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CN101843500B - Method for judging accuracy of positioning result given by image guidance system - Google Patents

Method for judging accuracy of positioning result given by image guidance system Download PDF

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CN101843500B
CN101843500B CN 201010141261 CN201010141261A CN101843500B CN 101843500 B CN101843500 B CN 101843500B CN 201010141261 CN201010141261 CN 201010141261 CN 201010141261 A CN201010141261 A CN 201010141261A CN 101843500 B CN101843500 B CN 101843500B
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positioning
result
image
judging
guidance
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CN 201010141261
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CN101843500A (en )
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母治平
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重庆伟渡医疗设备股份有限公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for judging the accuracy of a positioning result given by an image guidance system. The positioning result is a patient position deviation calculated by the image guidance system according to a real-time image and a reference image. The method comprises the following steps: regenerating a reference image according to the positioning result; and comparing the new regenerated reference image with the real-time image given by the image guidance system to see whether the two images coincide with each other, if so, judging that the positioning result is accurate, else, judging that the positioning result is not accurate. The invention can accurately and reliably judge whether the positioning result is accurate in despite of the deviation magnitude of the positioning result. However, the prior art can only make a judgment on the positioning result with small deviation, but is not available for the positioning result with great deviation.

Description

图像引导系统给出的定位结果是否准确的判断方法 Positioning result image guidance system to accurately determine whether a given method

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及一种判断图像引导系统给出的定位结果是否准确的方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to a method for determining the location result image guidance system whether a given exact. 这里的定位结果是图像引导系统根据实时图与参照图像计算出的病人位置偏差。 Positioning result here is an image guidance system in real-time is calculated with reference to FIG positional deviation image of the patient. 本方法可用于临床治疗时,基于实时采集的X射线图像和治疗计划图像(如参照数字重建放射图或生成治疗计划的三维解剖图像)来引导病人和治疗器械相对调整以达到最佳的治疗体位。 When the present method may be used in the treatment, X-ray image acquisition and treatment planning images in real time (e.g., reference numerals reconstructed three-dimensional anatomical image or FIG radiation treatment plan generated) based on the treatment instrument to guide patients and adjusted relative position to achieve optimum therapeutic .

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] X射线图像引导技术目前已广泛应用于多种医疗手段中,包括放疗、放射手术和心血管疾病的介入式治疗等,这些医疗手段通常需要将病人摆放到一个特定的位置。 [0002] X-ray image guidance technology has been widely used in a variety of medical procedures, including interventional radiotherapy, radiosurgery, and cardiovascular diseases, these medical instruments typically require the patient to be placed in a specific location. X射线图像引导就是在临床上提供精确的病人定位信息的一种新手段。 X-ray image of the guide is to provide a novel means for accurate positioning information of the patient in the clinic. 在对病人进行治疗前,一般会采集病人需治疗的病灶或目标区附近的三维解剖图像,如CT影像等,并据此制定治疗计划(包括确定治疗时的定位中心和预先生成的参照数字重建放射图)。 Before the treatment the patient, the patient to be treated will generally collect three-dimensional anatomical image of the lesion or near the target area, such as CT images and the like, and accordingly the development of treatment plans (including the center positioning when determining the reference treatment, and a pre-generated digital reconstructed radiation diagram). 在治疗开始前或治疗中,治疗人员操纵X射线成像系统采集病人当前的实时X射线图;图像引导软件通过计算机算法比较实时X射线图和前述参照数字重建放射图(或生成治疗计划的三维解剖图像), 确定定位结果。 Before starting or during treatment, the treatment manipulates the X-ray imaging system acquires patient's current real-time X-ray pattern; an image-guided software compares real-time X-ray pattern and the reference numerals reconstructed radiation map by computer algorithm (or generating a treatment plan in three-dimensional anatomical images), a positioning result is determined.

[0003] 应用X射线图像引导的医疗手段往往对病人位置的定位精度有较高的要求,因而定位结果的准确度对治疗的结果和质量有很大影响,特别是对某些可以根据定位结果调整治疗的位置/角度的设备影响更大。 [0003] Application of X-ray image guided medical procedures tend to have a higher requirement for positioning accuracy of the position of the patient, and thus the positioning accuracy of the results and have a significant impact on the quality of the results of treatment, particularly for some may be positioned according to the results position adjusting treatment / angle greater impact device.

