CN101603812B - Ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device and method - Google Patents

Ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device and method Download PDF

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CN101603812B
CN101603812B CN2009100897270A CN200910089727A CN101603812B CN 101603812 B CN101603812 B CN 101603812B CN 2009100897270 A CN2009100897270 A CN 2009100897270A CN 200910089727 A CN200910089727 A CN 200910089727A CN 101603812 B CN101603812 B CN 101603812B
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coordinate
laser
luminous point
camera
image
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CN101603812A (en
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张广军
孙军华
刘震
魏振忠
刘谦哲
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Beihang University
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Beihang University
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Abstract

The invention discloses an ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device and an ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring method. The measuring device comprises a matrix camera, and one or more laser displacement sensors; and the measuring method comprises the following steps: obtaining a three-dimensional datum point and a spacial linear equation by the laser displacement sensors, the matrix camera and a planar pattern; and on the basis of the obtained datum point and spacial linear equation, according to measured displacement of a measured object, calculating coordinates of measured light spots of the measured object positioned at different positions in global coordinates so as to complete the ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional vision measurement on the measured object.

Description

A kind of ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device and method
Technical field
The present invention relates to the vision measurement technology, especially relate to a kind of ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device and method.
Background technology
Structure light vision is to have one of new and high technology of development potentiality in the precision measurement technical field, has become one of effective way of Measuring Object three-dimensional information.Structure light vision is through having the laser beam of high brightness and certain tactic pattern to the testee projection; Thereby on the measured object surface, form the distortion striation characteristic of being modulated by surface three dimension information; Then; Adopt area array camera to take modulated distortion striation characteristic, form the visual pattern that comprises testee surface three dimension information.Various characteristic informations in the visual pattern are handled, analyzed and calculate, just can realize measurement testee three-dimensional geometry size, shape and position.Structure light vision is measured with its noncontact, automaticity height, rapid speed, advantage such as precision is higher, flexibility is good, has application widely, particularly has remarkable advantages in geometric sense on-line dynamic measurement field.
Because existing structure light vision technique adopts area array camera to obtain optical strip image; Therefore; Can subject image data the restriction of the big and optical strip image processing speed of amount; The turnover rate of existing structure light vision data can not satisfy high dynamic 3 D Testing requirement, and for example: when needs realized that engine luggine, rotor the superelevation speed real-time measurement such as beated, existing structure light vision technique often can't be competent at.
In the prior art, laser displacement sensor can be realized the displacement measurement that hypervelocity is real-time.Specifically, laser displacement sensor generally is made up of line array video camera and some projecting laser device, adopts laser triangulation to obtain the displacement of testee point on the laser beam.Because laser displacement sensor adopts line array video camera, it is very high that frame frequency can reach, and image data amount is little, therefore, can realize the measurement of hypervelocity real-time displacement.But, adopt laser displacement sensor only can obtain to belong to one-dimensional measurement along the displacement of measured object on the laser beam direction, that is to say that laser displacement sensor can only be realized one-dimensional measurement at present, and can not realize three-dimensional measurement.
Summary of the invention
In view of this, fundamental purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device and method, can realize the ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measurement.
For achieving the above object, technical scheme of the present invention is achieved in that
The invention provides a kind of ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device, comprising: area array camera, an above laser displacement sensor; Wherein,
Area array camera is used to take the target image, obtains the target coordinate and is tied to the transformation relation between the camera coordinate system;
Laser displacement sensor is used for projecting laser light and to target, forms luminous point, obtains datum mark, based on the target that is in diverse location, obtain laser beam at camera coordinate system as the space line equation under the global coordinate system; Projecting laser light forms luminous point to measured object, according to the line segment length between tested luminous point and the datum mark, calculates the value of said tested luminous point corresponding parameters t; With t substitution space line equation, obtain the coordinate of said tested luminous point under global coordinate system again.
In the such scheme, said laser displacement sensor further comprises laser instrument, camera lens, image device and signal processor; Wherein, laser instrument is used to launch laser beam; Camera lens, the laser that is used for laser instrument is sent forms light beam, projects on the measured object, forms luminous point, and finally is imaged on the image device; Image device, the laser instrument that is used to form images is incident upon the laser spot on the measured object through camera lens; Signal processor is used to produce drive signal and makes the image device operate as normal, and according to image point position and the triangle geometric relationship of luminous point on image device, calculates the displacement size and the output of measured object.
In the such scheme, the laser instrument in said area array camera and the said laser displacement sensor constitutes three-dimensional visual sensor; Said image device and signal processor constitute line array video camera; Said camera lens is lens.
