for that section 35 total cross-sectional area about 10% to about 35%, often about 15% to 25%; And the cross-sectional area of outside or enclosing region (comprising thermal barrier 42 and relevant outer covering material) account for that section 35 total cross-sectional area about 65% to about 90%, often be about 75% to about 85%.For example, for having about 24 millimeters cylindrical cigarette to about 26 millimeters outer rims, representative thermal source 40 have have about 2.5 millimeters to about 5 millimeters, often be about 3 millimeters cardinal principle circular cross sections of about 4.5 millimeters overall diameters extremely.
Longitudinal extension, cylindrical aerosol form the downstream that section 51 is positioned at heating section 35.Aerosol forms the host material 55 that section 51 comprises and form as aerosol the carrier of agent or material (not shown).For example, aerosol formation section 51 can have the reconstituted tobacco material that comprises processing aid, fumet and glycerine.
The representative lapping 58 of host material 55 can have thermal conduction characteristic, and can have metal or metal forming (for example aluminium) and manage or have the outer surface that is made of paper and the form of the stacking material of the inner surface that is made of metal forming.
For example, metal forming can conduct to aerosol with heat in the heating section 35 and form section 51, is formed into branch and is volatilized so that comprise within it aerosol.
Host material 55 can be provided by the fragrant and good to eat tobacco composition of chopping form of bio-carrier.Those tobaccos can form material and/or the processing of at least a fumet with aerosol again.Host material can be provided by the manufactured tobacco (reconstituted tobacco that for example uses die casting thin slice or system sheet type technology to make) of chopping form of bio-carrier.Those tobaccos can form material and/or the processing of at least a fumet or be processed into again and comprise that aerosol forms material and/or at least a fumet with aerosol.
Aerosol forms section 51 and heating section 35 can be configured to heat exchange relationship each other.Heat exchange relationship makes enough heats supply to aerosol from thermal source and forms the zone, thereby the volatilization aerosol forms material for aerosol forms.In certain embodiments, heat exchange relationship is realized each other by these sections are positioned to the next-door neighbour.Heat exchange relationship can also be realized from extending near the thermal source 40 by around the shared zone of the aerosol section of formation 51 or its by making Heat Conduction Material.
For preferable smoking article, the both ends open that aerosol forms section 51 becomes to expose its host material 55.In using the smoking article process, can on mouth end 18, easily pass the aerosol section of formation 51 in the smoking process but light the aerosol composition that end segments 22 produces by burning smoking.
Heating section 35 and aerosol form the section 51 common aerosols that form and form system 60.It is adjacent with the downstream of heating section 35 that aerosol forms section 51, and those sections 51,35 axially align with the relation of end to the end like this.Be that those sections are physically separated from one another.Those sections can adjoin each other or be in the relation that spaced slightly opens.When observing transverse to the longitudinal axis of smoking article 10, the shape and size of the external cross section of those sections can be mutually the same basically.The physical arrangement of those parts makes and activates in using smoking article 10 processes in the whole time of thermal source (for example burning), and heat is passed to adjacent host material 55 (for example, the method for the heat exchange by comprising conduction and convection current) from thermal source 40.
Aerosol forms system 60 and is connected to each other with the parts of lighting end segments 22, and uses outsourcing material 64 fixing on the throne.For example, papery lapping or stacked paper mold material surround at least a portion of the outside longitudinal extension face that heating section 35, aerosol form section 51 and each part at least a portion of lighting end segments 22 adjacent with the heating section.The inner surface of outsourcing material 64 uses suitable bonding to be fixed to the outer surface of the outer surface of the outer wrap material 45 of heating section 35, outer wrap material 58 that aerosol forms section 51 and lights the outer surface of the outer wrap material 30 of end segments 22.
Smoking article 10 also comprises suitable mouth spare (such as the filter element 65 at mouth end 18 places that for example are positioned at smoking article).Filter element 65 preferably has the shape of traditional cigarette filter element.Filter element 65 is positioned at the adjacent end place of an end that cigarette rod and aerosol form section 51, and filter element and aerosol formation sections 51 axially aligns with the relation of end to the end like this, thereby adjoins each other.Preferably, when observing transverse to the longitudinal axis of smoking article 51, the shape and size of the overall cross section of those sections 51,65 are mutually the same basically.Filter element 65 comprises filtering material 70 (for example acetate tow of plastification), and this filtering material is along outer surface filter stick formation paper material 72 outsourcings of surrounding of its longitudinal extension.The both ends open of filter element 65 becomes to make aerosol can pass filter element.
Aerosol forms system 60 and uses tipping material 78 to be attached to filter element 65.Tipping material 78 surrounds the whole length of the adjacent area of filter element 65 and aerosol formation system 60.The inner surface of tipping material 78 can use suitable bonding to be fixed to outer surface and the outer surface of cigarette rod external packing or the outer wrap material 64 that aerosol forms system 60 of filter stick formation paper 72.Like this, the zone that any aerosol that is not covered by external packing forms system is covered by the tipping material, and is not easy to see.Outsourcing material 64 can extend on aerosol forms the whole length of section, or as shown in fig. 1, from the terminal slight concave of lighting of that section (for example leave enough distances of that section end, be hinged with material like this and be stacked in not on the zone of the cigarette rod that is covered by external packing).Like this, provide and present attractive in appearance pleasing cigarette with individual layer external packing.In addition, provide pleasing filtering cigarette attractive in appearance, this cigarette has tipping to the filter element that presents the cigarette rod with individual layer external packing.
