CN101247104B  Conjecture method of stator magnetic linkage oriented AC motor rotation velocity and rotor position  Google Patents
Conjecture method of stator magnetic linkage oriented AC motor rotation velocity and rotor position Download PDFInfo
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 CN101247104B CN101247104B CN2008100245889A CN200810024588A CN101247104B CN 101247104 B CN101247104 B CN 101247104B CN 2008100245889 A CN2008100245889 A CN 2008100245889A CN 200810024588 A CN200810024588 A CN 200810024588A CN 101247104 B CN101247104 B CN 101247104B
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Abstract
Description
Technical field
The invention belongs to the electric machines control technology field, relate in particular to the vector control system of the no velocity location transducer of stator magnetic linkage oriented interchange rotation asynchronous machine.
Background technology
Arithmetic speed leap constantly progressive along with high power semiconductor components and parts technology and that control with miniature CPU improves, high power DC/AC converter is applied in industrial production, the product for civilian use widely, be used for driving various dissimilar AC rotary motor, obtain effects such as energyconservation, High Accuracy Control with the variable speed machine driving.
In Induction MotorDriven, famous V/f necessarily controls method (for example patent documentation 1 and patent documentation 2) and is widely used, and the certain function control methods such as (for example patent documentation 3) of expansion in the certain control of V/f also occurred.But,, can't be controlled for the motor dynamic transition process because the certain control of V/f belongs to motor normality control device.Add and exist the stator impedance pressure drop between stator voltage and the induced voltage, the certain control of V/f can't accomplish really that keeping the magnetic linkage of motor is constant.Abovementioned shortcoming makes the dynamic response of the certain control of V/f not high, and the electromagnetic torque of motor reduces during the slowspeed of revolution.
For overcoming the shortcoming that V/f necessarily controls method, vector control method is used in the driving of highperformance asynchronous machine.And vector control method is in the process that drives AC rotary motor, need the rotary speed of motor and the position angle equiphase information of rotor, and according to speed, the position angle equiphase information of rotor, with stator voltage and electric current decoupling zero is the torque composition and the excitation composition of direct current, controls the purpose of the electromagnetic torque that reaches the rotation magnetic linkage of accurately controlling motor and quick adjustment motor then respectively with fast realtime exciting current control and torque current.
For the rotary speed of obtaining abovementioned motor and the position angle phase place information of rotor, can be the speed and the position transducer of representative by on rotor, installing, detect the rotary speed and the phase angle of rotor with Hall element, tachogenerator, encoder etc.But the velocity location transducer often is subjected to the restriction of serviceability temperature and installing space, can't use under a lot of application scenarios.Therefore, various no velocity location sensor vector control methods are invented and are used in practice.
Up to now, the no velocity location sensor vector control method (for example patent documentation 6) of the no velocity location sensor vector control method (for example patent documentation 4 and patent documentation 5) of asynchronous machine or synchronous machine, its basic controlling thought all is the mathematics physics model from motor, the instantaneous numerical value of the electric current and voltage by measuring rotor, utilize and measure the fixed rotor resistance that obtains in advance, parameter such as leakage inductance and mutual inductance, by a large amount of realtime operations of being carried out round the motor mathematics physics model, calculate rotary speed and position information, and carry out the excitation control and the torque control of motor based on abovementioned information when front motor.
Patent documentation 1 Japanese publication H6189561
Patent documentation 2 Japanese publication H6217586
Patent documentation 3 Japanese publication H8172799
Patent documentation 4 Japanese publication H5292777
Patent documentation 5 Japanese publication H9140199
Patent documentation 6 Japanese publication 2001211699
The no velocity location sensor vector control method of abovementioned AC rotary motor has used the parameter of motor in a large number, has solved the Electric Machine Control problem when not having the velocity location transducer to a great extent effectively.But, because the parameters of electric machine such as fixed rotor resistance, leakage inductance and mutual inductance are subjected to the influence of temperature rise, load current and saturation condition unshakable in one's determination, the dynamic change of the parameter of electric machine has brought very big error for the computing of vector controller when motor moves, these errors even can cause the whole system can't operate as normal.For this reason, in actual applications must be by the correction of manually finishing the parameter of electric machine and variablees such as controller gain, penalty coefficient, or finish correction work automatically by frequency converter.The correction of manually finishing abovementioned parameter needs a large amount of engineers who has wide experience, and the realization of the Automatic parameter identification of frequency converter needs very complex mathematical to handle and software programming, exist in actual applications too complicated, be not easy by various shortcoming such as maintenance personal and user's grasps.
