CN102120276A - Integral type high-speed milling cutter and designing method thereof - Google Patents

Integral type high-speed milling cutter and designing method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102120276A
CN102120276A CN2010100324515A CN201010032451A CN102120276A CN 102120276 A CN102120276 A CN 102120276A CN 2010100324515 A CN2010100324515 A CN 2010100324515A CN 201010032451 A CN201010032451 A CN 201010032451A CN 102120276 A CN102120276 A CN 102120276A
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China
Prior art keywords
cutter
milling cutter
speed
handle
speed milling
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CN2010100324515A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
郑敏利
姜彬
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Harbin University of Science and Technology
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Harbin University of Science and Technology
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Priority to CN2010100324515A priority Critical patent/CN102120276A/en
Publication of CN102120276A publication Critical patent/CN102120276A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Abstract

The invention discloses an integral type high-speed milling cutter and a designing method thereof. Because an indexable blade structure is commonly used in a high-speed milling cutter, 5-6 high-speed processing tool systems are usually included and comprise blades, fastening members, cutter bodies, cutter handles, tensioning members and the like, and the blades are necessary to be dynamically rebalanced with the cutter handles after replaced. Under the condition of high rotating speed, larger centrifugal force can weaken the action of a tensioning mechanism so that the axial positioning accuracy of a milling cutter shaft is influenced. The integral type high-speed milling cutter comprises a cutter handle (1), a cutter body (2) and a blade (3) embedded on the cutter body, wherein the cutter handle and the cutter body are of an integral structure, the blade is connected with the cutter body by adopting bolts (4), and the rear end of the cutter handle is of a hollow short-taper-shank cutter handle structure. The invention is used for analyzing the safety of the milling cutter at a high rotating speed.

