CN102035048B - Battery protection - Google Patents

Battery protection Download PDF

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CN102035048B
CN102035048B CN 200910179744 CN200910179744A CN102035048B CN 102035048 B CN102035048 B CN 102035048B CN 200910179744 CN200910179744 CN 200910179744 CN 200910179744 A CN200910179744 A CN 200910179744A CN 102035048 B CN102035048 B CN 102035048B
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circuit
led
battery
voltage
display
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CN 200910179744
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102035048A (en )
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朱彬彬
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苏州益高电动车辆制造有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage
    • Y02E60/12Battery technologies with an indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation

Abstract

本发明公开了一种用于电动车辆的蓄电池保护器,其包括一放电保护电路,该电路包括一内设有阀值电压的单片机、分别与所述单片机连接的点火锁开关控制子电路、电控控制子电路及LED状态显示子电路,所述单片机监测所述蓄电池电压并将所监测到的电压与所述阀值电压比较,当监测到的电池电压低于阀值电压时,所述点火锁开关控制子电路或者电控控制子电路将改变工作状态,使得电动车减速行驶或者停止行驶,并以LED状态显示提醒用户,由此防止蓄电池在电压不足时过度放电而受损。 The present invention discloses a protective device for a battery electric vehicle, which includes a discharge protection circuit, the circuit comprising a microcontroller equipped with the threshold voltage, the ignition-lock switch is connected to the microcontroller control sub-circuit electrically control sub-circuit and a control sub-circuit display LED status, the microcontroller monitors the battery voltage and the monitored voltage and the threshold voltage comparator, when the monitored battery voltage is lower than the threshold voltage, the ignition lock switch or electrically controlled control sub-circuit control subcircuit to change the operating state, so that the electric vehicle deceleration traveling or stop driving, and the LED status display to remind the user, thereby preventing the battery voltage is less than when the excessive discharge damage.

Description

蓄电池保护器 Battery protection

【技术领域】 TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种蓄电池保护器,特别是指一种电动车用的蓄电池保护器。 [0001] The present invention relates to a battery protection device, and particularly to an electric vehicle battery protector used.

【背景技术】 【Background technique】

[0002] 在电动车中,用来起牵引作用的蓄电池组经常需要经受长时间的工作,普通的铅酸蓄电池组在放电时,其电压会不断下降,当放电电压达到蓄电池组的截止电压后,此时必须停止放电,如果继续使用该电池,则会造成对电池内部活性物质的损伤,影响电池的使用寿命。 [0002] In the electric vehicle, since the battery pack for traction often required to withstand long hours of work, Common lead-acid batteries during discharge, the voltage will continue to decline, when the voltage reaches the discharge cutoff voltage of the battery pack after in this case the discharge must be stopped, if it continues to use the battery, it will cause damage to the battery inside the active substance, affecting battery life.

[0003] 现在电动车辆电池组的电量主要靠电压表和电量表来测量,使用时电压表和电量表实时监测电池组的电压,当其数值达到截止电压或低于截止电压时,驾驶员需停止对电动车的使用,并对车辆及时充电,当然,这要求驾驶员必须能够清楚了解电池的使用状态,以便及时给电池充电避免损坏电池。 [0003] Now charge electric vehicle battery pack and the main power table by the voltmeter to measure the voltage and the power table voltmeter real-time monitoring of the battery pack during use, when its value reaches the cutoff voltage or lower than the cutoff voltage, the driver need to stop the use of electric vehicles, and a vehicle charging in time, of course, requires that the driver must be able to clear understanding of the battery in order to charge the battery in a timely manner to avoid damage to the battery.