Therefore, in production application, press for a kind of simple and practical method, this method is insensitive to parameter of electric machine change, has only used few parameter of electric machine, even has needed the accurate parameter of electric machine just can realize the vector control method of the no velocity location transducer of electric rotating machine hardly.Simultaneously, at the numerous AC rotary motor of present kind, wish to have algorithm a kind of unification, simple and clear and logic, only needing to adjust the no velocity location sensor vector that seldom a part of parameter just can adapt to various dissimilar AC rotary motor controls, of a great variety to change the alternating current machine driving with powerconverting device, awkward present situation.
Summary of the invention
The present invention considers abovementioned problem, a kind of rotary speed and rotorposition estimation method of no velocity location transducer of AC rotary motor are proposed, the present invention is simple and clear, only needs to adjust the drive controlling that seldom a part of parameter just is applicable to asynchronous machine, permagnetic synchronous motor, nonbrush permanentmagnet DC motor or AC rotary motor such as separated exciting synchronous machine, reluctance synchronous machine.
Technical scheme of the present invention is as follows:
The phase angle of the rotary speed in the stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control system of a kind of asynchronous machine, stator target magnetic linkage and the estimation method of rotorposition, in the rotary speed in the stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control system of AC induction motor and the estimation method of rotorposition, foundation is based on the MT rotating coordinate system of the stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control of stator magnetic linkage, this coordinate system is positioned at excitation axle M axle on the stator magnetic linkage vector, and is synchronous with its maintenance; The leading M axle 90 of torque axis T axle is spent simultaneously; The control thought that this method is followed the trail of based on magnetic linkage at first utilizes the torque potentiometer to calculate the basic estimated value ω of the angular velocity of rotation of motor stator magnetic linkage _{1e}Simultaneously in order dynamically to follow the trail of Be Controlled stator target magnetic linkage, with exciting voltage dynamically Tracing Control be the exciting voltage fiducial value, calculate the exciting voltage fiducial value V under the state of normal operation _{1M} ^{*}, by the exciting voltage V of more current output _{1M}With exciting voltage fiducial value V _{1M} ^{*}Size back by the computing of proportional plus integral control ring, obtain adjusting the adjustment angular speed Δ ω of MT rotating coordinate system rotary speed; At last, control system is with the basic estimated value ω of abovementioned angular velocity of rotation _{1e}With adjustment angular speed Δ ω addition, obtain the guess value of the actual angular velocity of rotation of AC rotary motor Be Controlled target magnetic linkage After then abovementioned magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation guess value being carried out integral operation, just can obtain the phase angle of AC rotary motor Be Controlled stator target magnetic linkage According to slippage angular speed Calculate the guess value of the position angle of the guess value of rotation electrical angle speed of rotor and rotor.
Control theory of the present invention is based on the Tracing Control thought of the rotation magnetic linkage of motor, can be used in asynchronous machine in not having the AC rotary motor system of velocity location transducer, infer the rotary speed and the rotorposition that the motor magnetic linkage, realize the no velocity location sensor vector control of AC rotary motor.The control method that the present invention recommended is simple and practical, and is insensitive to parameter of electric machine change, only used few parameter of electric machine, and these parameters can be found on nameplate basically, perhaps just can measure with very simple means.And, use control method of the present invention even need the accurate parameter of electric machine just can realize the vector control method of the no velocity location transducer of electric rotating machine hardly because the magnetic linkage Tracing Control has very strong error correction ability.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the MT rotating coordinate system of stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control;
Fig. 2 is an asynchronous machine M axle T type equivalent electric circuit;
Fig. 3 is an asynchronous machine T axle T type equivalent electric circuit;
Fig. 4 is the vector control flow chart of the no velocity location transducer of asynchronous machine;
Fig. 5 is that the rotary speed in the stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control system of asynchronous machine is inferred control flow chart;
Fig. 6 is the MT spacetime polar plot of the stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control system of asynchronous machine when operate as normal;
Fig. 7 is the spacetime polar plot of the stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control system of asynchronous machine when stator voltage is leading;
Fig. 8 is the spacetime polar plot of the stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control system of asynchronous machine when stator voltage lags behind.
Fig. 9 is that the simple and easy rotary speed in the Vector Control System for Asynchronous Machine is inferred control flow chart.
Symbol description:
E _{1}: the statorinduced electromagnetic gesture.
E ' _{2}: convert rotor induction gesture to stator side.
E ' _{2ideal}: convert to the ideal value of the rotor induction gesture of stator side.
E ' _{2real}: convert to the actual value of the rotor induction gesture of stator side.
E ' _{δ}: convert air gap inductive electromotive force to stator side.
E ' _{δideal}: convert to the ideal value of the air gap inductive electromotive force of stator side.
E ' _{δreal}: convert to the actual value of the air gap inductive electromotive force of stator side.
E _{1ideal}: the ideal value of statorinduced electromagnetic gesture.