Smoking article can comprise air dilution means, and such as a series of perforation 81, each perforation extends through filtration members tipping material 78 and filter stick formation paper material 72.
But but the amount that is used to make the smoking material 26 that smoking lights end segments 22 can change.Typically, comprise and be at least about 20mg, generally be at least about 50mg, often be at least about 75mg, be at least about the tobacco-containing material (on dry basis) of 100mg usually but mainly light end segments 22 by the smoking of tobacco cut filler manufacturing.Typically, comprise and reach about 400mg, generally reach about 350mg, often reach about 300mg, and reach the tobacco-containing material (on dry basis) that is about 250mg usually but mainly light end segments by the smoking of tobacco cut filler manufacturing.Can comprise and be less than about 85 milligrams but mainly light end segments, often be less than about 60 milligrams by some smoking of tobacco cut filler manufacturing, and even less than 30 milligrams tobacco-containing material (on dry basis).But but the packed bulk density that the smoking material in the end segments is lighted in smoking is typically less than the density of fuel element.When but smoking material has the form of chopping filler, but but smoking is lighted the packed bulk density of the smoking material in the end segments less than about 400mg/cm 3, and be generally less than about 350mg/cm 3And but smoking is lighted the packed bulk density of the tobacco-containing material in the end segments and can be surpassed about 100mg/cm 3, often surpass about 150mg/cm 3, and surpass about 200mg/cm usually 3Preferably, but smoking lights that but end segments 22 is whole to be made of smoking material, and do not comprise the carbonaceous fuel element composition.
Being used for the host material 55 of aerosol formation section 51 and the combined amount of aerosol formation agent can change.Usually use material with in packed bulk density less than about 400mg/cm 3, and usually less than about 350mg/cm 3The time fill the appropriate sections (for example zone in its lapping 58) that aerosol forms section 51; And aerosol forms the packed bulk density of section 51 generally above about 100mg/cm 3, and often surpass about 150mg/cm 3
In use, the smoker with traditional smoking article by lighted similar methods with match or cigar lighter light smoking article 10 light the end 14.Like this, but but smoking light the smoking material 26 of end segments 22 and take fire.The mouth end 18 of smoking article 10 is placed on smoker's the lip.But pass through smoking article 10, suck in smokers' the mouth by filter element 65 by the thermal decomposition product (for example tobacco smoke composition) that burning smoking material 26 is produced.That is, when smoking, smoking article produces visible main aerosol stream, the main plume that its traditional cigarette that is similar to the burning tobacco cut filler produces.But but outer wrap material 30 after-flames of end segments are lighted in smoking material 26 and smoking, basically as the situation of the cigarette of traditional tobacco of burning.The ash and the burnt material that are produced when holding the downstream along with the gained hot coal through lighting can flick or remove from cigarette, basically to remove the mode of the ash that is produced by the tobacco cut filler of burning from the cigarette of burning traditional type tobacco.
But burning smoking is lighted the thermal source 40 that end segments 22 causes heating section 35 and is heated, but this thermal source can be positioned at the downstream that end segments 22 is lighted in smoking.Therefore, light or otherwise activate thermal source 40 (for example taking fire), produce heat thus.The burning aerosol forms the thermal source 40 in the system 60, and because the heat exchange relationship between those two zones or the section provides heat so that the aerosol that aerosol forms in the section 51 forms the material volatilization.Preferably, aerosol forms the thermal decomposition (for example burning or carbonization) of the composition of section 51 without successive what big degree.Volatile ingredient is entrained in by aerosol and forms in the air of 51 sucking-offs in zone.The aerosol of Xing Chenging sucks in smoker's the mouth by filter element 65 like this.
In some time period of using, but the aerosol (being smog) that the aerosol that forms in aerosol forms section 51 forms together with the thermal decomposition owing to the smoking material in the section of lighting 22 sucks in smoker's the mouth by filter element 65.Like this, the main aerosol stream that is produced by smoking article 10 comprises that the tobacco smoke that produced by the thermal decomposition of tobacco cut filler and the aerosol of volatilization form material.For early stage suction (promptly when lighting or just lighted back), but the thermal decomposition that most main aerosol stream is lighted end segments 22 by smoking produce, but and therefore comprise the thermal decomposition product of smoking material 26.For later stage suction (but promptly consume smoking light the thermal source that end segments and aerosol form system and lighted the back), the most main aerosol stream that is provided forms system's 60 generations by aerosol.The smoker can inhale the smoking article of desired suction number.Yet, but when having consumed smoking material 26 and thermal source 40 and extinguish, stop using smoking article (promptly finishing smoking experiences).
