CN101398907B - Two-dimension code structure and decoding method for movable robot - Google Patents

Two-dimension code structure and decoding method for movable robot Download PDF

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CN101398907B
CN101398907B CN2007101224758A CN200710122475A CN101398907B CN 101398907 B CN101398907 B CN 101398907B CN 2007101224758 A CN2007101224758 A CN 2007101224758A CN 200710122475 A CN200710122475 A CN 200710122475A CN 101398907 B CN101398907 B CN 101398907B
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image
module
code
edge
unit module
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CN2007101224758A
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CN101398907A (en
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原魁
郑睿
李园
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中国科学院自动化研究所
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Abstract

The invention discloses a two-dimensional code structure and a decoding method used for a movable robot. The two-dimensional code structure is that a code pattern symbol is arranged on a substrate of a regular polygon plane graph; the code pattern symbol consists of a locating module provided with an optical reflectivity different from the substrate and a unit module; the modules are arranged on the plane pattern and are mutually kept with clearances. The decoding method utilizes a method for calculating an invariant to detect the five sides of the outer profile of the two-dimensional code and extract the two-dimensional code from the pattern; the currently captured two-dimensional code pattern is mapped to a standard code pattern for reading the code words by calculating a single mapping matrix and then decoding is carried out. The regular polygon is adopted for leading the two-dimensional code to be detected from the environment robustly; round is adopted by the modules for reducing the possibility of sticking between neighboring modules and being capable of reliably separating each module under a lower illumination degree in a remote distance; the recognition rate is ensured by the decoding method with error correction; therefore, the structure and the decoding method is suitable for the movable robot for carrying out indoor environment location and object marking.

Description

A kind of two-dimension code structure and coding/decoding method that is used for the mobile robot
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of two-dimension code structure and decoding process thereof that robot carries out indoor environment location and sign object that be used for.
Background technology
In robot vision, the extraction of environmental characteristic is a difficult problem with identification always.General environmental characteristic such as straight line etc. do not have uniqueness, even be used in combination great difficulty is arranged also, need set up cad model or in conjunction with using based on the localization method of probability, operands such as complex environment feature such as SIFT are bigger, therefore are not suitable for the exigent robot of real-time is used.In addition, the often very single and continuous repetition of the environmental characteristic in the scene utilizes these environmental characteristics to carry out object identification and will there be great difficulty the location.Therefore, under present technical conditions, utilizing artificial target's auxiliary moving robot to carry out object identification and locate will be a kind of effective solution.
Two-dimension code has that information capacity is big, error correcting capability is strong, be suitable for characteristics such as ccd video camera identification, has obtained widespread use in fields such as commercial distribution, logistics, production automation management.These characteristics of two-dimension code make it be very suitable for as the artificial target in the robot application.But, because present two-dimension code mostly designs for closely discerning, when decoding, can guarantee two-dimension code among the image that decoding equipment obtains, bigger difference be arranged, therefore can not be directly used in mobile robot's Target Recognition task with mobile robot's applied environment.
Summary of the invention
In order effectively to solve robot target identification and orientation problem, the present invention proposes MR (Mobile Robot) two-dimension code structure and its coding/decoding method that is used for the mobile robot.The objective of the invention is to design and a kind ofly can carry out two-dimension code structure and the corresponding decoding method that autonomous positioning and Target Recognition are used, on coding, still use the coded system identical with the ordinary two dimensional sign indicating number for robot.
In order to realize described purpose, one aspect of the present invention, a kind of two-dimension code structure is provided, comprise: in the substrate of regular polygon planar graph, have a yard schematic symbol, its yard schematic symbol is made up of the locating module and the unit module that have with substrate different optical reflectivity, locating module and unit module are arranged on the planar graph, between locating module and the unit module, leave the gap between the unit module.
According to embodiments of the invention, described locating module is the solid circles pattern, its diameter is the twice more than or equal to the unit module diameter, bee-line between locating module and the unit module is not less than self diameter of locating module, and the position of locating module is that the top is located near the regular polygon summit.
According to embodiments of the invention, described unit module is that size is identical, n * n solid circles pattern of equidistantly arranging, be arranged in the substrate of regular polygon planar graph in, the bottom, the distance of center circle of unit module is from the twice that is not less than the unit module diameter, and unit module is arranged with as broad as long matrix-style.