E _{1real}: the actual value of statorinduced electromagnetic gesture.
f _{n}: the rated frequency of motor.
k _{Pω}: the speed adjustment is with the proportional gain of proportional plus integral control ring.
k _{Iω}: the speed adjustment is with the storage gain of proportional plus integral control ring.
k _{PiTs}: the proportional gain of speed control ring.
k _{IiTs}: the storage gain of speed control ring.
k _{PiTp}: the proportional gain of Position Control ring.
k _{IiTp}: the storage gain of Position Control ring.
_{k}: subscript, represent this sampled data or calculated data.
i _{f}: the external exciting current of synchronous separately excited machine excitation winding.
i _{Hys}: the deadtime compensation current threshold.
i _{1M}: the stator excitation electric current.
i _{1T}: the stator torque current.
I ' _{2M}: convert rotor excitation current to stator side.
I ' _{2T}: convert rotor torque electric current to stator side.
I _{1n}: the specified phase current of motor.
l _{E σ}: synchronous machinery excitation winding leakage inductance.
L _{e}: the synchronous machinery excitation winding inductance.
l _{1}: the rotary electric machine leakage inductance.
L ' _{2}: convert rotor leakage inductance to stator side.
L _{1}: the excitation axle inductance of stator magnetic linkage oriented synchronous machine.
L _{2}: the torque axis inductance of stator magnetic linkage oriented synchronous machine.
L _{1 δ}: the excitation axle inductance of the synchronous machine of air gap flux linkage orientation.
L _{2 δ}: the torque axis inductance of the synchronous machine of air gap flux linkage orientation.
L _{d}: the daxis inductance of stator winding.
L _{q}: the transverse axis inductance of stator winding.
L _{Md}: the daxis mutual inductance between the synchronous machine rotor winding.
L _{Mq}: the transverse axis mutual inductance between the synchronous machine rotor winding.
L _{PF}: low pass filter.
M ': convert motor mutual inductance to stator side.
P: differential operator.
p _{p}: the motor number of polepairs.
r _{1}: rotary electric machine resistance.
Sigma: the integral that integral and calculating is used.
T _{e}: the electromagnetic torque of motor.
T _{e} ^{*}: the output torque instruction value.
T _{c}: the carrier cycle of AC/DC powerconverting device.
t _{d}: the Dead Time that the AC/DC powerconverting device sets in advance.
T _{r}: the rotor circuit transition time constant.
T _{Sω}: the control cycle of proportional plus integral control ring.
V _{DC}: DC busbar voltage.
The mean value of DC busbar voltage instantaneous value.
V _{1M}: stator excitation voltage.
V _{1M} ^{*}: the stator excitation voltage reference value.
V _{1T}: stator torque voltage.
V _{1n}: the specified voltage between phases of motor.
V _{1real}: the voltage vector of AC/DC powerconverting device output.
V _{1ideal}: the desirable output voltage vector of AC/DC powerconverting device when the control system operate as normal.
v _{Out}: the AC/DC powerconverting device output voltage behind the deadtime compensation.
α _{u}: the duty ratio that U exports mutually.
ψ _{1d}: motor daxis armature reaction magnetic linkage.
ψ _{1q}: motor crossmagnetizing armature reaction magnetic linkage.
ψ _{f}: the magnetic linkage that the permanent magnet of magneto produces.
ψ _{δ d}: motor daxis air gap magnetic linkage.
ψ _{δ q}: motor transverse axis air gap magnetic linkage.
ψ _{1M}: the stator excitation magnetic linkage.
ψ _{1T}: stator torque magnetic linkage.
ψ ' _{2M}: convert rotorexciting magnetic linkage to stator side.
ψ ' _{2T}: convert rotor torque magnetic linkage to stator side.
ψ ' _{δ M}: convert air gap excitation magnetic linkage to stator side.
ψ ' _{δ T}: convert air gap torque magnetic linkage to stator side.
φ _{s}: the stator magnetic linkage oriented MT rotating coordinate system of synchronous machine and the phase difference of dq rotating coordinate system.
φ _{δ}: the air gap flux linkage orientation MT rotating coordinate system of synchronous machine and the phase difference of dq rotating coordinate system.
θ: the phase angle of MT rotary coordinate system.
The guess value at the phase angle of MT rotary coordinate system.
The guess value at rotor mechanical phase angle.
ω _{1}: the stator magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation.
The guess value of stator magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation.
ω _{1e}: the basic estimated value of stator magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation.
ω _{r}: the rotor mechanical angular velocity of rotation.
The guess value of rotor mechanical angular velocity of rotation.
ω _{SL}: the slippage angular speed of asynchronous machine.
The guess value of the slippage angular speed of asynchronous machine.
Δ ω: the regulating the speed of the phase angle error of MT rotating coordinate system.
ε _{VM}: the error between M axle stator excitation voltage reference value and the actual M axle stator excitation voltage.
