CN101942131B - Environmentally-friendly carpet tile backing material and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Environmentally-friendly carpet tile backing material and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN101942131B
CN101942131B CN 201010255595 CN201010255595A CN101942131B CN 101942131 B CN101942131 B CN 101942131B CN 201010255595 CN201010255595 CN 201010255595 CN 201010255595 A CN201010255595 A CN 201010255595A CN 101942131 B CN101942131 B CN 101942131B
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backing material
ldpe
carpet tile
22wt
app
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CN 201010255595
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CN101942131A (en )
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周晓欧
张慧萍
晏雄
王坤
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东华大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to an environmentally-friendly carpet tile backing material and a preparation method thereof. The environmentally-friendly carpet tile backing material comprises the following components: 14-22 wt% of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM), 34-58 wt% of high-pressure low density polyethylene (LDPE) and 14-22 wt% of atactic polypropylene APP,which are served as a matrix material, and 14-22 wt% of CaCO3 served as a filler. The preparation method comprises mixing, fusing and shaping. Raw materials adopted by the invention are environmentally-friendly materials and do not pollute service environment and users; the prepared backing material has favorable mechanical property which exceeds the national standard; the preparation method is simple and suitable for industrial mass production.

Description

ー种绿色环保方块地毯背衬材料及其制备方法ー kinds of green carpet tile backing material and preparation method

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明属于方块地毯背衬材料及其制备领域,特别涉及一种绿色环保方块地毯背衬材料及其制备方法。 [0001] The present invention pertains to a carpet tile backing material and its preparation, and more particularly relates to a green carpet tile backing material and method.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002]目前常用目前方块地毯市场使用的主要是PVC和浙青。 [0002] The commonly used carpet tile market currently used mainly PVC and Zhejiang green. PVC背衬地毯因具有很强的防蚀、防蛀、抗静电、阻燃等特点,长期使用也不会翘曲、变形,为大众喜爱。 PVC carpet backing because of a strong anti-corrosion, moth, anti-static, fire-retardant features, long-term use will not warp, deformation, the public favorite. 但PVC燃烧时会产生有毒的烟气,受到国际绿色和平组织的批判;浙青背衬具有环保可回收的好处以及该材质造价低廉,因此在国外比较盛行,但是该底背受冬季和夏季温差的影响具有收缩方面的弊端,且铺装时必须小心不要弄脏毯面或墙面;聚氨酯背衬的密度最佳、稳定性好、夕卜观质量接近PVC,但这种方法处理成本高,国内外厂家很少采用。 But PVC combustion will produce toxic fumes, subject to international criticism of Greenpeace; Zhejiang green backing has environmental benefits of recyclable materials and the low cost, and therefore more popular abroad, but back by the end of summer and winter temperature difference Effects of shortcomings with regard to shrinkage, and care must be taken not to stain the carpet or wall surface when the pavement; polyurethane backing optimum density, stability, quality close concept Bu Xi PVC, but this method is costly processing, domestic and foreign manufacturers rarely used. 另外还有些新的背衬制造エ艺,但其在环保性和企业成本上不是很乐观。 Also some new backing manufacturing Ester arts, but it is not very optimistic on environmental protection and business costs. 鉴于此,需研究开发新的方块地毯背衬材料。 In view of this, the need to develop new materials research backing of carpet tiles.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0003] 本发明所要解决的技术问题是提供一种绿色环保地毯背衬材料及其制备方法,所用原料绿色环保,对使用环境及使用者均无污染,制得的背衬材料力学性能良好,超过国家标准;制备方法エ艺简单,适合エ业化大量生产。 [0003] The present invention solves the technical problem of providing a green carpet backing material and method, the starting material with the green, on the user environment and are non-polluting, the good mechanical properties of the resulting backing material, more than the national standard; preparation Ester simple process for Ester industrialized mass production.

