CN101187702B - Downhole coal mine personnel real-time radio positioning method - Google Patents

Downhole coal mine personnel real-time radio positioning method Download PDF

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CN101187702B
CN101187702B CN2007101718122A CN200710171812A CN101187702B CN 101187702 B CN101187702 B CN 101187702B CN 2007101718122 A CN2007101718122 A CN 2007101718122A CN 200710171812 A CN200710171812 A CN 200710171812A CN 101187702 B CN101187702 B CN 101187702B
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beaconing nodes
node
mobile node
nodes
value
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CN2007101718122A
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CN101187702A (en
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施惠昌
沈明华
赵佐平
田金鹏
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上海大学
华瑞科学仪器(上海)有限公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to a real time wireless positioning method for underground coal mine workers, which comprises a distributing-type real time positioning scheme, an arranging method for fixing beacon nodes inside coal mine channels and a converting method between a RSSI value and an actual distance. The invention can be used widely for various coal mine monitoring systems, tracks and monitors for moving targets as the underground workers can be implemented conveniently, thereby safe production can be guaranteed, in particular after accidents occur, the pertinent search and rescue of the underground workers are available according to historical data which are stored before the accidents occur, and loss due to the accidents can be lowered. Simultaneously, the invention is beneficial for coal mine managers to adjust work and thereby monitoring managing level and working efficiency of whole coal mines can be increased.

Description

Downhole coal mine personnel real-time radio positioning method

Technical field

The invention belongs to the wireless sensor network field of locating technology, particularly a kind of method of carrying out mobile personnel real-time radio location at the downhole coal mine environment.

Background technology

In recent years, explosion of coal mines, landslide incident take place repeatedly, the miners' that how to ensure mine and in the colliery, work safety, this problem more and more embodies its importance, to the coal-mine gas disaster, downhole monitoring system carries out fundamental research and becomes very necessary, and China has also strengthened input in science and technology in this respect, makes every effort to and can have breakthrough.

China's coal-mine down-hole geologic condition is very complicated, and mine laneway length can reach tens kms, work under bad environment, and setting disperses, and with the propelling of getting working face, coal mining electromechanical equipment and flow of personnel are big.Various sensors are installed, to lay the cable difficulty very big, even rely on cable transmission information, because ground, down-hole humidity, cable also can seriously corroded, the reliability of total system is relatively poor, and is difficult in maintenance.Because it is lack scope for their abilities as these locator meamss that the most famous precision is the highest at present of GPS (Global Positioning System, GPS) that locating area makes in the down-hole.

Summary of the invention

The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of method of carrying out mobile personnel real-time radio location at the downhole coal mine environment.This method needs mobile node and beaconing nodes to cooperatively interact, mobile node places the miner to wear cap inside, ore deposit, location algorithm is by the distributed realization of mobile node, thereby produces comparatively accurate in locating result, and utilizes wireless network transmissions to aboveground database to store.In case there is mishap to take place, just can carry out search-and-rescue work rapidly according to the position history record that writes down in the database, because the location is more accurate, can accelerate the progress of rescue greatly, the loss that the minimizing accident is brought.

For achieving the above object, design of the present invention is:

The present invention includes: (1) is based on the distributed real-time localization method of radio node radio-frequency (RF) signal strength; (2) at the distribution method of mine tunnel internal fixation beaconing nodes; (3) conversion method between RSSI and the actual range.

(1) based on the distributed real-time localization method of radio node radio-frequency (RF) signal strength

Three kinds of nodes are adopted in the networking of down-hole among the present invention: 2.4GHZ beaconing nodes, 2.4GHZ mobile node, 433MHZ data transmission nodal.2.4GHZ the position of beaconing nodes self fixes in advance, coordinate also configures in advance, when carrying out real-time positioning, beaconing nodes in route maintenance also with oneself positional information as the part of packet, node sends towards periphery, and the 2.4GHZ beaconing nodes will be responsible for receiving transmitting of coordinate position that mobile node sends simultaneously; Location algorithm moves on the 2.4GHZ mobile node, and the positioning result that calculates will send to the superior node of determining in the route; The 433MHZ data transmission nodal mainly is responsible for downhole data is grown the transmission of distance, in view of the accident in tunnel mainly occurs in the development end place, in the 433MHZ zone, will the personnel in the pit not implemented the location, and, do certain discrepancy and detect only in the place that enters pithead.