σ: the magnetic leakage factor of asynchronous machine.
Embodiment
According to Figure of description technical scheme of the present invention is further elaborated below.Figure 1 shows that the MT rotating coordinate system based on the stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control of stator magnetic linkage, this coordinate system is positioned at excitation axle M axle on the stator magnetic linkage vector, and is synchronous with its maintenance; The leading M axle 90 of torque axis T axle is spent simultaneously.The present invention selects stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control system, and like this, stator magnetic linkage just becomes Be Controlled target magnetic linkage.
All parameters of electric machine rotor can be decomposed into M axle component and T axle component at the MT rotating coordinate system as stator voltage, stator current.Wherein, the M axle is because consistent with Be Controlled target flux linkage vector, and M axle component is all relevant with the motor magnetic linkage; T axle component is then relevant with motor torque; M axle component and T axle component are separate.Like this, the vector control system of motor just can be controlled the excitation current component of M axle independently, makes motor action on the working point of specified in advance magnetic flux density; Simultaneously, the motor vector control system also can be adjusted T shaft torque current component separately, obtains the electromagnetic torque of needs, thereby accurately controls the speed or the position of motor.
For asynchronous machine, based on the definition of MT reconnaissance rotating coordinate system, the T type equivalent electric circuit of asynchronous machine can be broken down into T axle T type equivalent electric circuit and M axle T type equivalent electric circuit, as Fig. 2, shown in Figure 3.Here, follow common asynchronous machine theory, the parameter of asynchronous machine rotor side need be converted to stator side, and the numerical value after the conversion is with subscript ' represented.
In rotating coordinate system, each vector all becomes the actionless vector of relative rotating coordinate system, so magnetic linkage also produces revolving electromotive force except producing transformer electromotive force.By the stator terminal of AC/DC powerconverting device output voltages such as frequency converter to asynchronous machine, the stator voltage equation that can be obtained asynchronous machine by equivalent circuit diagram is:
Here, p is a differential operator.
Owing to contain the stator magnetic linkage component in the following formula, and the relation between stator magnetic linkage, air gap magnetic linkage and rotor flux is as follows:
ψ′ _{δM}＝M′(i _{1M}+i′ _{2M})＝ψ _{1M}l _{1}i _{1M}＝ψ′ _{2M}l′ _{2}i′ _{2M}
Numerical expression 2
ψ′ _{δT}＝M′(i _{1T}+i′ _{2T})＝ψ _{1T}l _{1}i _{1T}＝ψ′ _{2T}l′ _{2i}′2 _{T}
The control of simple relatively stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control MT rotating coordinate system occasion at first is discussed below:
In general, AC/DC powerconverting devices such as frequency converter can be by adjusting output voltage apace, thereby reach the purpose of the stator current of accurately controlling asynchronous machine.And because the resistance of the resistance of output circuit and asynchronous machine itself is very little, the time constant of transient process is very little, and we can suppose that the stator current command value of asynchronous machine can be regarded as almost consistent with its actual value.And when real electrical machinery is controlled, for the magnetic flux density that makes asynchronous machine remains on the rated operation point of design, exciting current i _{1M}Will be controlled consciously and be become a steady state value.Simultaneously, according to the load size of motor and the instruction rotating speed of motor, calculate the size of adjusting the torque current command value automatically by the upper level speed control.
That is to say, the present invention at first needs to determine the stator current command value of motor, and the lowermost layer of whole vector control system is based upon on the basis of high speed Current Control, current regulator ACRM shown in control flow Fig. 4 (AutoCurrent Regulator for Magnetization) and ACRT (Auto Current Regulator for Torque).According to the current instruction value of this moment, the threephase resultant vector of stator current will be controlled on the specified amplitude and phase place by AC/DC powerconverting devices such as frequency converters.And the AC/DC powerconverting device will automatically be exported a suitable voltage by the ACR control ring when realizing Current Control, and obviously, stator input voltage at this time should satisfy stator voltage equation numerical expression 1.
By based on stator magnetic linkage ψ _{1}The basic definition of MT rotating coordinate system of stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control, if MT rotating coordinate system accurate positioning as can be known, T axle magnetic linkage is zero.So by the definition of numerical expression 2, the stator voltage equation of the asynchronous machine of formula 1 can be simplified and is rewritten as:
Numerical expression above investigating, we can notice, in the output voltage based on the AC/DC powerconverting device of Current Control, T shaft voltage V _{1T}In comprising very important rotor flux angular velocity of rotation ω _{1}Information.Meanwhile, M shaft voltage V when motor normally moves _{1M}The locating information that has comprised the MT rotating coordinate system.The present invention is exactly the design of not having the vector control system of velocity location transducer at this point.