[0004] 本发明的ー种绿色环保方块地毯背衬材料,其组分包括:14〜22wt%的三元こ丙橡胶EPDM、34〜58wt%的高压低密度聚こ烯LDPE、14〜22wt%的无规立构聚丙烯APP作为基体材料,14〜22wt%的CaCO3作为填充剂。 [0004] Species ー green carpet tile backing material of the present invention, which component comprises: 14~22wt% ternary ko propylene rubber EPDM, 34~58wt% of high pressure low density polyethylene ko alkenyl LDPE, 14~22wt% APP atactic polypropylene as a base material, 14~22wt% of CaCO3 as a filler. (碳酸钙,国药集团化学试剂有限公司,市售;无规立构聚丙烯(APP),青岛邦尼有限公司,市售;高压低密聚こ烯(LDPE),上海嘉龙化エ原料有限公司,市售;三元こ丙橡胶(EPDM),上海胶广贸易有限公司,市售) (Calcium carbonate, Sinopharm Chemical Reagent Co., commercially available; atactic polypropylene (the APP), Bonnie Ltd. Qingdao commercially available; high pressure low density polyethylene ko-ene (LDPE), the starting material is limited Haijia dragon Ester The company, a commercially available; three yuan ko-propylene rubber (EPDM), wide plastic Shanghai trading Co., commercially available)

[0005] 本发明的ー种绿色环保方块地毯背衬材料的制备方法,包括: [0005] Preparation ー species green carpet tile backing material according to the present invention, comprising:

[0006] (I)混炼:将双辊筒炼塑机上的辊筒温度保持在室温,在辊筒间分别加入14〜22wt%的三元こ丙橡胶EPDM、34〜58wt%的高压低密度聚こ烯LDPE、14〜22wt%的无规立构聚丙烯APP、14〜22wt%的CaCO3,混炼20〜40分钟,使各组分混炼均匀,混炼结束后将混料从辊筒上剥离下来,然后剪碎制成混炼碎料; [0006] (I) mixing: double roll presses on the roll mill temperature kept at room temperature, was added between the rolls 14~22wt% propylene rubber EPDM ternary ko respectively, 34~58wt% of high pressure low density poly-ene ko LDPE, 14~22wt% atactic polypropylene APP, 14~22wt% of CaCO3, kneaded 20~40 minutes, uniformly kneading the components, after the end of mixing from the mixing drum on peeled, cut into pieces and then be kneaded debris;

[0007] (2)熔融:将上述混炼碎料均匀地铺在表面皿中,在220〜230°C条件下加热3〜5分钟,使混炼碎料充分熔融; [0007] (2) Melt: uniformly kneading the above-described scrap ground floor, three to five minutes was heated at 220~230 ° C in the surface condition of the dish, so that sufficiently melt kneaded scrap;

[0008] (3)成形:将熔融的混炼碎料均匀地涂在地毯背侧,将地毯置于模子中,模子上下都用钢板夹住,且在钢板和模子之间用铺放一层聚四氟こ烯薄膜防止弄脏地毯及背村;将钢板移入平板硫化机,在3〜5MPa的压カ下加压I〜3分钟;取下钢板,脱模,制得附有绿色环保背衬材料的方块地毯。 [0008] (3) Molding: The melt-kneaded uniformly coated scrap carpet back side, the carpet is placed in a mold, the mold was sandwiched between steel plates up and down, and between the steel sheet and the mold by depositing a layer of ko alkenyl PTFE film prevents soiling and the carpet backing village; steel into the vulcanizing press, pressed at a pressure of ka 3~5MPa I~3 min; remove steel, mold release, obtained with the green back carpet tile backing material.

[0009] 所述步骤(I)中的EPDM : LDPE : APP : CaCO3质量百分比为14% : 58% : 14% : 14%。 [0009] The step (I) EPDM: LDPE: APP: CaCO3 mass percentage of 14%: 58%: 14%: 14%. [0010] 所述步骤(I)中的EPDM : LDPE : APP : CaCO3质量百分比为20% : 40% : 20% : 20%。 [0010] The step (I) in the EPDM: LDPE: APP: CaCO3 mass percentage of 20%: 40%: 20%: 20%.

[0011] 所述步骤(I)中的EPDM : LDPE : APP : CaCO3质量百分比为22% : 34% : 22% : 22%。 [0011] The step (I) EPDM: LDPE: APP: CaCO3 mass percentage of 22%: 34%: 22%: 22%.

