CN101346638A - Positioning for WLANs and other wireless networks - Google Patents

Positioning for WLANs and other wireless networks Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101346638A
CN101346638A CNA2006800493074A CN200680049307A CN101346638A CN 101346638 A CN101346638 A CN 101346638A CN A2006800493074 A CNA2006800493074 A CN A2006800493074A CN 200680049307 A CN200680049307 A CN 200680049307A CN 101346638 A CN101346638 A CN 101346638A
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China
Prior art keywords
access point
measured value
terminal
equipment
location
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CNA2006800493074A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
斯蒂芬·W·埃奇
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高通股份有限公司
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Priority to US73463105P priority Critical
Priority to US60/734,631 priority
Priority to US60/748,225 priority
Priority to US60/856,684 priority
Application filed by 高通股份有限公司 filed Critical 高通股份有限公司
Priority claimed from CN201610453051.9A external-priority patent/CN106054129A/en
Publication of CN101346638A publication Critical patent/CN101346638A/en

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Abstract

Techniques for positioning access points and terminals in WLANs and other wireless networks are described. For access point positioning, measurements are obtained for at least one access point in a WLAN. The measurements may be based on transmission sequences (e.g., beacon frames) transmitted periodically by each access point. The measurements may be made by multiple terminals at different locations or a single mobile terminal at different locations. The location of each access point is determined based on the measurements and known locations of the terminal(s). For terminal positioning, measurements for at least one access point in a WLAN are obtained. The location of the terminal is determined based on the measurements and known location of each access point. The measurements may be round trip time (RTT) measurements, observed time difference (OTD) measurements, time of arrival (TOA) measurements, signal strength measurements, signal quality measurements, etc.

Description

The location of WLAN and other wireless network

The application's case is advocated the 60/734th of being entitled as of application on November 7th, 2005 " the location solution (LOCATION SOLUTIONS APPLICABLE TO WIRELESS LOCAL AREANETWORKS (WLANs)) that is applicable to wireless lan (wlan) ", No. 631 interim U. S. application cases, the 60/748th of being entitled as of on Dec 6th, 2005 application " being applicable to location solution (LOCATION SOLUTIONAPPLICABLE TO A TERMINAL SERVED BY A WIRELESS LAN) " by the terminal of WLAN service, the right of priority of [file number 060145P3] number interim U. S. application case that is entitled as " to the support (Supportfor WLAN Positioning in SUPL) of the location of the WLAN among the SUPL " of No. 225 interim U. S. application cases and application on November 4th, 2006, all described interim U. S. application cases all transfer the assignee of the application's case, and are incorporated herein by reference.

Technical field

The present invention relates generally to communication, and more particularly, relates to the technology that is used to carry out the location.

Background technology

The cordless communication network widespread deployment is to be used to provide various communication services, for example voice, video, integrated data, message transmission, broadcasting etc.These wireless networks can be to support the multi-access network of a plurality of user's communications by sharing available network resource.The example of this type of multi-access network comprises CDMA (CDMA) network, time division multiple access (TDMA) (TDMA) network, frequency division multiple access (FDMA) network and quadrature FDMA (OFDMA) network.

Usually need (and sometimes must) to know the position of terminal in wireless network.Term " position " and " location " are synonyms, and are used interchangeably in this article.For instance, the user can utilize terminal to browse web sites, and can click on the content of position sensing.Then, can determine the position of described terminal, and use it for to the user suitable content is provided.Exist and manyly know that the position of terminal is other useful or essential situation.

Some wireless networks (for example cdma network) can easily be supported the location.These wireless networks can have many base stations, and it transmits with the time sequence information encoded signals.Can determine the position of terminal based on the known fixed location of the time-ordered measurement value of a large amount of base stations and these base stations.In some wireless networks, may not know the position of transmitter, or may there be uncertainty in emitter position.However, may still need to determine the position of terminal in this wireless network.

Summary of the invention

This paper describes and is used for locating the access point of wireless lan (wlan) and other wireless network and the technology of terminal.The location refers to the process of the geographic position estimated value of measurement/calculating destination apparatus.The location estimation value also can be called as location estimation value, location etc.

In one aspect, for the access point location, obtain measured value at least one access point among the WLAN.Described measured value can be based on the transfer sequence that is periodically transmitted by each access point (for example, beacon frame).Described measured value can be produced by a plurality of terminals at diverse location place or the single mobile terminal at diverse location place.Based on the known location of described measured value and described terminal and further determine the position of each access point according to localization method, described localization method for example be two-way time (RTT) method, (OTD) method of observed mistiming, time of arrival (TOA) method etc.

On the other hand, obtain reception at least one position from least one terminal of the transmission of access point.Based on the position that at least one position and the possibility extraneous information of described at least one terminal are determined access point, described extraneous information for example is the scope restriction of the employed radiotelegraphy of WLAN, described at least one terminal or the employed through-put power of access point etc.

Aspect another,, obtain the measured value of at least one access point among the WLAN for terminal positioning.Based at least one position of described measured value and described at least one access point and further determine the position of terminal according to localization method, described localization method for example is RTT method, OTD method, TOA method, signal strength/quality method, access point identity (AP ID) method etc.

Aspect another, obtain a plurality of position result (for example, probability density function) at multiple localization method.Described position result is made up, to obtain final position result (for example, final probability density function).The location estimation value that obtains to stand based on described final position result.

Various aspects of the present invention and feature hereinafter are described in further detail.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 shows the WLAN that supports the location.

Fig. 2 A and Fig. 2 B show the location of access point.

Fig. 3 shows that a terminal pins measures two OTD that access point carried out.

Fig. 4 shows that two terminal pins measure a TOA that access point carried out.

Fig. 5 shows the mobile history of access point.

Fig. 6 shows the deployment with user plane location.

Fig. 7 shows the deployment with control plane location.

Fig. 8 shows the process that is used to locate one or more access points.

Fig. 9 shows the process that is used to locate an access point.

Figure 10 shows the process that is used to locate a terminal.

Figure 11 shows the process that is used for the block position result.

Figure 12 shows to have the WLAN location that user/control plane is located.

Figure 13 shows access point, terminal and the webserver.

Embodiment

This paper describes the technology of the location be used for supporting wireless network.Described technology can be used for various wireless networks, for example wireless lan (wlan), wireless wide area network (WWAN), Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) (WMAN), radio network etc.Term " network " and " system " are used interchangeably usually.WWAN is for managing the wireless network that zone (for example, city, state or whole country) provides communication to cover significantly.WWAN can be a cellular network, for example cdma network, TDMA network, FDMA network, OFDMA network etc.But radiotelegraphys such as cdma network embodiment such as wideband CDMA (W-CDMA), cdma2000.Cdma2000 is contained IS-2000, IS-95 and IS-856 standard.The TDMA network can be implemented radiotelegraphy, for example global system for mobile communications (GSM), digital advanced mobile phone system (D-AMPS) etc.D-AMPS is contained IS-248 and IS-54.These various radiotelegraphys and standard are known in this technology.In document, W-CDMA and GSM are described from " third generation partner program " tissue (3GPP) by name.In document, cdma2000 is described from " third generation partner program 2 " tissue (3GPP2) by name.3GPP and 3GPP2 document be disclose available.

WLAN is the wireless network that provides communication to cover for less or medium geographic area (for example, buildings, market, cafe, departure hall, school, hospital etc.).But WLAN embodiment is as the radiotelegraphy by any radiotelegraphy of definition such as IEEE 802.11, Hiperlan.But WMAN embodiment is as the radiotelegraphy by any radiotelegraphy of IEEE 802.16 definition.IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.16 are two standard series from IEEE (IEEE).IEEE 802.11 series comprise 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n standard, and are commonly called Wi-Fi.Each IEEE 802.11 standard is specified the operation of using one or more modulation techniques in the special frequency band (for example, 2.4GHz or 5GHz).IEEE 802.16 series comprise the 802.16e standard, and are commonly called WiMAX.Hiperlan is the WLAN technology of using in Europe usually.For clear, the major part of below describing content is at WLAN.

Fig. 1 shows the WLAN 100 that supports the location.WLAN 100 comprises the access point (AP) 110 of communicating by letter with terminal 120.Access point is the station of supporting the communication of the terminal be associated with described access point.Access point also can be called as the base station.For WMAN and WWAN wireless technology, access point can be by replacements such as Node B, enhancement mode Node B (e Node B), base station transceiver subsystem.Access point 110 can directly or indirectly be coupled to the webserver 130 that can carry out the various functions that are used to locate.The webserver 130 can be the set of single network entity or network entity.In general, WLAN can comprise the access point of any number.Each access point can be by access point identity (AP ID) identification, and AP ID can be included in by globally unique medium Access Control (MAC) address in the frame of access point transmission, Internet Protocol (IP) address etc.

Terminal is the station that can communicate by letter with another station via wireless medium.Terminal can be static or move, and also can be called as transfer table, subscriber equipment, subscriber stations etc.Terminal can be cellular phone, PDA(Personal Digital Assistant), handheld apparatus, wireless device, laptop computer, radio modem, wireless phone, telemetering device, tracking means etc.

