CN101561353B - Brake-by-wire and steer-by-wire hardware-in-the-loop test bench for vehicle - Google Patents

Brake-by-wire and steer-by-wire hardware-in-the-loop test bench for vehicle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101561353B
CN101561353B CN2009100669838A CN200910066983A CN101561353B CN 101561353 B CN101561353 B CN 101561353B CN 2009100669838 A CN2009100669838 A CN 2009100669838A CN 200910066983 A CN200910066983 A CN 200910066983A CN 101561353 B CN101561353 B CN 101561353B
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China
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model
data collecting
pcl
collecting card
front wheel
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CN101561353A (en
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魏青
殷卫乔
李静
杨坤
张建
王坤
饶志明
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Jilin University
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Jilin University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a brake-by-wire and steer-by-wire hardware-in-the-loop test bench for a vehicle. The test bench integrates a brake-by-wire system and a steer-by-wire system into a whole, and is divided into a software part, a real-time platform, a signal processing part and a hardware part, wherein the real-time platform consists of a host and target machines 1 and 2; the host and the target machines 1 and 2 are connected by a wireless network communication system; the signal processing part consists of first and second data acquisition cards with the model of PCL-818HD, third and fourth data acquisition cards with the model of PCL-727, a fifth data acquisition card with the model of PCI-6601 and a V/F conversion module; and the hardware part comprises a rotary angle sensor (12), atorque transducer (13), an opposite rotary motor (16), a steering resistance sensor (21), a steering actuating motor (18), an EMB actuator controller, and EMB actuator, a clamping force sensor, a rev olution transmitter and a current sensor.

Description

The control of line of vehicles control moving-wire turns to hardware the-loop test bed
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of hardware-in-loop simulation testing table, more particularly, the present invention relates to the hardware-in-loop simulation testing table of a kind of integrated line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system.
Background technology
Along with the development that automotive engineering is maked rapid progress, efficient, energy-conservation line traffic control technology (x-by-wire) has been applied to automotive field.Line control system can obviously improve system response time and response accuracy, improves vehicle dynamics characteristics, further promotes the driving safety and the control stability of vehicle.Line control system can be simplified the Vehicular system structure in addition, reduces the cost in vehicle design, manufacturing, the maintenance process, saves interior space, alleviates complete vehicle quality.Line control brake system (brake-by-wire is called for short BBW), wire-controlled steering system (steer-by-wire is called for short SBW) have become domestic and international research focus as the representative of automobile line control system, have represented the developing direction of following vehicle.Systematic research also is in the starting stage for the vehicle line traffic control in present China, due to limited conditions in system development, particularly has very big difficulty in system hardware debugging, context of detection.Adopt hardware to carry out the hardware-in-loop simulation test of line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system at loop technique, can realize line control brake system and many-sided functions such as wire-controlled steering system exploitation, debugging, detection and performance evaluation, thereby development difficulty, development time and the cost of development of line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system are reduced greatly.
The hardware-in-loop simulation testing table that line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system are not arranged at present as yet.
Summary of the invention
Technical matters to be solved by this invention is in order to satisfy social needs, and the hardware that a kind of vehicle line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system are provided is the-loop test bed.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the present invention adopts following technical scheme to realize: the hardware of vehicle line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system is made up of line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system the-loop test bed.Described line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system are divided into software section, real-time platform, signal processing and hardware components again.Described real-time platform is made up of main frame, target machine 1 and target machine 2.
Described signal processing is that first data collecting card of PCL-818HD, second data collecting card that model is PCL-818HD, the 3rd data collecting card that model is PCL-727, the 4th data collecting card that model is PCL-727, the 5th data collecting card and the V/F modular converter that model is PCI-6601 are formed by model.
Model is to adopt isa bus to connect between first data collecting card of PCL-818HD and the target machine 1.Model is to adopt isa bus to connect between the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727 and the 4th data collecting card that model is PCL-727 and the target machine 1.Model is to adopt electric wire to connect between the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727 and four the V/F modular converters, four V/F modular converters and model are to adopt electric wire to connect between the 5th data collecting card of PCI-6601, and model is to adopt pci bus to connect between the 5th data collecting card of PCI-6601 and the target machine 2.Model is to adopt isa bus to connect between second data collecting card of PCL-818HD and the target machine 2, model is to adopt electric wire to connect between second data collecting card of PCL-818HD and the 4th data collecting card that model is PCL-727, and model is that the output terminal of second data collecting card of PCL-818HD is connected with hardware components electric wire in line control brake system, the wire-controlled steering system respectively.