[0012] 无规聚丙稀(APP)是塑料エ业中合成聚丙稀时的副产物,APP在常温下具有类似橡胶的粘弾性,但分子量小,分子量分布较宽,流动性良好,不易引起剪切结晶。 [0012] atactic polypropylene (APP) is the plastics industry Ester polypropylene byproducts in the synthesis, the APP having a viscosity of Tan rubbery at room temperature, but the low molecular weight, broad molecular weight distribution, good fluidity, are unlikely to cause shear cut crystal. 低密度聚こ烯(LDPE)主要用于薄膜、包装材料、防护材料等一般消耗材料以及生活相关的消费品和エ业品。 Poly-ene ko density (LDPE) is mainly used for general consumption of material films, packaging materials, protective materials and related consumer goods and industrial goods Ester. 三元こ丙橡胶(EPDM)是こ烯、丙烯以及非共轭ニ烯烃的三元共聚物,EPDM最主要的特性就是其优越的耐氧化、抗臭氧和抗侵蚀的能力。 Three yuan ko-propylene rubber (EPDM) is ko-ene, propylene and a non-conjugated olefin terpolymer Ni, EPDM most important feature is its excellent resistance to oxidation, resistance to ozone and resistance to erosion. 由于三元こ丙橡胶属于聚烯烃家族,它具有极好的硫化特性,在所有橡胶当中,EPDM具有最低的比重,它能吸收大量的填料和油而/对其本身性能影响不大,因此可以制作成本低廉的橡胶化合物。 Since three yuan ko propylene rubber polyolefin family, it has excellent vulcanization characteristics, all the rubber, EPDM has the lowest specific gravity, it can absorb large amounts of oil and filler and / have minimal impact on its own, can be production cost rubber compound. 以上所选材料都是符合环保要求的无毒、无副作用材料。 Selected above materials are non-toxic and in line with environmental requirements, no side effects materials.

[0013] 有益效果 [0013] beneficial effects

[0014] (I)本发明所用原料绿色环保,对使用环境及使用者均无污染,制得的背衬材料力学性能良好,超过国家标准,可广泛应用于家庭、宾馆、商务办公楼等场所; [0014] (I) of green materials used in the invention, the use of the environment and users are pollution-free, good mechanical properties of the system was backing material, exceeding the national standard, widely used in homes, hotels, office buildings and other places ;

[0015] (2)本发明的制备方法エ艺简单,适合エ业化大量生产。 [0015] Preparation (2) of the present invention, Ester simple process, suitable for Ester industrialized mass production.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0016] 下面结合具体实施例,进ー步阐述本发明。 [0016] The following embodiments with reference to specific embodiments, further illustrate the present invention into ー. 应理解,这些实施例仅用于说明本发明而不用于限制本发明的范围。 It should be understood that these embodiments are illustrative only and the present invention is not intended to limit the scope of the invention. 此外应理解,在阅读了本发明讲授的内容之后,本领域技术人员可以对本发明作各种改动或修改,这些等价形式同样落于本申请所附权利要求书所限定的范围。 Furthermore, it should be understood that, after reading the teachings of the present invention, those skilled in the art that various changes or modifications may be made to the present invention, and these equivalents also fall within the scope of the appended claims of the present application as defined.

[0017] 实施例I [0017] Example I

[0018]各原料质量比采用 EPDM : LDPE : APP : CaCO3= 14% : 58% : 14% : 14%的比例,步骤如下:混炼: [0018] The mass ratio of the respective raw materials using EPDM: LDPE: APP: CaCO3 = 14%: 14% ratio, as follows:: 58%: 14% kneading:

[0019] (I)将双辊筒炼塑机上的辊筒温度保持在室温; [0019] (I) the two roll mill roll temperature kept at room temperature in the presses;

[0020] (2)在辊筒间加入质量百分比为14%的三元こ丙橡胶; [0020] (2) was added between the rolls 14% mass percentage of ternary ko-propylene rubber;

[0021] (3)在辊筒间加入质量百分比为58%的LDPE,由于两辊筒表面转速的差异,和用切刀做人工辅助性的混合,使其混合均匀; [0021] (3) between the rolls was added 58% mass percentage of LDPE, due to differences in the surface speed of the two rollers, and with a cutter made of artificial mixed for homogenization;

[0022] (4)在辊筒间加入质量百分比为14%的APP,同样用切刀辅助混合,使各组分混合均匀; [0022] (4) was added roll mass percentage between 14% of the APP, auxiliary mixing the same with a cutter to make the components mixed;