Typically, can by provide " two-part " (two-up) light end segments, at every end place of " two-part " section quasi-thermal source and the parts aimed at of parcel are lighted end segments so that " two-part " combined segment manufacturing to be provided.Then, " two-part " combined segment is cut into two halves so that two combined segment to be provided perpendicular to its longitudinal axis.Perhaps, can aim at and wrap up for two sections so that combined segment to be provided.
Typically, can provide the mouth end segments in the following manner: aerosol is formed section be connected to every end of " two-part " filter element section so that " two-part " combined segment to be provided; And segmentation " two-part " combined segment is to provide two combination mouth end segments again.Perhaps, that combined segment can provide in the following manner: the filter element section is connected to whenever bringing in of " two-part " aerosol formation section " two-part " combined segment is provided; And segmentation " two-part " combined segment is to provide two combination mouth end segments again.
With reference to Fig. 2, the second representative smoking article 10 of the form of cigarette shown in the figure.Cigarette 10 comprises that being positioned at the heating section 35 of lighting end 14 places, the fillter section 65 that is positioned at mouth end 18 places, the aerosol adjacent with heating section forms section 51 and adjacent with filter element 65 tobacco segment 155 that contains.As needs, containing tobacco segment can be that combination is to form the multi-part section of single-piece.Various sections composition, form, structure and size of smoking article 10 generally can be similar to and by R.J. Rainolds Tobacco CO. (R.J.Reynolds Tobacco Company) with " Airy general this " (" Eclipse ") be those that comprise in those cigarette of selling of trade (brand) name on market.Containing tobacco segment 155 has tobacco and/or tobacco flavor and forms material (for example tobacco cut filler, finished tobacco cut filler, tobacco-containing material band, the collection reconstituted tobacco material webs of holding together etc.).That section can have the wrappage 159 (such as the papery lapping) of encirclement.
Thermal source section 35 uses lapping 161 attached and be fixed in aerosol and form section 51, and this lapping surrounds at least a portion (for example section directly forms adjacent that part of of section with aerosol) of thermal source segment length and at least a portion that aerosol forms segment length (for example section directly section adjacent with heating that part of).As hope, lapping can surround the whole length that aerosol forms section and heating Duan Zhongyi section or two sections.Best, being used for heating section is combined to the lapping 161 that aerosol forms section is laminations (promptly can be used for heat is directed at the material that aerosol forms section from the heating section) of paper and metal forming.
The heating section 35 of combination and aerosol form section 51 and use lapping 64 attached and be fixed in and contain tobacco segment 155, and at least a portion (for example section directly forms adjacent that part of of section with aerosol), the aerosol that this lapping surrounds heating section 35 length forms section 51 and contain at least a portion of tobacco segment section 155 length (for example section direct adjacent with filter element that part of).As hope, lapping can surround the whole length that contains tobacco segment and heating Duan Zhongyi section or two sections.Use single kind outsourcing material to make up three kinds of sections cigarette rod can be provided.
Filter element 65 uses tipping material 78 to be attached to the cigarette rod of formation like this with reference to figure 1 foregoing conventional method.Smoking article can carry out the air dilution by suitable perforation 81 is set selectively near mouth end regions 18.
Above-mentioned parts can be by providing two heating sections and aiming at those sections at every end place of " two-part " aerosol formation section and make up.Exemplary " two-part " aerosol forms section can have about 40 millimeters to 45 millimeters, is preferably about 21 millimeters length.Three sections devices (device that can use such as MAX S) by using the tipping type make up.Then, those sections can be stored, dry, sort or be directly used in other manufacturing step.By use suitable cutting cutter make " two-part " section perpendicular to its longitudinal axis to being cut into two halves so that two combined segment to be provided.These sections can be launched at each interval, and " two-part " contains tobacco segment and can be positioned between those two combined segment.Use the device (such as MAX S available apparatus) that is hinged with type to make up the section of three alignings of gained.The tipping paper that for example has about 90 millimeters width can be used for those sections are combined." two-part " cigarette rod section of gained is cut into two halves so that two cigarette rods to be provided perpendicular to its longitudinal axis.Those bars can be collected or rotate and be collected in the suitable basin.Single cigarette rod can be sent in the funnel of tipping types of devices (device that can use such as MAX S).
But smoking is lighted end segments, heating section, aerosol and is formed section, contains that tobacco segment, mouth end part and various mentioned components can be used the cigarette of traditional type and cigarette parts manufacturing technology and equipment or cigarette and the cigarette parts manufacturing equipment suitably revised are made.That is, use for the traditional type technology known to the skilled in cigarette and the design of cigarette parts and manufacturing field and cigarette parts assembling field, various parts parts and sheet can be processed and be assembled into cigarette.For example referring to No. the 5th, 052,413, the United States Patent (USP) of authorizing people such as Baker; Authorize people's such as Baker No. the 5th, 088,507, United States Patent (USP); Authorize people's such as White No. the 5th, 105,838, United States Patent (USP); Authorize people's such as Barnes No. the 5th, 469,871, United States Patent (USP); Authorize people's such as Riggs No. the 5th, 551,451, United States Patent (USP); Authorize unit architecture, component materials, assemble method and the package technique of type described in people's such as Nestor No. the 2005/0066986th, the U.S. Patent Application Publication, this with referring to mode introduce the full content of above-mentioned patent and patent application.