In the such scheme, a said table top array camera and a laser displacement sensor constitute the single-point ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device; A said table top array camera and an above laser displacement sensor constitute the multiple spot ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device.
The present invention also provides a kind of ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring method, comprising:
Global coordinate system is set;
Plane target drone is placed on primary importance, and an above laser displacement sensor is launched laser beam respectively and is projected on the plane target drone, forms luminous point respectively, with this luminous point as datum mark; Area array camera camera plane target image obtains the transformation relation that the target coordinate is tied to camera coordinate system; Extract target unique point image coordinate, obtain the coordinate of luminous point under the target coordinate system on the plane target drone; Be the coordinate under the camera coordinate system with the coordinate conversion under the target coordinate system again;
Plane target drone moved be placed into the second place, an above laser displacement sensor is launched laser beam respectively and is projected on the plane target drone, forms luminous point respectively; Area array camera is camera plane target image once more, calculates the coordinate of luminous point under camera coordinate system on the plane target drone; Obtain the space line equation of laser beam under camera coordinate system;
Three-dimensional measurement reference point and space line equation based on obtaining according to the line segment length between tested luminous point and the datum mark, calculate the value of said tested luminous point corresponding parameters t; With t substitution space line equation, obtain the coordinate of said tested luminous point under global coordinate system again.
Wherein, the said global coordinate system that is provided with is: with camera coordinate system as global coordinate system.
In the such scheme; The coordinate of the tested luminous point of said calculating under global coordinate system is: earlier project the tested luminous point that forms on the measured object and the line segment length between the datum mark according to laser displacement sensor, calculate the value of said tested luminous point corresponding parameters t; With t substitution space line equation, obtain the coordinate of said tested luminous point under global coordinate system again.
Ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device provided by the present invention and method; Utilize laser displacement sensor, area array camera and plane target drone to obtain three-dimensional measurement reference point and space line equation; Based on datum mark that is obtained and space line equation; Measure and calculate the coordinate of tested luminous point under global coordinate system that measured object is in diverse location, the ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional of measured object is measured thereby accomplish.The present invention is converted into three-dimensional measurement with the one-dimensional measurement of laser displacement sensor; When realizing three-dimensional measurement; Can make frame frequency reach very high and image data amount little; Thereby have high 3 d measurement data turnover rate, be fit to very much non-contacting three-dimensional measurement occasion of hypervelocity dynamic real-time and demand.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the measuring principle synoptic diagram of laser displacement sensor among the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the realization flow synoptic diagram of ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring method of the present invention;
The realization principle schematic that Fig. 3 measures for embodiment of the invention ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional.
Embodiment
Basic thought of the present invention is: utilize laser displacement sensor, area array camera and plane target drone to obtain three-dimensional measurement reference point and space line equation; Based on datum mark that is obtained and space line equation; According to the measured object displacement that records; Calculate the coordinate of tested luminous point under global coordinate system that measured object is in diverse location, the ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional of measured object is measured thereby accomplish.
Ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device of the present invention comprises: area array camera, one or more laser displacement sensors; Wherein,
Area array camera is used to take the target image, obtains the target coordinate and is tied to the transformation relation between the camera coordinate system;
Laser displacement sensor is used for projecting laser light and to target, forms luminous point, obtains datum mark, based on the target that is in diverse location, obtain laser beam at camera coordinate system as the space line equation under the global coordinate system; Projecting laser light forms luminous point to measured object, according to the displacement of measured measured object calculate each tested luminous point at camera coordinate system as the coordinate under the global coordinate system.
Among the present invention, a table top array camera and one or more laser displacement sensor can constitute single-point or multiple spot ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device respectively.
As shown in Figure 1, said laser displacement sensor further comprises laser instrument 11, camera lens 12 and 13, image device 14 and signal processor 15; Wherein, laser instrument 11 is used to launch laser beam; The laser that camera lens 12,13 is used for laser instrument 11 is sent forms light beam, projects on the measured object, forms luminous point, and finally is imaged on the image device 14; Image device 14 laser spot that laser instrument 11 is incident upon on the measured object through camera lenses 12,13 that is used to form images; Signal processor 15 is used to produce drive signal makes the image device operate as normal, and according to image point position and the triangle geometric relationship of luminous point on image device 14, calculates the displacement size and the output of measured object.
Here, image device 14 constitutes line array video camera with signal processor 15.In practical application, camera lens can be lens.