The hardware components of wire-controlled steering system described in the technical scheme includes steering wheel, rotary angle transmitter, torque sensor, bellows coupling, returns positive motor, returns positive motor decelerating mechanism, magnetic powder brake, spring centering mechanism, pinion and rack, steering drag sensor, steering gear, displacement transducer, turns to actuating motor and actuating motor reducing gear; The hardware components of line control brake system includes the near front wheel EMB actuator controller, off-front wheel EMB actuator controller, left rear wheel EMB actuator controller, off hind wheel EMB actuator controller, the near front wheel EMB actuator, off-front wheel EMB actuator, left rear wheel EMB actuator, off hind wheel EMB actuator, the near front wheel clamping force sensor, off-front wheel clamping force sensor, left rear wheel clamping force sensor, off hind wheel clamping force sensor, the near front wheel speed probe, the off-front wheel speed probe, the left rear wheel speed probe, the off hind wheel speed probe, the near front wheel current sensor, the off-front wheel current sensor, left rear wheel current sensor and off hind wheel current sensor.The steering wheel output shaft links to each other with the rotary angle transmitter input shaft by key, the rotary angle transmitter output shaft is connected with the torque sensor input shaft by key, the torque sensor output shaft links to each other with time positive motor decelerating mechanism output shaft by the ripple shaft coupling, returns positive motor decelerating mechanism input shaft and links to each other with time positive motor output shaft by key.The output shaft that turns to actuating motor that is fixed on the experiment table is connected by the input shaft of key with the actuating motor reducing gear, the output shaft that is fixed on the actuating motor reducing gear on the testing table is connected with steering gear by spline, an end that is fixed on the steering rack of the steering gear on the testing table is connected with displacement transducer on being fixed on testing table by bolt, the other end of the steering rack of steering gear is connected with an end in contact of steering drag sensor, the output shaft that is fixed on the magnetic powder brake on the testing table is connected with pinion and rack on being fixed on testing table by spline, one end of pinion and rack middle rack is connected with spring centering mechanism on being fixed on testing table by bolt, and the other end of pinion and rack middle rack is fixed together by the other end of bolt and steering drag sensor.Returning positive motor, turning to actuating motor and magnetic powder brake is that the 5th to the 7th digital channel electric wire of second data collecting card output control signal of PCL-818HD is connected with model respectively.The output terminal of displacement transducer, steering drag sensor, rotary angle transmitter and torque sensor is respectively the 5th being connected to 8A/D passage electric wire of the first data collecting card acquired signal of PCL-818HD with model.The input end of the near front wheel EMB actuator controller, off-front wheel EMB actuator controller, left rear wheel EMB actuator controller and off hind wheel EMB actuator controller is that the 1st to the 4th digital channel electric wire of second data collecting card output control signal of PCL-818HD is connected with model respectively.The output terminal of the near front wheel EMB actuator controller, off-front wheel EMB actuator controller, left rear wheel EMB actuator controller and off hind wheel EMB actuator controller is connected with the input end electric wire of the near front wheel EMB actuator, off-front wheel EMB actuator, left rear wheel EMB actuator and off hind wheel EMB actuator respectively.The output terminal of the near front wheel clamping force sensor, off-front wheel clamping force sensor, left rear wheel clamping force sensor and off hind wheel clamping force sensor is respectively the 1st being connected to 4A/D passage electric wire of first data collecting card of PCL-818HD with model.The output terminal of the near front wheel clamping force sensor, the near front wheel speed probe and the near front wheel current sensor is connected with the input end electric wire of the near front wheel EMB actuator controller respectively; The output terminal of off-front wheel clamping force sensor, off-front wheel speed probe and off-front wheel current sensor is connected with the input end electric wire of off-front wheel EMB actuator controller respectively; The output terminal of left rear wheel clamping force sensor, left rear wheel speed probe and left rear wheel current sensor is connected with the input end electric wire of left rear wheel EMB actuator controller respectively; The output terminal of off hind wheel clamping force sensor, off hind wheel speed probe and off hind wheel current sensor is connected with the input end electric wire of off hind wheel EMB actuator controller respectively; Described model is to adopt electric wire to connect between the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727 and four the V/F modular converters to be meant: model is the 1st being connected with the passage input end electric wire of four V/F modular converters respectively to the 4A/D passage of four wheel speed voltage signals of output of the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727.Described four V/F modular converters and model are to adopt electric wire to connect between the 5th data collecting card of PCI-6601 to be meant: four vehicle wheel rapid pulses of the output of four V/F modular converters are that four vehicle wheel rapid pulses of collection of the 5th data collecting card of PCI-6601 are connected towards the 1st to the 4th passage electric wire of signal with model respectively towards the 1st to the 4th channel output end of signal.Described model is to adopt electric wire to connect between second data collecting card of PCL-818HD and the 4th data collecting card that model is PCL-727 to be meant: model be PCL-818HD second data collecting card the 1st to the 5A/D passage be the output longitudinal acceleration, side acceleration, yaw velocity, steering wheel angle of the 4th data collecting card of PCL-727 and vertical the 1st being connected to 5A/D passage electric wire of vehicle speed signal with model respectively; Adopt the PC serial ports between described main frame and target machine 1 and the target machine 2, TCP is connected or the wireless network communications system connection.Described wireless network communications system includes wireless network card, wireless router and two common network interface cards.It is the wireless pc I network interface card of TWL541P that described wireless network card adopts model, is installed on the main frame; Wireless router adopts provides fixedly Wide Area Network interface and four fixed LAN interfaces and meet IEEE 802.11b and the model of IEEE 802.11g wireless standard is the wireless router of TWL54R, it is 82559 network interface card that two common network interface cards all adopt model, is installed on respectively on target machine 1 and the target machine 2.
Compared with prior art the invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
The present invention realized line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system hardware at ring, created advantage for the hardware development of line control brake system, wire-controlled steering system, the development difficulty of hardware system, cost of development are reduced greatly.The simulation and prediction result of the hardware-in-loop simulation test of carrying out for various control algolithms by this testing table is more accurately credible in addition.
2. adopt the control of line of vehicles control moving-wire to turn to hardware the-loop test bed when carrying out l-G simulation test, the specific operation of test is to obtain by computer simulation, be not subjected to the influence of personnel, place and weather, also do not have any danger for the test of limiting condition, experimentation cost and cycle shorten greatly.
3. in the line traffic control systems development process, adopt the control of line of vehicles control moving-wire to turn to hardware to test the-loop test bed, can realize the online adjustment of control algolithm, like this can be easily to various controlled variable particularly the controlled variable under the limiting condition be optimized.
4. adopt the control of line of vehicles control moving-wire to turn to every vehicle performance parameter that hardware obtains in the-loop test bed test and system optimizing control parameter and real train test more approaching.