Can use make joint-stock company (Hauni Maschinenbau AG) with the rainbow machine of Hamburg, Germany " Mo Fei " or " Mai Lin " (Mulfi) or (Merlin) unit equipment of the type that has of brand name realize the manufacturing of multistage parts; Or test many filter tips draft machine as the LKF-01 of Henrich Bu Hate company (Heinrich Burghart GmbH).Various sections combination or cigarette parts can also be realized by the device that uses traditional type or suitably revise (such as the LabMAX of Hauni Maschinenbau AG. (the rainbow machine is made joint-stock company), MAX, MAX S or MAX 80 binding apparatus).That is, bar, section and combined segment can be transferred (for example using plate, hopper, wheel etc.) by the tipping device that uses suitable modification and layout, aim at, tipping or other modes are connected, segment, rotate, transmit again, separately and collect (for example using plate, band, hopper etc.).For example referring to No. the 3rd, 308,600, the United States Patent (USP) of authorizing people such as Erdmann; Authorize people such as Reuland the 4th, 280, No. 187; Authorize people such as Heitmann the 4th, 281, No. 670; Authorize people such as Vos the 6th, 229, No. 115; Authorize the device and the combination technique of type described in people's such as Read No. the 2005/0194014th, the U.S. Patent Application Publication.
But the material type and the structure that are used for smoking material, heat-insulating material, aerosol formation material, fumet, packaging material, mouth extremity piece (for example filter element), filter stick formation paper and tipping material in the smoking article of the present invention can change.The embodiment of this smoking article authorizes in United States Patent (USP) 2007/0215167 neutralization of authorizing people such as Crooks in people's such as Baneriee the United States Patent (USP) 2007/0215168 and explains.
For the cigarette that is diluted or ventilate by air according to the present invention, the amount or the degree of air dilution or ventilation can change.Frequently, the air amount of dilution that is used for air dilution cigarette is greater than about 10%, generally greater than about 20%, usually greater than about 30%, and sometimes greater than about 40%.In certain embodiments, it is about 80% that the air amount of dilution upper limit of air dilution cigarette is lower than, and be usually less than about 70%.As used in this, term " air dilution " is meant by the ratio (be expressed as percentage) of air dilution means inhaled air volume to the cumulative volume of the air that sucks by cigarette and flow out from cigarette mouth end parts and aerosol.Higher air dilution level can be used for reducing aerosol formation material and enters the interior transfer efficiency of main aerosol stream.
In certain embodiments, cigarette according to the present invention presents desired resistance to suction.For example, exemplary cigarette is presenting about 50 millimeters extremely pressure drops between about 200 millimeter of water pressure drops under 17.5cc/sec (cubic centimetre/second) air-flow.Preferable cigarette is presenting about 60mm to the voltage drop value between the pressure drop of about 180mm water column under the 17.5cc/sec air-flow, and in certain embodiments, manifests about 70mm to the voltage drop value between the pressure drop of about 150mm water column.The Fei Erteluona cigarette testboard (Filtrona Cigarette Test Station) (CTS series) that uses Fei Erteluona apparatus and Automation Co., Ltd (Filtrona Instruments and Automation Ltd.) to produce is measured the voltage drop value of cigarette.
Produce acceptable suction number when the smoking according to the preferred embodiment of cigarette of the present invention.When under FTC smoking condition mechanically during smoking, this cigarette provides the suction more than about 6 times/root usually, and the suction of general unnecessary about 8 times/root.When under FTC smoking condition mechanically during smoking, this cigarette provides the suction that is less than about 15 times/root usually, and generally is less than about 12 times/root suction.FTC smoking condition is made of 35 milliliters the suction of two second duration of separating by 58 seconds glow.
Cigarette according to the present invention produces main aerosol stream when smoking.The amount of the main aerosol stream of every cigarette generation can change.When smoking under FTC smoking condition, according to cigarette generation FTC " tar " amount of an embodiment, this amount is at least about 1 milligram usually, often is at least about 3 milligrams, and normally at least about 5 milligrams.When smoking under FTC smoking condition, exemplary cigarette produces FTC " tar " amount, and this amount is no more than about 20 milligrams usually, often is no more than about 15 milligrams, and is no more than about 12 milligrams usually.
Preferable cigarette present FTC " tar " output to FTC nicotine output less than about 30, and often less than about 25 ratio.Preferable cigarette present FTC " tar " output to FTC nicotine output greater than about 5 ratio.Cigarette (for example cigarette comprises the carbonaceous fuel element of the air duct that is not positioned at center or inside, longitudinal extension) present FTC carbon monoxide output to FTC " tar " output less than about 1, often less than about 0.8, and usually less than about 0.6 ratio.People such as Pillsbury, J.Assoc.Off.Anal.Chem. (official of chemical analysis association periodical), 52, the technology of FTC " tar " and FTC nicotine is determined in explaination among the 458-462 (1969).People such as Horton, J.Assoc.Off.Anal.Chem. (official of chemical analysis association periodical), 57, the technology of FTC carbon monoxide is determined in explaination among the 1-7 (1974).