When measured object was measured, as shown in Figure 1, concrete measuring process is: the laser beam that laser instrument 11 projects was a light pencil after lens 12 outgoing, is incident upon on the measured object 16, forms luminous point; This light beam reflects, is imaged on the image device 14 through lens 13 through measured object 16, obtains imaging point; Signal processor 15 calculates displacement size and the output of measured object 16 with respect to datum mark according to the image point position and the triangle geometric relationship of luminous point on image device.
Among Fig. 1, between position S1 and the position S2 and comprise that position S1 and position S2 are measurement ranges, the imaging region of laser displacement sensor just, respective imaging point are between a point and b point, or at a point or b point.In practical application; Can measured object be placed on position S1 or position S2 or position S1 to the optional position between the S2 of position; Then by laser instrument 11 through lens 12 to its projecting laser light, general, the imaging point that primary importance produced that target is placed is as datum mark; In measurement range where the primary importance that target is placed specifically, can be known according to the displacement relation between primary importance and position S1.In addition, method specifically how to calculate measured object displacement size is a prior art, can be called the article of " laser triangulation summary " referring to name in " Chinese journal of scientific instrument " the 25th volume the 4th phase supplementary issue, repeats no more at this.
Among the present invention; Laser instrument in said area array camera and the said laser displacement sensor constitutes three-dimensional visual sensor jointly; Specifically how to obtain the 3D vision model based on area array camera and laser instrument; Can repeat no more at this referring to doctor Luo Ming of University Of Tianjin academic dissertation in 1996 " multisensor machine vision calibration system and application ".
Based on hypervelocity real-time three-dimensional measurement mechanism recited above, the implementation procedure of ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring method of the present invention is as shown in Figure 2, may further comprise the steps:
Step 200: global coordinate system is set;
Here, can be with the area array camera coordinate system as global coordinate system, said global coordinate system is overall three-dimensional system of coordinate.
Step 201: utilize laser displacement sensor, area array camera and plane target drone, three-dimensional measurement reference point and the space line equation of Calibration of Laser light under global coordinate system;
Here, adopt table top array charge-coupled device (CCD) video camera and a plane target drone that has monumented point to realize demarcation to three laser beams.Wherein, plane target drone is placed on two diverse locations at least, and three laser beams all are incident upon on the plane target drone, forms luminous point; Array CCD Camera from the image of the angled direction camera plane target of laser beam at two diverse locations.Concrete calibration process may further comprise the steps with reference to shown in Figure 3:
Step 201a: plane target drone is placed on position 1, and laser displacement sensor 1,2 and 3 emitted laser light project respectively on the plane target drone, form luminous point P respectively 01, P 02And P 03, this luminous point is as datum mark.At this moment, laser displacement sensor 1,2 and 3 sensor reading are respectively Z 01, Z 02And Z 03
Here, the position 1 of plane target drone placement and the relation of the position between the laser displacement sensor are exactly: position 1 is in position S1 shown in Figure 1 or position S2 or position S1 to the optional position between the S2 of position.
Step 201b: Array CCD Camera 300 camera plane target images obtain the transformation relation that the target coordinate is tied to camera coordinate system according to camera model; Extract target unique point image coordinate then,, obtain luminous point P on the plane target drone through the perspective mapping relations between the plane of delineation and the target plane 01, P 02And P 03Coordinate under the target coordinate system; Last is the coordinate under the camera coordinate system with the coordinate conversion under the target coordinate system again, is respectively (x 01, y 01, z 01), (x 02, y 02, z 02) and (x 03, y 03, z 03);
Here; The target coordinate system is meant with the plane target drone present position to be the coordinate system of benchmark; Camera coordinate system is meant with the Array CCD Camera present position to be the coordinate system of benchmark; Concrete how to obtain on the plane target drone luminous point the coordinate under the target coordinate system and how under the target coordinate system coordinate conversion be the coordinate under the camera coordinate system, can be the patent of invention " a kind of method for standardizing structural parameter of structure optical vision sensor " of ZL200710121397.X referring to the patent No..
Step 201c: plane target drone moved be placed into position 2, this moment, laser displacement sensor 1,2 and 3 emitted laser light projected respectively on the plane target drone, formed luminous point P respectively 11, P 12And P 13, sensor reading is respectively Z 11, Z 12And Z 13
Here, the position 2 of plane target drone placement and the relation of the position between the laser displacement sensor are exactly: position 2 is in position S1 shown in Figure 1 or position S2 or position S1 to the optional position between the S2 of position; And position 2 does not overlap with position 1.