Description

Monoblock type high-speed milling cutter and method for designing thereof
Technical field:
The present invention relates to a kind of monoblock type high-speed milling cutter and method for designing thereof that satisfies high rotating speed and high-stability requirement.
Background technology:
The high speed processing tool system is often referred to the instrument system that is made of cutting tool, handle of a knife and chuck, and cutter is packed into by chuck among the handle of a knife, and handle of a knife links to each other with machine tool chief axis.The high speed processing tool system is remarkable to workpiece size precision and surface quality influence, also has influence on high-speed cutting reliability and machine tooling performance simultaneously.
Be widely used in the high-speed milling machine tool chief axis and cutter connects by a kind of two-sided clamping HSK (the hollow short taper shank) handle of a knife of German A Heng polytechnical university lathe laboratory development.This handle of a knife adopts the conical surface (radially) and two-sided location of end face of flange (axially) and clamping, and hollow short taper shank can contact fully with spindle taper hole during work, plays the centering effect.
HSK (hollow short taper shank) handle of a knife prominent features is to adopt end face to contact dual location synchronously with the conical surface, guarantees that handle of a knife cooperates reliability with main shaft.But it is bigger to work as milling cutter diameter, can't adopt chuck, by milling cutter and HSK (hollow short taper shank) when handle of a knife directly cooperates, there is small mismatch error, thereby cause cutter to produce radial run-out, not only slacken the rigidity of tool system, and destroyed the dynamic balancing and the High-Speed Machining Stability of tool system.
Because high-speed milling cutter generally adopts the indexable insert tip, throw away tip structure, its high speed processing tool system is generally 5 to 6 assemblies (blade, securing member, cutter hub, handle of a knife, strain component etc.), must carry out dynamic balancing again with handle of a knife behind blade exchange.Under high speed conditions, big centrifugal force can weaken the tensioning mechanism effect, thereby influences cutter spindle to positioning accuracy.Therefore, in high-speed milling processing, by high speed indexable milling cutter and the common high-speed milling machining tool system that forms of handle of a knife, not only need to repeat repeatedly to carry out dynamic balancing, it is too much to take non-process time, and its rigidity, stability and dynamic balance accuracy descend along with the raising of rotating speed, under far below the operating mode of specified cutting speed judder just appears usually, simultaneously, because its component count is more, slackened high-speed milling machining tool security of system, machining accuracy, the working (machining) efficiency that improves the large-scale precision part had a negative impact.
Summary of the invention:
The objective of the invention is to descend along with the raising of rotating speed for the high-speed milling machining tool system stiffness, dynamic balance accuracy and the cutting stability that solve above-mentioned high speed indexable milling cutter and HSK (hollow short taper shank) handle of a knife composition, be easy to produce problem than strong vibration, a kind of HSK of having (hollow short taper shank) is provided the monoblock type high-speed milling cutter of Knife handle structure, and heavy parts is efficient to satisfy, high accuracy is processed the requirement to high rotating speed and high stability.
Above-mentioned purpose realizes by following technical scheme:
The monoblock type high-speed milling cutter, its composition comprises: handle of a knife, cutter hub and be embedded in blade on the cutter hub, described handle of a knife and described cutter hub are integral structure, adopt screw to be connected between described blade and the described cutter hub, described handle of a knife rear end employing HSK (hollow short taper shank) Knife handle structure.
The monoblock type high-speed milling cutter, its method for designing method comprises the steps:
(1), carries out intrinsic frequency and rotating speed to the analysis of high-speed milling cutter vibration effect according to dynamic cutting Model of high-speed milling cutter and high-speed milling cutter dynamic differential equation;
(2) according to high-speed milling cutter intrinsic frequency and rotating speed to its centrifugal force and cutting force vibration effect analysis result, monoblock type high-speed milling cutter design is proposed;
(3) according to this design, exploitation has the monoblock type high-speed milling cutter of HSK (hollow short taper shank) Knife handle structure;
(4) adopt finite element method, checking high-speed milling cutter security and cutting stability.
Beneficial effect of the present invention:
1. this high-speed milling cutter intrinsic frequency is to adopt three times of the high-speed milling cutters that HSK (hollow short taper shank) handle of a knife connects, higher tool stiffness can guarantee cutting stability under the higher rotation speed condition, and transmit than high pulling torque, for increasing substantially working (machining) efficiency and machining accuracy has been created condition.Simultaneously, this high-speed milling cutter carries out the dynamically balanced time after not only having saved cutter and handle of a knife installation and installation again, and saved cutter annex (as preventing the device that cutting fluid outflows), and make cutter structure obtain simplifying, its high-speed cutting security and stability are improved significantly.Therefore, the beneficial effect of this high-speed milling cutter carry out with higher rotation speed that Al alloy parts is efficient, in the high accuracy processing performance particularly evident.
2. the present invention adopts mechanical clamping mode that indexable insert tip, throw away tip is fastened on the cutter hub, and with cutter hub and handle of a knife " two combine into one ", is coupled to the monoblock type new-type cutter of a rigidity.This cutter has been eliminated because of milling cutter separates, connects the uneven and vibration that produces with handle of a knife, make cutter dynamic stiffness and dynamic balancing is easier is guaranteed.Advantages such as this cutter structure has not only improved the dynamic cutting ability of cutter, guarantees that high speed conditions bottom tool can be stablized, high-efficient cutting, but also has the dynamically balanced time of cutter of saving, and blade exchange is quick.
3. this high-speed milling cutter cutter hub and handle of a knife are integrated, and cutter hub and handle of a knife connect error and be eliminated, and have guaranteed dynamic balance accuracy and cutting stability; Tool stiffness is high and can transmit big moment of torsion, improves stock-removing efficiency; Cutter hub front end and blade adopt screw to connect, and satisfy the blade reliable clamping, change requirement easily; Cutter hub rear end and machine tool chief axis interface adopt HSK (hollow short taper shank) Knife handle structure, guarantee that cutter cooperates reliability with main shaft; This cutter makes high speed processing tool system component quantity be reduced to minimum (reducing to 3 by 5), and its security reliability is significantly improved.