According to the aerosol that cigarette of the present invention produced is those aerosols that comprise such as the aeriferous composition of steam, gas, suspended particulate etc.The aerosol composition can produce in the following manner: the tobacco of certain form of burning (and other composition that selectively burns is to produce heat); By heating the tobacco thermal decomposition that tobacco and charing tobacco (or other causes that tobacco is glowed by certain form) cause; And the volatilization aerosol forms agent.Like this, aerosol can contain the product of volatile composition, combustion product (for example, carbon dioxide and water), imperfect combustion product and high temperature pyrolysis.The heat that also can be produced by certain form tobacco of burning (with optionally burning to produce other composition of heat), be applied on the matrix that other composition that is in the tobacco of burning and burning keeps heat exchange relationship is used for producing the aerosol composition.Because the heating section is applied to the effect on the aerosol formation section, the aerosol composition also can produce by aerosol formation system.In certain embodiments, the composition of aerosol formation section has such main assembly and is positioned in the smoking article, makes these compositions often without undergoing pyrolysis largely (for example, owing to burn, glow or high temperature pyrolysis) like this under normal operating position.
Can pack for dispensing, sale and use according to smoking article of the present invention.It is that the mode of those cigarette of selling on market of trade (brand) name is packed with " the general Mil of reining in " and " Airy general this " (" Premier " and " Eclipse ") that cigarette can be used for by R.J. Rainolds Tobacco CO. (R.J.Reynolds Tobacco Company).It is that the mode of those cigarette of selling on market of trade (brand) name is packed with " camel is deceived Jack's gold " (Camel Blackjack Gin) that cigarette can also be used for by R.J. Rainolds Tobacco CO. (R.J.Reynolds Tobacco Company).It is that the mode of those cigarette of selling on market of trade (brand) name is packed with " the Sa Farnham reaches gram stream silver label and signs " (Salem Dark Currents Silver Label) that cigarette can also be used for by R.J. Rainolds Tobacco CO. (R.J.Reynolds Tobacco Company).Also referring to No. the 4th, 715,497, the United States Patent (USP) of authorizing people such as Focke; Authorize people such as Focke the 4th, 294, No. 353; Authorize people such as Bouchard the 4th, 534, No. 463; Authorize people such as Allen the 4th, 852, No. 734; Authorize people such as Burrows 5,139, No. 140; And authorize the 5th, 938, No. 018 of people such as Keaveney; BP the 1st, 042, No. 000; Authorize the German patent application the 10238906th of Marx; And the U.S. Patent Application Publication 2004/0217023 of authorizing people such as Fagg; Authorize No. 2004/0256253 of people such as Henson and authorize the packaging type of being explained in No. 2005/0150786 of Mitten.
Another aspect of the present invention, tobacco-containing material is handled with the containing metal catalyst precursor of type described in the literary composition.After this, tobacco-containing material can cover after carrying out the heat/radiation treatment described in the literary composition in the smoking article selectively so that presoma changes into desirable catalyst.If preliminary treatment is not to transform presoma for tobacco, conversion will take place in the burning tobacco process when using smoking article.
Handled in any kind that tobacco-containing material can cover smoking article then (comprising the smoking article type described in traditional cigarette or the literary composition).Catalyst precursor can use any technology described in the literary composition (such as spraying, dip-coating, mixing etc.) to be applied to tobacco.
Tobacco-containing material can use making traditional form and the mode of smoking article (such as cigarette), and catalyst precursor is applied to this tobacco-containing material.Those materials can comprise that the tobacco sheet (for example blade and/or stalk) broken into pieces and/or those materials can be the tobacco-containing materials of processing form.For example, those materials are generally used for chopping form of bio-carrier (for example, being cut into about 1/10 inch to 1/60 inch or about 1/20 inch extremely about 1/35 inch width and about 1/8 inch to about 3 inches, normally about 1/4 inch smokable filler fragment or string to about 1 inch length).Perhaps, although not good, those materials (such as the manufactured tobacco material) can be used as the string of longitudinal extension or are used as the sheet that forms desired structure, or as the compression or the extrusion that form desired shape.
Tobacco-containing material can comprise that following various types of tobacco maybe can obtain from them: sootiness tobacco, burley tobaccos, east tobacco, Maryland tobacco, dark tobacco, dark fire-cured tobacco grass and makhorka and other rare or special tobacco, or its mixture.Various types of tobaccos have been described in people's such as Davis (volume) the article " tobacco production, chemistry and technology (Tobacco Production, Chemistry and Technology) " (1999), have planted and put into practice, gather in the crops practice and bake practice.For example, can be referring to No. the 2004/0084056th, the U.S. Patent Application Publication of authorizing people such as Lawson.In certain embodiments, tobacco-containing material is the material that has passed through suitable baking and ageing.