[0004] 定位结果是图像引导系统根据实时图与参照图像计算出的位置偏差,定位结果可以包含多达三个方向上的平移和多达三个轴向上的转动,代表当前病人位置和理论上完全摆放到位的病人位置之间的偏差或所需做的位置调整。 [0004] The image guidance system is the positioning result calculated based on real-time image and the reference image position deviation, the positioning result may contain up to three translational directions and the rotation up to three axes, and representing the current position of the patient Theory placed entirely on the deviation between the position of the patient in place or need to do to adjust the position. 医生可以根据这一结果调整病人位置。 Doctors can adjust the position of the patient based on the results. 有些设备甚至可以根据定位结果偏转加速器以调整射线的照射方向。 Some devices may even deflect the accelerator to adjust a positioning result according to the irradiation direction of the radiation.

[0005] 参照图像通常为数字重建放射图。 [0005] Referring to FIG radiation image is usually a digital reconstruction. 数字重建放射图(以下简称DRRJP digitally reconstructed radiograph)是模拟X射线穿透人体的成像过程和方位,根据病人的三维解剖图像(主要是CT影像),用计算机重建的数字化的放射图。 FIG digitally reconstructed radiation (hereinafter referred DRRJP digitally reconstructed radiograph) is an analog X-ray transmission imaging process and the orientation of the body, (mainly CT images), computer reconstruction of the digitized three-dimensional view of the radiation image of the patient's anatomy. 用作参照的DRR通常是假定病人处于某些特定位置(如完全摆放到位)来生成的。 DRR is generally assumed as a reference in certain patient position (e.g., fully put in place) to generated. 这些特定位置通常并不同于当前的定位结果所对应的病人位置。 These specific locations are usually different from the position of the patient and the current corresponding to the positioning result. 这就带来了实际应用中的一个困难-如何确认图像引导系统给出的定位结果的准确度,尤其是在定位结果和这些特定位置偏差较大的情况下。 This poses a problem in practical application - How to confirm the accuracy of the positioning result of the image guided system is given, especially in the case where the deviation is large and the location result of these specific locations.

[0006] 图像引导系统软件的用户界面通常会提供一些用于进行手工图像位置对比的工具,如由鼠标控制的代表两幅图像中同一位置(像素)的十字形标记等。 [0006] Image guidance system software user interfaces often provide some tools for manual comparison of the position of the image, representative of the two images as controlled by the mouse in the same position (pixel) of the cross-shaped marking. 用户可以使用这些工具比较实时X射线图和相应的参照数字重建放射图中的各解剖地标位置是否吻合。 Users can use these tools to compare real-time X-ray pattern of each anatomical landmarks and the position of the corresponding reference numerals in FIG reconstructed radiation is consistent. 当定位结果和这些特定位置偏差很小时,实时X射线图和相应的参照数字重建放射图中的各解剖地标位置会吻合地很好。 When these particular location result and the positional deviation is small, the position of each of the anatomical landmarks and real-time X-ray pattern corresponding reference numerals in FIG reconstitution of radiation will be fit well. 但是在定位结果和这些特定位置偏差较大的情况下,实时X 射线图和相应的参照数字重建放射图中的各解剖地标位置也会有较大偏差,所以用户很难确认定位结果的准确度。 However, these variations in a particular location and the location result is large, the position of each of the anatomical landmarks and real-time X-ray pattern corresponding reference numerals in FIG reconstructed radiation will have a large deviation, it is difficult for the user to confirm the accuracy of the positioning result .