According to embodiments of the invention, the physical dimension of described unit module and the physical dimension of two-dimension code structure change according to the actual requirements.
In order to realize described purpose, the present invention provides the coding/decoding method of a kind of mobile robot's of being used for two-dimension code on the other hand, comprises as follows
Step 1: obtain a yard schematic symbol image;
Step 2: the sign indicating number schematic symbol image that obtains is proofreaied and correct;
Step 3: the image after proofreading and correct is carried out binaryzation;
Step 4: binary image is carried out edge extracting;
Step 5: usefulness calculating Invariant Methods detects five limits in the two-dimension code outline edge from the edge;
Step 6: utilize five limits that module is detected and find out locating module, determine current sign indicating number schematic symbol principal direction;
Step 7: utilize principal direction calculate from the standard code figure of two-dimension code to current obtain image singly reflect matrix;
Step 8: utilization is singly reflected matrix present image is mapped to standard code figure;
Step 9: unit module is sought in the relevant position in the image after mapping, generates the correspondence code speech;
Step 10: reduction of sign indicating number speech and error correction.
According to embodiments of the invention, use the optimal threshold algorithm to image binaryzation, concrete steps are as follows:
Step 31: set initial threshold T 0
Step 32: in the t step, the gray average of calculating prospect and background, the prospect average of establishing is U f, background mean value is U b
Step 33: calculate the t+1 threshold value T in step (t+1)=(U f+ U b)/2;
Step 34: if T (t+1)=T (t)Then stop, otherwise return step 32.
According to embodiments of the invention, described edge extracting comprises that step is as follows:
Step 41: use the Tuscany edge detection operator to handle binary image and obtain edge image;
Step 42: using the edge thinning technology is that single pixel on the eight neighborhood meanings connects the edge with edge thinning;
Step 43: single pixel is connected the edge remove its a large amount of short and curvature not to be approximately zero promptly be not the edge of straight line.
According to embodiments of the invention, described detection outline comprises that step is as follows:
Step 51: travel through the current line segment that obtains in the image, whether approaching mutually with its all line segments groupings according to the end points of these line segments, the approaching line segment of all end points divides at one group;
Step 52: the group that comprises less than five line segments is not dealt with, the batch total that comprises five line segments is calculated invariant, the group that comprises N>5 line segment is is got 5 combination among the N, every kind of combined situation is calculated invariant;
Step 53: each invariant is compared with demarcating the invariant that obtains, and five line segments corresponding with its immediate invariant are the part of detected outline, and each line segment is all limits of outline in the sets of line segments at these five line segment places.
According to embodiments of the invention, described detection and location module comprises that step is as follows:
Step 61: the position of intersecting point that in the image that obtains, calculates all limits of detected outline;
Step 62: search locating module in the neighborhood of position of intersecting point D * D, D is the locating module diameter;
Step 63: each block size is compared, and maximum is locating module.
According to embodiments of the invention, utilize detected locating module to determine the corresponding relation and the current position that obtains each summit of outline in the image on each summit among current each summit that obtains outline in the image and the standard code figure, the location aware on each summit among the standard code figure singly reflects matrix so use least square method to calculate.
According to embodiments of the invention, described mapping step is as follows, establishes that certain point coordinate is (X among the standard code figure i, Y i), its homogeneous coordinates are (X i, Y i, 1), this vector multiply by singly reflect matrix calculate vectorially (X ' i, Y ' i, λ i), it is carried out normalization, make λ iEqual 1 and round, obtain the coordinate (x in the corresponding present image i, y i), the pixel value at this place is composed to (X among the standard code figure i, Y i) locate pixel, so travel through each pixel among the standard code figure, obtain mapping graph.
According to embodiments of the invention, described generated code speech step is as follows, each unit module position among the standard code figure is that coordinate is known, search module in the neighborhood of the d * d of these coordinate places in the image after mapping, d is the round unit diameter, if searching module is 1 with current bit position just, can not searches and then be changed to zero.