[0004] 然而,很多电动车辆驾驶员并没有经过相关考试和培训,以至于在车辆运营时驾驶员往往不能够及时地、明确地了解电池的使用状态并对电池进行充电,有时甚至将电动车辆不能继续行驶作为车辆返回充电的依据,但此时电池组电压已经大大低于截止电压。 [0004] However, many electric vehicle and the driver has not been relevant examinations and training, so that the driver often can not timely, clear understanding of the use of state of the battery and charge the battery while the vehicle is operating, and sometimes even the electric vehicle We can not continue with the return of a vehicle based on the charge, but this time the battery voltage has significantly lower than the cutoff voltage. 在人流量较大或者使用较频繁的场合,不但无法保证电动车辆及时充电,有时甚至还要满足载人的需求,再加上复杂的使用环境,使得监测用的电压表及电量表本身受应用环境的影响而存在较大的计算误差。 In the larger flow of people, or more frequent use of the occasion, not only can not guarantee timely charge an electric vehicle, and sometimes even meet the needs of manned, coupled with the complex environment, so that the electricity meter and voltmeter to monitor used by the application itself environmental impact and there is a large calculation error. 以上几种情况都很容易造成电池组的过度放电,从而损坏电池。 The above circumstances are likely to cause excessive discharge of the battery pack, thereby damaging the battery.

[0005] 鉴于上述问题,有必要提供一种蓄电池保护器来解决上述问题。 [0005] In view of the above problems, it is necessary to provide a battery protection device to solve the above problems.

【发明内容】 [SUMMARY]

[0006] 本发明所解决的技术问题在于提供一种蓄电池保护器,其可有效防止蓄电池过度放电而受损的。 [0006] The technical problem solved by the present invention is to provide a battery protection device, which can effectively prevent the battery from over discharge damage.

[0007] 为解决上述技术问题,本发明采用如下技术方案:一种蓄电池保护器,其具有一放电保护电路,该电路包括一内设有两个阀值电压的单片机、分别与所述单片机连接的点火锁开关控制子电路、电控控制子电路及LED状态显示子电路,其中,所述单片机监测所述蓄电池电压并将所监测到的电压与所述阀值电压比较,当监测到的蓄电池电压低于其中一个阀值电压时,电控控制子电路处于半速工作状态,且LED状态显示子电路改变LED显示状态为第一显示状态,当监测到的蓄电池电压低于其中另外一个阀值电压时,所述单片机控制所述点火锁开关控制子电路,使其停止工作,且LED状态显示子电路改变LED显示状态为第二显示状态。 [0007] To solve the above problems, the present invention adopts the following technical solutions: A battery protection device having a discharge protection circuit, the circuit comprising a threshold voltage of two features of the microcontroller, respectively connected to the microcontroller ignition lock switch control sub-circuit, electric control sub-circuit and LED status display sub-circuit, wherein the microcontroller monitors the battery voltage and the monitored voltage is compared with the threshold value, when the monitored battery wherein a voltage lower than the threshold voltage, the sub-control circuit is electrically controlled half-speed operation state, and the LED status display LED sub-circuit changes a first display state is a display state, when the monitored battery voltage is below a threshold value which, in addition when the voltage of the microcontroller controls the ignition-lock switch control sub-circuit, it stops, and the LED status display LED sub-circuit changes the second display state is a display state.

[0008] 相较于现有技术,本发明提供的蓄电池保护器通过将蓄电池电压与单片机内预设阀值电压的比较,当电池电压低于阀值电压时,通过所述点火锁开关控制子电路或者电控控制子电路改变工作状态来停止或减缓蓄电池的放电,同时通过LED显示相关状态,由此,有效避免蓄电池过度放电而受损,并在电压不足时通过LED显示提醒用户。 [0008] Compared to the prior art, the present invention provides a battery protection device by comparing the preset threshold voltage in the battery voltage and the microcontroller, when the battery voltage is lower than the threshold voltage, the ignition-lock switch controlled by the sub electrical control circuit or a control sub-circuit changes the operating state to stop or slow down the discharge of a battery, through LED status displays, thereby effectively prevent damage to the battery from over discharge, and by the LED display to alert the user when insufficient voltage. 【附图说明】 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0009] 图I为本发明蓄电池保护器的放电保护电路图。 [0009] Figure I of the present invention, the battery discharge protection circuit diagram of the protector.

