CN101746938A - 人居小区粪便、厨余收集、处理与冷、热、电能联供方法 - Google Patents

人居小区粪便、厨余收集、处理与冷、热、电能联供方法 Download PDF

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CN101746938A
CN101746938A CN200910226614A CN200910226614A CN101746938A CN 101746938 A CN101746938 A CN 101746938A CN 200910226614 A CN200910226614 A CN 200910226614A CN 200910226614 A CN200910226614 A CN 200910226614A CN 101746938 A CN101746938 A CN 101746938A
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residential community
biogas
cold
methane
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胡署根
张力
张吉栋
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湖南省电力勘测设计院
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    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/50Improvements relating to the production of bulk chemicals
    • Y02P20/59Biological synthesis; Biological purification

Abstract

一种人居小区粪便、厨余收集、处理与冷、热、电能联供方法,是将人居小区的粪便和厨余等有机垃圾引入沼气池,产生的沼气经脱硫净化、除水和升压后送入微型燃气轮发电机组发电,并入电网对小区供电;微型燃气轮机组发电过程排出的烟气则引入烟气型溴化锂冷/热机组,就地对该人居小区供热/供冷,本发明系统的优点是既节约了市政建设投资,又减少了环境污染,同时又增加了新的能源及扩大了这种新能源综合利用渠道。

Description

人居小区粪便、厨余收集、处理与冷、热、电能联供方法

[0001] 技术领域:本发明涉及一种人居小区生活垃圾、粪便处理及能源利用方法,特别是高密度人居小区分布式再生能源综合利用方法。

[0002] 背景技术:随着我国国民经济的高速发展,我国城市化的进程的推进加快,高密度的人居小区越来越多,各种高层建筑住宅如雨后春笋,这类人居小区每天排放大量的粪便和各种生活垃圾,这些粪便、垃圾不但加重了城市市政建设的投资负荷,同时也造成了巨大的环境压力;另一方面,由于经济发展促使人们生活水平不断提高,各种生活电器如空调器、热水器、电冰箱、洗衣机、风扇、电视机、电脑、音响等设备大量广泛使用,因而人居小区对能源供应的需求也不断加大,能源供应的矛盾也日益突出。据相关资料统计:我国除采暖外的住宅能耗包括照明、炊事、生活热水、家电、空调等,折合用电总量约占我国全年供电量的10%,而北方城镇采暖能耗占全国建筑总能耗的36%。可见,我国人居小区能源消耗量很大。

[0003] 发明内容:本发明的目的在于提供一种利用人居小区粪便、厨余和其它有机生活垃圾转化成能源给人居小区供电及供暖、供冷的方法,以减少城市市政建设的投资成本,减少环境污染,增加能源供应。

[0004] 本发明的系统技术方案是一种人居小区粪便、厨余收集、处理与冷、热、电能联供

方法,它是一种人居小区分布式再生能源综合利用方法,该分布式能源是以人居小区有机

废物产生的沼气为主要燃料的可再生能源,建立人居小区粪便、厨余收集、处理与冷、热、电

能联供系统,其特征在于:

[0005] (1)人居小区粪便与生活垃圾收集

[0006] a.将粪便类的生活污水与以洗涤废水为主的生活废水分开排放,粪便类污水送入预处理池;

[0007] b.含菜根残渣等有机物的厨余废水与衣服等洗涤水分开排放,厨余残渣经厨余粉碎机粉碎后用管道排放至预处理池;

[0008] c.生活垃圾按有机物与无机物区分,分开投放,分类收集,有机物垃圾送入预处理池;

[0009] d.在预处理池将粪便类污水和厨余废水及有机物类生活垃圾充分搅拌均匀后,送至沼气池;

[0010] (2)沼气池与沼气处理

[0011] a.沼气池与人居活动区域密封隔离,保温、除臭,沼气池可采取全小区集中布置,或小区内分散设置,粪便和厨余废水及有机物类生活垃圾在沼气池中经厌氧发酵产生沼气,输送至储气罐(或储气囊)中储存;

[0012] b.沼气在进入微型燃气轮机发电之前先经过干法脱硫净化处理:沼气从厌氧储气罐出来,进入水封罐去除部分液态水,进入干式脱硫罐被氧化铁及其复合物组成的脱硫剂吸附并进行化学反应,去除硫化氢,再经脱水器脱除水分后,沼气经风机增压、阻火后送至微型燃气轮机;

[0013] (3)沼气发电及冷、热联供系统

3[0014] 以净化脱水后的沼气送入微型燃气轮机燃烧,驱动微型燃气轮机旋转带动发电机发电,并网运行,对小区供电,产生的烟气带动烟气型溴化锂冷、热机组就地对人居小区进行供冷、供热;

[00巧](4)沼液、沼渣的处理

[0016] 沼液、沼渣若有外部利用需求,可输出小区外综合利用;无利用需求则将沼液直接排入城区下水道。

[0017] 本发明的优点是由于将人居小区粪便、厨余和其它有机生活垃圾经处理后产生沼气用来发电和对人居小区进行供电和供暖、供冷,既节约了城市市政建设投资,又减少了环境污染,同时又增加了新的能源和综合利用渠道。