Tobacco can so-called " mixing " form be used.For example, certain the popular tobacco composition that is referred to as " American mixture " usually comprises the mixture of sootiness tobacco, burley tobaccos and east tobacco.This mixture comprises in many cases and has the tobacco-containing material of form processing; such as the tobacco stems of having processed (for example; chopping-roll extrusion offal, chopping-roll extrusion-expanded cabo or chopping-loose offal), volumetric expansion (is for example crossed tobacco; loose tobacco; such as dry-ice expanding tobacco (DIET), preferably with the chopping form of bio-carrier).Tobacco-containing material can also have the form (reconstituted tobacco that for example uses die casting sheet type or system paper mold technology to make) of reconstituted tobacco.The part that generally can consume into commercial available form of the common transformation of tobacco of tobacco reproduction process.For example, tobacco stems, recyclable smoked sheet and tobacco ash can be used for making the reconstituted tobacco that the suitable uniform processing of density is crossed.The accurate amount that is used to make every type of tobacco in the tobacco composition of specific cigarette brand can change, and this amount is the mode problem of design alternative, and it depends on the factor such as sensory features of expectation.For example, can be referring to Tobacco Encyclopedia (TOBACCO ENCYCLOPEDIA), Voges (volume) is (1984) p.44-45; Browne, The Design of Cigarettes (design of cigarette), the third edition, p43 (1990); And Tobacco Production, Chemistry and Technology (production of tobacco, chemistry and technology), people such as Davis (volume) are (1999) p.346.Various representative tobacco types, tobacco processing type, tobacco composition type, cigarette composition and component and tobacco rods structure also No. the 4th, 836,224, the United States Patent (USP) of authorizing people such as Lawson; Authorize people such as Perfetti the 4th, 924, No. 883; Authorize people such as Perfetti the 4th, 924, No. 888; Authorize people such as Brown the 5th, 056, No. 537; Authorize people such as Brinkley the 5th, 159, No. 942; Authorize Gentry the 5th, 220, No. 930; Authorize people such as Blakley the 5th, 360, No. 023; Authorize people such as Young the 5th, 715, No. 844; And authorize the 6th, 730, No. 832 of people such as Dominguez; Authorize people's such as Shafer No. the 2002/0000235th, U.S. Patent application; Authorize people such as Li No. 2003/0075193; Authorize people such as Li No. 2003/0131859; Authorize people such as Lawson No. 2004/0084056; Authorize people such as Perfetti No. 2004/0255965; And authorize No. 2005/0066986 of people such as Nestor; Authorize PCT Shen Qing Publication WO02/37990 number of Bereman; And people such as Bombick, Fund.Appl.Toxicol., 39, p.11-17 explains in (1997); This paper comprises these documents with way of reference.
Experiment
The present invention by following explanation the present invention but the example that is not interpreted as limitation of the present invention explain in more detail.
Example 1
Carefully remove " Airy general this " (ECLIPSE) fuel element of brand cigarette, and the glass fibre pad around not disturbing." Airy general this " (ECLIPSE) fuel element is coated with the aqueous solution (50%w/w) of cerous nitrate six hydrates and the whole night 110 ℃ of oven dry.The fuel element that control is criticized is only used water treatment.
Having handled fuel element flies to heat-treat under nitrogen pressure in your (Barnstead THERMOLYNE) 62700 smelting furnaces of generation at programmable Barnes Tu Desaimo.Fuel element is heated to 400 ℃ and kept four hours with the ramp rate of 5 ℃ of per minutes.(Netzsch Instruments, the thermogravimetry (TGA) of model STA409PC analyzer Inc.) determines that cerous nitrate six hydrates change into the minimum temperature of cerium oxide fully by using the anti-mechanical device Co., Ltd of speeding.
Heat shifts and to occur among Fig. 3 in visible four different stages.The loss of the water of crystallization (23.9% weight) occurs between 57 ℃ and 200 ℃.Cerous nitrate resolves into cerium oxide (35.3% loss in weight) and occurs between 200 ℃ and 378 ℃.The loss of the water of crystallization is permanent, and cerium oxide can not obtain water again.Can believe that handling generation nitrogen is converted into oxygen fully.
Fuel balance and inserting again and " Airy general this " (ECLIPSE) in the similar cigarette of the structure of cigarette under environmental condition.Under 50/30/2 smoking condition (i.e. 50 milliliters of suctions of two second duration of separating), inhale cigarette by 28 seconds; And the CO in the main plume is by the non-disperse infrared spectrum (NDIR) of the NGA 2000 of use Rosemount INC. (US) 12001 West 78th Street Prairie, Minnesota 55344 U.S.A. (Rosemount Inc.).Handle fuel with cerous nitrate, subsequently fuel heat is handled, cause comparing the main CO stream of minimizing 53% with control.
Example 2
By using following catalyst precursor to repeat the fuel element treatment process of example 1: cerous nitrate, copper nitrate, potassium nitrate and the cerous nitrate that makes up with palladium.Having handled fuel does not heat-treat before the smoking article burning.Under 50/30/2 smoking condition, inhale the cigarette that is produced; And measure CO in the main plume by NDIR.Cause comparing CO with cerous nitrate, copper nitrate, potassium nitrate or cerous nitrate/palladium bichloride processing fuel and reduce 73.8%, 27.2%, 16.3% or 84.7% respectively with the control of being untreated.