On the other hand, usually current instruction value is in that the AC/DC powerconverting device is inner when generating, by one once or the secondary low pass filter in addition export next link to after the smoothing processing and handle.If so when current instruction value did not have very violent change, stator voltage did not have bigger change yet.If it is constant that vector control can be controlled exciting current, then can ignore the differential term of stator magnetic linkage, simplify stator voltage equation 3.T shaft voltage by the output of AC/DC powerconverting device calculates the basic estimated value ω of the stator magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation of motor at this moment _{1e}:
Obviously, the result of calculation of following formula precision when high speed driving and motor steady operation still can; But when low speed even zerospeed, perhaps in the control of dynamic transition process, because T shaft voltage V _{1T}It is very little to become, and at this time factor such as the position error of the change of the error of the test error of electric current and voltage and the parameter of electric machine, stator magnetic linkage, rotating coordinate system, the equational simplification of stator voltage all will be brought bigger error to the estimation of stator magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation.Because the phase place of MT rotating coordinate system need be by the integration gained of stator magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation, so the accumulation of the slight error of the angular velocity of rotation of magnetic linkage can cause the great error at phase angle, cause the location of MT rotating coordinate system inaccurate, further cause the estimation error of stator magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation conversely again.Such vicious circle causes the accumulation of error, even causes that The whole control system becomes unstable, causes the motor rotary speed to send out and shakes or the uncontrollable phenomenon of whole system.
In order to address this problem, the present invention will utilize M shaft voltage V in the stator voltage equation _{1M}, adopt the following M shaft voltage V that passes through _{1M}Calculate the error amount of the angular velocity of rotation of MT rotating coordinate system and real electrical machinery stator magnetic linkage, finally obtain the angular velocity of rotation and the phase place of stator magnetic linkage accurately, and the actual rotary speed of MT rotary coordinate system and rotor magnetic linkage is kept synchronously, and its phase place is consistent.
The careful stator voltage equation 3 of investigating, we are defined as statorinduced electromagnetic gesture E with the product of the angular velocity of rotation of stator magnetic linkage and stator magnetic linkage _{1}, and statorinduced electromagnetic gesture E _{1}Be consistent with the T axle always.Simultaneously, stator voltage vector V _{1}Under the state of the normal operation of the system that is projected on the M axle should be numerical expression 3 resulting M shaft voltages, and we are referred to as fiducial value V _{1M} ^{*}This pattern 3 can be reexpressed as:
By following formula, the spacetime polar plot of the stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control system when we can be with the normal rotating operation of asynchronous machine is expressed as Fig. 6.But, when the AC/DC powerconverting device carries out Current Control, only according to formula 4 controls, then along with M shaft voltage actual value V often takes place load change _{1M}With fiducial value V _{1M} ^{*}Inconsistent phenomenon.If the M shaft voltage actual value V of current AC/DC powerconverting device output _{1M}With fiducial value V _{1M} ^{*}At this time defined MT rotary coordinate system of control system self and actual stator induced potential E are not described not simultaneously, _{1}Produced phase error physically.
In other words, this error is actually because statorinduced electromagnetic gesture E _{1}Different the causing of the phase place of actual phase and the control system imagination.Simultaneously, because stator voltage can be by statorinduced electromagnetic gesture E on circuit theory _{1}The stator pressure drop that is produced with stator current is synthetic to be obtained, so statorinduced electromagnetic gesture E _{1}Deviation must cause the deviation of stator voltage.When motor normally moved, as shown in Figure 3, stator voltage was almost vertical with the M axle, thus the phase place of stator voltage as deviation is arranged slightly, the projection on the M axle just has bigger change.And this change by the present invention as the position error signal utilization, constantly adjust the rotary speed of MT rotating coordinate system according to the change conditions of M shaft voltage.
Fig. 7 has shown actual stator induced potential E _{1real}Spacetime polar plot when leading, the voltage vector V of AC/DC powerconverting device output _{1real}Also be ahead of the voltage vector V that control system is scheduled to _{1ideal}, the result causes the M shaft voltage V of AC/DC powerconverting device output _{1M}Less than fiducial value V _{1M} ^{*}At this time control system should strengthen the rotary speed of MT coordinate system, to catch up with statorinduced electromagnetic gesture E _{1real}Physical location.And in order to set up the Tracing Control system of an agility, this rotary acceleration should be relevant with the deviate size.
On the contrary, Fig. 8 has shown actual stator induced voltage E _{1real}During hysteresis, the voltage vector V of AC/DC powerconverting device output _{1}Also lag behind the voltage vector that control system is scheduled to, the result causes the M shaft voltage V of AC/DC powerconverting device output _{1M}Greater than fiducial value V _{1M} ^{*}At this time control system should reduce the rotary speed of MT coordinate system, waits for that induced voltage catch up with.Equally, the rotary speed that reduces should be relevant with the deviate size.When low speed rotation, this speed adjustment sometimes even can make the reverse rotation of MT coordinate system makes The whole control system have the relatively large degree of freedom, to adapt to dynamic changes such as load torque.