Step 201d: Array CCD Camera 300 is camera plane target image once more, and the said method of 201b set by step, obtains luminous point P 11, P 12And P 13Coordinate under camera coordinate system is respectively (x 11, y 11, z 11), (x 12, y 12, z 12) and (x 13, y 13, z 13);
Step 201e, obtain the space line equation of three laser beams under camera coordinate system and be respectively:
x = x 01 + ( x 11 - x 01 ) t y = y 01 + ( y 11 - y 01 ) t z = z 01 + ( z 11 - z 01 ) t
x = x 02 + ( x 12 - x 02 ) t y = y 02 + ( y 12 - y 02 ) t z = z 02 + ( z 12 - z 02 ) t
x = x 03 + ( x 13 - x 03 ) t y = y 03 + ( y 13 - y 03 ) t z = z 03 + ( z 13 - z 03 ) t
Wherein, t is an equation coefficient, arbitrarily value.Can obtain the coordinate of different luminous points according to different t values, the corresponding luminous point of each t.
Step 202: based on the three-dimensional measurement reference point and the space line equation that obtain; The measured object displacement that records according to laser displacement sensor; Calculate the coordinate of tested luminous point under global coordinate system that measured object is in diverse location, accomplish ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional and measure.
Here, said tested luminous point is exactly that laser displacement sensor projects the luminous point on the measured object.The coordinate of the tested luminous point of said calculating under global coordinate system is: for different tested luminous points; Earlier project the tested luminous point that forms on the measured object and the line segment length between the datum mark, calculate the value of this tested luminous point corresponding parameters t according to laser displacement sensor; With t substitution space line equation, can obtain the coordinate of this tested luminous point under global coordinate system again.
Do further explain below in conjunction with specific embodiment and 3 couples of the present invention of accompanying drawing.
In the present embodiment, said ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device is made up of a table top battle array ccd video camera 300 and three laser displacement sensors, is used to realize the dynamically reciprocal rudder face angle of rotation that rotates of hypervelocity is measured.Present embodiment ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring method may further comprise the steps:
Step 30: with Array CCD Camera 300 coordinate systems as global coordinate system;
Here, global coordinate system is overall three-dimensional system of coordinate.
Step 31: utilize laser displacement sensor, three-dimensional visual sensor and plane target drone, space line equation and the three-dimensional measurement reference point of Calibration of Laser light under global coordinate system;
Here, specifically obtain three-dimensional measurement reference point and the process of space line equation under the global coordinate system, of step 201 among Fig. 2 and substep thereof.
Step 32: make the rudder face that to measure be in certain position, and be zero-bit with this position.
Step 33: use ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device that the rudder face zero-bit is measured; Based on three-dimensional measurement reference point and space line equation, the coordinate of tested luminous point under global coordinate system calculated in measured displacement according to laser displacement sensor.
With laser displacement sensor 1 is the computing method of example explanation three-dimensional coordinate:
When measuring, rudder face is in zero-bit, and laser displacement sensor 1 emitted laser ray cast is to rudder face, and the formation luminous point is P I1Can know according to laser beam space line equation, as long as know P I1Point corresponding parameters t can obtain luminous point P I1Coordinate under global coordinate system.
Luminous point P I1The sensor reading of corresponding laser displacement sensor is Z I1, line segment P then I1P 01Length does | Z I1-Z 01|.
Luminous point P I1Coordinate representation under global coordinate system is (x I1, y I1, z I1), corresponding, under global coordinate system, calculate line segment P I1P 01Length is:
( x i 1 - x 01 ) 2 + ( y i 1 - y 01 ) 2 + ( z i 1 - z 01 ) 2
= ( x 11 - x 01 ) 2 t 2 + ( y 11 - y 01 ) 2 t 2 + ( z 11 - z 01 ) 2 t 2
= | t | ( x 11 - x 01 ) 2 + ( y 11 - y 01 ) 2 + ( z 11 - z 01 ) 2
Can get thus:
| t | ( x 11 - x 01 ) 2 + ( y 11 - y 01 ) 2 + ( z 11 - z 01 ) 2 = | Z i 1 - Z 01 |
Then:
| t | = | Z i 1 - Z 01 | ( x 11 - x 01 ) 2 + ( y 11 - y 01 ) 2 + ( z 11 - z 01 ) 2
The symbol of t and Z I1-Z 01Symbol consistent, try to achieve behind the t its substitution space line equation, can try to achieve luminous point P I1Coordinate (x under global coordinate system I1, y I1, z I1).
In like manner, try to achieve laser displacement sensor 2 and project on the rudder face luminous point P of formation respectively with laser displacement sensor 3 I2And P I3Coordinate (x under global coordinate system I2, y I2, z I2) and (x I3, y I3, z I3).