Access point or terminal also can receive the signal from satellite 140, and satellite 140 can be the part of american global positioning system (GPS), european galileo system, Russian Glonass system or a certain other global position system (SPS).Terminal can be measured from the signal of access point 110 and/or from the signal of satellite 140.As indicated above, can use described measured value to determine the position of terminal and/or access point.

In general, WLAN and/or its terminal that is associated can be supported localization method and any localization method of any number.Table 1 is enumerated some localization methods that can be supported by WLAN and/or its terminal that is associated, and provides Short Description for every kind of method.

Table 1

Localization method Describe AP ID Solution based on the identity of access point. RTT Solution based on (RTT) measured value two-way time. OTD Solution based on (OTD) measured value of observed mistiming. TOA Solution based on (TOA) measured value time of arrival. Signal strength/quality Solution based on signal intensity and/or signal quality measured values. The sub-district ID that is used for A-GPS Based on sub-district ID and be used for the solution of assistant GPS (A-GPS).

In following description content, term " GPS " refers to location based on any global position system (for example, GPS, Galileo etc.) from kind.Term " A-GPS " refers to the location based on any global position system with auxiliary data from kind.

Can use localization method (a) to determine the position of terminal, and/or (b) determine the position of access point based on the known location of terminal based on the known location of access point.Available GPS, A-GPS wait and obtain described known location independently.The ability of determining access point position based on terminal location may highly need, because disposed a large amount of WLAN at present, WLAN does not always disclose known, and access point may move (that is, always not fixing).Can determine and/or the position of new access point more based on the terminal of supporting location-independent method (for example GPS, A-GPS etc.).Can use access point position to determine not support the position of the terminal of location-independent method (for example GPS, A-GPS etc.).

Can support various localization methods by terminal and/or by on-premise network server (for example, one in the webserver among Fig. 1 130 or the access point 110).But webserver command terminal provides measured value, but and the location estimation value of computing terminal and/or access point.But the webserver is the positional information of storage terminal and/or access point also, and can use described positional information to support the location.

1. AP ID method

AP ID method utilizes the known location of the access point among the WLAN to determine the position of terminal.The position can by 2 the dimension (x, y) or 3 the dimension (z) geographic coordinate provides for x, y.Can determine the position of access point in every way.In a kind of scheme, can by the WLAN operator by inquiry, use the map association to wait to determine the position of access point.In another kind of scheme, can determine the position of access point based on for example localization method such as GPS, A-GPS.

Fig. 2 A shows the scheme that is used for locating based on the known location of one or more terminals of communicating by letter with access point access point.Can determine overlay area based on the different known location of the known location of different terminals and/or same terminal at access point.Can determine the position of access point based on all known terminal positions (for example, the mean latitude of terminal location (x) coordinate and mean longitude (y) coordinate).For fear of owing to the density bigger deviation that cause of terminal in a zone than in other zone, can determine the girth of overlay area based on the outermost terminal location.Then, the position of access point can be by being provided by the point in the described girth area surrounded (for example, the centre of form of institute's enclosing region).

Fig. 2 B shows the scheme that is used for locating based on the known location of single terminal access point.The position of terminal can be provided as the apparent position of access point.This apparent position has error or depends on the uncertainty of the coverage of access point.If the WLAN technology is known (for example, 802.11b, 802.11g etc.), can limit the ultimate range of estimating from the terminal to the access point based on the scope of WLAN technology so.For instance, many 802.11 technology have about 50 to 100 meters scope restriction usually.Then, the position of access point can be similar to by terminal location, and wherein actual access point position is positioned at the center and is limited the circle that provides by scope in extreme positions and radius.Usually provide the scope restriction at maximum transmission power that the WLAN technology allowed.Therefore, if known access point or terminal use the power that is less than described maximum transmission power to communicate, can use small radii (and so less uncertainty) at described circle so.

In general, (for example, by drawing or investigation) or on the spot by using any position of determining access point in the described localization method on the contrary in advance.Specifically, can determine access point position based on one or more known location of one or more terminals of supporting reliable and accurate localization method (for example GPS, A-GPS etc.).

The identity of the access point that AP ID method can receive based on the identity of the access point of service terminal or by terminal and the known location of described access point provide the location estimation value to terminal.The position of access point can be provided as the location estimation value of terminal.This location estimation value has the uncertainty by the coverage decision of access point, and described coverage can as indicated abovely be estimated based on the WLAN technology.The accuracy of location estimation value then can be depending on the scope restriction of WLAN technology.For (for example having limited covering, for some IEEE 802.11 technology, to nearly 50 meters) the WLAN technology, the location estimation value may be quite accurate, and for the scope with expansion or use repeater to enlarge WLAN, WMAN and the WWAN technology of covering, the accuracy of location estimation value may be less.

Can make the position of access point can be used in the overlay area and/or the terminal in other network.For instance, in IEEE802.11WLAN, access point can be included in its position in the beacon that periodically is broadcast to terminal.In the case, can receive the possible position that can estimate described terminal based on the access point position that obtains from described beacon of terminal of described beacon.

2. The RTT method

The RTT method provides the location estimation value at station based on the known location to the RTT measured value at one or more other stations and described other station.For instance, terminal can be measured the two-way time that the radio signal between described terminal and one or more access points is propagated.Then can use triangulation technique, determine the position of terminal based on the known location of described RTT measured value and access point.

Can produce the RTT measured value in every way.For instance, in IEEE 802.11v, terminal sends to access point with message (for example, having claim frame), and receives the affirmative acknowledgement (for example, having response frame) from described access point.Described affirmative acknowledgement can contain the time delay between transmission time of first's (for example, first or chip) of the time of reception of the last part at terminal message that measured by access point (for example, last position or chip) and described affirmative acknowledgement.Terminal can be measured the time delay between the time of reception of first of transmission time of last part of described message and described affirmative acknowledgement.Then, described terminal can deduct the time delay by the access point report from the time delay that is measured by terminal, to obtain the measured value of RTT.Also can use other scheme to measure and send given message and the mistiming that receives between responding.

Can be by obtaining the RTT measured value of one or more terminals and using the position that access point is determined in triangulation on the contrary with known location.In the case, for each terminal with known location, the RTT that arrives access point can be measured by terminal or described access point.Then, can use triangulation, obtain the position of access point based on the RTT measured value that identical or different terminal produced of different known position.

In general, can obtain the location estimation value at station (for example, terminal or access point) with the RTT method based on the measured value relevant that obtains at one or more other stations with the position.May be much more accurate with the location estimation value that the RTT method obtains than the location estimation value that obtains with AP ID method.The RTT method is attempted the position at pinpoint station, and the APID method is estimated the described position that stands on the whole overlay area.

3. The OTD method

The OTD method provides the location estimation value at station based on the known location to the OTD measured value at other station and other station.For instance, terminal can measure access point between observed transmission time sequence poor.These measured values can be based on containing from the implicit expression of access point or the transmission of explicit time sequence information.These transmission can be corresponding to the beacon frame of periodically being broadcasted by access point among the IEEE 802.11WLAN.Then, can use trilateration, obtain the position of terminal based on these measured values.

Fig. 3 shows the OTD measurement that a terminal i is carried out at two access points P and Q.Each access point transmits a succession of transfer sequence, for example the sequence of the encoded data of scale-of-two.Each transfer sequence contains implicit expression or explicit relative time reference.Access point P and Q can be respectively with fixing repetition interval T PAnd T QPeriodically transmit its transfer sequence.The duration of each transfer sequence can be equal to or less than described repetition interval.Described transfer sequence repeats regularly, because the identifiable information structure repeats regularly, but the structure that repeats may contain or may not contain the information of repetition.For instance, each transfer sequence can be corresponding to the beacon frame among the IEEE 802.11.

Access point P can have relative accurate and stable clock with Q, but also asynchronous usually.Therefore, can not know the definite time that sends described transfer sequence.Each transfer sequence contains the mark that can be used as time reference.Be shown M from the label table in the transfer sequence of access point P P, and be shown M from the label table in the transfer sequence of access point Q QMark M PAnd M QCan be beginning, ending or the intermediate point of its respective transmissions sequence.

Terminal i receives two transfer sequences from access point P and Q, and discerns the mark in the transfer sequence that receives.Terminal i is expressed as M respectively from two marks that access point P and Q receive PiAnd M QiTerminal i is measured the mark M from access point P PiTime of arrival with from the mark M of access point Q QiTime of arrival between poor.Differ from this time of arrival and be expressed as OTD i

Mark M PiWith M QiBetween real time difference be expressed as RTD i, and be poor between the absolute transmission time of these marks of access point P and Q.If terminal i is equidistant between access point P and Q, so RTD iEqual OTD iOtherwise, RTD iAnd OTD iAnd the distance dependent between terminal i and access point P and the Q, and can be expressed as:

OTD i=A (M Pi)-A (M Qi) equation (1)

RTD i=T (M Pi)-T (M Qi) equation (2)

T (M wherein Ki) be mark M from access point k KiThe absolute transmission time, wherein k=P or Q, and A (M Ki) be the mark M at terminal i place KiAbsolute time of arrival.