附图说明:

[0018] 图1是人居小区粪便、厨余收集、处理与冷、热、电能联供系统示意框图。具体实施方式:

[0019] 本发明结合具体实施例进一步说明如下:

[0020] 本发明是一种人居小区粪便、厨余收集、处理与冷、热、电能联供方法,它是利用现

有人居小区粪便、厨余和其它生活垃圾转化成能源给人居小区供电及供暖、供冷的方法,应

用该方法建立一种人居小区分布式再生能源综合利用系统,该分布式能源是以人居小区有

机废物产生的沼气为主要燃料的可再生能源。利用它建立一种人居小区粪便、厨余收集、处

理与冷、热、电能联供系统

[0021] 本发明方法包含:

[0022] (1)人居小区粪便与生活垃圾收集

[0023] a.将粪便类的生活污水与洗涤类的生活废水分开排放,粪便类污水送入预处理池;

[0024] b.含菜根残渣等有机物的厨余废水与衣服等洗涤水分开排放,洗菜池沉积的菜根等有机类残渣污物经粉碎后再排放至预处理池;

[0025] c.生活垃圾按有机物与无机物区分,分开投放,分类收集,有机物垃圾送入预处理池;

[0026] d.预处理池将粪便类污水和厨余废水及有机物类生活垃圾充分搅拌均匀后,用泵

经管道输送至沼气池;

[0027] (2)沼气池与沼气处理

[0028] a.沼气池取代人居小区现有的化粪池,沼气池与外界密封隔离,保温、除臭,沼气池可采取全小区集中布置,或小区内分散设置,粪便类污水和厨余废水及有机物类生活垃圾在沼气池中经厌氧发酵产生沼气,输送至储气罐(或储气囊)中储存;[0029] b.沼气在进入微型燃气轮机发电之前先经过干法脱硫净化处理,沼气从厌氧储气罐出来,进入水封罐去除部分液态水,进入干式脱硫罐被氧化铁及其复合物组成的脱硫剂吸附并进行化学反应脱除硫化氢,此过程会再次产生部分水,再经脱水器除水分后,沼气经风机增压、阻火后送至微型燃气轮机;[0030] (3)沼气发电及冷、热联供系统[0031] 以净化脱水后的沼气送入微型燃气轮机燃烧,驱动微型燃气轮机旋转带动发电机发电,并入一次性能源发电系统小区供电网络并网运行对小区供电,产生的烟气带动烟气型溴化锂冷、热机组就地对人居小区进行供冷、供热;根据冬夏两季气温不同,调整供电供暖或供电供冷的合适比例,而在春、秋两季无需调节室内气温的季节,供热、供冷系统可停止运行安排维修,产生的沼气即时使用之余,剩下部分可进入储气罐(或储气囊)储存备用;

[0032] (4)沼液、沼渣的处理

[0033] 沼液、沼渣为高浓度有机肥,浓度高、易运输、易贮存。沼液富含多种水溶性养分,是一种速效性的优质肥料。因为沼液中的一部分养分和有机质已转变为腐殖酸类物质,所以它又是一种速效和迟效兼备的优质有机肥料。此外,沼液中存留了丰富的氨基酸、B族维生素、各种水解酶、某些植物激素和对病虫害有抑制作用的物质或因子。因此,沼液有着较为广泛的综合应用前景。目前,沼液主要用于:a.农田、果园、蔬菜地等的灌溉;b.沼液浸种;

[0034] c.农作物无土栽培。

[0035] 沼渣含有较全面的养分和丰富的有机物,除了含有丰富的N、 P、 K外,还含有对作物生长起重要作用的B、 Cu、 Fe、 Mn、 Zn等微量元素,是一种缓速兼备、有改良土壤功效的优质肥料。连年施用沼气渣肥将使土壤容重下降,孔隙率增加,土壤的理化性状得到改善,保水保肥能力增强。沼渣还可用于作物营养土。

[0036] 因此,沼肥充分利用,既可作高效有机肥,产生经济效益,又可使高密度人居小区分布式再生能源综合利用过程实现废弃物零排放,无二次污染。沼液、沼渣若有外部利用需求,可通过泵和管道输出小区外综合利用;若无利用需求则将沼液直接排入城区下水道,这是符合城市下水道排放标准的,沼渣每隔2〜3年清掏一次,此周期长于化粪池粪便清掏周期。

[0037] 利用本发明方法建立人居小区粪便、厨余收集、处理与冷、热、电能联供系统示意框图参见附图一。

Claims (1)