In sum, the M shaft voltage V that exports by more current AC/DC powerconverting device _{1M}With fiducial value V _{1M} ^{*}Size, as shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8, the present invention imports the Δ ω that regulates the speed, this Δ ω that regulates the speed produces by following proportional plus integral control ring.The size of the control system passing ratio integral control ring high speed and the Δ ω that dynamically regulates the speed reaches MT rotary coordinate system and rotor induction gesture rotary speed and keeps synchronous purpose.
Δ ω=k _{Pω}ε _{VM}+ k _{Iω}∫ ε _{VM}Dt numerical expression 6
Here, M shaft voltage error Coefficient k _{Pω}And k _{Iω}Be respectively proportional gain and the storage gain of speed adjustment with the proportional plus integral control ring.In order to limit the numerical value of the Δ ω that regulates the speed, the final calculation result of integral and proportional plus integral control ring is the restriction of upper and lower bound in addition, and when the processing of limits value, it is unified that the limits value of the final calculation result of the limits value of integral and proportional plus integral control ring should keep, the malfunctioning phenomenon of control system that is produced when avoiding integrated value considerably beyond final limits value.
In addition, when this proportional plus integral control ring is realized by the CPU programming, need handle the following formula discretization.The digital integration formula of discretization can merely be used Euler's integral:
Δ ω=k _{Pω}ε _{VM} k+k _{Iω}ε _{VM} _{k}T _{Sω}+ Sigma _{K1}Numerical expression 7
Here, T _{Sω}Be the control cycle of proportional plus integral control ring, subscript k represents this sampled data, and subscript k1 represents sampled data last time.In order to guarantee control performance, generate the difference of the working mechanism of PWM waveform, control cycle T according to use CPU _{Sω}Need be set to be certain relation with the carrier cycle of AC/DC powerconverting device.For example, the carrier frequency of largesized DC/AC power converting apparatus is lower usually, has only thousands of Hz, can be with control cycle T under this occasion _{Sω}Be set to the AC/DC powerconverting device carrier cycle 1/2nd, both calculated at twice in that the preceding halfsum of carrier wave is later half; Under common carrier frequency, for example under the carrier frequency of 8kHz～15kHz, can be with control cycle T _{Sω}Be set to identical with the carrier cycle of frequency converter; When very high carrier frequency, then can suitably relax, doubly move by the plural number of carrier cycle.Certainly, control cycle T _{Sω}Also can be set to have nothing to do, by the cycle self contained function that sets in advance with the carrier cycle of AC/DC powerconverting device.
In addition, the computational methods of the digital integration of discretization can also adopt other numerical integratings such as Simpson's integration, but do not have basic difference on the The whole control principle, no longer discuss here.
Meanwhile, integral needs to upgrade by following formula after following formula has calculated:
Sigma _{k}=k _{Iω}ε _{VM} kT _{Sω}+ Sigma _{K1}Numerical expression 8
Control system is after Δ ω is regulated the speed in importing, and convolution 4 calculates the angular velocity of rotation basic value ω of resulting stator magnetic linkage _{1e}, can obtain stator magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation guess value and be:
Behind stator magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation guess value integration, just can obtain the phase angle of MT rotary coordinate system:
The following formula discretization is handled and to be handled equally by the front principle, and later similar problem is repeated description no longer also.If control system makes abovementioned controlling unit high speed motion in design, for example press two/oneperiod action of carrier cycle, perhaps press the carrier cycle action, when perhaps doubly moving by the plural number of carrier cycle, control system can be adjusted the angular velocity of rotation guess value of stator magnetic linkage at a high speed, the actual rotary speed of MT rotary coordinate system and motor stator magnetic linkage is remained synchronously, and make both phase places dynamically keep unanimity, thereby the vector control of no velocity location transducer is achieved.
In addition, import the Δ ω that regulates the speed after, the calculating of magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation guess value is to the parameter of electric machine no longer sensitivity that becomes, because the angular velocity of rotation basic value ω of stator magnetic linkage _{1e}The error of calculation can in Δ ω item, be offset.This is a subsidiary effect of the present invention, and its result makes the vector control system of whole no velocity location transducer have suitable robustness (robustness), and change has automatic compensating effect to the parameter of electric machine.
Control flow Fig. 5 has shown abovementioned stator magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation guess value Phase angle with the MT rotary coordinate system Computational process.Because in working control, high speed current regulator ACRM and ACRT will inevitably bring the variance components of sizable output voltage, cause the angular velocity of rotation guess value Change, cause the performance of whole Electric Machine Control.So as shown in FIG., the present invention has adopted one or more low pass filters to suppress the variance components of output voltage, makes the angular velocity of rotation guess value Become level and smooth.