[0007] 图1和图2描述了利用一种这样的比位工具比较图像位置的情形。 [0007] Figures 1 and 2 describes the case of using one such tool bit than the comparison image position. 图1和图2中的左图可以代表根据完全摆放到位情形生成的DRR,右图代表实时X射线图。 FIG 1 and FIG 2 may be representative of the left fully put in place according to the situation generated DRR, representative of real-time X-ray on the right in FIG. 图1两图中十字标记所在位置的解剖地标位置吻合,表明两图位置吻合较好;图2两图中十字标记所在位置的解剖地标位置不吻合,表明两图位置有较大差距。 FIG 1 two anatomical landmark position where the cross mark, which have showed good agreement with the position of FIG two; anatomical landmark position where the cross mark in FIG. 2 FIG two do not match, two showed a wide gap position in FIG. 当定位结果和这些特定位置偏差较大,比位情况将类似于图2,这时用户很难判定定位结果是否准确,因为用户很难知道这时两图中十字标记所在位置的解剖地标位置应该有多少偏差。 When the positioning result and the positional deviation of these particular greater than the case where the bit similar to Figure 2, then the user is difficult to determine the results of positioning accuracy, because the user is difficult to know anatomical landmark positions where the cross mark in FIG time should be two how much deviation.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0008] 针对现有技术存在的上述不足,本发明的目的是提供一种图像引导系统给出的定位结果是否准确的判断方法,本方法特别适合定位结果偏差较大时的情形。 [0008] In view of the above disadvantages of the prior art, an object of the present invention is to provide a positioning result whether the image guidance system gives accurate determination method, the method is particularly suitable for the positioning result when a large deviation of the case. 当然,本方法同样能对定位结果偏差较小时定位结果是否准确给出准确的判断,虽然现有技术已能够做到。 Of course, this method also can be small if the deviation of the positioning result gives accurate positioning and accurate determination, although the prior art has been able to do.

[0009] 本发明的技术方案是这样实现的:图像引导系统给出的定位结果是否准确的判断方法,所述定位结果是图像引导系统根据实时图与参照图像计算出的病人位置偏差;本方法判断步骤为: [0009] aspect of the present invention is implemented as follows: the positioning result image guidance system to accurately determine whether a given method, the image guidance system is a positioning result calculated based on real-time image and the reference image position deviation of the patient; the method determining step:

[0010] (1)根据所述定位结果重新生成参照图像; [0010] (1) re-generates a reference image according to the positioning result;

[0011] (2)基于重新生成的参照图像与图像引导系统给出的上述实时图进行比较,看两图是否吻合,如果两图吻合,则所述定位结果是准确的,否则所述定位结果不准确。 [0011] (2) based on the real-time image of the reference image and the regenerated image guidance system gives comparison, see FIG two is consistent, if the two FIG match, then the results are accurate positioning, the positioning result or Inaccurate.

[0012] 所述图像引导系统为X射线图像引导系统,所述实时图为X射线实时图。 [0012] The image guidance system is X-ray image guidance system, said real-time X-ray real time graph of FIG.

[0013] 所述参照图像为数字重建放射图,数字重建放射图是模拟X射线穿透人体的成像过程和方位,根据病人的三维解剖图像用计算机重建的数字化的放射图。 [0013] The reference image is a digitally reconstructed FIG radiation, FIG digitally reconstructed radiation is X-ray transmission imaging process simulation and orientation of the human body, the three-dimensional image of the patient anatomy with a computer reconstruction of the digitized radiation FIG. 这里的三维解剖图像可以是CT影像图、磁共振成像图、正电子发射断层扫描图或3D旋转血管造影图。 Three-dimensional anatomical images may be CT images here view FIG magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography or FIG. 3D rotational angiography FIG.

[0014] 如果图像引导系统给出的定位结果偏差(本发明所述的定位结果偏差指的是定位结果所代表的位置的偏差)小,按现有方法即可判断定位结果是否准确。 [0014] If the positioning deviation results given image guidance system (positioning result according to the present invention, variation in the positional deviation is represented by a positioning result) is small, according to the conventional method of determining the accuracy of a positioning result. 但是在图像引导系统给出的定位结果偏差较大情况下,现有技术是不能判断定位结果是否准确的,而本发明则能够准确、可靠地判断定位结果是否准确,这正是本发明的独特之处。 However, the image guidance system in the positioning result is given where the deviation is large, the prior art can not accurately determines whether the positioning result, the present invention is capable of accurately and reliably determines whether the result of positioning accuracy, which is unique to the present invention. place. 基于这样的判断,医生就可以决定是否根据该定位结果来调整病人位置或设备位置。 Based on this determination, the doctor can decide whether to adjust the position of the patient or device location based on the positioning result. 如定位结果准确,就可以根据定位结果来调整病人或设备位置,以达到最佳的治疗效果;反之,则不能据此进行调整。 The accurate positioning result, the positioning can be adjusted according to the result of the patient or the position of the device, in order to achieve the best therapeutic effect; on the contrary, can not be adjusted accordingly.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0015] 图1-两图位置吻合较好的情况; [0015] Figure 1 - FIG position two cases good agreement;

[0016] 图2-两图位置有较大差别的情况; [0016] Figure 2 - is quite different in the case of two FIG position;

[0017] 图3-在图2的定位结果准确的情况下,重新生成的参照图像与实时图的比较结果应该出现的情形。 [0017] Figure 3 - in the case of accurate positioning results of FIG. 2, the comparison result of the reference image and the real-time image should appear regenerated.