Good effect of the present invention: the present invention adopts the regular polygon structure on the contour design outside, thereby can adopt the method for calculating invariant to detect the outline of two-dimension code, compare with the General Two-Dimensional sign indicating number from scene, extract easier, speed is faster, be subjected to visual angle and illumination effect littler, in addition, unit module adopts the solid circles pattern, and kept a determining deviation, reduced the possibility of unit module adhesion when under low-light (level) and remote situation, discerning, to compare recognition effect better with the General Two-Dimensional sign indicating number, and these characteristics make the present invention be very suitable for the mobile robot to carry out indoor environment location and sign object.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a sign indicating number schematic symbol example of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the data block of MR two-dimension code and the example that error correction block distributes;
Fig. 3 is the two-dimension code original image of actual acquisition;
Fig. 4 is a decoding process synoptic diagram of the present invention;
Fig. 5 is the image after overcorrect;
Fig. 6 is the image after the binaryzation;
Fig. 7 is the edge image that extracts;
Fig. 8 is detected two-dimension code outline;
Fig. 9 is the result who present image is mapped to standard code figure.
Embodiment
Describe each related detailed problem in the technical solution of the present invention in detail below in conjunction with accompanying drawing.Be to be noted that described embodiment only is intended to be convenient to the understanding of the present invention, and it is not played any qualification effect.
The two-dimension code structure that the present invention proposes is to have a yard schematic symbol in the regular polygon substrate, its yard schematic symbol is made up of the locating module and the unit module that have with substrate different optical reflectivity, locating module and unit module are arranged on the planar graph, between locating module and the unit module, leave the gap between the unit module.
In the above-mentioned two-dimension code structure, locating module is the solid circles pattern, and the position is that the top is located near the regular polygon summit, is used to indicate the direction of two-dimension code.
In the above-mentioned two-dimension code structure, unit module is identical, n * n solid circles pattern of equidistantly arranging of size, be arranged in the substrate of regular polygon planar graph in, the bottom, arrange with as broad as long matrix-style, n=3,4,5,6 ....
Above-mentioned two-dimension code, coding step is as follows: the number of 1) determining the outline and the unit module of two-dimension code; 2) unit module is carried out the distribution of data block and error correction block; 3) the input data are encoded produce data block and error correction block; 4) generated code schematic symbol.
Above-mentioned two-dimension code, decoding step is as follows: 1) obtain a yard figure image, 2) the current sign indicating number figure image that obtains is proofreaied and correct, 3) image after proofreading and correct is carried out binaryzation, 4) binary image is carried out edge extracting, 5) with five limits in the Invariant Methods detection two-dimension code outline, 6) detection and location module, determine a sign indicating number figure direction, 7) calculate from standard code figure to current obtain image singly reflect matrix, 8) present image is mapped to standard code figure, 9) unit module is sought in the relevant position in the image after mapping, generate the correspondence code speech, 10) reduction of sign indicating number speech, this step has also comprised error correction.
Figure 1 shows that a two-dimension code standard code figure example, 1 is the substrate of black regular pentagon among the figure, and 2 is circular locating module, 3 for unit module totally 8 * 8 equidistantly be arranged in figure middle part, locating module and unit module are white.The corresponding bit of each unit module, 64 unit modules according to from left to right, series arrangement from top to bottom becomes the binary code speech of one 64 bit, bit is that " 1 " corresponding unit module is a white, for " 0 " corresponding unit module is a black, does not promptly show.This standard code figure can produce also the paint program manual drawing that can carry by general mapping software such as Microsoft's windows operating system by writing generator program.
It is an example of data block and error correction block that Fig. 2 distributes, among the figure 64 unit modules are divided into 5 data block A, B, C, D, E and 3 error correction block F, G, H, this allocation scheme is relevant with the encoding and decoding code system of use, if environmental baseline is abominable, can select the strong code system of error correcting capability for use, on module assignment, reduce data block, increase error correction block, thereby improve the robustness of identification, every comprises eight unit modules also by the decision of encoding and decoding code system in addition, is the RS code system in this embodiment, if use the scale-of-two code system just not need to carry out the distribution of data block, the situation of closing n * n for sign indicating number speech length violation, with the neat remaining bits of spot patch position, as using BCH (63,45,3) the sign indicating number back sign indicating number speech length of encoding is 63, and make it can be with 8 * 8 two-dimension code structure adding one zero thereafter.