【具体实施方式】 【Detailed ways】

[0010] 本发明提供一种蓄电池保护器,其内设有一个放电保护电路,如图I所示,用于有效防止电池过度放电而受损,并及时提醒电动车驾驶员给电池充电。 [0010] The present invention provides a battery protection device, which is equipped with a discharge protection circuit shown in FIG. I, for effectively preventing over-discharge of the battery being damaged, and a timely reminder to the driver of the electric vehicle battery charging. 所述放电保护电路形成于一线路板上,并包括一个单片机U、点火锁开关控制子电路、电控控制子电路及LED状态显示子电路。 The discharge protection circuit formed on a circuit board, comprising a microcontroller and U, the ignition lock switch control sub-circuit, electric control sub-circuit and LED status display sub-circuit.

[0011] 所述点火锁开关控制子电路由继电器K1、分压电阻、限流保护二极管Dl组成,且所述继电器Kl用于控制点火锁的开关。 [0011] The ignition lock switch control sub-circuit by the relay K1, the voltage dividing resistor, the current limiting protection diodes Dl composition, relay Kl and the ignition lock switch. 所述电控控制子电路由继电器K2、分压电阻及限流保护二极管D2组成,且继电器K2用于控制是否给电控控制子电路并联电阻,使电控控制子电路处于全速或半速状态。 The electrically controlled by the control sub-circuit relay K2, voltage dividing resistors and current limiting protection diode D2, and relay K2 to the electronic control for controlling whether the control sub-circuit parallel resistance, the electrical control circuit is the control sub-state full rate or half rate . 所述LED状态显示子电路由两个限流电阻R6、R7及一个三色LED灯组成。 The LED status display sub-circuit consists of two current limiting resistors R6, R7, and a tri-color LED lamp. 所述限流电阻R6、R7与LED串联,并都与地线相接形成回路。 The current limiting resistors R6, R7 connected in series with the LED, and the loop is formed in contact with the ground.

[0012] 图I所示的各电路元件的规格参数适用于本发明最佳实施方式,其中,所述单片机Ul为P89LPC915,电阻Rl、R2、R4、R5的阻值均为5千欧,R6、R7为9千欧,R8为360欧电容Cl为10μ,C2为O. 1μ,继电器Kl、Κ2的规格为G5V-1-12VDC,二极管Dl、D2的规格为BAW56,三极管Q1、Q2规格为2N2222。 [0012] FIG specifications of the circuit elements shown in FIG. I is applied to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, wherein the microcontroller Ul is the P89LPC915, resistors Rl, R2, R4, R5 may both 5 kilohms, R6 , R7 is 9 kilohms, R8 is Cl 360 European capacitance 10μ, C2 is O. 1μ, relay Kl, Κ2 specifications for G5V-1-12VDC, diodes Dl, D2 specifications for BAW56, transistors Q1, Q2 of size 2N2222.

[0013] 以下将结合图I对本发明所述放电保护电路及工作原理作详细描述。 [0013] Figure I hereinafter in conjunction with the present invention, the discharge protection circuit and working principle described in detail.

[0014] 单片机P89LPC915的接脚14连接所述点火锁开关控制子电路,用于控制车辆停车,接脚14与电阻Rl连接,电阻Rl的另一端与三极管Ql的基极相连,三极管Ql的发射极接地,而三极管Ql的集电极与同时并联在一起的两个同方向的二极管Dl和继电器Kl相连,继电器Kl与两个二极管Dl的另一端与一12V电源相接。 [0014] P89LPC915 microcontroller 14 is connected to the pin of the ignition lock switch control sub-circuit, for controlling vehicle parking, pin 14 is connected to the resistor Rl, the other end of the transistor Ql is connected to the base electrode of the resistance Rl, the emitter of transistor Ql grounded, the transistor Ql is connected to the collector of the same two directions simultaneously in parallel with a diode Dl and relay Kl, the other end of the relay Kl and two diodes Dl 12V with a power source contact. 继电器Kl的节点1、2常闭,节点1、3在继电器Kl工作时选通,接口I通过一黄线连接电动车点火锁开关(未图示)和电容Cl,所述电容Cl的另一端接地,继电器Kl的接口2与电阻R3串连,电阻R3另一端通过红线与电动车点火锁开关(未图示)连接,所述继电器Kl的节点I与节点3导通。 Relay Kl 2 NC node, node 3 when the relay Kl work strobe interface I connected electric vehicle ignition lock switch (not shown), and a yellow line through the capacitor Cl, the other end of the capacitor Cl ground, relay Kl interface 2 and the resistor R3 in series, the other end of the resistor R3 is connected through the red electric vehicle ignition lock switch (not shown), the node I and node 3, relay Kl is turned on.