Description of drawings:
Accompanying drawing 1 is the dynamic cutting Model of high-speed milling cutter.Among the figure, C is a damping matrix, and K is a stiffness matrix, and d is a milling cutter diameter, a eBe workpiece milling width, a pBe milling depth, v fBe feed speed, f ZiBe feed engagement between adjacent cutter tooth, κ rBe the milling cutter tool cutting edge angle, Be entrance angle, Be contact angle, Be the direction of feed angle, n is the milling cutter rotating speed, F cFor along the tangential cutting component of milling cutter, F rFor along milling cutter radial cutting component.
Accompanying drawing 2 is that high-speed milling cutter intrinsic frequency and rotating speed influence law curve to its centrifugal force vibration amplitude, ω/ω among the figure nBe working speed and intrinsic frequency ratio.
Accompanying drawing 3 is that high-speed milling cutter intrinsic frequency and rotating speed influence law curve to its cutting force vibration amplitude, ω/ω among the figure nBe working speed and intrinsic frequency ratio.
Accompanying drawing 4 is structural representations of monoblock type high-speed milling cutter.
Accompanying drawing 5 is diameter 50mm monoblock type high-speed milling cutter deflection analytic curves.
The specific embodiment:
Embodiment 1:
The monoblock type high-speed milling cutter, its composition comprises: handle of a knife 1, cutter hub 2 and be embedded in blade 3 on the cutter hub, described handle of a knife and described cutter hub are integral structure, adopt screw 4 to be connected between described blade and the described cutter hub, described handle of a knife rear end employing HSK (hollow short taper shank) Knife handle structure.
Embodiment 2:
The method for designing of monoblock type high-speed milling cutter, this method comprises the steps:
1. according to dynamic cutting Model of high-speed milling cutter and high-speed milling cutter dynamic differential equation, carry out intrinsic frequency and rotating speed to the analysis of high-speed milling cutter vibration effect.
High-speed milling cutter is in cutting process, be subjected to centrifugal force and dynamic cutting force is done the time spent, meeting produces relative to micro displacement or rotates, make cutter not only storage power but also consumed energy, show not only flexible but also the characteristic of damping is arranged, its elasticity available equivalents spring replaces, and its damping can replace with damper, therefore, the dynamic cutting Model of cutter can be reduced to one group of equivalent spring and equivalent damping device and represent.
The milling cutter axial rigidity is much larger than its radial rigidity, and cutting force and centrifugal force mainly act in the radial cutting working face of cutter.Therefore, in this plane, set up the dynamic cutting Model of high-speed milling cutter of two frees degree, as shown in Figure 1.
According to the Structural Dynamics principle, the high-speed milling cutter dynamic differential equation is:
In the formula: M is a mass matrix, ω nBe intrinsic frequency, ξ is a ratio of damping, P x(t), P y(t) be centrifugal force or cutting force component.
Damping matrix and mass matrix, the following relation of stiffness matrix:
C=α 0M+β 0K (3)
Proportionality constant α 0And β 0Can calculate according to following formula:
In the formula: ω i, ω jAnd ξ i, ξ jBe respectively through actual measurement or known any two intrinsic frequencies and ratio of damping, get the preceding two rank intrinsic frequency and the ratio of dampings of high-speed milling cutter structure usually.
By formula (1)~formula (4) acquisition high-speed milling cutter intrinsic frequency and rotating speed its centrifugal force and cutting force vibration amplitude are influenced rule as shown in Figures 2 and 3.
This result shows that the milling cutter vibration amplitude increases with the increase of its rotating speed and intrinsic frequency ratio.Wherein, milling cutter centrifugal force vibration amplitude increases degree and increases degree far above the cutting force vibration amplitude.
Improve the milling cutter intrinsic frequency and not only significantly reduced its vibration amplitude, and help enlarging its working speed scope, make milling cutter safety and stability cutting speed obtain corresponding raising.
2. monoblock type high-speed milling cutter design is proposed.
For improving the milling cutter intrinsic frequency, reduce the vibration of high-speed milling cutter centrifugal force, guarantee that high speed rotation status bottom tool can be around the stable rotation of axis, to its centrifugal force and cutting force vibration effect analysis result, propose monoblock type high-speed milling cutter design according to high-speed milling cutter intrinsic frequency and rotating speed.As shown in Figure 4:
3. according to this design, exploitation has the monoblock type high-speed milling cutter of HSK (hollow short taper shank) Knife handle structure.
This high-speed milling cutter cutter hub and handle of a knife are integrated, and cutter hub and handle of a knife connect error and be eliminated, and dynamic balance accuracy reaches G2.5; Cutter hub front end and blade adopt screw to connect, and satisfy the blade reliable clamping, change requirement easily; Its rear end and machine tool chief axis interface adopt HSK (hollow short taper shank) Knife handle structure, guarantee that cutter cooperates reliability with main shaft; This cutter makes high speed processing tool system component quantity be reduced to minimum (reducing to 3 by 5).
4. the employing finite element method is verified high-speed milling cutter security and cutting stability.
Under the ANSYS environment monoblock type high-speed milling cutter model is carried out deformation analysis and model analysis, obtain the deflection of monoblock type high-speed milling cutter under the 5000rpm-30000rpm speed conditions as shown in Figure 5, its preceding quadravalence intrinsic frequency is as shown in table 1.
Table 1: high-speed milling cutter intrinsic frequency
Exponent number ω n(Hz)
1 5192
2 5297
3 8323
4 13342
This analysis result shows that the monoblock type high-speed milling cutter is in rotating speed 30000rpm scope, and its deflection has higher-security much smaller than the 0.05mm of ISO15641 standard code; Its single order mode intrinsic frequency reaches 5192Hz, and the same structure high-speed milling cutter single order mode intrinsic frequency that adopts HSK (hollow short taper shank) handle of a knife to connect only is 1560Hz, monoblock type high-speed milling cutter intrinsic frequency is significantly improved, its resonance speed is 62300rpm, is three times of similar milling cutter resonance speed.The monoblock type high-speed milling cutter makes high-speed milling machining tool entire system intensity, rigidity and dynamic balance accuracy be improved significantly, and adopts this cutter to carry out high-speed milling processing in less than the 30000rpm scope at rotating speed, has higher security and cutting stability.