Fig. 3 has shown a secondary yard figure image that is obtained by robot, and two-dimension code standard code figure prints with the A4 paper in this embodiment, is pasted on ceiling.The sign that positions as robot, the locating module direction of two-dimension code is appointment, and when using a plurality of MR two-dimension code, the data block of each two-dimension code is different, promptly can be as ID, diverse location sticks the MR two-dimension code in the room, and robot is after reading a MR two-dimension code, just can utilize the ID value of this MR two-dimension code and directional information determine own residing position and towards, thereby realize autonomous positioning.If actual working environment and running route according to robot, the MR two-dimension code is arranged in the working environment of robot as artificial road sign in a certain order, then can constitute non-complete grating map (promptly only considering near the grid that robot actual motion route is) based on the MR two-dimension code, according to the specific tasks needs, can also add topological map information.After finishing map structuring, the path planning task of robot just is converted to the task of determining a MR two-dimension code sequence; And the independent navigation work of robot also just is converted to the robot work by pairing each position of pre-determined MR two-dimension code sequence successively.Because each MR two-dimension code not only comprises positional information but also comprise directional information, therefore, robot is easy to finish work by given path by the information that reads adjacent MR two-dimension code in practical work process, thereby realizes independent navigation.
Figure 4 shows that nine steps of decode procedure.The used original image of decoding is Fig. 3, and this image obtains video flowing by the video camera SONY FCB-EX45AP of robot equipment earlier, grasps wherein by the CG300 of Daheng image pick-up card that a frame obtains then, and this image is 24 RGB coloured images of resolution 640 * 480.
One, image rectification
The seam of ceiling has some bendings in the image as can be seen from Figure 3, and this is that distortion by camera lens causes, and distortion comprises two parts, radial distortion and centrifugal distortion, and its mathematical model is δ x(x, y)=k 1X (x 2+ y 2)+(p 1(3x 2+ y 2)+2p 2Xy), δ y(x, y)=k 2Y (x 2+ y 2)+(p 2(3x 2+ y 2)+2p 1Xy), use checkerboard demarcation pattern that it is demarcated and to calculate nonlinear distortion parameter (k 1, k 2, p 1, p 2), utilize to demarcate after the parameter that obtains is proofreaied and correct original image the result as shown in Figure 5, as can be seen from Figure 5, crooked straight line becomes straight after overcorrect.
Two, image binaryzation
For unit module is corresponded to binary number, need carry out binaryzation to image.Because original image is a cromogram in this example, need earlier 24 RGB cromograms to be converted to gray-scale map with formula Gray=0.299 * R+0.587 * G+0.114 * B, the gray-scale map that obtains is 256 grades of gray-scale maps, the brightness of each pixel defines with a byte, and span is 0 to 255, and then with optimal threshold method calculated threshold T, after obtaining threshold value T, brightness is changed to 255 greater than the pixel of T, and other pixel is changed to 0, and the image after the binaryzation as shown in Figure 6.
Three, edge extracting
Image after the binaryzation is carried out edge extracting.At first image is handled with Tuscany (Canny) operator, the edge of handling in the image of back with Canny operator all extracts, but wherein some is a straight line, some edge as unit module is not a straight line, some edge links together in addition, therefore need be further processed them, at first to carrying out iterative refinement several times, because the edge in the image after Canny operator is handled may not be single pixel wide, usually twice of iteration is just much of that, needs then all edges that links together are disconnected, and this step is to finish by the point of removing many adjacency, specific as follows: that each point in the image is judged in its eight neighborhood have several points to be adjacent, if consecutive point surpass three, then this point is eliminated, and judges the curvature of each edge segments at last, keeping curvature near zero edge segments, promptly may be the segment of straight line.Result as shown in Figure 7, as can be seen from Figure 7, the edge that only is approximately straight line has kept, and the edge of circular unit module has been removed, outline end points place does not connect, this is caused by the point of removing many adjacency just.