Equation (1) and (2) are capable of being combined as follows:

OTD i - RTD i = { A ( M Pi ) - T ( M Pi ) } - { A ( M Qi ) - T ( M Qi ) }

= D Pi - D Qi c Equation (3)

= ( x i - x P ) 2 + ( y i - y P ) 2 - ( x i - x Q ) 2 + ( y i - y Q ) 2 c

D wherein KiBe the distance between terminal i and the access point k,

(x k, y k) be the horizontal x of access point k position, the y coordinate,

(x i, y i) be the horizontal x of terminal i position, the y coordinate, and

C is a signal velocity, for example the light velocity.

For simplicity, vertical coordinate is left in the basket in equation (3), but can be added easily, as is appreciated by those skilled in the art that.In equation (3), OTD iCan measure by terminal i, and all other variablees are known maybe can solving.For instance, can use GPS, A-GPS to wait the coordinate that obtains terminal i independently.In the case, equation (3) will contain five known variables: the x and the y coordinate of each in two access points, and mark M PiWith M QiBetween RTD.To identical mark M PiAnd M QiFive OTD measured values can produce by five different terminals of different known position, and be used to solve described five known variables.Perhaps, five OTD measured values can be produced by the single terminal of five different known position, and are used to solve described five known variables.Therefore, can obtain the unknown x of described two access points based on five OTD measured values, the y coordinate from one or more terminals of different known position.

Usually can not obtain the OTD measured value at same tag by different terminals.Instead, different terminals is marked at different time based on the difference in the different transfer sequences usually and produces the OTD measured value.The single terminal that moves also can be when diverse location produces the OTD measured value at different time at isolabeling not.Under any kind situation, the RTD of mark that is used for the different OTD measured values that produce at different time is may not can all identical.

For the OTD measured value that is produced by different terminals, (RTD of i ≠ j) is relevant as follows to can be applicable to any two terminal i and j.

RTD i-RTD j={T(M Pi)-T(M Qi)}-{T(M Pj)-T(M Qj)}

Equation (4)

={T(M Pi)-T(M Pj)}-{T(M Qi)-T(M Qj)}

RTD wherein i-RTD jThe RTD that is terminal i and j is poor, and T (M Ki)-T (M Kj) be from the time interval between two marks of access point k.

Equation (4) indication can be based on to obtain the RTD of terminal i and k not poor the time interval between the isolabeling from each two in two access points.If two mark in the present same transfer sequence, and the time that they occur in described transfer sequence be known, can determine the time interval of each access point so.If two mark in the now different transfer sequences, if (a) time interval from the beginning of each transfer sequence to corresponding mark is known, and (b) time interval between the beginning of two transfer sequences is known, so also can determine the time interval of each access point.Recurrence interval T between continuous transfer sequence kBe known, and sequence numbering of each transfer sequence delivery, can satisfy condition so (b).If transfer sequence is numbered, so can be to counting to the sequence number of the sequence that contains second mark from the sequence that contains first mark.If transfer sequence is not numbered, may there be indeterminate property in the value of the difference of the RTD in the equation (4) so.This indeterminate property has form p*T P+ q*T Q, T wherein PAnd T QBe respectively the recurrence interval of access point P and Q, and p and q can be the unknown number purpose plus or minus round valuess that corresponds respectively to from the sequence between the mark of access point P and Q.If the recurrence interval is identical to two access points, or T P=T Q, and compare greatly with the maximal value of equation (3) right-hand side (making that the propagation delay that arrives any terminal is more much smaller at interval than repeating), the indeterminate property disappearance of RTD difference so because only one be used for uncertainty (p+q) * T PValue separating of equation (3) will be provided.

Know and arbitraryly allow to use equation (3) to come to solve four unknown x and the y coordinate that a unknown RTD adds two access points with five OTD measured values to the difference between the RTD.The RTD of an OTD measured value can be expressed as known variables X.The RTD of each all the other OTD measured value can be expressed as X+K, wherein can determine K from equation (4).

Access point should send its transfer sequence with good sequential/frequency accuracy and stability, and OTD measures so that allow terminal to carry out accurately.From the transfer sequence of a pair of access point may be owing to the cause of the clock inexactness in one or two access point in time past drift about.In the case, from described to the RTD between the mark of access point with time to time change.RTD from two marks of two access point P and Q transmission when time t can be given:

RTD (t)=a nT n+ a N-1T N-1+ ... + a 1T 1+ a 0Equation (5)

Wherein RTD (t) is the RTD between two marks that send from access point P and Q when transmission time t, and a iBe coefficient, 0≤i≤n and n>0 wherein.

For the linear drift (it may be the drift of common type) of RTD, a iTo be zero, wherein i>1.For the secondary drift of RTD, a iTo be zero, wherein i>2.Usually, higher coefficient will be zero or almost nil.The number that is used for separating the variable of equation (3) can increase the number of the unknown nonzero coefficient of equation (5), so that consider the drift of RTD.The extra OTD measured value that can be used to the similar number of the terminal known from the position obtains the coordinate of access point.

Equation (3) also can be used for determining to obtain with known location the position of terminal of the OTD measured value of two pairs or more access point.In the case, equation (3) will contain three known variables: the x of terminal and y coordinate, and from the RTD between the mark of access point.If the RTD between access point relation is known maybe can determining (for example, as indicated above or via a certain other method), the number of equation can reduce so.For instance, available two equatioies that are used for two pairs of access points solve the coordinate (x of terminal i i, y i) separate.Available three access points form these two right, one of them access point by two to shared.Be used for each equation, can solving the coordinate (x of terminal i access point i, y i), the access point P of described centering and the coordinate (x of Q P, y P) and (x Q, y Q) be known, can measure the OTD of these access points, and the RTD of these access points can be known maybe can being determined.

The OTD method is used by terminal pins the measured value of access point to observed transmission time sequence difference.Described measured value can produce at one time, draw close in time or may disperse in time.The OTD method can be used the position of determining access point from the OTD measured value of the terminal with known location.The OTD method also can use the known location of the OTD measured value of self terminal and access point to determine the position of terminal.Terminal can be measured the transmission (if the position of described access point is determined) from two or more access points, and can measure the transmission (if the position of terminal is determined) from three or three above access points.

The advantage of OTD method is that access point and WLAN access network (AN) do not need to participate in described method.This has been avoided the influence to existing wlan implementation scheme and standard.In addition, there is no need to have any explicit signaling from the terminal to the access point.However, still available network services device (for example, the webserver among Fig. 1 130) is supported the OTD method.But webserver command terminal produces the OTD measured value, and can receive the measured value from described terminal.The webserver can be carried out the calculating relevant with the position as indicated above, solves terminal location and/or access point position to use the OTD measured value, for example, and as in equation (3).

The OTD method can be used for sending implicit expression or explicit sequential any WLAN technology for information about.But can be via the frame of the frame structure that repeats, repetition, contain counter or sequential other identifying information for information about and wait and provide described sequential for information about.Can be at access point to producing the OTD measured value.The access point of every centering can be supported identical or different WLAN technology, as long as the OTD measured value can be with relevant from the identifiable marker in the transmission of each access point.

The OTD method can be similar to (E-OTD) method of observed mistiming of the enhancement mode that is used for the GSM network, be used for observed time of arrival of poor (OTDOA) method and be used for AFLT (A-FLT) method of cdma2000 network of W-CDMA network.E-OTD, OTDOA and A-FLT method are only determined the position of terminal, and rely on knowing base station location.On the contrary, the OTD method can be determined the position of terminal and access point, and can be used for WLAN and other wireless network, for example GSM, W-CDMA and cdma2000 network.

4. The TOA method

The TOA method provides the location estimation value at station based on the known location to the TOA measured value at one or more other stations and described other station.For instance, terminal can be measured from each the time of arrival of mark in a plurality of access points, and absolute time is associated with each mark.Terminal can be used (for example) GPS, A-GPS to wait and obtain absolute time.Then, can use trilateration to obtain the position of terminal based on described measured value.

Fig. 4 shows that two terminal i at diverse location place and k measure at the TOA that an access point P carries out.Access point P transmits a series of transfer sequences, and wherein each transfer sequence has a mark.Terminal i receives the transfer sequence from access point P.Label table in the sequence that is received by terminal i is shown M PiTerminal j receives the transfer sequence from access point P.Label table in the sequence that is received by terminal j is shown M PjMark M PiCan with mark M PjIdentical or different.Each terminal m (m=i or j) can be based on the know next definite mark M that by described terminal from access point P received of terminal to absolute time PmAbsolute time of arrival of A (M Pm).A (M Pm) the TOA measured value that produces at access point P of expression terminal m.

The mark M at terminal i place PiAbsolute time of arrival and the mark M at terminal j place PjAbsolute time of arrival between OTD be expressed as OTD IjMark M from access point P PiAnd M PjThe absolute transmission time between RTD be expressed as RTD IjOTD IjAnd RTD IjCan be expressed as:

OTD Ij=A (M Pi)-A (M Pj), equation (6)

RTD Ij=T (M Pi)-T (M Pj) equation (7)

T (M wherein Pm) be mark M from access point P PmThe absolute transmission time, and A (M Pm) be the mark M at terminal m place PmAbsolute time of arrival.