Calculate after the guess value of magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation, whole vector control flow process has just obtained the phase information of vital rotating coordinate system, threephase alternating current can be converted into MT twophase direct current thus, speed or positioning control link by motor produces the torque current command value then, produce the excitation current instruction value by the magnetic linkage control device, control ring by exciting current and torque current produces excitation output voltage and torque output voltage again, again with the twophase dc voltage conversion of excitation output voltage and torque output voltage to threephase alternating voltage, converse the threephase duty ratio by threephase alternating voltage, obtain the threephase PWM switch command by the threephase duty ratio at last.In addition, owing to exist slippage between the rotary speed of the rotary speed of rotator of asynchronous machine and stator magnetic linkage, so, also need to calculate the slip of motor in order to control the rotary speed of rotor.
M axis voltage references value V by careful investigation coordinate system _{1M} ^{*}Computational methods, can learn the M axis voltage references value V of stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control system _{1M} ^{*}It is a small positive voltage; To the less demanding occasion of system's control precision, M axis voltage references value V can be set simply _{1M} ^{*}Be zero, simultaneously, suppose that also the magnetic linkage of being controlled is identical with the rotor flux size.Because the basic estimated value ω of magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation _{1e}Can obtain the regulating the speed correction of Δ ω, also can simplify and calculate by following formula:
By the setting of following formula, the calculating of the Δ ω that regulates the speed can use numerical expression 6 to calculate, and the computational methods at the computational methods of the guess value of the rotary speed of magnetic linkage and phase angle are also aforementioned identical simultaneously.Control flow Fig. 9 has shown abovementioned magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation guess value Phase angle with the MT rotary coordinate system Computational process.
Though the M axis voltage references value V of following formula _{1M} ^{*}Very simple, need the parameter of motor hardly, but M axis voltage references value V clearly _{1M} ^{*}Simplification follow the trail of for the speed of system to bring error.Because numerical expression 6 has used proportional integral calculating, thus the out of control of system finally caused for the continuous accumulation that prevents error, necessary here restriction proportion integral and calculating bound, even can be calculated by a usage ratio control ring.Calculating as for exciting current and excitation magnetic linkage then can be adopted the design of electrical motor value.In addition, the error for the motor electromagnetic torque that error caused of exciting current then needs to be proofreaied and correct with other method.For example in deciding rotating speed control, can adjust the electromagnetic torque of motor by the size of adjusting torque current, perhaps be proofreaied and correct by surveying back importing correction coefficient.
The rotation electrical angle speed of the stator magnetic linkage angular velocity of rotation of asynchronous machine and rotor differs a slippage angular velocity omega _{SL}, usually the rated slip rate of asynchronous machine is designed in about 0.02～0.05, and slip is also bigger when being in transient process such as starting when asynchronous machine, so the speed control ring of vector control system must be considered the slippage angular velocity omega _{SL}Influence.
In stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control system, can obtain the approximate calculation formula:
The arrangement The above results, the guess value of the rotation electrical angle speed of rotor is:
After rotor rotated electrical angle speed guess value integration, just can obtain the guess value of the position angle of rotor:
Here, p _{p}Be the motor number of polepairs.
Because the present invention is based upon on the basis of superfast Current Control, so need the command value of clear torque current and the command value of exciting current.Hereinafter with the computational methods of the command value of at first clear and definite electric current.
The computational methods of the command value of stator torque current become along with control purpose difference.That is to say that the multimode controller in the vector control flow chart 4 (Multi Mode Controller) is along with control purpose difference can be selected control model flexibly.For example, the control purpose can obtain the command value of torque current with following ASR (AutoSpeed Regulator) control ring for accurately to control under the occasion of motor rotary speed; And work as the control purpose is under the pinpoint occasion, can obtain the command value of torque current with APR (Auto Position Regulator) control ring; More complicated application scenario needs the composite application of these two kinds of controls, perhaps obtains the command value of torque current with other method.And on the other hand, in papermaking, printing and dyeing, steel rolling etc. are used, also need to use the control purpose for accurately controlling the torque control model of motor output electromagnetic torque.Below, will be illustrated abovementioned control model respectively.
In stator magnetic linkage oriented vector control system, the expression formula of the electromagnetic torque of motor and magnetic linkage and electric current can be expressed as:
In the formula, subscriptthis variable of item expression is a vector, upper right mark～item expression common mode symmetry vector.
Because the basic thought of vector control is exactly with magnetic linkage and torque current decoupling zero respectively, so in the said stator flux linkage orientation vector system, when stator torque axis magnetic linkage is controlled as zero, and when the stator excitation magnetic linkage was controlled as constant, clearly the electromagnetic torque of motor and stator torque current were proportionate relationship.Therefore, if the output torque instruction value is designated, just it is as follows to utilize the abovementioned relation formula to calculate the command value of stator torque current:
In the formula, T _{e} ^{*}Be the output torque instruction value.Stator magnetic linkage ψ _{1M}Numerical value then can singly find by design of electrical motor.