Four, detect outline
This step need be operated to select and wherein be belonged to yard line segment of figure outline many near linears that processing in the 3rd step obtains.At first whether approaching with its grouping according to end points, this step realizes in the following way: set up one and the equal-sized two-dimentional two-value array of original image, be that the straight line end points is 1 with this position of this array then in original image on the correspondence position, all the other are changed to 0, in this two-dimensional array, search for then, to each is whether to have 1 in the neighborhood of its L * L of position probing of 1, if there is line segment to be grouped in a certain group with this point-to-point transmission, and just detected 1 position is arranged near the repeat search process until there not being new line segment can be grouped into this group again; Calculate invariant then in each group, the group that comprises less than five line segments is not processed, the group that comprises n (n>5) bar line segment is is got 5 combination among the n, to every kind of combined situation calculating invariant, the computing formula of invariant is as follows:
I 1 = | M 431 | | M 521 | | M 421 | | M 531 | , I 2 = | M 431 | | M 532 | | M 432 | | M 521 |
M wherein Ijk=(l i, l j, l k), l=(l 1, l 2, l 3) TExpression straight-line equation: l 1X+l 2Y+l 3=0), | M| is a determinant of a matrix.
At last each invariant and the invariant that is obtained by demarcation are compared, five limits corresponding with its immediate invariant promptly constitute detected outline.Figure 8 shows that and on bianry image, draw detected five straight lines.
Five, determine principal direction
In this step, at first calculate the coordinate of the intersection point on five limits, the search pixel value is 255 zone in the neighborhood of the D * D of intersection point place then, size is carried out relatively in each zone of finding, wherein maximum is locating module, wherein D is the diameter of locating module among the standard code figure, unit is a pixel, when obtaining image size with standard code figure gap when too big, also need D be multiply by scale factor k, the image in 2 D code size that k equals to obtain is divided by standard code figure size, because the profile of two-dimension code is a regular pentagon, so be difficult to calculate its real area, and with the area approximation of boundary rectangle.
Six, matrix is singly reflected in calculating
After having determined the position of locating module, the corresponding relation on summit has also just been determined among apex coordinate that calculates in the 5th step and the standard code figure, five each coordinates of apex coordinate have two values, can list ten equations, use least square method just can calculate eight parameters of singly reflecting matrix.Detailed process is as follows:
If singly reflect matrix M be:
M = m 1 m 2 m 3 m 4 m 5 m 6 m 7 m 8 1 ,
Vector m=[m 1m 2M 8] T, then m can use formula M=(K TK) -1K TU calculates,
Wherein
K = x i y i 1 0 0 0 - x i u i - y i u i 0 0 0 x i y i 1 - x i v i - y i v i . . . . . . ,
U=[u i?v i…] T
(u i, v i) (i=1 ..., 5) and be the coordinate on five summits in the image that obtains,
(x i, y i) (i=1 ..., 5) and be the coordinate on five summits among the standard code figure.
Seven, image mapped
Generally speaking, standard code figure is bigger than the sign indicating number schematic symbol that obtains in the present image, therefore finishes image mapped with following mode, and certain point coordinate is (X in the accurate image of bidding i, Y i), its homogeneous coordinates are (X i, Y i, 1), this vector multiply by singly reflect matrix calculate vectorially (X ' i, Y ' i, λ i), it is carried out normalization, make λ iEqual 1 and round, obtain the coordinate (x in the corresponding present image i, y i), the pixel value at this place is composed to (X in the standard picture i, Y i) locate pixel, so travel through each pixel of standard picture, obtain mapping graph as shown in Figure 9.
Eight, generated code speech
Each unit module position in the standard picture is that coordinate is known, the search module in the neighborhood of the d * d of corresponding coordinate place (d is the round unit diameter) by from left to right, in the image of order from top to bottom after mapping, just can search current bit position 1, search is less than then being changed to zero.
Nine, information reverting and error correction
The utilization error correction algorithm carries out yard a speech reduction and an error correction, is the RS algorithm in this example.
The above; only be the embodiment among the present invention; but protection scope of the present invention is not limited thereto; anyly be familiar with the people of this technology in the disclosed technical scope of the present invention; can understand conversion or the replacement expected; all should be encompassed in of the present invention comprising within the scope, therefore, protection scope of the present invention should be as the criterion with the protection domain of claims.