[0015] 单片机P89LPC915的接脚13连接所述电控控制子电路,用于控制车辆减速,接脚13与电阻R2连接,电阻R2的另一端与三极管Q2的基极相连,三极管Q2的发射极接地,而三极管Q2的集电极则与同时并联在一起的两个同方向的二极管D2和继电器K2相连。 [0015] P89LPC915 MCU pins 13 electrically connected to the control sub-control circuit for controlling the deceleration of the vehicle, the pin 13 is connected to the resistor R2, transistor Q2 and the other end of the base electrode is connected to the resistor R2, the emitter of transistor Q2 ground, while the diode D2 and the relay K2 is connected to the same two directions collector of transistor Q2 is connected together in parallel and simultaneously. 所述继电器K2与两个二极管D2的另一端与一12V电源相接。 The relay K2 and the other end of the diode D2 and a two 12V power supply contact. 继电器K2的节点1、2常闭,节点1、3则在继电器K2工作时选通,所述继电器K2的节点2与并联的电阻R4、R5 —端连接,并联电阻R4、R5的另一端通过蓝线与电动车加速器的电位器(未图示)相连接,而继电器K2的节点3则通过绿线与电动车加速器的电位器(未图示)连接,所述继电器K2的节点I与节点2相连。 Relay K2 is a normally closed nodes 1, node 3 at the time of working the gate relay K2, the relay K2 resistor R4 in parallel with a node 2, R5 - terminal is connected, in parallel with the resistor R4, the other end through R5 blue line of the electric vehicle accelerator potentiometer (not shown) is connected to the node 3 and the relay K2 through the green line of the electric vehicle accelerator potentiometer (not shown), the node I and node of the relay K2 2 is connected.

[0016] 单片机P89LPC915的接脚12与电阻R6相连接,该电阻R6的另一端与红色LED灯连接,该红色LED灯的另一端接地。 [0016] The microcontroller P89LPC915 pin 12 is connected to the resistor R6, the other end of the resistor R6 is connected to the red LED, the other end of the red LED lamp.

[0017] 单片机P89LPC915的接脚11与电阻R7相连接,该电阻R7的另一端与黄色LED灯连接,该黄色LED灯的另一端接地。 [0017] The microcontroller P89LPC915 pin 11 is connected to the resistor R7, the other end of the resistor R7 is connected to the yellow LED, the other end of the yellow LED.

[0018] 单片机P89LPC915的接脚9与电阻R8相连,电阻R8与绿色LED灯串连,该绿色LED灯的另一端接地。 [0018] The microcontroller P89LPC915 pin 9 and resistor R8 is connected to resistor R8 and the green LED in series, the other end of the green LED lamp.

[0019] 采用上述方案后,预先在单片机P89LPC915中设定好两个阀值电压U1,U2,电动车工作过程中,单片机一方面实时监测蓄电池中电压U的大小,另一方面将蓄电池中的电压U与单片机中已设定好的两个阀值电压U1,U2比较大小,根据比较结果来显示相应的LED灯,以及时告知驾驶者蓄电池的使用情况。 [0019] With the above-described embodiment, previously set in the microcontroller P89LPC915 good two threshold voltage U1, U2, electric vehicle operation, the microcontroller on the one hand the size of real-time monitoring of the battery voltage U, another aspect of the battery voltage U which has been set with the microcontroller two threshold voltages U1, U2 compare the size to display the usage of the corresponding LED lights, and informing the driver when the battery based on the comparison.

[0020] 具体来讲,当U > Ul、U2时,继电器Kl、K2均未运作,蓄电池电压正常,电动车可正常运行,单片机接脚9正常输出电压,此时LED灯显示绿色。 [0020] Specifically, when the U> Ul, U2 when relay Kl, K2 were not operating, the battery voltage is normal, the electric vehicle can run normally, the microcontroller 9 normal output voltage pin, and the LED lights green.