Simultaneously, can in abovementioned each calculating formula, add correction coefficient in actual applications, carry out correction calculation, to obtain bigger precision by the means such as correction or experiment of dispatching from the factory.
Motor speed control ring ASR can design by following proportional plus integral control mode, is obtained the command value of stator torque current by the error of motor rotary speed:
Here, coefficient k _{PiTs}And k _{IiTs}Be respectively proportional gain and the storage gain of speed control ring ASR, ω ^{*}Rotation electrical angle speed value for motor.In addition, in order to limit electric current, the integral of following formula and final calculation result be the restriction of upper and lower bound in addition.When the processing of limits value, the limits value of integral and the limits value of current instruction value should keep unified, the malfunctioning phenomenon of control system that is produced when avoiding integrated value considerably beyond the limits value of current instruction value.
In addition, asynchronous machine is owing to the existence of slip, and rotary speed of rotator need be considered slippage angular speed, and slippage angular speed can calculate by numerical expression 12.And synchronous machine is exactly the magnetic linkage rotary speed because rotor and magnetic linkage keep synchronously at any time so rotor rotates electrical angle speed.
In addition, asynchronous machine Position Control ring APR can calculate by following proportional plus integral control mode, is obtained the command value of stator torque current by the angular error of rotor:
Here, coefficient k _{PiTp}And k _{IiTp}Be respectively proportional gain and the storage gain of Position Control ring APR.The integral here and the treatment principle of command value are same as above.
In more complicated application, can outside speed control ring ASR, add one deck Position Control ring APR again, equally also can obtain the effect of positioning control, Position Control ring APR at this time is designed to be obtained by the angular error of rotor the command value of motor rotary speed, is finally obtained the command value of stator torque current again from the error of motor rotary speed by speed control ring ASR:
The integral here and the treatment principle of command value are same as above.
What deserves to be mentioned is that in the design of the foregoing description, the storage gain of the proportional plus integral control ring of position angle often is set to zero.The elastic system of the response class springy that positioning control at this moment shows, and as one of positioning control system important performance parameter, the elasticity of whole system is called as the stiffness coefficient of positioning control.
In the vector control system,,, alternating current component is transformed into DC component, so that control and computing so must carry out 3/2 ac/dc coordinate transform to it because interchange instantaneous values such as stator and rotor current voltage are in variable condition always; Simultaneously, because the operation result of control system is a flipflop, also must carry out one time 2/3 AC/DC coordinate transform to it, thus obtain can control of conversion the needed threephase alternating voltage of AC/DC powerconverting device such as device, thereby calculate the threephase PWM waveform.Here, owing to relate to the size of each component after the coordinate transform, the present invention uses following coordinate transform formula.
Become the conversion that 2 phase right angle rest frames exchange instantaneous value by the threephase alternating current instantaneous value:
Wherein, if use the mode of two phase samplers, the numerical value of a phase of sampling can not calculated by other twophase.For example V does not have the occasion of sampling mutually, can be calculated by following formula:
V=UW numerical expression 21
Become the conversion of MT DC component by the interchange instantaneous value of 2 phase right angle rest frames:
Here, θ is the phase angle of MT rotating coordinate system.
Become the conversion of the interchange instantaneous value of 2 phase right angle rest frames by the MT DC component:
Exchange the conversion that instantaneous value becomes the threephase alternating current instantaneous value by 2 phase right angle rest frames:
In the vector control flow chart of the various embodiments described above, control system is utilized the resulting T shaft voltage of abovementioned current regulator computing V _{1T}With M shaft voltage V _{1M}Carry out 2/3 AC/DC coordinate transform, calculate the instantaneous value of threephase output voltage.Then, according to the instantaneous value of abovementioned threephase output voltage, be calculated as follows out the duty ratio of threephase output:
In the formula, V _{DC0}Be desirable dc bus voltage value.
The last threephase that is calculated AC/DC powerconverting device such as frequency converter by the threephase output duty cycle is 6 groups of required PWM drive waveforms of bridge up and down, thereby drive the threephase switch of bridge up and down.
In addition, although the explanation of each embodiment of the present invention is description and the calculation of each physical quantity of motor being carried out space vector with rectangular coordinate system, but the mathematical description of polar coordinate system equally also can be realized basic controlling thought of the present invention, and both do not have difference fundamentally.
Although example of the present invention hereto has been described, the present invention is not subjected to the restriction of abovementioned example, in the scope of the technological thought of Miao Shuing, can certainly implement the present invention with other various dissimilar forms in this article.
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