Equation (6) and equation (7) are capable of being combined as follows:

OTD ij - RTD ij = { A ( M Pi ) - T ( M Pi ) } - { A ( M Pj ) - T ( M Pj ) }

= D Pi - D Pj c Equation (8)

= ( x i - x P ) 2 + ( y i - y P ) 2 - ( x j - x P ) 2 + ( y j - y P ) 2 c

D wherein PmBe the distance between terminal m and the access point P, (x P, y P) be the horizontal x of access point P position, y coordinate, and (x m, y m) be the horizontal x of terminal m position, the y coordinate.

For simplicity, vertical coordinate is left in the basket in equation (8), but can be added easily, as is appreciated by those skilled in the art that.Absolute time of arrival A (M Pi) and A (M Pj) can determine by terminal i and j, and be used to derive OTD Ij, as in equation (6).RTD in the equation (7) IjCan obtain easily, because it is relevant with the transmission from same access point.Can be based on the recurrence interval T between the continuous transfer sequence that sends by access point P PDetermine RTD IjIn equation (8), OTD IjAnd RTD IjCan obtain, and all other variablees are known or can be solved.For instance, can use GPS, A-GPS to wait the coordinate that obtains terminal i and j independently.In the case, equation (8) will contain two known variables: the x of access point P and y coordinate.Three TOA measured values that produced by three different terminals of different known position can be used for forming two equatioies (one of them terminal is shared by two equatioies), and it can be then used in the x of definite access point P, two known variables of y coordinate.Three TOA measured values that produced by the single terminal of different known position also can be used for determining the coordinate of access point.Position based on the definite access point of TOA method can be used for using RTT, OTD, TOA or other localization method to determine the position of terminal.

The TOA method allows based on the position of the TOA measured value of an access point only being determined described access point.This can measure under the situation from the only transmission of an access point in terminal is desirable.The TOA method makes from being associated the time of arrival of the mark of access point and absolute time (for example, gps time).The TOA method and do not require terminal and access point between interaction.

Equation (8) also can be used to use the known location of access point to determine the position of terminal on the contrary.In the case, three or three above access points obtain absolute TOA measured value at the transmission mark by described terminal transmission.Equation (8) can be used under the modern situation for terminal (for example, terminal i and j) and terminal replacement access point (for example, access point P) of access point.

The webserver (for example, the network server 130 among Fig. 1) but command terminal and/or access point carry out TOA and measure, and can receive the measured value of self terminal and/or access point.The webserver then can be carried out the calculating relevant with the position as indicated above, to determine the position of terminal and/or access point.

5. The signal strength/quality method

The signal strength/quality method provides the location estimation value at station based on the known location at the signal intensity at one or more other stations and/or signal quality measured values and described other station.Can use pattern match to determine the position at described station, as mentioned below.

Terminal can write down the identity of all access points that can be received by the terminal of specific location.Terminal also can be measured the signal intensity and/or the signal quality of each access point that is received by described terminal.Signal intensity can quantize by the power that receives, and can dBm be that unit provides.Signal quality can wait and quantize by signal to noise ratio (snr), every potential energy and overall noise ratio (Eb/No), bit error rate (BER), packet error rate (PER), observed signaling error.Signal quality can be provided by the binary value of indicating described signal quality whether to be higher than given threshold value (for example, whether signal quality is enough to the AP identity is decoded).Also can use method (for example, GPS, A-GPS etc.) independently to obtain the position of terminal.Terminal can be reported the identity of access point of its position, reception and the signal strength/quality measured value of each access point.

The webserver (for example, the webserver 130 among Fig. 1) can receive the report from different terminals, and/or from the report of the same terminal at diverse location place.The webserver can be based upon the database of diverse location place access point that receives and the signal strength/quality that is associated.The geographic area of being concerned about can be divided into zonule or pixel.Described zone can have Any shape (for example, square, rectangle, hexagon etc.), and also can have any size (for example, crossing over several meters).Position by the terminal report can be mapped to single pixel (for example, containing the pixel of terminal location coordinate), or is mapped to a small group of pixels (for example, being included in the pixel that described terminal is arranged in general area wherein).Access point identity and signal strength/quality can be associated with the pixel that terminal location is mapped to.If obtain report at same pixel or pixel groups from a plurality of terminals, the measured value (for example, averaging) capable of being combined in these reports so, and described measured value through combination can be stored for described pixel.For instance, can use mobile weighting time average to ask the mean value of signal intensity, wherein flexible strategy are decided by the probability that given terminal location correctly is mapped to specific pixel.Also can ask the mean value of signal quality.For instance, if use a signal quality threshold, the resultant signal quality may be relevant with the number percent of the terminal that surpasses described threshold value so.

Described database can be used for the location of terminal.The webserver can obtain the identity of the access point that received by described terminal and signal strength/quality that may these access points from terminal.The webserver can be searched for described database, to seek the pixel of the access point identity that mark reports to some extent.The webserver can be searched the part pattern match by the access point of terminal recognition, and can ignore unrecognized access point.The webserver can then be discerned and the signal strength/quality of the being reported pixel that is associated of the average signal strength/quality of approaching coupling.The webserver can be considered the fact that the sensitivity of different terminals may be different.The possibility of result of search is one group of pixel (not necessarily continuous), the possible position of expression terminal and the probability that each pixel is actually the tram.The webserver can be derived single location estimation value, and it makes site error (or the mean square of error root) minimum of expection.

But webserver command terminal picked up signal intensity/quality measured values, and can receive measured value from these terminals.The webserver can be set up and/or new database more, and the execution calculating relevant with the position, to determine the position of terminal.

6. The sub-district ID method that is used for A-GPS

The A-GPS method provides auxiliary data to terminal, obtains and measure gps signal and/or from gained measured value calculating location estimated value with accessory terminal.Auxiliary data also can be used for supporting the location of other global position system (for example european galileo system).Usually the apparent position that needs terminal is so that provide suitable auxiliary data to terminal.For instance, need know that terminal location reaches in several kms, so that GPS-GSM or the GPS-WCDMA sequential auxiliary data of obtaining auxiliary data and being used for supporting the A-GPS of GSM and W-CDMA network to be provided.In the localization method described herein any one can be used for determining with required accuracy grade the position of terminal.Yet, need the time of a certain amount to carry out one in these localization methods, and if success, gained location estimation value may be than supporting that the necessary location estimation value of A-GPS is much accurate.

Various localization methods with fast response time may can transmit the rough position estimated value that is suitable for supporting A-GPS.For sub-district ID method, terminal obtains global unique identity of one or more sub-districts in the cellular network (for example GSM, W-CDMA or cdma2000 network).Terminal can use double mode ability to come detected cells, and can be parallel to the WLAN signal and receive cellular signals (for example, from GSM, W-CDMA and/or cdma2000 network).Perhaps, terminal can be ended the reception (for example, when not needing or do not dispatch) of WLAN signal temporarily, switches to the honeycomb fashion operation, scans cellular signals, and the cellular signals that receives is decoded.The network of serving the access point of described terminal or serving described terminal via WLAN also can have the identity of the sub-district of covering in terminal is provided at the position of terminal.This can realize via uncalled broadcasting or point-to-point signaling or in response to the request that comes self terminal.By the detected sub-district of terminal can comprise coverage comprise terminal current location the sub-district and/or when near the current location of terminal by the detected recently sub-district of terminal.

The cell identity that is used for current cellular technologies can be globally unique.Cell identity can be mapped to the ad-hoc location in the sub-district, for example the position of cell site antenna.This subdistrict position can be provided as the rough position estimated value of the terminal in the described sub-district.Described location estimation value has the error by the size decision of described sub-district.

Database can be with the location storage of sub-district in one or more cellular networks.Can simplify described database by the position (for example band of position among GSM or the W-CDMA) of storage area group.Also can pass through to use other method (for example, A-GPS, GPS etc.) locating terminal, the identity of sub-district and use obtain subdistrict position (or position of area group) at the position of the terminal of subdistrict position near obtaining from described terminal.

Except that the cell identity of each detected sub-district, terminal also can provide the measured value of timing advance (TA), two-way time, signal intensity, signal quality etc.These measured values can be stored in the database, and are used for determining hithermost sub-district.Described measured value also can be used for RTT method and signal strength/quality method, to determine the position of terminal more accurately than the mode of independent use cell identity.

But webserver command terminal obtains and near the cell identity of report.The cell identity that the webserver can be reported by making is associated with known terminal location (it can use GPS, A-GPS to wait and obtain) and sets up and/or new database more.

7. Combination is from the result of different localization methods

Can use multiple localization method to determine the position at station (for example, terminal or access point).Can come to obtain more accurate and reliable position estimated value from the position result of these a plurality of localization methods by combination at described station.For the signal strength/quality method, position result can be one group of possible position (for example, pixel), its each have associated probability of occurrence.For RTT, OTD and TOA method and GPS and A-GPS method, the result can be the single position with peripheral region (for example, round or oval), and in described peripheral region, the expection physical location has particular probability.Each position result can be converted to probability density function (PDF), it provides described station the actual probability that is in described position at each possible position.The probability density function of all localization methods is capable of being combined, and can be used for obtaining the final position estimated value at described station.