[0023] (5)在辊筒间加入质量百分比为14%的CaCO3粒子,同样用切刀辅助混合,使各组分混合均勻; [0023] (5) was added roll mass percentage between 14% - CaCO3, auxiliary mixing the same with a cutter to make the components mixed;

[0024] (6)总的混炼时间为20分钟,混炼均匀后,将混炼料从辊筒上剥离下来,然后剪碎制成混炼碎粒,以备熔融成形之用。 [0024] (6) for a total mixing time of 20 minutes, uniformly kneaded, the kneaded material peeled off from the roll, cut into pieces and then kneaded nibs made to prepare melt-molding purposes.

[0025]熔融: [0025] melting:

[0026] (I)将混炼碎料均匀地铺在表面皿中; [0026] (I) will be spread evenly over the surface of the kneading scrap dish;

[0027] (2)将表面皿移入电焊条式烘箱,在以220°C条件下加热3分钟,使混炼碎料充分熔融;[0028] (3)熔融后取出碎料,备用。 [0027] (2) into the welding surface of the dish oven heated to 220 ° C under conditions of 3 minutes to be sufficiently melt kneaded scrap; [0028] (3) remove melted debris, the spare.

[0029]成形: [0029] Forming:

[0030] (I)将熔融的混炼碎料均匀地涂在地毯背侧,地毯置于模子中,模子上下都用钢板夹住,且在钢板和模子之间用间铺放ー层聚四氟こ烯薄膜,防止弄脏地毯及背衬; [0030] (I) melt kneading the crushed material evenly on the carpet back side, the carpet is placed in a mold, the mold was sandwiched between steel plates up and down, and with the inter-placement between the plate and the mold layer polytetramethylene ーko-fluoro alkenyl film to prevent soiling and the carpet backing;

[0031] (2)将钢板移入平板硫化机,在3MPa的压力、常温下加压I〜3分钟; [0031] (2) into a vulcanizing press plate at a pressure of 3MPa, at room temperature pressurized I~3 min;

[0032] (3)取下钢板,脱摸,制得新型方块地毯。 [0032] (3) Remove the plate, touch off, to obtain new carpet tiles. [0033] 实施例2 [0033] Example 2

[0034]各原料质量比采用 EPDM : LDPE : APP : CaCO3 = 20% : 40% : 20% : 20%的比例,步骤如下: [0034] The mass ratio of the respective raw materials using EPDM: LDPE: APP: CaCO3 = 20%: 20% ratio, as follows: 40%: 20%:

[0035] (I)混炼:将双辊筒炼塑机上的辊筒温度保持在室温,在辊筒间分别加入20wt %的三元こ丙橡胶EPDM、40wt%的高压低密度聚こ烯LDPE、20wt%的无规立构聚丙烯APP、20wt %的CaCO3,混炼30分钟,使各组分混炼均匀,混炼结束后将混料从辊筒上剥离下来,然后剪碎制成混炼碎料; [0035] (I) mixing: the two roll mill roll temperature kept at room temperature in the presses, between the rolls was added 20wt% propylene rubber EPDM ternary ko respectively, 40wt% of high pressure low density polyethylene LDPE ko-ene , 20wt% atactic polypropylene APP, 20wt% of CaCO3, and kneaded for 30 minutes to uniformly kneading the components, after the end of the mixing-kneading peeled from the roll, and then cut into pieces made of mix refining scrap;

[0036] (2)熔融:将上述混炼碎料均匀地铺在表面皿中,在225°C条件下加热4分钟,使混炼碎料充分熔融; [0036] (2) Melt: uniformly kneading the above-described scrap ground floor, heated for 4 minutes at 225 ° C in the surface condition of the dish, so that sufficiently melt kneaded scrap;

[0037] (3)成形:将熔融的混炼碎料均匀地涂在地毯背侧,将地毯置于模子中,模子上下都用钢板夹住,且在钢板和模子之间用铺放一层聚四氟こ烯薄膜,防止弄脏地毯及背衬;将钢板移入平板硫化机,在4MPa的压力、常温下加压2分钟;取下钢板,脱摸,制得附有绿色环保背衬材料的方块地毯。 [0037] (3) Molding: The melt-kneaded uniformly coated scrap carpet back side, the carpet is placed in a mold, the mold was sandwiched between steel plates up and down, and between the steel sheet and the mold by depositing a layer of ko alkenyl PTFE film to prevent soiling and the carpet backing; steel into the vulcanizing machine, at a pressure of 4MPa and pressurized at ordinary temperature for 2 minutes; remove steel, touch off, to obtain green backing material with carpet tile.