Description of drawings
The present invention is further illustrated below in conjunction with accompanying drawing:
Fig. 1 is that line of vehicles control moving-wire of the present invention control turns to hardware to form and the principle of work schematic block diagram in the-loop test bed structure;
Fig. 2 is that line of vehicles control moving-wire of the present invention control turns to the structure of the EMB actuator of hardware in the-loop test bed to form synoptic diagram;
Fig. 3 is that line of vehicles control moving-wire of the present invention control turns to the structure of the EMB actuator of hardware in the-loop test bed to form front view;
Fig. 4 is that line of vehicles control moving-wire of the present invention control turns to the structure of the EMB actuator controller of hardware in the-loop test bed to form and the principle of work schematic block diagram;
Fig. 5 is that line of vehicles control moving-wire of the present invention control turns to the EMB actuator medium power device-motor of hardware in the-loop test bed to adopt the theory diagram of three ring controls;
Fig. 6-(a) is that line of vehicles control moving-wire of the present invention control turns to that the steering control mechanism structural group becomes synoptic diagram in the wire-controlled steering system of hardware in the-loop test bed;
Fig. 6-(b) is that line of vehicles control moving-wire of the present invention control turns to and turns to topworks's structure to form synoptic diagram in the wire-controlled steering system of hardware in the-loop test bed;
Fig. 7 is that line of vehicles control moving-wire of the present invention control turns to the FB(flow block) of hardware in the-loop test bed experiment work;
Among the figure: 1. brake disc, 2. nut, 3. rotor, 4. motor stator, 5. gear ring, 6. planet wheel, 7. planet carrier, 8. leading screw, 9. centre wheel, 10. Brake pad, 15. times positive motor decelerating mechanisms of 11. steering wheels, 12. rotary angle transmitter 13. torque sensors, 14. bellows couplings, 16. times positive motors, 17. actuating motor reducing gear, 18. turn to actuating motor, 19. displacement transducers, 20. steering gears, 21. steering drag sensor, 22. pinion and rack, 23. spring centering mechanisms, 24. magnetic powder brakes.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the present invention is explained in detail:
Consult Fig. 1, the present invention is the hardware-in-loop simulation testing table of a kind of integrated vehicle line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system, to be the hardware that guarantees vehicle line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system have a good real time performance the-loop test bed to technical matters of the present invention, can be implemented in the real-time communication between vehicle dynamic model under the various driving cycles, vehicle control algolithm, line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system and each sensor.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the present invention has utilized real-time instrument of Matlab/xPC Target, RTW and data acquisition card independent development line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system hardware-in-loop simulation testing table.This testing table is made up of line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system.Line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system are divided into software section, real-time platform, signal processing and hardware components again.
1. real-time platform
Described real-time platform is made up of a main frame, a target machine 1 and a target machine 2.In main frame, be equipped with and adopt vehicle dynamic model that Matlab/Simulink sets up and vehicle control algolithm (for example ABS, ESP control algolithm etc.).Main frame can carry out off-line simulation; Auto model and control algolithm can be compiled into the real-time code that can move by RTW in target machine 1 and target machine 2; And can real-time code be downloaded in the target machine 1 and target machine 2 that xPC Target real-time kernel is housed by LAN (Local Area Network).What the used main frame of this testing table adopted is Kaitian of association 4600 computing machines, and CPU is four 3.0GHz that run quickly of Intel, in save as 512M.As real-time platform, target machine 1 and target machine 2 need the real-time code of operational vehicle model and control algolithm; While is as the carrier of first data collecting card to the, five data collecting cards, target machine 1 and target machine 2 need be finished the collection and the transmission of signal, as the collection of signals such as the electric current that drives each wheel EMB actuator in the line control brake system, rotating speed and the output of line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system control signal.Line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system drive each wheel EMB actuator according to control signal and finish the response action, and pass response signal back target machine 1 and target machine 2.In this way, target machine 1 and target machine 2 can demonstrate the information of each control signal and vehicle-state in real time, simultaneously target machine 1 and target machine 2 by LAN (Local Area Network) with all information feedback to main frame, so that judge test findings.Just realized that thus hardware is in the-loop test bed real-time testing and control function.Employed target machine 1 of this testing table and target machine 2 are to adopt two to grind magnificent 610H computing machine, and CPU is four 2.8GHz that run quickly of Intel, in save as 512M.
Main frame can adopt PC serial communication or (Ethernet) TCP communication with communicating by letter of target machine 1 and target machine 2.The employed main frame of this testing table adopts wireless network communications system with communicating by letter of target machine 1 and target machine 2, and wireless network communications system mainly is made up of wireless network card, wireless router and two common network interface cards.Wherein: it is the wireless pci bus interface network interface card of TWL541P that wireless network card adopts the model of rising, and is installed on the main frame; It is the wireless router of TWL54R that wireless router adopts the model of rising, and it provides fixedly Wide Area Network interface and four fixed LAN interfaces, meets IEEE 802.11b and IEEE 802.11g wireless standard; It is 82559 network interface card that two common network interface cards all adopt the Intel model, is installed on respectively on target machine 1 and the target machine 2.Adopt wireless network communications system, not only can realize Long-distance Control test platform, and the dirigibility that has improved host configuration greatly.
2. signal processing
The control of line of vehicles control moving-wire turns to hardware to be made up of plurality of data capture card and acquisition module in the-loop test bed signal processing.Specifically, signal processing is that first, second data collecting card of PCL-818HD, the 3rd, the 4th data collecting card that (Advantech) model is PCL-727, the 5th data collecting card and the V/F modular converter that (NI) model is PCI-6601 are formed by (Advantech) model.
1) model is first and second data collecting card of PCL-818HD
Model is that the data collecting card of PCL-818HD is the multifunctional data acquisition card of isa bus interface, and it provides the sampling rate of 100KHz, 16 tunnel single-ended analog quantity inputs, 12 bit resolution double buffering A/D converters and the input of 16 road digital quantities, output channel.Model is that first data collecting card of PCL-818HD is gathered the motoring condition parameter, and model is that second data collecting card of PCL-818HD is exported control signal to each wheel EMB actuator controller.
2) model is third and fourth data collecting card of PCL-727
Model is that the data collecting card of PCL-727 is the analog output unit of I SA bus interface, and it has 12 bit resolution double buffering D/A converters, and output of 12 tunnel separate analogue amounts and the input of 16 road digital quantities, output channel are provided.Model is the 3rd data collecting card output wheel speed voltage signal of PCL-727, and model is the motoring condition parameter of the 4th data collecting card output longitudinal acceleration, side acceleration, yaw velocity, steering wheel angle and the vertical vehicle speed signal of PCL-727.
3) model is the 5th data collecting card of PCI-6601
Model is that the data collecting card of PCI-6601 is the timing and the digital I/O equipment of pci bus interface, this product has the digital I/O line of 4 32 digit counters/timers and 32 and TTL/CMOS compatibility, can comprise the scrambler location survey, event count, period measurement, pulse width measuring, pulse generates, and pulse train generates and frequency measurement.Model is that the 5th data collecting card of PCI-6601 is used for the collection of four vehicle wheel rapid pulses towards signal.