Claims (2)

1. monoblock type high-speed milling cutter, its composition comprises: handle of a knife, cutter hub and be installed in blade on the cutter hub, it is characterized in that: described handle of a knife and described cutter hub are integral structure, adopt screw to be connected between described blade and the described cutter hub, hollow short taper shank Knife handle structure is adopted in described handle of a knife rear end.
2. monoblock type high-speed milling cutter according to claim 1 is characterized in that: its method for designing method comprises the steps:
(1), carries out intrinsic frequency and rotating speed to the analysis of high-speed milling cutter vibration effect according to dynamic cutting Model of high-speed milling cutter and high-speed milling cutter dynamic differential equation;
(2) according to high-speed milling cutter intrinsic frequency and rotating speed to its centrifugal force and cutting force vibration effect analysis result, monoblock type high-speed milling cutter design is proposed;
(3) according to this design, exploitation has the monoblock type high-speed milling cutter of hollow short taper shank Knife handle structure;
(4) adopt finite element method, checking high-speed milling cutter security and cutting stability.
CN2010100324515A 2010-01-11 2010-01-11 Integral type high-speed milling cutter and designing method thereof Pending CN102120276A (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102632284A (en) * 2011-12-14 2012-08-15 哈尔滨理工大学 Technological method for controlling consumption of cutter in process of milling large-size quenched steel curve at high speed
CN103331473A (en) * 2013-05-17 2013-10-02 西安交通大学 Ultra-dense tooth face milling cutter and design method thereof
CN103624308A (en) * 2013-11-27 2014-03-12 哈尔滨理工大学 Method for designing low-entropy and safe high-speed milling cutter and high-speed milling cutter

Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102632284A (en) * 2011-12-14 2012-08-15 哈尔滨理工大学 Technological method for controlling consumption of cutter in process of milling large-size quenched steel curve at high speed
CN102632284B (en) * 2011-12-14 2015-11-11 哈尔滨理工大学 Control the process of high-speed milling large-scale hardened steel curved facet tool consumption
CN103331473A (en) * 2013-05-17 2013-10-02 西安交通大学 Ultra-dense tooth face milling cutter and design method thereof
CN103331473B (en) * 2013-05-17 2015-10-28 西安交通大学 A kind of ultra dense flank of tooth milling cutter and method for designing thereof
CN103624308A (en) * 2013-11-27 2014-03-12 哈尔滨理工大学 Method for designing low-entropy and safe high-speed milling cutter and high-speed milling cutter
CN103624308B (en) * 2013-11-27 2016-03-02 哈尔滨理工大学 A kind of security high-speed milling cutter method for designing of low entropy and high-speed milling cutter

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Application publication date: 20110713

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