[0021] 当U < Ul时,电控控制子电路开始工作,三极管Q2导通,形成电流,使继电器Κ2工作,此时,继电器Κ2的节点1、3导通,使得绿线和蓝线之间并联了一个2. 5千欧的电阻,而绿线和蓝线的另一端是连接在电动车加速器的电位器(5千欧)的低端和滑动端,这时即使将加速器踏板踩到底部,电位器并联后的电阻也不会超过2. 5千欧,即不会超过最大速度的一半,电控控制子电路处于半速工作状态,而电动车处于减速状态,此时,单片机接脚11输出电压(此时接脚9、12停止输出电压),LED灯显示黄色,提醒驾驶者及时给电动车充电。 [0021] When U <Ul, to work electric control sub-circuit, the transistor Q2 is turned on, a current, the relay Κ2 work, this time, the relay node 3 Κ2 turned on so that the green line and the blue line connected in parallel between a 2.5 kohm resistor, and the other end of the green line and the blue line is connected to the electric vehicle accelerator potentiometer (5 kilohms) sliding end and low-end, then even if the accelerator pedal in the end portion, parallel resistance after the potentiometer is not more than 2.5 kilohms, i.e., does not exceed half of the maximum speed, the control sub-circuit is electrically controlled half-speed operation state, while the electric vehicle is in a deceleration state, at this time, then the microcontroller voltage output pin 11 (pin 9, 12 is stopped at this time the output voltage), LED display a yellow light to remind the driver to promptly charge the electric vehicle.

[0022] 当U < U2时,电动车的点火锁开关控制子电路开始工作,并将三极管Ql导通,形成电流,使得继电器Kl工作,此时节点1、3导通,由于所述黄线与红线在节点1、2导通时用以给控制子电路提供电源回路,因此,当节点1、3导通后,所述点火锁开关的红线与黄线之间形成断路,此时电源回路断开,控制子电路停止工作,车辆不能继续运行,同时,单片机接脚9、11停止输出电压信号,接脚12输出电压信号,LED灯显示红色。 [0022] When U <U2, the electric vehicle ignition lock switch control sub-circuit operates, and the transistor Ql is turned on, a current, so that the relay Kl work that Node 3 is turned on, since the yellow line and for the red line when the node 2 is turned to the power supply circuit to provide the control sub-circuit, and therefore, when node 3 is turned on, the open circuit is formed between the red and yellow lines ignition lock switch, while the power supply circuit OFF, the control sub-circuit is stopped, the vehicle can not continue to run, while the microcontroller stop pin 9, 11 an output voltage signal, an output voltage signal pins 12, LED light red.

[0023] 通过上述放电保护电路,使得蓄电池的保护器能够对电动车的电池起到很好的保护作用,在电压不足的情况下用LED状态显示灯来及时提醒驾驶者,避免驾驶者过度消耗电池,使电池受损。 [0023] By the above-described discharge protection circuit, so that the battery protector can play a very good protection of electric vehicle batteries, LED status display lamp in the case of insufficient voltage to promptly alert the driver, to avoid excessive consumption of the driver battery, battery damage.

[0024] 以上所述,仅是本发明的最佳实施例而已,并非对本发明作任何形式上的限制。 [0024] In the above, only the preferred embodiment of the present invention, but not be limited to any form of the present invention. 任何熟悉本领域的技术人员,在不脱离本发明技术方案范围情况下,利用上述揭示的方法内容对本发明技术方案做出许多可能的变动和修饰,均属于权利要求书保护的范围。 Any scope of those skilled in the art, without departing from the scope of the technical solution of the present invention, the contents disclosed by the above method may make many variations and modifications of the technical solution of the present invention are the protection of the claims.