Because the positioned area Aspect Ratio differs bigger, adopts a linear location can access than the accurate in locating result, and can satisfy the requirement of the computing power and the energy consumption aspect of sensor node itself.Adopt one dimension algorithm location for each section straight line tunnel, and the one dimension switching problem that occurs when solving the tunnel corner, two very little beaconing nodes of emissive power on the corner are set especially are used for detecting and whether occur switching, and measure the direction of switching.

(2) at the distribution method of mine tunnel internal fixation beaconing nodes

Through reconnoitring, the tunnel of development end has the characteristics of oneself, and it mainly is to be " U " font, also have tens meters to rice up to a hundred apart from the face of land degree of depth, the fortune coal channel length on both sides can reach several kilometers, and the physical length in the middle tunnel that mines for coal does not wait from 200~500m, width is then relatively narrow, has only 10-20m.For underground monitoring, the place that mine disaster, landslide take place easily in the tunnel that mines for coal promptly needs the zone of real-time positioning.When Beacon Point was laid, one side can't the layouting substantially of coal seam, therefore, the side beaconing nodes near supporting that Beacon Point can only be laid in the tunnel can only be placed near a side that supports, and makes the location algorithm that carries out the above location of two dimension to use.

Beaconing nodes is except laying near supporting surface, node can not be close to the tunnel metope places, because according to actual experiment, when radio node is close to metope, because electromagnetic wave metope reflection or the like influence, the conventional theoretical characteristics that made the nature of radio propagation substantial deviation makes whole targeting scheme normally to move.

(3) conversion method between RSSI and the actual range

A lot of radio transmitting and receiving chips all have received signal power index RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator), by experiment, regulate the emissive power of radio transmitting and receiving chip, measure the relation between its RSSI value and the actual range, form concrete transformation curve and method.This conversion method is applied in the targeting scheme, can obtains two distances between the radio node quickly and easily.

The present invention compared with prior art, have following conspicuous outstanding substantive distinguishing features and remarkable advantage: the solution of the present invention is according to the concrete characteristics in tunnel and the concrete condition of the radio node that uses, feasible down-hole location algorithm has been proposed, scheme is laid in the down-hole of beaconing nodes, and can in the real-time follow-up location of mobile personnel, obtain result comparatively accurately, according to the mensuration of the transformational relation between RSSI and the actual range, also the wireless application for other provides certain theory and practice basis simultaneously.This invention can be widely used in the down-hole mobile personnel of various mines or the real-time positioning of equipment, improve the management level in mining area on the energy certain degree, when mishap takes place, provide historical data required for rescue, significantly reduced the loss that accident causes.

Description of drawings

Accompanying drawing 1 is downhole wireless location synoptic diagram;

The process flow diagram that accompanying drawing 2 is realized for location algorithm;

Accompanying drawing 3 is that beaconing nodes is laid and location, corner switching synoptic diagram in the tunnel, down-hole;

Accompanying drawing 4 is the piece-wise linearization transformation curve (10dbm) between RSSI and the actual range.

Embodiment

Details are as follows in conjunction with the accompanying drawings for a preferred embodiment of the present invention:

Referring to Fig. 1, this downhole coal mine personnel real-time radio positioning method is as follows: the wireless sensing route network system of employing is made up of (1) mobile node, (2) wireless trunk line, (3) fixed wireless node, (4) aboveground administrative center four parts.Mobile node and beaconing nodes carry out information interaction, utilize the positional information of the beaconing nodes of packet record, on mobile node, move location algorithm, realize Distributed localization, the position location is loaded on the packet transfers to aboveground administrative center by the wireless trunk line, all transmission courses are undertaken by wireless mode.The main effect of administrative center is the positional information that receives mobile node, and is stored in the middle of the database of oneself, so that take out at the time of emergency, makes things convenient for the carrying out of rescue work.

The transmission of all locating information packets all is based upon on the basis that route maintenance information can normally transmit in this method, be actually and in the route bag, hew out the one piece of data section and be used for specially depositing, the renewal positional information of mobile node, the while also can reduce the communication overhead of network like this.Before implemented the location, all nodes had all carried out the establishment of difference number, and each node all has an one's own number.