4) wheel speed pulse generation module-V/F modular converter
Wheel speed pulse generation module is used for the pulse signal that the analog wheel speed sensors produces.Actual vehicle wheel speed pulsed frequency scope is (0-5000) HZ.The vehicle wheel speed value can be by data collecting card according to the output of the form of standard square wave, the speed value corresponding certain pulsed frequency, or certain recurrence interval.Method by software programming can be simulated required square-wave signal, the frequency of wheel speed square-wave signal is high more, the wheel speed signal of being simulated is got over accuracy, but the cycle of square-wave signal must be greater than simulation step length, and simulation step length is crossed the calculated amount that the young pathbreaker increases Matlab/xPC Target real-time kernel, reduce the real-time of real-time kernel, even make the real-time kernel collapse.Because the restriction of xPC kernel, high-frequency pulse can't be realized by software approach.Therefore, the present invention adopts analog quantity output data capture card and V/F modular converter as the wheel speed impulse generator.It is the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727 that analog quantity output data capture card adopts model, and it provides 12 road D/A analog output channels, and the V/F modular converter is (V/F) guide tracked modular converter that Shun Yuan science and technology in Shenzhen is produced.Adopt 4 V/F modular converters altogether, the wheel speed signal that the automobile dynamics real-time model produces is that the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727 is converted to 4 road 0-5V voltage signals by model, is converted to the pulse signal of 0-5k HZ again through the V/F modular converter.
Model is to adopt isa bus to connect between first data collecting card of PCL-818HD and the target machine 1, model is to adopt isa bus to connect between the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727 and the 4th data collecting card that model is PCL-727 and the target machine 1, model is to adopt electric wire to connect between the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727 and four the V/F modular converters, four V/F modular converters and model are to adopt electric wire to connect between the 5th data collecting card of PCI-6601, model is to adopt pci bus to connect between the 5th data collecting card of PCI-6601 and the target machine 2, model is to adopt isa bus to connect between second data collecting card of PCL-818HD and the target machine 2, model is to adopt electric wire to connect between second data collecting card of PCL-818HD and the 4th data collecting card that model is PCL-727, model be PCL-818HD second data collecting card output terminal respectively and line control brake system, hardware components in the wire-controlled steering system adopts electric wire to connect.
Exactly, model is the 1st being connected with the output terminal electric wire of the near front wheel clamping force sensor, off-front wheel clamping force sensor, left rear wheel clamping force sensor and off hind wheel clamping force sensor on the near front wheel EMB actuator, off-front wheel EMB actuator, left rear wheel EMB actuator and the off hind wheel EMB actuator respectively to the 4A/D passage of first data collecting card of PCL-818HD, gathers the clamping force signal of the near front wheel EMB actuator, off-front wheel EMB actuator, left rear wheel EMB actuator and off hind wheel EMB actuator; Model is that the 5A/D passage of first data collecting card of PCL-818HD and the output terminal electric wire of rotary angle transmitter 12 are connected, and gathers the angular signal of steering wheel; Model is that the 6A/D passage of first data collecting card of PCL-818HD and the output terminal electric wire of torque sensor 13 are connected, and gathers dtc signal; Model is that the 7A/D passage of first data collecting card of PCL-818HD and the output terminal electric wire of displacement transducer 19 are connected, and gathers the front wheel angle signal; Model is that the 8A/D passage of first data collecting card of PCL-818HD and the output terminal electric wire of steering drag sensor 21 are connected, and gathers the steering drag signal.Model be PCL-818HD second data collecting card the 1st to the 5A/D passage be the 1st being connected to 5A/D passage electric wire of the 4th data collecting card of PCL-727 with model respectively, gather longitudinal acceleration, side acceleration, yaw velocity, steering wheel angle, vertical signal such as the speed of a motor vehicle; Model is that the 1st to the 4th digital channel of second data collecting card of PCL-818HD is connected with the input end electric wire of off hind wheel EMB actuator controller with the near front wheel EMB actuator controller, off-front wheel EMB actuator controller, left rear wheel EMB actuator controller respectively, and respectively to they output control signals; Model is that the 5th digital channel of second data collecting card of PCL-818HD is connected with the input end electric wire that returns positive motor 16, and to returning positive motor 16 output control signals; Model is that the 6th digital channel of second data collecting card of PCL-818HD is connected with the input end electric wire that turns to actuating motor 18, and to turning to actuating motor 18 output control signals; Model is that the 7th digital channel of second data collecting card of PCL-818HD and the input end electric wire of magnetic powder brake 24 are connected, and to magnetic powder brake 24 output control signals.Model is the 1st being connected with the passage input end electric wire of four V/F modular converters respectively to the 4A/D passage of the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727, the the 1st to the 4th channel output end of four V/F modular converters is that the 1st to the 4th passage electric wire of the 5th data collecting card of PCI-6601 is connected with model respectively, at first, four V/F modular converters transfer the wheel speed voltage signal to the wheel speed pulse signal, then, to model be the wheel speed pulse signal of four wheels of the 5th data collecting card conveying of PCI-6601.
3. hardware components
1) EMB actuator
Consult Fig. 2 and Fig. 3, the control of line of vehicles control moving-wire turn to hardware the the-loop test bed EMB actuator that adopts be the applicant develop voluntarily be called electromechanical braking system (Electro-mechanicalBrake again, be called for short EMB), the EMB actuator is energy source with the electric energy, with the motor is propulsion system, realizes the braking function of automobile by EMB actuator driven Brake pad 10.The EMB actuator mainly is made up of propulsion system-motor, gearing and braking clamp body three parts, and wherein gearing comprises that deceleration increases moment device and movement transforming device.Its worker's principle is: target machine 2 is passed to line control brake system four wheel EMB actuator controllers with the braking force control signal, four wheel EMB actuator controllers clamp force signal in conjunction with propulsion system-rotating speed of motor signal, current signal and braking, propulsion system-motor in the control EMB actuator produces respective torque, clamp the required damping force of brake disc 1 generation through the actuator drives caliper, realize the braking of wheel.In order to simulate the real vehicles situation, this testing table is provided with the near front wheel EMB actuator, off-front wheel EMB actuator, left rear wheel EMB actuator and off hind wheel EMB actuator.The applicant has declared Chinese patent in 2008 with the EMB actuator, and application number is 2008200720905, and notification number is CN201212535Y, and the day for announcing, on March 25th, 2009, denomination of invention is " being applied in the electric mechanical braking actuator on the automobile ".