Claims (8)

1. coding/decoding method that is used for mobile robot's two-dimension code structure, the two-dimension code structure that described coding/decoding method is suitable for is characterised in that: have a yard schematic symbol in the substrate of regular pentagon planar graph, its yard schematic symbol is made up of the locating module and the unit module that have with substrate different optical reflectivity, locating module and unit module are arranged on the planar graph, between locating module and the unit module, leave the gap between the unit module; Described locating module is the solid circles pattern, its diameter is the twice more than or equal to the unit module diameter, bee-line between locating module and the unit module is not less than self diameter of locating module, and the position of locating module is that the top is located near the regular polygon summit; Described unit module is that size is identical, n * n solid circles pattern of equidistantly arranging, be arranged in the substrate of regular pentagon planar graph in, the bottom, the distance of center circle of unit module is from the twice that is not less than the unit module diameter, and unit module is arranged with as broad as long matrix-style; The decoding step of the two-dimension code of said structure is as follows:
Step 1: obtain a yard schematic symbol image;
Step 2: the sign indicating number schematic symbol image that obtains is proofreaied and correct;
Step 3: the image after proofreading and correct is carried out binaryzation;
Step 4: binary image is carried out edge extracting;
Step 5: usefulness calculating Invariant Methods detects five limits in the two-dimension code outline edge from the edge;
Step 6: utilize five limits that module is detected and find out locating module, determine current sign indicating number schematic symbol principal direction;
Step 7: utilize principal direction calculate from the standard code figure of two-dimension code to current obtain image singly reflect matrix;
Step 8: utilization is singly reflected matrix present image is mapped to standard code figure;
Step 9: unit module is sought in the relevant position in the image after mapping, generates the correspondence code speech;
Step 10: reduction of sign indicating number speech and error correction.
2. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: use the optimal threshold algorithm to image binaryzation, concrete steps are as follows:
Step 31: set initial threshold T 0
Step 32: in the t step, the gray average of calculating prospect and background, the prospect average of establishing is U f, background mean value is U b
Step 33: calculate the t+1 threshold value T in step (t+1)=(U f+ U b)/2;
Step 34: if T (t+1)=T (t)Then stop, otherwise return step 32.
3. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described edge extracting comprises that step is as follows:
Step 41: use the Tuscany edge detection operator to handle binary image and obtain edge image;
Step 42: using the edge thinning technology is that single pixel on the eight neighborhood meanings connects the edge with edge thinning;
Step 43: single pixel is connected the edge remove its a large amount of short and curvature not to be approximately zero promptly be not the edge of straight line.
4. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described detection outline comprises that step is as follows:
Step 51: travel through the current line segment that obtains in the image, whether approaching mutually with all line segments groupings according to the end points of these line segments, the approaching line segment of all end points divides at one group;
Step 52: the group that comprises less than five line segments is not dealt with, the batch total that comprises five line segments is calculated invariant, the group that comprises N>5 line segment is is got 5 combination among the N, every kind of combined situation is calculated invariant;
Step 53: each invariant is compared with demarcating the invariant that obtains, and five line segments corresponding with its immediate invariant are the part of detected outline, and each line segment is all limits of outline in the sets of line segments at these five line segment places.
5. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described detection and location module comprises that step is as follows:
Step 61: the position of intersecting point that in the image that obtains, calculates all limits of detected outline;
Step 62: search locating module in the neighborhood of position of intersecting point D * D, D is the locating module diameter;
Step 63: each block size is compared, and maximum is locating module.
6. method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: utilize detected locating module to determine the corresponding relation and the current position that obtains each summit of outline in the image on each summit among current each summit that obtains outline in the image and the standard code figure, the location aware on each summit among the standard code figure singly reflects matrix so use least square method to calculate.
7. method according to claim 1 is characterized in that: described mapping step is as follows, establishes that certain point coordinate is (X among the standard code figure i, Y i), its homogeneous coordinates are (X i, Y i, 1), this vector multiply by singly reflect matrix calculate vectorially (X ' i, Y ' i, λ i), it is carried out normalization, make λ iEqual 1 and round, obtain the coordinate (x in the corresponding present image i, y i), the pixel value at this place is composed to (X in the standard picture i, Y i) locate pixel, so travel through each pixel among the standard code figure, obtain mapping graph.
8. method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described generated code speech step is as follows, each unit module position among the standard code figure is that coordinate is known, search module in the neighborhood of the d * d of these coordinate places in the image after mapping, d is the round unit diameter, if searching module is 1 with current bit position just, can not searches and then be changed to zero.
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