Example 3
About 15 gram cerous nitrate (III) six hydrates (AlfaAesar) or copper nitrates (II), half five hydrates (Alfa Aesar) are dissolved in 7 milliliters the water.Next, 18 the gram graphite powders (remarkable graphite Co., Ltd (Superior Graphite Inc.)) be impregnated with in the metal-nitrate solutions a kind of solution and whole night at air drying.Having handled graphite flies to calcine one hour at 300 ℃ under nitrogen pressure in your (Barnstead THERMOLYNE) 62700 smelting furnaces of generation at programmable Barnes Tu Desaimo.Ramp rate is located at 5 ℃/minute.Calcining causes metal nitrate to resolve into metal oxide.
The graphite that is coated with metal oxide grinds in stamp box and the BKO powdered carbon of milling with 72 grams (cling to that than with the Lee Van Cleef (Barnaby and Suttcliffe) of Soviet Union) and 10 gram guar gums combine.In Sigma wing mixer (Teledyne), carry out about 4 hours further mixing.Then, will add water so that powder is changed into plastic dough.Add enough water to guarantee that moldable mixture is enough firmly to keep its shape after extruding.In this stage, the moisture of dough is 42 to 43% (w/w) normally.Dough is ageing at room temperature in the container of sealing whole night.
Be extruding, moldable mixture is loaded in the tube of batch extruder.One end of tube is equipped with extrusion die so that extrudate is shaped.Cloudy extrusion die has conical surface so that the smooth flow of plastic quality.Mould has five or seven grooves and diameter is 4.2 millimeters.Selectable steel nail is guaranteed the centre gangway by extrudate.Use 3000 pounds die pressure to push.Wet bar was put about one hour on the dish of good ventilation.Then, carefully half-dried bar is cut into 12 millimeters long, keeps the shape of extrudate and the integrality of axial hole simultaneously.Fuel rod at room temperature carries out drying whole night.
Carefully remove " Airy general this " (ECLIPSE) fuel element of brand cigarette, and the glass fibre pad around not disturbing.Test fuel is inserted again in the cigarette and under 60/30/2 smoking condition and is inhaled.Carbon monoxide in the main plume is measured by NDIR as mentioned above.The versus untreated journey in the fuel of covering cerous nitrate or copper nitrate reduces by 38% and 46% main CO stream respectively.
Example 4
The graphite of about 18 grams is handled and is calcined described in example 3 with copper nitrate (II) half five hydrate.The graphite of processing of about 8 grams mixes with the BKO carbon that 10 gram calcium carbonate (AlfaAesar), 10 gram guar gums and 72 grams ground.In Sigma wing mixer (Teledyne), carry out about 1 hour further mixing.Add water then powder is changed into plastic dough.Add enough water guaranteeing that plastic hybrid is enough hard, thereby after extruding, keep its shape as mentioned above.In this stage, the moisture of dough is 42 to 43% (w/w) normally.Dough is ageing at room temperature in the container of sealing whole night.The extruded fuel bar, be cut into 12 millimeters lengthy motion pictures and insert " Airy general this " as mentioned above (ECLIPSE) in the brand cigarette.Measure carbon monoxide by NDIR as mentioned above.Comprise graphite that copper nitrate handles and the calcium carbonate contrast control of being untreated and cause reducing 38% CO.
Have benefited from the content of being taught in the above description, the technical staff in the technical field that the present invention is correlated with will expect many modifications of the present invention and other embodiment.Therefore, should be understood that the present invention is not limited to the specific embodiment that is disclosed, various modifications and other embodiment will cover within the scope of attached claims.Although adopt special term here, the just general and implication described of their use and and unconfined purpose.

Claims (31)

1. method that is used to prepare the fuel element of smoking article comprises:
Make the composition that comprises the carbon containing combustible material form the fuel element that is suitable in smoking article, using; And
Make metallic catalyst precursor cover in the described fuel element or on the surface of described fuel element forming the fuel element handled, described comprise step occur in before the described formation step, in or afterwards.
2. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that, the described step that comprises comprises and makes described metallic catalyst precursor and described carbonaceous material and binder combination to produce fuel element composition before described formation step.
3. method as claimed in claim 2 is characterized in that, described fuel element composition also comprises the one or more additional composition that is selected from graphite, aluminium, tobacco powder, salt.
4. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that, the described step that comprises is included in described formation step applies the described surface of described fuel element afterwards with described catalyst precursor at least a portion.
5. the method for claim 1, it is characterized in that the described step that comprises is included in before the described formation step with packing material or graphite or both combinations and mixes described metallic catalyst precursor to form the packing material that applies or the graphite of coating.
6. method as claimed in claim 5, it is characterized in that, further comprising the steps of: as to make the graphite of the packing material of described coating or described coating or both combinations and described carbonaceous material and binder combination before described formation step, to produce fuel element composition.