2) EMB actuator controller
Consult Fig. 4 and Fig. 5, it is that the applicant develops voluntarily at the the-loop test bed EMB actuator controller that adopts that the control of line of vehicles control moving-wire turns to hardware, every EMB actuator all is furnished with the EMB actuator controller of a platform independent, so this testing table is provided with the near front wheel EMB actuator controller, off-front wheel EMB actuator controller, left rear wheel EMB actuator controller and off hind wheel EMB actuator controller.Because EMB actuator controller need guarantee EMB actuator accurately regulating rapidly brake pressure; and can protect motor to be without prejudice, so EMB actuator controller adopted have pressure control, three ring control methods of rotating speed control and Current Control accurately control the propulsion system-motor of EMB actuator.This EMB actuator controller mainly is made up of Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system, power driving circuit, and by photoelectric isolating circuit be connected with goalkeeper's electric wire.
Described Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM) system comprises that model is single-chip microcomputer and peripheral circuit, outside oscillatory circuit, reset circuit and the power circuit of MC9S12DP512, and model is to be that electric wire connects between the single-chip microcomputer of MC9S12DP512 and outside oscillatory circuit, reset circuit, the power circuit.
Described power driving circuit comprises that model is the chip for driving of IR2130, peripheral circuit, inverter and the current sensor that model is the chip for driving of IR2130, model is to be that electric wire connects between the peripheral circuit of the chip for driving of IR2130 and the chip for driving that model is IR2130, model is to be that electric wire connects between the chip for driving of IR2130 and the inverter, is the electric wire connection between inverter and the current sensor.The applicant has declared Chinese patent in 2008 with wheel EMB actuator controller, and its application number is 2008200723265, and the applying date is on 08 26th, 2008, and denomination of invention is " controller of vehicle electromechanical brake system ".
3) wire-controlled steering system
Consult Fig. 6, it is to develop voluntarily at the the-loop test bed wire-controlled steering system that adopts that the control of line of vehicles control moving-wire turns to hardware, mainly includes steering wheel 11, returns positive motor 16, returns positive motor decelerating mechanism 15, steering gear 20, turns to actuating motor 18, actuating motor reducing gear 17, magnetic powder brake 24.Its principle of work is: testing crew is handled steering wheel 11, target machine 2 is controlled back positive motor 16 according to steering wheel angle and car status information, make it that steering wheel counter-force of expectation is provided, control simultaneously turns to actuating motor 18, make the tooth bar of steering gear 20 produce displacement, this displacement is corresponding to the vehicle front-wheel corner.On the other hand, target machine 2 is different with the wheel steering angle according to road conditions, the speed of a motor vehicle, set different operating condition of test, control magnetic powder brake 24 by adjusting the electric current of magnetic powder brake 24, is controlled it and is produced the corresponding moment of resistance, this moment of resistance is converted into straight line force through pinion and rack 22, and give target machine 1 with signal feedback by steering drag sensor 21, the vehicle wire-controlled steering system is adjusted control signal according to feedback signal, thereby realizes steering-by-wire.
4) sensor
(1) force transducer
Force transducer mainly divides the clamping force sensor that is used on the EMB actuator and is used in 21 two kinds of steering drag sensors on the wire-controlled steering system.It is the pressure type force transducer of C9B that the control of line of vehicles control moving-wire turns to hardware clamping force sensor on the EMB actuator in the-loop test bed to adopt the model of German HBM company production, adopt corrosion resistant Stainless Steel Shell, maximum range 0kN-20kN, volume is little, and diameter has only 26mm.This force transducer is the strain chip, is used with the AE301-S7 amplifier of former factory, and precision can reach 0.5%, is output as 1mV/V, both can survey static force, can survey dynamic force again, and the dynamic force maximum frequency that can survey is 65Hz.The clamping force sensor is installed between EMB actuator inboard brake pad and the leading screw end cap.The model that steering drag sensor 21 adopts Beijing research institute of Space Dynamic to produce is the load sensor of BK-4, adopts corrosion resistant Stainless Steel Shell, maximum range-20kN-20kN.This sensor does not need amplifier, output signal 0V-5V, precision 0.5%.This testing table is provided with the near front wheel clamping force sensor, off-front wheel clamping force sensor, left rear wheel clamping force sensor and off hind wheel clamping force sensor.
(2) speed probe
For propulsion system-rotating speed of motor and the rotor-position signal that obtains EMB actuator on each wheel, can directly utilize the Hall element that is arranged in propulsion system-brshless DC motor inside.This brushless DC motor rotor has four pairs of magnetic poles, and three Hall elements are installed in the motor end, and each is separated by 120 °, and the motor corner accuracy that utilizes Hall element to record is 15 °.
The EMB actuator is when clamping brake disc 1, reach this process of maximum clamping force from Brake pad 10 contact brake discs 1, the deformation that produces is minimum, be that the corner that turns over of motor is minimum, in order to obtain the motor rotor position signal more accurately, so that the follow-up EMB actuator clamping force estimation that carries out, the control of line of vehicles control moving-wire turns to hardware at each EMB actuator afterbody photoelectric encoder to be installed the-loop test bed, its every circle can send 2000 pulses, after the quadruple, the corner accuracy that records can reach 0.045 °, output 90 ° of square-wave signals of two-way phase differential and one road zero pulse signal.This testing table is provided with the near front wheel speed probe, off-front wheel speed probe, left rear wheel speed probe and off hind wheel speed probe.
(3) current sensor
The control of line of vehicles control moving-wire turn to hardware the-loop test bed by in the propulsion system-electric motor loop of each wheel EMB actuator, sealing in high-power resistance, by surveying the mode of its both end voltage, survey armature supply.Resistor power is 100W, and resistance is 0.5 Ω.This testing table is provided with the near front wheel current sensor, off-front wheel current sensor, left rear wheel current sensor and off hind wheel current sensor.
(4) displacement transducer
In order to obtain the displacement of steering gear middle rack, the control of line of vehicles control moving-wire turns to hardware, and global model of producing along logical Science and Technology Ltd. is the linear displacement transducer of WDL200 in the-loop test bed employing Beijing, transducer range is 0mm-200mm, its output signal 0V-5V.