[0038] 实施例3 [0038] Example 3

[0039]各原料质量比采用 EPDM : LDPE : APP : CaCO3 = 22% : 34% : 22% : 22%的比例,步骤如下: [0039] The mass ratio of the respective raw materials using EPDM: LDPE: APP: CaCO3 = 22%: 22% ratio, as follows: 34%: 22%:

[0040] (I)混炼:将双辊筒炼塑机上的辊筒温度保持在室温,在辊筒间分别加入22wt %的三元こ丙橡胶EPDM、34wt%的高压低密度聚こ烯LDPE、22wt%的无规立构聚丙烯APP、22wt %的CaCO3,混炼40分钟,使各组分混炼均匀,混炼结束后将混料从辊筒上剥离下来,然后剪碎制成混炼碎料; [0040] (I) mixing: the two roll mill roll temperature kept at room temperature in the presses, between the rolls was added 22wt% propylene rubber EPDM ternary ko respectively, 34wt% of high pressure low density polyethylene LDPE ko-ene , 22wt% atactic polypropylene APP, 22wt% of CaCO3, and kneaded for 40 minutes to uniformly kneading the components, after the end of the mixing-kneading peeled from the roll, and then cut into pieces made of mix refining scrap;

[0041] (2)熔融:将上述混炼碎料均匀地铺在表面皿中,在230°C条件下加热5分钟,使混炼碎料充分熔融; [0041] (2) Melt: uniformly kneading the above-described scrap ground floor, heated for 5 minutes at 230 ° C dish surface condition, so that sufficiently melt kneaded scrap;

[0042] (3)成形:将熔融的混炼碎料均匀地涂在地毯背侧,将地毯置于模子中,模子上下都用钢板夹住,且在钢板和模子之间用铺放一层聚四氟こ烯薄膜,防止弄脏地毯及背衬;将钢板移入平板硫化机,在5MPa的压力、常温下加压3分钟;取下钢板,脱摸,制得附有绿色环保背衬材料的方块地毯。 [0042] (3) Molding: The melt-kneaded uniformly coated scrap carpet back side, the carpet is placed in a mold, the mold was sandwiched between steel plates up and down, and between the steel sheet and the mold by depositing a layer of ko alkenyl PTFE film to prevent soiling and the carpet backing; steel into the vulcanizing press at a pressure of 5MPa pressurized at room temperature for three minutes; remove steel, touch off, to obtain green backing material with carpet tile.

[0043] 实施例I〜实施例3制得的绿色环保地毯背衬复合材料的簇绒拔出力见表一,背衬剥离强カ见表2。 Tufting the backing composite material prepared in Example 3 green carpet [0043] Example embodiments I~ a table extraction force, the peel strength of the backing in Table 2 grades.

[0044] 表一簇绒拔出力(N) [0044] Table tufting pull force (N)

[0045] [0045]

实施例I I_ 28. O Example I I_ 28. O

实施例2 21. O Example 2 21. O

Figure CN101942131BD00061

[0046] 表ニ背衬剥离强カ(N) [0046] The peel strength of the backing sheet ka ni (N)

[0047] [0047]

Figure CN101942131BD00062

[0048] 从表一可知,所制备的绿色环保背衬材料的地毯簇绒拔出力要高于国家标准。 [0048] apparent from Table I, green prepared tufting the backing material extraction force than the national standard. 从表ニ也可知,所制备的绿色环保背衬材料的地毯背衬剥离カ强力也要高于国家标准。 Ni is also apparent from the table, the prepared green carpet backing material peel off the backing should be above the national standard strength grades. 故从表一、表ニ可知所制备的绿色环保背衬材料的地毯达到和超过了国家标准的要求。 Therefore, from a table, the table can be seen ni prepared green carpet backing material reaches and exceeds the requirements of the national standard.