Can be based on many groups independent measurement value M 1, M 2... M N(wherein N 〉=2) obtain a plurality of position result at terminal.Every group of measured value all can be used for obtaining position result.The following content of definable:

The E=terminal is positioned at point (x, the incident of y) locating

F n(x, y)=based on measurement set M n(1≤n≤N) point (x, the probability density function of the terminal location of y) locating (PDF), and

F (x, y)=based on all N measurement set M 1, M 2... M NAt point (x, the PDF of the terminal location of y) locating.

F n(x is y) corresponding to using measurement set M nThe position result that obtains.Can be by the F of all N of combination position result n(x, y) (1≤n≤N) determine F (x, y).

Can suppose that measurement set is independently, make under the situation of given any position event E that each measurement set has a certain probability of occurrence that depends on incident E, described probability does not additionally depend on arbitrary other measurement set.This condition can be given as:

P (M i/ (E and M j))=P (M i/ E), i, j ∈ 1 ..., N} and i ≠ j equation (9)

Wherein P (a/b) is to be the probability of the incident a of condition with incident b.

The position result of all N measurement set is capable of being combined as follows.

Equation (10)

Equation (10) provides equal flexible strategy to the result from different localization methods.

Also available different weights at different localization methods makes up the position result of all measurement set, and is as follows.

Equation (11)

Wherein p (n) is used for measurement set M nFlexible strategy, 1≤n≤N.

Described flexible strategy can be defined as 0≤p (n)≤1.The smaller value of p (n) can be used for the less localization method of reliability, and the higher value of p (n) can be used for the bigger measurement set of reliability.If PDF is F n(x y) has reflected the accuracy and the reliability of position result, can omit described weighting so.For instance, after in the cycle sometime, accurately and as one man having determined access point position (at the OTD method), when being used in combination the location estimation value of OTD method and GPS or A-GPS method acquisition, can omit weighting.When be regarded as at access point position reliable before, combination can be used weighting during from the location estimation value of these identical localization methods.In the case, can be to the less flexible strategy of OTD method assignment.

The webserver can obtain some groups of measured values from terminal at different localization methods (for example, A-GPS, RTT, OTD, TOA, signal strength/quality etc.).The webserver can be carried out the calculating relevant with the position at every kind of localization method, and the result combinations of all localization methods can be become more accurate position information, and is as indicated above.

8. The reliability of assess location information

Some method in the localization method mentioned above can provide the relatively accurate location estimation value to access point.Yet different with the base station in the cellular network, the access point among the WLAN may be the smallclothes equipment that can move easily.The WLAN operator is mobile access point periodically, covers, increases capacity or reconfigure one or more WLAN so that improve.When this happens, use any localization method of the position depend on mobile access point and any terminal location of obtaining may be inaccurate.

In order to solve this mobility problem, can determine access point position and the current location and the previous position of access point compared by using any suitable localization method, periodically check the position of access point.If two positions conform to, or not inconsistent at least, can suppose that so access point does not move.If two positions are inconsistent, the time that can store new position so and obtain described new position.Can check described new position subsequently, and if confirmed enough number of times, can suppose that so it is correct.Can think that access point moved before detecting new position for the first time.

Can determine and store number of times and frequency that each access point in the given area moves.Can use the mobile historical information of gained to come under the situation of the method that moves without any check reliably, to predict the probability that given access point has moved at any given time.Can predict moving of access point based on the mobile historical information of the only described access point in the given area or all access points.

Fig. 5 shows and uses one dimension to represent the mobile history of the access point of actual 2 or 3 dimension positions.Access point is positioned at position L0 at first when time T 0.Described access point moves into place when time T 1 puts L1, then moves into place when time T 2 and puts L2, and then move into place when time T 3 and put L3.Check described access point when time T 4, to be positioned at position L3.When time T 5 after a while, need to estimate that described access point still be positioned at the probability of position L3, or equivalently, estimate the probability that described access point has moved.

Can use the some or all of location history information of described access point to determine the probability of current location.For instance, access point is fixed on the time (T5-T4) that time (T4-T3) of position L3 can may move with access point and uses.Perhaps, can use time (T3-T2) between moving, (T2-T1) and (T1-T0) come definite statistical data that access point is spent in the duration of given position.Also can obtain similar statistical data, and use described statistical data to determine the probability of the current location of this access point at other access point.

Can determine the mobile probability of given access point k in every way.If access point k moves repeatedly, can obtain the average duration D that access point k is positioned at arbitrary position so.Can suppose that probability that the access point k time in office moves is independent of the time and in duration of current location cost.It is to be expressed as the Poisson statistics process that access point is displaced into.In the case, access point k position keeps constant probability P in time t kCan be given: P k=e -t/D, and access point k can be given 1-e at the probability that has moved after last time t after checking its position -t/DIf it is mobile that access point k never is observed, and be observed and be positioned at same position and continued duration T, can suppose that so the average duration in any one position is D>T.The probability P that access point k does not move in time t as yet kCan be given e -t/D=P k>e -t/T

If transfer point k has moved many times, access point duration of remaining on diverse location can be used to obtain various statistical data, for example distribution of the variance of average duration, duration, duration etc. so.This statistical information can replace the Poisson statistics model, and can be used to obtain the more reliable estimated value of probability that access point k position has been changed.

Access point k may be static or may have moved once in a while, makes that any estimated value to the mean value of its duration in a position and variance may be unreliable.In the case, can obtain access point k from the last estimated value of checking the probability that has moved since its position based on the statistical data of collecting at a group of access point.This group S may contain all access points among the WLAN, predetermined number access point, with access point k be arranged in the same area access point, belong to specific WLAN operator or the access point that is associated with specific WLAN operator etc.If the arbitrary access point of group among the S moves, can determine time of moving so, and use the described time to obtain to organize expected duration D between the moving in succession of arbitrary access point among the S.The mobile of each access point in can supposition group S is the Poisson incident.If there be N access point in group among the S, the average duration between the moving of so arbitrary access point can be given as N*D, and access point k is in the mobile as yet probability P of time t kCan be given: P k=e -t/ (N*D)Can obtain mobile more accurately probability by using the average duration N*D that determines according to the mobile history of a group of access point rather than single access point.

Can also alternate manner and/or use other method to determine the mobile probability of access point.For instance, can use the method for the reliability that is used for determining system or assembly (for example electric component break down time) to predict mobile.

Can come based on the position that before obtains at K access point (wherein K>1) is that terminal derives the location estimation value.The following content of definable:

P kThe position reliability of=access point k, 1≤k≤K,

=from last acquisition or check access point k position at last, the still unaltered probability in access point k position, and

P=uses the reliability of the location estimation value that the position of all K access point obtains

=from last acquisition or check the position of all K access point at last, the still unaltered probability in the position of all K access point.

The reliability of the location estimation value of terminal can be given:

P = Π k = 1 K P k , If the variation of the position of all access points is independently, equation (12)

P > Π k = 1 K P k , If the variation of the position of described access point is correlated with.Equation (13)

Equation (12) indication is when whether the position of the probability of the variation of the position of arbitrary access point and other access point has changed when haveing nothing to do, and the overall reliability of location estimation value is provided by the product of indivedual reliabilities.The access point that is used to obtain the location estimation value is normally close, this allow terminal through the location to receive signal from these access points.Therefore, an access point move can with the mobile positive correlation of other access point.For instance, if WLAN operator decision reconfigures or expands WLAN, may can be moved by an above access point so.If given access point k moves, this can cause the high probability that neighboring access point has also moved so.If access point k does not move as yet, the high probability that this can cause neighboring access point not move as yet, this situation reflects in equation (13).

In IEEE 802.11, access point can (for example) provide its position in beacon frame.The reliability of access point position may be owing to a variety of causes becomes problem.For instance, owing to determine cause such as error, access point in the manual input of error, WLAN operator in the process of position moving under the situation of not upgrading its position, access point position may be incorrect.In fact, for existing so much WLAN, and, can not always provide accurately and reliable position for to saving time and the great attention of resource.

Utilize the localization method of access point position can check these positions.In case checked the position of access point, can find so whether the described position that is provided by described access point is correct.This can carry out at a large amount of access points.For the given access point position that is not verified as yet, can determine the probability of described correct position at the equal probability of correctness of arbitrary access point by supposition.For instance, if there be m to be that correct (wherein m≤n), the correct probability of another access point position can be given m/n so in n access point position.In the process of definition correctness, can border (for example, 50 or 200 error of meter) be set to permissible error, and can obtain independent probability at the correctness of different error boundaries.Equation (12) can be then used in the estimated position and be to use any one and the position reliability of any terminal that insecure access point position is determined in may be for above-mentioned reasons.In the case, the P in the equation (12) kThe probability of correctness that the position that provides by access point can be provided, or the still unaltered probability of the access point position of before having checked.

In case (for example, as indicated above) obtained or checked access point position, just can use described access point position to estimate the position of other access point.Terminal can provide the identity of all access points that received by described terminal.The known location of the access point of any reception can be used as the apparent position of access point of the reception of the current the unknown in position.This can be then used in other terminal of approximate location, for example uses AP ID method.Location estimation to these terminals may be rough, but may be enough for other application of A-GPS and the low accuracy position result of acceptance.