[0018] 图中的十字形标记代表两幅图像中的同一位置(像素)。 [0018] FIG cross numerals in the same position (pixel) in the two images. 具体实施方式 detailed description

[0019] 现有技术中,如果图像引导系统给出的定位结果偏差小,这种情况定位结果是否准确比较好判断,按现有方法即可判别。 [0019] In the prior art, if the positioning result image guidance system gives small deviations, whether the situation is better positioning and accurate determination, it can be determined by conventional methods. 关键在图像引导系统给出的定位结果偏差较大情况下,现有技术则不能判断定位结果是否准确的,更不要说基于定位结果进行调整了。 The key image guidance system location result larger deviation is given case, the prior art can not determine the positioning accuracy of the results, let alone be adjusted based on the positioning result. 如果基于错误的定位结果进行治疗调整,有可能使病人实际位置与完全摆放到位的位置之间的偏差越调越大。 If the treatment is adjusted based on the error location result, it is possible to make the deviation between the actual position and the position of the patient is fully put in place the greater the more stressed. 如果设备根据错误的定位结果调整治疗的方位,则可能错过病灶而对健康组织造成伤害,后果更为严重。 If the device to adjust the orientation of the treatment according to the error location result, you may miss lesions and damage to healthy tissue, more serious consequences.

[0020] 本发明的目的正是基于此,而提出一种图像引导系统给出的定位结果偏差较大情况下该定位结果是否准确的判断方法,当然,本方法同样能对定位结果偏差较小时定位结果是否准确给出准确的判断。 [0020] The object of the present invention is based on this, a positioning result proposed an image guidance system given the case where the deviation is large positioning accuracy of the determination result of the method, of course, the present method also can be small when the deviation of the positioning result whether accurate positioning give an accurate determination. 这里的定位结果是图像引导系统根据实时图与参照图像计算出的病人位置偏差。 Positioning result here is an image guidance system in real-time is calculated with reference to FIG positional deviation image of the patient. 本方法判断步骤为: The present method of determining the steps of:

[0021] (1)根据所述定位结果重新生成参照图像,如数字重建放射图;现有技术已经能够完成该步骤。 [0021] (1) the location result according to regenerate the reference image, such as digital reconstructed FIG radiation; prior art has been able to complete this step.

[0022] (2)基于重新生成的参照图像与图像引导系统给出的上述实时图进行比较,即比较两图是否吻合,如果两图吻合,则所述定位结果是准确的,否则所述定位结果不准确。 [0022] (2) based on the real-time image of the reference image and the regenerated image guidance system given comparison, i.e. the comparison is consistent both figures, FIG if two match, then the results are accurate positioning, or the positioning inaccurate results. 即如果第1)步所述定位结果准确度很高,根据该定位结果生成的DRR中各解剖地标位置应与产生当前定位结果的实时X射线图能够很好的吻合,否则不能很好的吻合。 I.e., if 1) a high step accuracy of the positioning result, to be in good agreement with the real-time X-ray pattern to produce this positioning result according to the positioning result generated DRR each anatomical landmark location, or can not fit well .

[0023] 如果根据图2的定位结果重新生成参照图像,在定位结果准确的情况下,重新生成的参照图像与实时图的比较结果应该如图3所示。 [0023] If the re-generated image based on a positioning result with reference to FIG. 2, in the case of accurate positioning result, regenerated reference image and the comparative results of real-time image should be as shown in FIG. 图3中的左图代表重新生成的参照图像,右图代表实时图。 Representative of the left in Figure 3 to regenerate the reference image, in real time representative of the right of FIG.

[0024] 关于两图是否吻合的判断,现有技术已能够实现(如使用前述手工比位工具或用计算机算法实现),在此不赘述。 [0024] FIG determination on whether the two coincide, the prior art has been able to implement (e.g., by hand or using the computer implemented algorithm than the tool bit), which is not repeated herein.