(5) torque sensor
For obtaining the bearing circle torque, it is the dynamic torque sensor of AKC-215 in the model that the-loop test bed employing Beijing space flight aerodynamic investigation institute produces that the control of line of vehicles control moving-wire turns to hardware, maximum range-20Nm-20Nm, output signal amplitude-5V-5V, output accuracy ± 0.5% allows maximum (top) speed 5000r/min.
(6) rotary angle transmitter
For obtaining steering wheel angle, the control of line of vehicles control moving-wire turns to the FTD photoelectric encoder of hardware in the production of the-loop test bed employing Shenzhen Philip Hurst company limited, and its every circle can send 1024 pulses, and the highest response frequency 100KHz allows maximum (top) speed 3000r/min.
The hardware components of described vehicle wire-controlled steering system mainly comprises steering control mechanism and turns to topworks's two parts.
Steering control mechanism comprises that steering wheel 11, rotary angle transmitter 12, torque sensor 13, bellows coupling 14, time positive motor decelerating mechanism 15 reach back positive motor 16.More than each parts except that bellows coupling, all be fixedly connected on the testing table by support.Steering wheel 11 output shafts link to each other with rotary angle transmitter 12 input shafts by key, rotary angle transmitter 12 output shafts are connected with torque sensor 13 input shafts by key, torque sensor 13 output shafts link to each other with time positive motor decelerating mechanism 15 output shafts by ripple shaft coupling 14, return positive motor decelerating mechanism 15 input shafts and link to each other with time positive motor 16 output shafts by key.
Turn to topworks to comprise actuating motor reducing gear 17, turn to actuating motor 18, displacement transducer 19, steering gear 20, steering drag sensor 21, pinion and rack 22, spring centering mechanism 23, magnetic powder brake 24.Turn to actuating motor 18 to be fixedly connected on the experiment table by support, its output shaft is connected with actuating motor reducing gear 17 input shafts by key, actuating motor reducing gear 17 is fixed on the testing table by support, actuating motor reducing gear 17 output shafts are connected with steering gear 20 by spline, steering rack in the steering gear 20 is fixedly connected on the testing table by support, one end of the steering rack in the steering gear 20 is connected with displacement transducer 19 on being fixed on testing table by bolt, the other end of the steering rack in the steering gear 20 contacts with an end of steering drag sensor 21, is used for measuring in real time the steering drag size.Magnetic powder brake 24 is fixed on the testing table by support, its output shaft is connected with pinion and rack 22 by spline, pinion and rack 22 is fixed on the testing table by support, one end of pinion and rack 22 middle racks links to each other with spring centering mechanism 23 on being fixedly connected on testing table by bolt, and the other end of tooth bar is fixed together by the other end of bolt and steering drag sensor 21.
Returning positive motor 16, turning to actuating motor 18 and magnetic powder brake 24 is that the 5th to the 7th digital channel electric wire of second data collecting card of PCL-818HD is connected with model respectively; The output terminal of displacement transducer 19, steering drag sensor 21, rotary angle transmitter 12 and torque sensor 13 is respectively the 5th being connected to 8A/D passage electric wire of first data collecting card of PCL-818HD with model.
The hardware components of described vehicle line control brake system includes the near front wheel EMB actuator controller, off-front wheel EMB actuator controller, left rear wheel EMB actuator controller, off hind wheel EMB actuator controller, the near front wheel EMB actuator, off-front wheel EMB actuator, left rear wheel EMB actuator, off hind wheel EMB actuator, the near front wheel clamping force sensor, off-front wheel clamping force sensor, left rear wheel clamping force sensor, off hind wheel clamping force sensor, the near front wheel speed probe, the off-front wheel speed probe, the left rear wheel speed probe, the off hind wheel speed probe, the near front wheel current sensor, the off-front wheel current sensor, left rear wheel current sensor and off hind wheel current sensor.
The input end of the near front wheel EMB actuator controller, off-front wheel EMB actuator controller, left rear wheel EMB actuator controller and off hind wheel EMB actuator controller is that the 1st to the 4th digital channel electric wire of second data collecting card of PCL-818HD is connected with model respectively; The output terminal of the near front wheel EMB actuator controller, off-front wheel EMB actuator controller, left rear wheel EMB actuator controller and off hind wheel EMB actuator controller is connected with the input end electric wire of the near front wheel EMB actuator, off-front wheel EMB actuator, left rear wheel EMB actuator and off hind wheel EMB actuator respectively; The output terminal of the near front wheel clamping force sensor, off-front wheel clamping force sensor, left rear wheel clamping force sensor and off hind wheel clamping force sensor is respectively the 1st being connected to 4A/D passage electric wire of first data collecting card of PCL-818HD with model; The output terminal of the near front wheel clamping force sensor, the near front wheel speed probe and the near front wheel current sensor is connected with the input end electric wire of the near front wheel EMB actuator controller respectively; The output terminal of off-front wheel clamping force sensor, off-front wheel speed probe and off-front wheel current sensor is connected with the input end electric wire of off-front wheel EMB actuator controller respectively; The output terminal of left rear wheel clamping force sensor, left rear wheel speed probe and left rear wheel current sensor is connected with the input end electric wire of left rear wheel EMB actuator controller respectively; The output terminal of off hind wheel clamping force sensor, off hind wheel speed probe and off hind wheel current sensor is connected with the input end electric wire of off hind wheel EMB actuator controller respectively.
The control of line of vehicles control moving-wire turns to hardware in the-loop test bed principle of work:
Consult Fig. 1,6 and 7, in main frame, adopt Matlab/Simulink to set up vehicle dynamic model and vehicle control algolithm respectively.Vehicle dynamic model mainly comprises whole vehicle model, Suspension Model, engine mockup, drive-line model, wheel movement model, tire model etc.The vehicle control algolithm mainly refers to the control algolithm of the various optimization vehicle performances relevant with line control brake system, wire-controlled steering system.Main frame will set up good vehicle dynamic model by RTW and the compiling of vehicle control algolithm becomes the real-time code that can move in xPCTarget, by LAN (Local Area Network) it is downloaded to respectively in target machine 1 and the target machine 2.