9. Location with OMA SUPL and 3GPP2 X.S0024 is supported

Localization method described herein can be by the terminal that is associated with WLAN, access point and/or other network entity support.Location to terminal can locally take place.Entity can be from terminal or WLAN (for example, access point) position, requesting terminal.

(for example, Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) secure user plane location (SUPL) and existing ability 3GPP2X.S0024) support that the location of the terminal among the WLAN may be more effective by enlarging wireless user's plane positioning solution.User plane location solution can be used for the location of support terminal, stores and provide position result, support terminal user's privacy, the checking of the entity of support position, requesting terminal etc.User plane location solution is supported many localization methods at present, sub-district ID, the E-OTD, OTDOA and the A-FLT that for example have timing advance, and it can be applicable to WWAN (for example, GSM, W-CDMA and cdma2000 network), but not can be applicable to WLAN.User plane location solution is also supported other localization method, for example GPS and A-GPS, and it can be applicable to the various wireless networks that do not need special-purpose WLAN to support.User plane location solution can be through strengthening to support the localization method at WLAN.

Fig. 6 shows the deployment with SUPL and X.S0024.Terminal 120 can use that WLAN 100 enters the Internet 610, IP Multimedia System (IMS) network 620 among 3GPP or the 3GPP2 or as other 3GPP or 3GPP2 service described in 3GPP TS 23.234 and the 3GPP2X.P0028.Terminal 120 can be communicated by letter with WLAN 100, and WLAN 100 can be used as (described in 3GPP TS 43.318) in order to support the general access network (GAN) to the access of GSM and GPRS.Terminal 120 can be used the WLAN localization method in SUPL or the X.S0024 when communicating by letter with WLAN 100.In SUPL, terminal is called as the terminal (SET) with SUPL function.

SUPL utilizes SUPL locating platform (SLP) 630, and it is responsible for SUPL Service Management and location.The SUPL Service Management can comprise the position of managing SET, and the positional information of storage, extraction and modifying target SET.SLP 630 comprises SUPL place-centric (SLC) 632, and can comprise the SUPL centre of location (SPC) 634.SLC 632 carries out the various functions that are used for location-based service, coordinates the operation of SUPL, and interacts with SET on user plane bearer.SLC632 can carry out the function that is used for privacy, startup, security, roaming support, charging/book keeping operation, Service Management, location Calculation etc.The message and the program of location Calculation are responsible for being used in the location that SPC 634 supports SET, and support the transmission of auxiliary data to SET.SPC 634 can carry out the function that is used for security, auxiliary data transmission, reference retrieval, location Calculation etc.SPC 634 has the access to gps receiver (perhaps grid of reference is global grid of reference), and receives the signal of satellite, makes it that auxiliary data can be provided.

X.S0024 utilizes position determining entity 640, and it can comprise X.S0024 location-server (PS) 642 and entity (PDE) 644 is determined in the X.S0024 location.PS 642 can carry out the function that is similar to those performed functions of SLC 632.PDE644 can carry out the function that is similar to those performed functions of SPC 634.

Can by in SUPL and X.S0024, have be used for these localization methods new identifier and/or by allowing the new measured value relevant to send to SUPL or X.S0024 entity from terminal with the position, come in SUPL or X.S0024, to support the WLAN localization method.For the location based on terminal, terminal is carried out and is measured, and the calculating location estimated value.In the case, SUPL SLP or SPC and X.S0024 PS or PDE can send positional information, measure and/or the calculating location estimated value with accessory terminal.Described positional information can comprise the position coordinates of (for example) access point, at RTD value of OTD method etc.

Table 2 is enumerated and can be included among the OMA SUPL to support the signaling of WLAN localization method as herein described.For sub-district ID method, cell identity may be included in SUPL START and the SUPL POS INIT message, but the new parameter expansion shown in the free list 2.The information relevant with the position shown in the table 2 also can be included in other SUPL parameter and the message.

Table 2

The location service load can be that Radio Resource LCS agreement (RRLP) message, the Radio Resource among the 3GPP among the 3GPP controlled the TIA-881 message among (RRC) message, the 3GGP2 etc.

Feature in the table 2 has been arranged, and SUPL SLP or SPC can support WLAN localization method mentioned above.SLP or SPC also can play the effect of the webserver that is used for the WLAN localization method, and carry out operation mentioned above.SET can play the effect of the terminal of being discerned.Also can in SUPL, provide different or extra signaling and feature, to support the WLAN localization method.

Also can in X.S0024, provide similar signaling and feature.X.S0024 PS or PDE can support WLAN localization method mentioned above.PS can play the effect of the webserver that is used for the WLAN localization method, and carries out operation mentioned above.Transfer table (MS) can play the effect of the terminal of being discerned.

10. Location with control plane solution is supported

Also can support the location of the terminal of WLAN by the existing ability that expansion is used for the controlled in wireless plane positioning solution of 3GPP and 3GPP2 network.Control plane location solution to GSM, W-CDMA and other 3GPP network is described in 3GPP TS 23.271,43.059 and 25.305.Control plane location solution to cdma2000 and other 3GPP2 network is described in X.S0002, TIA-881 and J-STD-036 version B.These documents be disclose available.

Fig. 7 shows the deployment with 3GPP and 3GPP2 control plane location solution.Terminal 120 use WLAN100 insert 3GPP network 710,3GPP2 network 720 or as (for example) in other 3GPP described in 3GPP 23.234 and the 3GPP2 X.P0028 or 3GPP2 service.3GPP network 710 can be GSM network, W-CDMA network etc., and can comprise base station controller (BSC), radio network controller (RNC) etc.3GPP2 network 720 can be a cdma2000 network etc., and can comprise BSC etc.Terminal 120 can be communicated by letter with WLAN 100, and WLAN 100 can be used as (described in 3GPP TS 43.318) in order to support the GAN to the access of GSM and GPRS.Terminal 120 can be used the WLAN localization method when communicating by letter with WLAN 100.

3GPP control plane location solution is utilized position determining entity, and it can comprise GMLC (gateway mobile location center) (GMLC) 732 and Serving Mobile Location Center (SMLC)/independent SMLC (SAS) 734.GMLC 732 can provide various services, for example subscriber's privacy, mandate, checking, book keeping operation etc.SMLC/SAS 734 can support the location to terminal.3GPP2 control plane location solution is utilized position determining entity, and it can comprise mobile positioning center (MPC) 742 and PDE 744, and it can be respectively to work with GMLC 732 and SMLC/SAS 734 similar modes.

For 3GPP control plane location solution, can add new signaling and feature to be used for the GSM network location and RRLP agreement of in 3GPP 44.031, describing and/or the RRC agreement that is used for the location of W-CDMA network and in 3GPP25.331, describes.New signaling can be identical with feature with the signaling in the table 2 or similar with feature, but will be added to RRLP and/or RRC message, rather than SUPL message.Can expand new signaling and feature, to support the location of access by the terminal of the 3GPP GAN of WLAN support.For 3GPP, SMLC, SAS, BSC, RNC or general access network controller (GANC) can play the effect of the webserver, and carry out the operation of above describing at the WLAN localization method.Subscriber equipment (UE) or transfer table (MS) can play the effect of the terminal of being discerned.RRLP and RRC also can use the new signaling and the feature that are used for RRLP and RRC to support SUPL, because can be used as the part of SUPL.

For 3GPP2 control plane location solution, can add new signaling and feature among TIA-801 and the 3GPP2C.S0022 defined agreement.New signaling can be identical with feature with the signaling in the table 2 or similar with feature, but will add the TIA-801/C.S0022 agreement to.For 3GPP2, PDE can play the effect of the webserver, and carries out the operation of above describing at the WLAN localization method.Transfer table among the 3GPP2 (MS) can play the effect of the terminal of being discerned.Also can use the new signaling and the feature that are used for TIA-801/C.S0022 to support SUPL, because the TIA-801/C.S0022 agreement can be used as the part of SUPL.

WLAN localization method described herein also can be applicable to the wireless network of other type.In these cases, the role of the access point among the WLAN can be replaced by base station (for example, GSM, W-CDMA or cdma2000 base station).Also can replace with the measured value that access point is associated by corresponding measured value at one or more base stations.Described herein in order to the location among the WLAN terminal or the localization method of access point can be used for locating base station.

Fig. 8 shows the process 800 that is used to locate access point.Can obtain measured value (frame 812) at least one access point among the WLAN.Described measured value can be based on the transfer sequence that is periodically transmitted by each access point (for example, beacon frame).Described measured value can be produced by a plurality of terminals at diverse location place or the single terminal at diverse location place.Based on described measured value and determine the position (frame 814) of each access point according to localization method.

For the RTT method, the RTT measured value can be produced single access point by at least one terminal pins.Then, can determine the position of described access point based on the known location of described RTT measured value and described at least one terminal.

For the OTD method, the OTD measured value can be produced a pair of access point by at least one terminal pins.Then, can determine the position of each access point based on the known location of described OTD measured value and described at least one terminal.Can (for example) based on explanation be used for obtaining the OTD measured value transmission timing drift function and determine the RTD value at the OTD measured value.Then, can further determine the position of each access point based on described RTD value.