Claims (4)

  1. 1. 一种蓄电池保护器,其具有一放电保护电路,该电路包括一内设有两个阀值电压的单片机、分别与所述单片机连接的点火锁开关控制子电路、电控控制子电路及LED状态显示子电路,其特征在于:所述单片机监测所述蓄电池电压并将所监测到的电压与所述阀值电压比较,当监测到的蓄电池电压低于其中一个阀值电压时,电控控制子电路处于半速工作状态,且LED状态显示子电路改变LED显示状态为第一显示状态,当监测到的蓄电池电压低于其中另外一个阀值电压时,所述单片机控制所述点火锁开关控制子电路,使其停止工作,且LED状态显示子电路改变LED显示状态为第二显示状态。 1. A battery protection device having a discharge protection circuit, the circuit comprising a microcontroller equipped with two threshold voltages, are connected to the ignition-lock switch control sub-circuit of the microcontroller, the control sub-circuit and electrically controlled LED status display sub-circuit, characterized in that: said microcontroller monitors the battery voltage and the monitored voltage is compared with the threshold value, when the monitored battery voltage is below a threshold voltage wherein, the electronic control the control sub-circuit in a half-speed operation state, and the LED status display LED sub-circuit changes a first display state is a display state, when the monitored battery voltage is below a threshold voltage in which addition, the microcontroller controls the ignition-lock switch the control sub-circuit, it stops, and the LED status display LED sub-circuit changes the second display state is a display state.
  2. 2.如权利要求I所述的蓄电池保护器,其特征在于:所述LED状态显示子电路包括一红、黄、绿三色LED显示灯,其中,所述电控控制子电路半速工作时黄色LED显示灯常亮,所述点火锁开关控制子电路停止工作时红色LED显示灯常亮。 Lamp, wherein, when the electrically controlled half speed control sub-circuit operation of the LED status display sub-circuit comprises a red, yellow, and green LED display: 2. The battery protector according to claim I, wherein steady yellow LED indicator lights, the ignition-lock switch control subcircuit lit red LED display lamp stops working.
  3. 3.如权利要求I所述的蓄电池保护器,其特征在于:所述蓄电池为电动车辆所用的电池,所述电动车辆在电池电压低于阀值电压时将减速行驶或停止行驶,同时改变所述LED显示状态。 3. The battery protector according to claim I, wherein: the electric vehicle battery cell is used, the electric vehicle battery voltage falls below the threshold voltage to stop driving or deceleration traveling, while changing the said LED display state.
  4. 4.如权利要求3所述的蓄电池保护器,其特征在于:所述LED显示状态分为红色、黄色与绿色,所述电动车辆在正常行驶时所述LED显示绿色,所述电动车辆在减速行驶时所述LED显示黄色,电动车在停止行驶时所述LED显示红色。 4. The battery protector according to claim 3, wherein: the LED display state is divided into red, yellow and green, the electric vehicle during normal driving the green LED, the electric vehicle is decelerating the yellow LED display during traveling, the electric car is stopped when the red LED driving.
CN 200910179744 2009-09-27 2009-09-27 Battery protection CN102035048B (en)

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CN104215912B (en) * 2014-09-04 2017-09-08 奇瑞汽车股份有限公司 Battery condition detection system and method

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US5729192A (en) 1995-06-07 1998-03-17 Badger; Berkley C. Remote automobile disabler device and associated method
US6218812B1 (en) 1999-05-17 2001-04-17 Mark E. Hanson Solid state battery charger
CN1294064A (en) 1999-09-22 2001-05-09 本田技研工业株式会社 controller of mixing power vehicle
CN1696850A (en) 2004-05-14 2005-11-16 通用汽车公司 Method of undervoltage protection during engine cranking

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US5200688A (en) 1991-05-31 1993-04-06 Motorola, Inc. Vehicular charger
US5729192A (en) 1995-06-07 1998-03-17 Badger; Berkley C. Remote automobile disabler device and associated method
US5708348A (en) 1995-11-20 1998-01-13 Warren Johnson Method and apparatus for monitoring battery voltage
US6218812B1 (en) 1999-05-17 2001-04-17 Mark E. Hanson Solid state battery charger
CN1294064A (en) 1999-09-22 2001-05-09 本田技研工业株式会社 controller of mixing power vehicle
CN1696850A (en) 2004-05-14 2005-11-16 通用汽车公司 Method of undervoltage protection during engine cranking

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