Claims (5)

  1. 1. ー种绿色环保方块地毯背衬材料,其组分包括:14〜22wt%的三元こ丙橡胶EPDM、34〜58wt%的高压低密度聚こ烯LDPE、14〜22wt%的无规立构聚丙烯APP作为基体材料,14〜22wt%的CaCO3作为填充剂。 1. ー species green carpet tile backing material, which composition comprises: 14~22wt% ternary ko propylene rubber EPDM, 34~58wt% of high pressure low density polyethylene ko alkenyl LDPE, 14~22wt% of atactic APP stereoregular polypropylene as the base material, 14~22wt% of CaCO3 as a filler.
  2. 2. —种绿色环保方块地毯背衬材料的制备方法,包括: (1)混炼:将双辊筒炼塑机上的辊筒温度保持在室温,在辊筒间分别加入14〜22wt%的三元こ丙橡胶EPDM、34〜58wt%的高压低密度聚こ烯LDPE、14〜22wt%的无规立构聚丙烯APP、14〜22wt%的CaCO3,混炼20〜40分钟,使各组分混炼均匀,混炼结束后将混料从辊筒上剥离下来,然后剪碎制成混炼碎料; (2)熔融:将上述混炼碎料均匀地铺在表面皿中,在220〜230°C条件下加热3〜5分钟,使混炼碎料充分熔融; (3)成形:将熔融的混炼碎料均匀地涂在地毯背侧,将地毯置于模子中,模子上下都用钢板夹住,且在钢板和模子之间用ー层粘膜防止弄脏地毯及背衬;将钢板移入平板硫化机, 在3〜5MPa的压カ下加压I〜3分钟;取下钢板,脱摸,制得附有绿色环保背衬材料的方块地毪。 2. - preparation methods green carpet tile backing material, comprising: (1) kneading: double roll mill roll temperature kept at room temperature in the presses, between the rollers of three were added 14~22wt% element ko propylene rubber EPDM, 34~58wt% of high pressure low density polyethylene ko alkenyl LDPE, 14~22wt% atactic polypropylene APP, 14~22wt% of CaCO3, 20~40 minutes kneading, the respective components mixing uniformly, after the end of the mixing-kneading peeled off from the roll down, then shredded scrap be kneaded; (2) melting: kneading the above-described scrap spread evenly over the surface of the dish, at 220~230 3 to 5 ° C under heating conditions minutes to be sufficiently melt kneaded scrap; (3) molding: the melt-kneaded uniformly coated scrap carpet back side, the carpet is placed in a mold, the mold upper and lower steel plates are used clamped, and preventing ー mucosal layer between the steel sheet and the mold soiling and the carpet backing; steel into the vulcanizing press, pressed at a pressure of ka 3~5MPa I~3 min; remove steel, touch off to prepare the backing material with green squares to Mu.
  3. 3.根据权利要求2所述的ー种绿色环保方块地毯背衬材料的制备方法,其特征在于:所述步骤(I)中的EPDM : LDPE : APP : CaCO3 质量百分比为14% : 58% : 14% : 14%。 3. Preparation ー species green carpet tile method of claim 2 backing material according to claim, wherein: said step (I) in the EPDM: LDPE: APP: CaCO3 mass percentage of 14%: 58%: 14%: 14%.
  4. 4.根据权利要求2所述的ー种绿色环保方块地毯背衬材料的制备方法,其特征在于:所述步骤⑴中的EPDM : LDPE : APP : CaCO3质量百分比为20% : 40% : 20% : 20%。 The method for preparing seed ー green carpet tile backing material according to claim 2, characterized in that: in said step ⑴ EPDM: LDPE: APP: CaCO3 mass percentage of 20%: 40%: 20% : 20%.
  5. 5.根据权利要求2所述的ー种绿色环保方块地毯背衬材料的制备方法,其特征在于:所述步骤⑴中的EPDM : LDPE : APP : CaCO3质量百分比为22% : 34% : 22% : 22%。 The method for preparing seed ー green carpet tile backing material according to claim 2, characterized in that: in said step ⑴ EPDM: LDPE: APP: CaCO3 mass percentage of 22%: 34%: 22% : twenty two%.
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CN104497387A (en) * 2014-11-24 2015-04-08 浙江鸿盛原汽车用品有限公司 Novel elastomer car foot mat and manufacturing technology thereof
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