Target machine 1 is the near front wheel clamping force sensor that first data collecting card of PCL-818HD is gathered line control brake system respectively by model at first, off-front wheel clamping force sensor, the clamping force signal of left rear wheel clamping force sensor and off hind wheel clamping force sensor and the steering wheel angle of wire-controlled steering system, steering-wheel torque, front wheel steering angle (steering gear straight-line displacement) and steering drag signal, thereby obtain the required parameter of vehicle emulation, the real-time code of operational vehicle kinetic model then, running status under each operating mode of simulating vehicle, by model is the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727 and the 4th data collecting card that model is PCL-727 output vehicle-state parameter, model is the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727 is exported each wheel specially to the V/F modular converter a wheel speed voltage signal, and model is that the 4th data collecting card of PCL-727 comprises steering wheel angle to target machine 2 outputs, vertical speed of a motor vehicle, yaw velocity, longitudinal acceleration and side acceleration are in interior vehicle-state parameter.
The real-time code of target machine 2 main operation control algolithms.Target machine 2 is at first by the required vehicle-state parameter of data collecting card acquisition controlling algorithm.Wherein: it is the 5th data collecting card collection of PCI-6601 that the wheel speed voltage signal of four wheels is converted to through the V/F modular converter behind the wheel speed pulse signal of four wheels by model, and other state parameter is the second data collecting card collection of PCL-818HD by model.Target machine 2 is according to current vehicle-state parameter subsequently, utilize control algolithm to move real-time code, to line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system output control signal, target machine 2 is adjusted the steering wheel counter-force by controlling back positive motor 16, turns to sensation with the steering wheel under the simulation truth in real time; Adjust the front-wheel steer resistance by control magnetic powder brake 24, with front-wheel steer road conditions sensation under the simulation true road conditions; Turn to by adjustment to turn to actuating motor 18 to adjust the vehicle front wheel angle, to realize steering-by-wire control; Adjust the damping force size by controlling each wheel EMB actuator, to realize brake-by-wire control.Comprehensive Control by steering-by-wire and brake-by-wire reaches the purpose that improves vehicle handling stability and driving safety.Wherein control signal is to be second data collecting card output of PCL-818HD by model.
Wire-controlled steering system is according to the control signal of target machine 2 (is second data collecting card output of PCL-818HD by model), control back simultaneously positive motor 16, turn to actuating motor 18 and magnetic powder brake 24, to produce steering wheel counter-force, vehicle front-wheel corner and the steering drag of expectation.On the other hand, steering wheel angle signal, steering-wheel torque signal, front-wheel steer angle signal and front-wheel steer resistance signal, all pass through each sensor feedback and give target machine 1 and target machine 2, wire-controlled steering system is adjusted control signal according to feedback signal, thereby realizes steering-by-wire.
Each wheel EMB actuator controller clamps force signal according to the current of electric in control signal size and the EMB actuator, motor speed and braking in the line control brake system, adopts three ring control principle control EMB actuator controllers to drive the EMB actuator motions by the control signal requirement.Give target machine 1 and target machine 2 with the clamping force signal feedback more at last, make target machine 1 and target machine 2 can demonstrate each control signal effect in real time.Line control brake system is adjusted control signal according to feedback signal simultaneously, thereby realizes brake-by-wire.
Ideal machine 1 and target machine 2 feed back to state of motion of vehicle and control effect parameter main frame and judge test findings in order to make the user by LAN (Local Area Network), have finished the test of steering-by-wire and brake-by-wire hardware-in-loop simulation.Can estimate each control strategy and controlled variable the-loop test bed by operational vehicle brake-by-wire steering-by-wire hardware.
This testing table can be estimated the control effect of various control algolithms relevant with line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system, each emulation can both provide corresponding results, can provide each wheel wheel speed variation, slip rate variation, yaw velocity variation, side slip angle variation and each wheel brake pressure variation etc. as ESP emulation comprehensively, be convenient to user's real-time verification control strategy, adjust controlled variable, up to obtaining promising result.
Testing table can also be realized the optimization of matching of wire-controlled steering system, line control brake system parameter and whole-car parameters in addition, and can realize the debugging of the controlled variable of vehicle under the operating mode that is in extreme danger.Can detect, debug defective, the fault of the EMB actuator controller of the EMB actuator of wire-controlled steering system that this testing table adopts, line control brake system, each wheel and each wheel.
Because having realized wire-controlled steering system, line control brake system, the EMB actuator of each wheel and the hardware of each wheel EMB actuator controller is encircling, every performance that test obtains and acquisition parameters optimization and real train test are more approaching, thereby significantly reduce the real train test number of times, shorten the construction cycle, save cost of development.