For the TOA method, the TOA measured value can be produced single access point by at least one terminal pins.Then, can determine the position of described access point based on the known location of described TOA measured value and described at least one terminal.For instance, can determine the OTD measured value of at least one pair of terminal based on the TOA measured value that produces by a plurality of terminals.Then, can determine the position of access point based on the known location of described OTD measured value and described terminal.

Fig. 9 shows the process 900 that is used to locate access point.Obtain reception at least one position (frame 912) from least one terminal of the transmission of the access point among the WLAN.Determine the position (frame 914) of access point based on described at least one position of described at least one terminal.Can further wait to determine the position of described access point based on the scope restriction of the employed radiotelegraphy of WLAN (for example, IEEE 802.11), described at least one terminal or the employed through-put power of described access point.Can be based on the average coordinates of described at least one position of (a) described at least one terminal, (b) centre of form of the geographic area of described at least one terminal of covering, or, determine the position of described access point (c) based at least one terminal location and definite a certain other point.

Figure 10 shows the process 1000 that is used for locating terminal.Acquisition at or from the measured value (frame 1012) of at least one access point among the WLAN.Determine the position (frame 1014) of described terminal based at least one position of described measured value and described at least one access point.

For the RTT method, the RTT measured value can be produced described at least one access point by terminal pins.Then, can determine the position of described terminal based on the known location of described RTT measured value and described at least one access point.For the OTD method, the OTD measured value can be produced at least two pairs of access points by described terminal pins.Then can determine the position of described terminal based on the known location of described OTD measured value and access point.For the TOA method, the TOA measured value can be produced at described terminal by at least three access points.Then, can determine the position of described terminal based on the known location of described TOA measured value and described access point.

For AP ID method, measured value can provide at least one identity of described at least one access point (for example, Service Access Point).Can obtain its position based on the identity of each access point.Then, can determine the position of described terminal based at least one position of described at least one access point.For the signal strength/quality method, signal strength measurement, signal quality measured values or both can be produced described at least one access point by terminal pins.Then, can determine the position of described terminal based on the identity of described measured value and each access point.

For all localization methods, can be further determine the position of terminal based on the reliability of the position of each access point, can determine described reliability based on the location history information of described access point or a group of access point only.

Figure 11 shows the process 1100 that is used for the block position result.Obtain a plurality of position result (frame 1112) at multiple localization method.Described localization method can comprise any one or the arbitrary combination among AP ID method, RTT method, OTD method, TOA method, signal strength/quality method, sub-district ID method, GPS, the A-GPS etc.Described a plurality of position result are made up, to obtain final position result (frame 1114).The location estimation value (frame 1116) that obtains to stand based on described final position result.Described position result can be corresponding to the probability density function of the possible position at described station.Described probability density function can be through combination to obtain final probability density function.Before combination, can be weighted position result based on the reliability of localization method.Then, can obtain the location estimation value at described station based on final probability density function.

Figure 12 shows and is used for carrying out location process 1200 with user plane or control plane location.Terminal communicate by letter with the access point among the WLAN (frame 1212).Terminal and the network entity exchange of signaling (frame 1214) that is used to locate described terminal.Described signaling exchanges via access point.Described network entity is supported user plane location (for example, SUPL or X.S0024), or control plane location (for example, at 3GPP or 3GPP2).Terminal receives the positional information (frame 1216) from network entity.Described positional information can comprise access point position, access point identity, access point time sequence information, auxiliary data etc., and can be used for producing measured value, calculating location estimated value etc.Terminal can be determined its position (frame 1218) based on described positional information.

For the location based on terminal, terminal can obtain measured value at least one access point among the WLAN (for example, Service Access Point and/or other access point).Described measured value can be RTT measured value, OTD measured value, TOA measured value, signal strength measurement, signal quality measured values etc.Described terminal is then determined the position of described terminal based on described measured value and the positional information (for example, access point position) that receives from network entity.

For the auxiliary location of terminal, terminal can obtain measured value at least one access point the WLAN based on the positional information that receives from network entity.Terminal can send to network entity with described measured value.Network then can be determined the position of described terminal based on described measured value, and can provide the location estimation value to described terminal.

Use any location estimation value that obtains at terminal in the method for above being discerned also to be used in accuracy and the reliability of improving these other localization methods under not accurate enough originally and/or reliable inadequately situation of other localization method (for example, GPS and A-GPS) possibility and the environment.

The block diagram of the access point 110 in Figure 13 exploded view 1, terminal 120 and the webserver 130.For simplicity, Figure 13 shows the only controller/processor 1320 be used for terminal 120, a storer 1322 and a transceiver 1324; Be used for only controller/processor 1330 of access point 110, storer 1332, a transceiver 1334 (Comm) unit 1336 of communicating by letter with; And be used for only controller/processor 1340 of the webserver 130, a storer 1342 and a communication unit 1344.In general, each entity can comprise processor, controller, storer, transceiver, communication unit of any number etc.Terminal 120 can be supported the radio communication with one or more other wireless networks (for example GSM, W-CDMA and/or cdma2000 network).Terminal 120 also can receive and handle the signal from one or more global position systems (for example, GPS, Galileo etc.).

On downlink, terminal transmission business datum, signaling and the pilot tone of access point 110 in its overlay area.These various types of data are handled by processor 1330, and are regulated by transceiver 1334, and to produce down link signal, described down link signal is via antenna transmission.At terminal 120 places, be received via antenna from the down link signal of one or more access points, regulate by transceiver 1324, and handle, to obtain various types of information by processor 1320.For instance, transceiver 1324 and/or processor 1320 can produce various measured values in the WLAN localization method mentioned above any one.Storer 1322 and 1332 is stored program code and the data that are used for terminal 120 and access point 110 respectively.

On up-link, one or more access point service data transmissions, signaling and pilot tone that terminal 120 can be in WLAN 100.These various types of data are handled by processor 1320, and are regulated by transceiver 1324, and to produce uplink signal, described uplink signal transmits via terminal antenna.At access point 110 places, come the uplink signal of self terminal 120 and other terminal to receive and regulate, and further handle, to obtain various types of information from described terminal by processor 1330 by transceiver 1334.Access point 110 can directly or indirectly be communicated by letter with the webserver 130 via communication unit 1336.

In the webserver 130, processor 1340 is handled at any one execution in the WLAN localization method mentioned above.For instance, processor 1340 can be set up and maintenance data base at various WLAN localization methods, provides positional information to terminal, the location estimation value of computing terminal and/or access point etc.Storer 1342 storages are used for the program code and the data of the webserver 130.Communication unit 1344 allows the webserver 130 to communicate by letter with access point 110 and/or other network entity.

Technology described herein can be implemented by the whole bag of tricks.For instance, these technology may be implemented in hardware, firmware, software or its combination.For the hardware embodiment, be used for the processing unit that the location is located to carry out in station (for example, terminal, access point or a certain other entity) may be implemented in one or more special ICs (ASIC), digital signal processor (DSP), digital signal processing device (DSPD), programmable logic device (PLD), field programmable gate array (FPGA), processor, controller, microcontroller, microprocessor, electronic installation, through design with other electronic unit, computing machine or its combination of carrying out function described herein in.

For firmware and/or software implementation scheme, the module of available execution function described herein (for example, process, function etc.) is implemented described technology.Firmware and/or software code can be stored in the storer (for example, the storer 1322,1332 or 1342 among Figure 13), and are carried out by processor (for example, processor 1320,1330 or 1340).Described storer may be implemented in the processor or processor outside.

This paper comprises title for your guidance, and helps some part of location.These titles are not intended to limit the scope of described notion below it, and these notions can have applicability in the other parts of whole instructions.

It is in order to make the those skilled in the art can make or use the present invention that the content of the foregoing description of the present invention is provided.The those skilled in the art will understand easily to various modifications of the present invention, and the General Principle that this paper defined can be applied to other version under the situation that does not break away from the spirit or scope of the present invention.Therefore, do not wish that the present invention is limited to example described herein, but wish that the present invention meets the wide region consistent with principle disclosed herein and novel feature.