[0025] 所述图像引导系统为X射线图像引导系统,所述实时图为X射线实时图。 The [0025] image guidance system is an X-ray image guidance system, said real-time X-ray real time graph of FIG. 本发明可应用于各种能量的X射线图像引导,包括兆伏(MV)和千伏(KV)X射线,而X射线图像引导系统可以包括一套或多套X射线图像仪。 The present invention is applicable to various energy X-ray image guide, including megavolt (MV) and a kilovolt (KV) X-rays, while the X-ray image guidance system may include one or more sets of X-ray imager.

[0026] 本发明的参照图像在实际医疗中主要指数字重建放射图,数字重建放射图是模拟X射线穿透人体的成像过程和方位,根据病人的三维解剖图像用计算机重建的数字化的放射图。 [0026] reference image according to the present invention mainly refers to the actual medical digital reconstructed radiation diagram digitally reconstructed radiation FIG analog X-ray transmission imaging process and the orientation of the human body, the three-dimensional anatomical images of a patient radially view of a digital computer reconstructed . 所述三维解剖图像为CT影像图、磁共振成像图、正电子发射断层扫描图或3D旋转血管造影图。 The three-dimensional anatomical image of FIG CT images, magnetic resonance imaging FIG, positron emission tomography or FIG. 3D rotational angiography FIG. 生成的数字重建放射图可以包括软组织,骨骼组织,植入体内的物体(器械)的信息,可以排除或包括体外各种位于X射线成像系统视野内的物体的信息。 Radiation generated digital reconstructed map may include soft tissue, bone tissue, the implant object information (device) in vivo, in vitro may exclude or include various information of the object located within the field of view of the X-ray imaging system. 按定位结果重新生成的数字重建放射图可以做近似,近似程度可以由X射线成像系统视野内各空间点在数字重建放射图上的位置偏差决定。 Positioning result by the regenerated digital radiology FIG reconstructed approximation can be done, the degree of approximation may be made of the spaces within the X-ray imaging system on the field of view-point reconstruction of positional deviation in the digital radiology decision FIG.

[0027] 为了更好地理解本发明,在此举一个例子加以说明:假设有一个任务是要加工一个与标准砝码(如^ig) —样重的新砝码;新砝码做好后会放在秤上称重;同时有一台天平,可以比较砝码重量是否(大致)相等,用以确认称重结果是否准确。 After the new weight check; like new heavy weights - assuming there is a task to be processed with a standard weight (e.g., ^ ig): [0027] For a better understanding of the present invention, an example will be described in move will be weighed on the scale; while a balance weight may be compared whether the weight (substantially) equal, to confirm the accuracy of the weighing results. 如果新砝码称出的重量是^(g,可将新砝码和5Kg的标准砝码放在天平两端比较。如果平衡,说明新砝码重量是^^,称出的重量准确;否则称出的重量不准确。但如果新砝码称出的重量是6Kg,则称出来的6Kg结果是否准确,在上述(装备)条件下还不能确定,因为6Kg或7Kg的新砝码和5Kg的标准砝码比较都会导致天平不平衡,即无法确认称出来的6Kg结果是否准确。于是一个解决方案是:按称出的重量(6Kg)重新做一个标准砝码与该新砝码在天平上进行比较, 如果天平平衡,则6Kg重的称重结果是准确的,可信的,否则不准确。本发明中,图像引导系统相当于秤,参照图像即相当于标准砝码,实时图相当于新砝码,定位结果即相当于秤称出来的结果(可以认为是6Kg,也可以认为是两者的偏差IKg),比较两图是否吻合即相当于天平两端的砝码是否平衡,根据定位结果 If the new weight of the weight of weighed out ^ (g, may be new weights and standard weights on both ends of 5Kg scale comparison, if the balance weight is explained ^^ new weight, the weight accurately weighed out; otherwise He said the weight is not accurate. but if the new weight is weighed out weight 6Kg, called out 6Kg results are accurate, can not be determined in the above (equipment) conditions, because of the new weight 6Kg or 7Kg and 5Kg of comparison of the standard weight will cause the balance to imbalance that can not be confirmed, said out of 6Kg results are accurate then a solution: Weigh out by weight (6Kg) to re-do a new standard weight with the weight on the scale comparison, if the balance is the balance, the weighing result is accurate weight 6Kg, credible, accurate or not. in the present invention, the scale corresponding to the image guidance system, i.e., the reference image corresponding to the standard weight, the new real-time corresponding to FIG. weight, i.e., the location result corresponding to the result out balance (6Kg may be considered, can be considered both a deviation IKG), i.e., compare the two is consistent FIG equivalent weight is balanced across scales, according to the positioning result 新生成参照图像相当于根据6Kg的称重结果做一个6Kg重的标准砝码。 Generating a new reference image is equivalent to doing a standard weight 6Kg weight of 6Kg according weighing results.