Claims (3)

1. line of vehicles control moving-wire control turns to hardware the-loop test bed, is made up of line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system; Described line control brake system and wire-controlled steering system are divided into software section, real-time platform, signal processing and hardware components again; Described real-time platform is made up of main frame, first target machine and second target machine, it is characterized in that described signal processing is that first data collecting card of PCL-818HD, second data collecting card that model is PCL-818HD, the 3rd data collecting card that model is PCL-727, the 4th data collecting card that model is PCL-727, the 5th data collecting card and the V/F modular converter that model is PCI-6601 are formed by model;
Model is to adopt isa bus to connect between first data collecting card of PCL-818HD and first target machine, model is to adopt isa bus to connect between the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727 and the 4th data collecting card that model is PCL-727 and first target machine, model is to adopt electric wire to connect between the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727 and four the V/F modular converters, four V/F modular converters and model are to adopt electric wire to connect between the 5th data collecting card of PCI-6601, model is to adopt pci bus to connect between the 5th data collecting card of PCI-6601 and second target machine, model is to adopt isa bus to connect between second data collecting card of PCL-818HD and second target machine, model is to adopt electric wire to connect between second data collecting card of PCL-818HD and the 4th data collecting card that model is PCL-727, model be PCL-818HD second data collecting card output terminal respectively and line control brake system, hardware components electric wire in the wire-controlled steering system connects;
Described hardware components includes steering wheel (11), rotary angle transmitter (12), torque sensor (13), bellows coupling (14), returns positive motor (16), returns positive motor decelerating mechanism (15), magnetic powder brake (24), spring centering mechanism (23), pinion and rack (22), steering drag sensor (21), steering gear (20), displacement transducer (19), turns to actuating motor (18) and actuating motor reducing gear (17); The near front wheel EMB actuator controller, off-front wheel EMB actuator controller, left rear wheel EMB actuator controller, off hind wheel EMB actuator controller, the near front wheel EMB actuator, off-front wheel EMB actuator, left rear wheel EMB actuator, off hind wheel EMB actuator, the near front wheel clamping force sensor, off-front wheel clamping force sensor, left rear wheel clamping force sensor, off hind wheel clamping force sensor, the near front wheel speed probe, the off-front wheel speed probe, the left rear wheel speed probe, the off hind wheel speed probe, the near front wheel current sensor, the off-front wheel current sensor, left rear wheel current sensor and off hind wheel current sensor;
Steering wheel (11) output shaft links to each other with rotary angle transmitter (12) input shaft by key, rotary angle transmitter (12) output shaft is connected with torque sensor (13) input shaft by key, torque sensor (13) output shaft links to each other with time positive motor decelerating mechanism (15) output shaft by ripple shaft coupling (14), returns positive motor decelerating mechanism (15) input shaft and links to each other with time positive motor (16) output shaft by key;
The output shaft that turns to actuating motor (18) that is fixed on the experiment table is connected by the input shaft of key with actuating motor reducing gear (17), the output shaft that is fixed on the actuating motor reducing gear (17) on the testing table is connected with steering gear (20) by spline, an end that is fixed on the steering rack of the steering gear (20) on the testing table is connected with displacement transducer (19) on being fixed on testing table by bolt, the other end of the steering rack of steering gear (20) is connected with an end in contact of steering drag sensor (21), the output shaft that is fixed on the magnetic powder brake (24) on the testing table is connected with pinion and rack (22) on being fixed on testing table by spline, one end of pinion and rack (22) middle rack is connected with spring centering mechanism (23) on being fixed on testing table by bolt, and the other end of pinion and rack (22) middle rack is fixed together by the other end of bolt and steering drag sensor (21);
Returning positive motor (16), turning to actuating motor (18) and magnetic powder brake (24) is that the 5th to the 7th digital channel electric wire of second data collecting card output control signal of PCL-818HD is connected with model respectively; The output terminal of displacement transducer (19), steering drag sensor (21), rotary angle transmitter (12) and torque sensor (13) is respectively the 5th being connected to 8A/D passage electric wire of the first data collecting card acquired signal of PCL-818HD with model;
The input end of the near front wheel EMB actuator controller, off-front wheel EMB actuator controller, left rear wheel EMB actuator controller and off hind wheel EMB actuator controller is that the 1st to the 4th digital channel electric wire of second data collecting card output control signal of PCL-818HD is connected with model respectively; The output terminal of the near front wheel EMB actuator controller, off-front wheel EMB actuator controller, left rear wheel EMB actuator controller and off hind wheel EMB actuator controller is connected with the input end electric wire of the near front wheel EMB actuator, off-front wheel EMB actuator, left rear wheel EMB actuator and off hind wheel EMB actuator respectively; The output terminal of the near front wheel clamping force sensor, off-front wheel clamping force sensor, left rear wheel clamping force sensor and off hind wheel clamping force sensor is respectively the 1st being connected to 4A/D passage electric wire of first data collecting card of PCL-818HD with model; The output terminal of the near front wheel clamping force sensor, the near front wheel speed probe and the near front wheel current sensor is connected with the input end electric wire of the near front wheel EMB actuator controller respectively; The output terminal of off-front wheel clamping force sensor, off-front wheel speed probe and off-front wheel current sensor is connected with the input end electric wire of off-front wheel EMB actuator controller respectively; The output terminal of left rear wheel clamping force sensor, left rear wheel speed probe and left rear wheel current sensor is connected with the input end electric wire of left rear wheel EMB actuator controller respectively; The output terminal of off hind wheel clamping force sensor, off hind wheel speed probe and off hind wheel current sensor is connected with the input end electric wire of off hind wheel EMB actuator controller respectively;
Described software section adopts Matlab/Simulink to set up vehicle dynamic model and vehicle control algolithm respectively;
Described vehicle dynamic model mainly comprises whole vehicle model, Suspension Model, engine mockup, drive-line model, wheel movement model, tire model;
Described vehicle control algolithm mainly comprises the control algolithm with line control brake system, optimization vehicle performance that wire-controlled steering system is relevant.
2. turn to hardware the-loop test bed according to the control of the described line of vehicles control of claim 1 moving-wire, it is characterized in that described model is to adopt electric wire to connect between the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727 and four the V/F modular converters to be meant: model is the 1st being connected with the passage input end electric wire of four V/F modular converters respectively to the 4A/D passage of four wheel speed voltage signals of output of the 3rd data collecting card of PCL-727;
Described four V/F modular converters and model are to adopt electric wire to connect between the 5th data collecting card of PCI-6601 to be meant: four vehicle wheel rapid pulses of the output of four V/F modular converters are that four vehicle wheel rapid pulses of collection of the 5th data collecting card of PCI-6601 are connected towards the 1st to the 4th passage electric wire of signal with model respectively towards the 1st to the 4th channel output end of signal;
Described model is to adopt electric wire to connect between second data collecting card of PCL-818HD and the 4th data collecting card that model is PCL-727 to be meant: model be PCL-818HD second data collecting card the 1st to the 5A/D passage be the output longitudinal acceleration, side acceleration, yaw velocity, steering wheel angle of the 4th data collecting card of PCL-727 and vertical the 1st being connected to 5A/D passage electric wire of vehicle speed signal with model respectively.
3. turn to hardware the-loop test bed according to the control of the described line of vehicles of claim 1 control moving-wire, it is characterized in that, adopt the PC serial ports between described main frame and first target machine and second target machine, TCP is connected or the wireless network communications system connection;
Described wireless network communications system includes wireless network card, wireless router and two common network interface cards;
It is the wireless pc I network interface card of TWL541P that described wireless network card adopts model, is installed on the main frame; Wireless router adopts provides fixedly Wide Area Network interface and four fixed LAN interfaces and meet IEEE802.11b and the model of IEEE 802.11g wireless standard is the wireless router of TWL54R, it is 82559 network interface card that two common network interface cards all adopt model, is installed on respectively on first target machine and second target machine.
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