Step 34: according to luminous point P I1, P I2And P I3Coordinate under global coordinate system is obtained the normal vector that rudder face is in zero-bit.
Step 35: the control rudder face carries out high speed and dynamically back and forth rotates back and forth, the three-dimensional coordinate of three non-colinear points on rudder face of the every separated 0.5ms measurement of laser displacement sensor, and calculate rudder face at difference normal vector constantly;
Here, the time interval of laser displacement sensor measurement rudder face three-dimensional coordinate can as required and be satisfied setting arbitrarily under the linear array image device frame frequency condition in the laser displacement sensor.The concrete rudder face that how to calculate is a prior art in the zero-bit or the normal vector in the different moment, is not described in detail in this.
Step 36: calculate the angle that different rudder face normal vectors constantly and rudder face are in the normal vector of zero-bit, can obtain rudder face in the difference moment angle of rotation with respect to zero-bit.
So far, can realize the dynamically back and forth measurement of the rudder face angle of rotation of rotation of hypervelocity is measured thereby accomplish ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional.
The above is merely preferred embodiment of the present invention, is not to be used to limit protection scope of the present invention, all any modifications of within spirit of the present invention and principle, being done, is equal to replacement and improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. a ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device is characterized in that, this measurement mechanism comprises: area array camera, an above laser displacement sensor; Wherein,
Area array camera is used to take the target image, obtains the target coordinate and is tied to the transformation relation between the camera coordinate system;
Laser displacement sensor is used for projecting laser light and to target, forms luminous point, obtains datum mark, based on the target that is in diverse location, obtain laser beam at camera coordinate system as the space line equation under the global coordinate system; Projecting laser light forms luminous point to measured object, according to the line segment length between tested luminous point and the datum mark, calculates the value of said tested luminous point corresponding parameters t; With t substitution space line equation, obtain the coordinate of said tested luminous point under global coordinate system again.
2. ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device according to claim 1 is characterized in that said laser displacement sensor further comprises laser instrument, camera lens, image device and signal processor; Wherein,
Laser instrument is used to launch laser beam;
Camera lens, the laser that is used for laser instrument is sent forms light beam, projects on the measured object, forms luminous point, and finally is imaged on the image device;
Image device, the laser instrument that is used to form images is incident upon the laser spot on the measured object through camera lens;
Signal processor is used to produce drive signal and makes the image device operate as normal, and according to image point position and the triangle geometric relationship of luminous point on image device, calculates the displacement size and the output of measured object.
3. ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device according to claim 2 is characterized in that, the laser instrument in said area array camera and the said laser displacement sensor constitutes three-dimensional visual sensor;
Said image device and signal processor constitute line array video camera; Said camera lens is lens.
4. ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device according to claim 3 is characterized in that, a said table top array camera and a laser displacement sensor constitute the single-point ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device; A said table top array camera with constitute the multiple spot ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring device more than one laser displacement sensor.
5. a ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring method is characterized in that, this method comprises:
Global coordinate system is set;
Plane target drone is placed on primary importance, and an above laser displacement sensor is launched laser beam respectively and is projected on the plane target drone, forms luminous point respectively, with this luminous point as datum mark; Area array camera camera plane target image obtains the transformation relation that the target coordinate is tied to camera coordinate system; Extract target unique point image coordinate, obtain the coordinate of luminous point under the target coordinate system on the plane target drone; Be the coordinate under the camera coordinate system with the coordinate conversion under the target coordinate system again;
Plane target drone moved be placed into the second place, an above laser displacement sensor is launched laser beam respectively and is projected on the plane target drone, forms luminous point respectively; Area array camera is camera plane target image once more, calculates the coordinate of luminous point under camera coordinate system on the plane target drone; Obtain the space line equation of laser beam under camera coordinate system;
Three-dimensional measurement reference point and space line equation based on obtaining according to the line segment length between tested luminous point and the datum mark, calculate the value of said tested luminous point corresponding parameters t; With t substitution space line equation, obtain the coordinate of said tested luminous point under global coordinate system again.
6. ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring method according to claim 5 is characterized in that, the said global coordinate system that is provided with is: with camera coordinate system as global coordinate system.
7. according to claim 5 or 6 described ultrahigh speed real-time three-dimensional measuring methods, it is characterized in that the coordinate of the tested luminous point of said calculating under global coordinate system is:
Earlier project the tested luminous point that forms on the measured object and the line segment length between the datum mark, calculate the value of said tested luminous point corresponding parameters t according to laser displacement sensor; With t substitution space line equation, obtain the coordinate of said tested luminous point under global coordinate system again.
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