[0028] 本发明能够准确、可靠地判断定位结果是否准确,基于这样的判断,医生就可以决定是否根据该定位结果来调整病人位置或设备位置。 [0028] The present invention is capable of accurately and reliably judge the accuracy of the positioning result, based on this determination, the doctor can decide whether to adjust the position of the patient or device location based on the positioning result. 如定位结果准确,就可以根据定位结果来调整病人或设备位置,以达到最佳的治疗效果;反之,则不能据此进行调整。 The accurate positioning result, the positioning can be adjusted according to the result of the patient or the position of the device, in order to achieve the best therapeutic effect; on the contrary, can not be adjusted accordingly.

[0029] 本方法可用于各种使用X射线成像系统引导定位的医疗手段中,如肿瘤等需要放射疗法的疾病治疗过程,当然也不局限于疾病治疗,只要采用了本发明判断方法的原理,其它领域的使用都应当认为是在本发明的保护范围内。 [0029] The present method can be used to guide the positioning of the various X-ray imaging system in medical treatment, such as tumors require radiation therapy treatment of disease, of course, not limited to the treatment of diseases, as long as the determination method uses the principle of the present invention, other fields are to be considered within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (2)

  1. 1.图像引导系统给出的定位结果是否准确的判断方法,所述定位结果是图像引导系统根据实时图与参照图像计算出的病人位置偏差,所述图像引导系统为X射线图像引导系统,所述实时图为X射线实时图;其特征在于:本方法判断步骤为:(1)根据所述定位结果重新生成参照图像;所述参照图像为数字重建放射图,数字重建放射图是模拟X射线穿透人体的成像过程和方位,根据病人的三维解剖图像用计算机重建的数字化的放射图;(2)基于重新生成的参照图像与图像引导系统给出的上述实时图进行比较,比较两图是否吻合,即重新生成的参照图像与上述实时图中的解剖地标位置是否吻合,如果两图吻合,则所述定位结果是准确的,否则所述定位结果不准确。 1. positioning result image guidance system to accurately determine whether a given method, the image guidance system is a positioning result calculated based on real-time image and the reference image position deviation of the patient, the image guidance system is an X-ray image guidance system, the He said real-time X-ray picture shows the real-time image; characterized in that: the present method of determining the steps of: (1) re-generates a reference image according to the positioning result; the reference image is a digitally reconstructed FIG radiation, digitally reconstructed analog X-ray radiation FIG. penetrating imaging process and the orientation of the body, the three-dimensional image of the patient anatomy with a computer reconstruction of the digitized FIG radiation; (2) based on the real-time image is compared with reference image and the regenerated image guidance system analysis, comparing two graphs of anastomosis, i.e., regenerate the reference image and the real-time image of the anatomical landmark positions is consistent, if the two FIG match, then the results are accurate positioning, the positioning result or inaccurate.
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的图像引导系统给出的定位结果是否准确的判断方法,其特征在于:所述三维解剖图像为CT影像图、磁共振成像图、正电子发射断层扫描图或3D旋转血管造影图。 The positioning result 1 to the image guidance system to accurately determine whether a given method of claim, wherein: the three-dimensional anatomical image of FIG CT images, magnetic resonance imaging FIG, positron emission tomography 3D or FIG. FIG rotational angiography.
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US6125164A (en) 1996-07-11 2000-09-26 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University High-speed inter-modality image registration via iterative feature matching
EP1260179A1 (en) 2001-05-22 2002-11-27 BrainLAB AG X-ray image registration device with a medical navigation system

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US7831295B2 (en) * 2003-06-05 2010-11-09 Aesculap Ag & Co. Kg Localization device cross check
US7204640B2 (en) * 2003-08-29 2007-04-17 Accuray, Inc. Apparatus and method for registering 2D radiographic images with images reconstructed from 3D scan data

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US6125164A (en) 1996-07-11 2000-09-26 The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University High-speed inter-modality image registration via iterative feature matching
EP1260179A1 (en) 2001-05-22 2002-11-27 BrainLAB AG X-ray image registration device with a medical navigation system

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