7. method as claimed in claim 5 is characterized in that, comprises that also the graphite of the packing material of calcining described coating or coating or both combinations are so that described catalyst precursor changes into catalytic metal compound.
8. method as claimed in claim 5 is characterized in that, the described step that comprises comprises the calcium carbonate material that described metallic catalyst precursor and calcium carbonate combination are applied with formation before described formation step.
9. as each described method in the claim 1 to 8, it is characterized in that described metallic catalyst precursor is the form that can thermal decomposition becomes the slaine or the organo-metallic compound of catalytic metal compound.
10. method as claimed in claim 9, it is characterized in that described metallic catalyst precursor is the form that is selected from following slaine: citrate, nitrate, ammonium nitrate, sulfate, cyanate, hydride, amide, mercaptides, carbonate, halide.
11. method as claimed in claim 9 is characterized in that, described metal is selected from following: alkali metal, alkaline-earth metal, the transition metal in IIIB, IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB, VIIIB, IB and the IIB family, IIIA family element, IVA family element, lanthanide series, actinides.
12. method as claimed in claim 9 is characterized in that, described metallic catalyst precursor is selected from following: ferric nitrate, copper nitrate, cerous nitrate, cerium ammonium nitrate, manganese nitrate, magnesium nitrate, zinc nitrate and combination thereof.
13. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that, also is included under the inert atmosphere enough to make described catalyst precursor change into the temperature and time heating of catalytic metal compound or to shine the described fuel element of having handled.
14. the method for claim 1, it is characterized in that, also comprise cover VIIIB family catalytic metal compound in the described fuel element or the described surface of described fuel element on, described comprise step occur in before the described formation step, in or afterwards.
15. the method for claim 1 is characterized in that, may further comprise the steps:
The described metallic catalyst precursor that mixes described carbonaceous material, adhesive, aluminium or graphite and metallic salt form is to form the fuel element mixture;
Make described fuel element mixture form the combustible fuel elements bar that is suitable in smoking article, using; And
Under inert atmosphere, heat described fuel element bar selectively with the temperature and time that enough makes described catalyst precursor change into the catalytic metal compound of oxide form.
16. method as claimed in claim 15 is characterized in that, described catalyst precursor is a cerous nitrate.
17. method as claimed in claim 15 is characterized in that, described formation step comprises described fuel element mixture is squeezed into rod.
18. method as claimed in claim 15 is characterized in that, also comprises VIIIB family catalytic metal compound is mixed into described fuel element mixture.
19. as each described method in the claim 1 to 18, it is characterized in that, also comprise described fuel element is covered in the smoking article.
20. a fuel element, described fuel element are the forms that is suitable for covering in the smoking article, described fuel element comprises carbon containing combustible material and metallic catalyst precursor.
21. fuel element as claimed in claim 20 is characterized in that, described catalyst precursor exists with the tectal form at least a portion on the surface that is stacked in described fuel element.
22. fuel element as claimed in claim 20 is characterized in that, described catalyst precursor is dispersed in the interior whole carbonaceous material of described fuel element.
23. fuel element as claimed in claim 20 is characterized in that, described metallic catalyst precursor is the form that can thermal decomposition becomes the organo-metallic compound or the slaine of catalytic metal compound.
24. fuel element as claimed in claim 20, it is characterized in that, metal in the described metallic catalyst precursor is selected from following: alkali metal, alkaline-earth metal, transition metal in IIIB, IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB, VIIIB, IB and the IIB family, IIIA family element, IVA family element, lanthanide series, actinides.
25. fuel element as claimed in claim 20 is characterized in that, described metallic catalyst precursor is selected from following: ferric nitrate, copper nitrate, cerous nitrate, cerium ammonium nitrate, manganese nitrate, magnesium nitrate, zinc nitrate and combination thereof.
26. fuel element as claimed in claim 20 is characterized in that, also comprises VIIIB family catalytic metal compound.
27. fuel element as claimed in claim 20 is characterized in that, described metallic catalyst precursor by graphite or particles of packing material by carrier band in described fuel element.
28. a smoking article comprises: light end; The mouth end; Aerosol forms system, described aerosol formation system comprises that aerosol forms section and heating section, described heating section comprises fuel element, each section physically separates and is in the heat exchange relationship, and wherein said fuel element comprises the carbon containing combustible material that and the catalytic metal compound that is produced by metallic catalyst precursor thermal decomposition or metallic catalyst precursor closely contacts.
29. smoking article as claimed in claim 28 is characterized in that, described aerosol forms section and comprises glycerine, propane diols or its combination.
30. smoking article as claimed in claim 28, it is characterized in that, metal in the described metallic catalyst precursor is selected from following: alkali metal, alkaline-earth metal, transition metal in IIIB, IVB, VB, VIB VIIB, VIIIB, IB and the IIB family, IIIA family element, IVA family element, lanthanide series, actinides.
31. fuel element as claimed in claim 28 is characterized in that, described metallic catalyst precursor is selected from following: ferric nitrate, copper nitrate, cerous nitrate, cerium ammonium nitrate, manganese nitrate, magnesium nitrate, zinc nitrate and combination thereof.
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