Claims (48)

1. equipment, it comprises:
Processor, it obtains the measured value at least one access point in the wireless lan (wlan), and is used for determining based on described measured value each position of described at least one access point; And
Storer, it is coupled to described processor.
2. equipment according to claim 1, wherein said measured value are based on the transfer sequence that is periodically transmitted by described at least one access point.
3. equipment according to claim 1, wherein said at least one access point is corresponding to single access point, wherein said measured value comprises (RTT) measured value two-way time that described access point is produced by at least one terminal pins, and wherein said processor is determined the described position of described access point based on the known location of described RTT measured value and described at least one terminal.
4. equipment according to claim 1, wherein said at least one access point is corresponding to a pair of access point, wherein said measured value comprises by at least one terminal pins described (OTD) measured value of observed mistiming that access point is produced, and wherein said processor is determined the described position of each access point based on the known location of described OTD measured value and described at least one terminal.
5. equipment according to claim 4, wherein said OTD measured value is produced by a plurality of terminals at diverse location place, and wherein said processor is determined the described position of each access point based on the known location of described OTD measured value and described a plurality of terminals.
6. equipment according to claim 4, wherein said processor are determined the real time of described OTD measured value poor (RTD) value, and further determine the described position of each access point based on described RTD value.
7. equipment according to claim 6, wherein said processor are used for obtaining the function of timing drift of the transmission of described OTD measured value and determine described RTD value based on explanation.
8. equipment according to claim 1, wherein said at least one access point is corresponding to single access point, wherein said measured value comprises (TOA) measured value time of arrival that described access point is produced by at least one terminal pins, and wherein said processor is determined the described position of described access point based on the known location of described TOA measured value and described at least one terminal.
9. equipment according to claim 8, wherein said TOA measured value is produced by a plurality of terminals at diverse location place, and wherein said processor is determined the described position of described access point based on the known location of described TOA measured value and described a plurality of terminals.
10. equipment according to claim 8, wherein said at least one access point is corresponding to single access point, wherein said measured value comprises (TOA) measured value time of arrival that described access point is produced by a plurality of terminal pins, and wherein said processor obtains (OTD) measured value of observed mistiming based on the described TOA measured value that is produced by described a plurality of terminals at least one pair of terminal, and determines the described position of described access point based on the known location of described OTD measured value and described a plurality of terminals.
11. a method, it comprises:
Obtain the measured value of at least one access point in the wireless lan (wlan); And
Determine each position in described at least one access point based on described measured value.
12. method according to claim 11, wherein said acquisition measured value comprises (OTD) measured value of observed mistiming that acquisition is produced a pair of access point by at least one terminal pins, and wherein said definite position comprises the described position of determining each access point of described centering based on the known location of described OTD measured value and described at least one terminal.
13. method according to claim 11, wherein said acquisition measured value comprises (TOA) measured value time of arrival that acquisition is produced single access point by at least one terminal pins, and wherein said definite position comprises the described position of determining described single access point based on the known location of described TOA measured value and described at least one terminal.
14. an equipment, it comprises:
Be used for obtaining the device of the measured value of at least one access point of wireless lan (wlan); And
Be used for determining each the device of position of described at least one access point based on described measured value.
15. equipment according to claim 14, the wherein said device that is used to obtain measured value comprises the device that is used to obtain (OTD) measured value of observed mistiming that a pair of access point produced by at least one terminal pins, and the wherein said device that is used for determining the position comprises the device of described position that is used for determining based on the known location of described OTD measured value and described at least one terminal each access point of described centering.
16. an equipment, it comprises:
Processor, it is used for obtaining to receive from the access point of wireless lan (wlan) at least one position of at least one terminal of transmission, and is used for determining based on described at least one position of described at least one terminal the position of described access point; And
Storer, it is coupled to described processor.
17. equipment according to claim 16, wherein said processor further limit to determine the described position of described access point based on the scope of the employed radiotelegraphy of described WLAN.
18. equipment according to claim 16, wherein said processor are further determined the described position of described access point based on described at least one terminal or the employed through-put power of described access point.
19. equipment according to claim 16, wherein said processor are determined the described position of described access point based on the average coordinates of described at least one position of described at least one terminal.
20. equipment according to claim 16, wherein said processor are determined the described position of described access point based on the centre of form of the geographic area that covers described at least one terminal.
21. an equipment, it comprises:
Processor, it is used for obtaining the measured value of at least one access point of wireless lan (wlan), and is used for determining based at least one position of the described measured value of described at least one access point and described at least one access point the position of terminal; And
Storer, it is coupled to described processor.
22. equipment according to claim 21, wherein said measured value comprises (RTT) measured value two-way time that described at least one access point is produced by described terminal pins, and wherein said processor is determined the described position of described terminal based on described at least one position of described RTT measured value and described at least one access point.
23. equipment according to claim 21, wherein said at least one access point is corresponding at least two pairs of access points, wherein said measured value comprises (OTD) measured value of observed mistiming that described at least two pairs of access points is produced by described terminal pins, and wherein said processor is determined the described position of described terminal at least based on the position of described OTD measured value and described two pairs of access points.
24. equipment according to claim 21, wherein said measured value comprises (TOA) measured value time of arrival that is produced at described terminal by described at least one access point, and wherein said processor is determined the described position of described terminal based on the position of described TOA measured value and described at least one access point.
25. equipment according to claim 21, wherein said measured value provides at least one identity of described at least one access point, and wherein said processor obtains described at least one position of described at least one access point based on described at least one identity, and determines the described position of described terminal based on described at least one position of described at least one access point.
26. equipment according to claim 21, wherein said measured value comprises signal strength measurement, signal quality measured values or signal intensity and the signal quality measured values that described at least one access point is produced by described terminal pins, and wherein said processor is determined the described position of described terminal based at least one identity of described measured value and described at least one access point.
27. equipment according to claim 21, wherein said processor are further determined the described position of described terminal based on the reliability of described at least one position of described at least one access point.
28. equipment according to claim 27, wherein said processor are determined the reliability of the described position of each access point based on the location history information of described access point.
29. equipment according to claim 27, wherein said processor are determined the reliability of the described position of each access point based on the location history information of a group of access point.
30. a method, it comprises:
Obtain the measured value of at least one access point in the wireless lan (wlan); And
Determine the position of terminal based at least one position of the described measured value of described at least one access point and described at least one access point.
31. method according to claim 30, wherein said acquisition measured value comprises signal strength measurement, signal quality measured values or signal intensity and the signal quality measured values that acquisition is produced described at least one access point by described terminal pins, and wherein said definite position comprises the described position of determining described terminal based at least one identity of described measured value and described at least one access point.
32. an equipment, it comprises:
Be used for obtaining the device of the measured value of at least one access point of wireless lan (wlan); And
Be used for determining the device of the position of terminal based at least one position of the described measured value of described at least one access point and described at least one access point.
33. equipment according to claim 32, the wherein said device that is used to obtain measured value comprises and is used to obtain the signal strength measurement, signal quality measured values or the signal intensity that described at least one access point are produced by described terminal pins and the device of signal quality measured values, and wherein saidly is used for determining that the device of position comprises the device that is used for determining based at least one identity of described measured value and described at least one access point the described position of described terminal.
34. an equipment, it comprises:
Processor, it is used for obtaining a plurality of position result at multiple localization method, is used to make up described a plurality of position result obtaining the final position result, and is used for the location estimation value that obtains to stand based on described final position result; And
Storer, it is coupled to described processor.
35. equipment according to claim 34, wherein said a plurality of position result is corresponding to a plurality of probability density functions of the possible position at described station, and wherein said processor makes up described a plurality of probability density function obtaining final probability density function, and obtains the described location estimation value at described station based on described final probability density function.
36. equipment according to claim 35, wherein said processor comes described a plurality of position result are weighted based on the reliability of described multiple localization method.
37. equipment according to claim 35, wherein said a plurality of localization methods comprise in access point identity (AP ID) method, two-way time (RTT) method, (OTD) method of observed mistiming, time of arrival (TOA) method, signal intensity or signal quality method, GPS (GPS) method and assistant GPS (A-GPS) method at least one.
38. a method, it comprises:
Obtain a plurality of position result at multiple localization method;
Make up described a plurality of position result, to obtain the final position result; And
The location estimation value that obtains to stand based on described final position result.
39. according to the described method of claim 38, the described a plurality of position result of wherein said combination comprise a plurality of probability density functions of making up described a plurality of position result obtaining described final position result's final probability density function, and the described location estimation value of wherein said acquisition comprises the described location estimation value that obtains described station based on described final probability density function.
40. an equipment, it comprises:
Processor, it is communicated by letter with the access point in the wireless lan (wlan), with with the network entity exchange of signaling that is used for localizer station, to receive positional information from described network entity, and to determine the position at described station based on described positional information, wherein said signaling exchanges via described access point, and wherein said network entity is supported user plane location or control plane location; And
Storer, it is coupled to described processor.
41. according to the described equipment of claim 40, wherein said station be communicate by letter with described access point and with the terminal of described network entity exchange of signaling.
42. according to the described equipment of claim 40, wherein said station is described access point.
43. according to the described equipment of claim 40, wherein said positional information comprises at least one in access point position, access point identity and the access point time sequence information.
44. according to the described equipment of claim 40, wherein said processor obtains the measured value of at least one access point among the described WLAN, and based on described measured value with determine the described position at described station from the described positional information that described network entity receives.
45. according to the described equipment of claim 44, wherein said measured value comprises at least one in (RTT) measured value two-way time, (OTD) measured value of observed mistiming, time of arrival (TOA) measured value, signal strength measurement and the signal quality measured values.
46. according to the described equipment of claim 40, wherein said processor obtains the measured value of at least one access point the described WLAN based on the described positional information that receives from described network entity, described measured value is sent to described network entity, and obtain the location estimation value at described station from described network entity.
47. according to the described equipment of claim 40, wherein said network entity is supported secure user plane location (SUPL) or X.S0024.
48. according to the described equipment of claim 40, wherein said network entity support is used for the control plane location of 3GPP network or 3GPP2 network.
CNA2006800493074A 2005-11-07 2006-11-07 Positioning for WLANs and other wireless networks CN101346638A (en)

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