  1. 人居小区粪便、厨余收集、处理与冷、热、电能联供方法,其特征在于:(1)人居小区粪便与生活垃圾收集a.将粪便类的生活污水与以洗涤废水为主的生活废水分开排放,粪便类污水送入预处理池;b.含菜根残渣等有机物的厨余废水与衣服等洗涤水分开排放,厨余残渣经厨余粉碎机粉碎后用管道排放至预处理池;c.生活垃圾按有机物与无机物区分,分开投放,分类收集,有机物垃圾送入预处理池;d.在预处理池将粪便类污水和厨余废水及有机物类生活垃圾充分搅拌均匀后,送至沼气池;(2)沼气池与沼气处理a.沼气池与人居活动区域密封隔离,保温、除臭,沼气池可采取全小区集中布置,或小区内分散设置,粪便类污水和厨余废水及有机物类生活垃圾在沼气池中经厌氧发酵产生沼气,输送至储气罐(或储气囊)中储存;b.沼气在进入微型燃气轮机发电之前先经过干法脱硫净化处理:沼气从厌氧储气罐出来,进入水封罐去除部分液态水,进入干式脱硫罐被氧化铁及其复合物组成的脱硫剂吸附并进行化学反应,去除硫化氢,再经脱水器脱除水分后,沼气经风机增压、阻火后送至微型燃气轮机;(3)沼气发电及冷/热联供系统以净化脱水后的沼气送入微型燃气轮机燃烧,驱动微型燃气轮机旋转带动发电机发电,并网运行,对小区供电,产生的烟气带动烟气型溴化锂冷/热机组就地对人居小区进行供冷/供热;(4)沼液、沼渣的处理沼液、沼渣若有外部利用需求,可输出小区外综合利用;无利用需求则将沼液直接排入城区下水道。
CN200910226614A 2009-12-14 2009-12-14 人居小区粪便、厨余收集、处理与冷、热、电能联供方法 CN101746938A (zh)

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CN101972770A (zh) * 2010-09-03 2011-02-16 上海数字智能化系统工程有限公司 综合垃圾处理方法及系统
CN102068890A (zh) * 2010-12-24 2011-05-25 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所 复杂工业有机废气处理方法及装置
CN102321523A (zh) * 2011-05-16 2012-01-18 常铁榜 城市河流污水甲烷沼气再发电
CN102492613A (zh) * 2011-11-28 2012-06-13 无锡同春新能源科技有限公司 独幢建筑住宅楼处理垃圾和粪便的沼气独立发电装置
CN102492612A (zh) * 2011-11-28 2012-06-13 无锡同春新能源科技有限公司 多幢建筑住宅楼处理垃圾和粪便的联合沼气发电装置
CN102603127A (zh) * 2012-04-05 2012-07-25 崔勇 一种模块式生活垃圾和污水的源头处理装置及其处理方法
CN103088072A (zh) * 2013-01-31 2013-05-08 东莞市粤源包装有限公司 一种自动化处理家庭有机垃圾的方法
CN104649513A (zh) * 2015-01-07 2015-05-27 中国电器科学研究院有限公司 一种城镇生活污水和有机废弃物的资源化处理系统
CN108892346A (zh) * 2018-08-07 2018-11-27 凤台县正祥农业科技发展有限公司 一种养猪场猪粪便发酵产生沼气发电方法及其系统
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CN101972770A (zh) * 2010-09-03 2011-02-16 上海数字智能化系统工程有限公司 综合垃圾处理方法及系统
CN102068890A (zh) * 2010-12-24 2011-05-25 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所 复杂工业有机废气处理方法及装置
CN102068890B (zh) * 2010-12-24 2013-04-03 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所 复杂工业有机废气处理方法及装置
CN102321523A (zh) * 2011-05-16 2012-01-18 常铁榜 城市河流污水甲烷沼气再发电
CN102492613A (zh) * 2011-11-28 2012-06-13 无锡同春新能源科技有限公司 独幢建筑住宅楼处理垃圾和粪便的沼气独立发电装置
CN102492612A (zh) * 2011-11-28 2012-06-13 无锡同春新能源科技有限公司 多幢建筑住宅楼处理垃圾和粪便的联合沼气发电装置
CN102603127A (zh) * 2012-04-05 2012-07-25 崔勇 一种模块式生活垃圾和污水的源头处理装置及其处理方法
CN102603127B (zh) * 2012-04-05 2013-08-07 崔勇 一种模块式生活垃圾和污水的源头处理装置及其处理方法
CN103088072A (zh) * 2013-01-31 2013-05-08 东莞市粤源包装有限公司 一种自动化处理家庭有机垃圾的方法
CN103088072B (zh) * 2013-01-31 2014-12-03 广东源盛生态环保科技有限公司 一种自动化处理家庭有机垃圾的方法
CN104649513A (zh) * 2015-01-07 2015-05-27 中国电器科学研究院有限公司 一种城镇生活污水和有机废弃物的资源化处理系统
WO2019094535A1 (en) * 2017-11-13 2019-05-16 Morrison Zhu Goodman Realty Group Llc On-site generation of energy in a multi-unit building
CN108892346A (zh) * 2018-08-07 2018-11-27 凤台县正祥农业科技发展有限公司 一种养猪场猪粪便发酵产生沼气发电方法及其系统

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