Fig. 2 illustrates the flow process that node locating algorithm is realized, consider the sensor computing power, the restriction of aspects such as energy consumption, and the characteristics that differ greatly of the Aspect Ratio in tunnel own, in the method the straight line tunnel has been used the location algorithm of one dimension, the run location of algorithm is on mobile node, and mobile node regularly receives the packet that higher level's beaconing nodes is sent, and the position that calculates is transmitted to the superior node of oneself again.Algorithm steps is as follows:

1, fills in two-dimensional matrix with the data of the beaconing nodes received, the X coordinate figure of the beaconing nodes that first behavior is received, distance value between this mobile node to be measured of second behavior and the received mark node, this value convert according to the described relation of last joint from the RSSI value and get.The matrix columns is the beacon sum that this mobile node to be measured can receive.

2, get according to all X coordinates in the matrix and big or small matrix is carried out from small to large rearrangement, and the distance value of correspondence is also done corresponding sequencing.

3, make error function:

E = 1 N Σ i = 1 N ( | X - x i | - d i ) 2

E is the average error value in the following formula, and N is the beacon sum that receives, x iBe beacon coordinate, d iBe beacon and mobile node distance value to be measured, X is the mobile node coordinate figure to be measured that will find the solution.

For making average error value E minimum, then to the error function differentiate:

dE dX = 2 N Σ i = 1 N ( | X - x i | - d i ) · d | X - x i | dX

Order Then have:

X = 1 N ( Σ i = 1 N x i + Σ i = 1 N d | X - x i | dX d i )

For different interval, if X>x i, then

If X<x i, then

4, to appearing at separating outside the scope should be arranged, get the beaconing nodes coordinate figure that all can receive, the substitution error function is got the beaconing nodes coordinate figure that the makes E function minimum estimated value as X.Because the situation explanation extreme point of minimal value outside field of definition should be on beaconing nodes.

5, be that weights and a preceding coordinates computed are made linear filtering to estimating that the X coordinate is done with 0.5, thereby obtain the final estimation X coordinate figure of node to be measured.

Fig. 3 illustrates beaconing nodes laying and the switching of location, corner in the tunnel, down-hole, own characteristic according to the tunnel of the face of digging well, beaconing nodes can only be laid in supporting surface one side in the tunnel that mines for coal, long with 200m, the wide tunnel of 10m is an example, and the node communication scope should be made as the distance greater than two beaconing nodes spacings, is in order to guarantee the redundancy of route like this, simultaneously ensured also that when having node to break down the result of real-time positioning still can be sent to aboveground by the route stand-by at networking.Suppose that the distance between two Beacon Points is 10m, promptly place a beaconing nodes every 10 meters, then the communication range of node should be made as 20m-30m, so just can guarantee the unimpeded of data link.Here also to consider a bit, Beacon Point can not be close to the tunnel wall, need leave some distance laying a little, this is because find in the middle of experiment, when Beacon Point was directly pasting the metope placement, the conventional theoretical characteristics of radiofrequency characteristics meeting substantial deviation that it is wireless: emission, received signal cut in and out, even receive signal, shake is very serious also, can't be carried out at conversion between the actual range with RSSI at all.Analyzing this phenomenon theoretically, mainly is the ELECTROMAGNETIC REFLECTION owing to metope, and effects such as scattering make the radiofrequency signal of 2.4GHZ be subjected to serious disturbance.

Except in the straight line tunnel, laying beaconing nodes, on the corner lay (1) (2) two miniwatt beaconing nodes as shown in Figure 3, be specifically designed to detection and location and switch, and realize the judgement of switching direction.The set power of these two nodes is very little, communication distance has only 5m, it can participate in the maintenance of whole Routing Protocol, but do not participate in the location, because the location needs to carry out the conversion of RSSI and actual range according to unitized standard, these two node communication scopes can not participate in the location less than other beaconing nodes.Location switching for the corner can comprise the following aspects regulation:

1, because to such an extent as to the very little place far away slightly of power of two special joints just can not receive the signal that it sends, have only when mobile node is close, could normally receive the signal of these two nodes, promptly work as mobile node and move to straight line tunnel edge, just can receive the signal of these two nodes.

2, the location in two straight line tunnels be made as respectively X to Y to, when mobile node arrives X, the direction whether Y can take place and switch in the time of positioning corner according to the switching of the order decision that receives these two miniwatt nodes oneself.

3, when mobile node is only received in two miniwatt nodes one signal, do not carry out the switching of coordinate and location, all switchings must be carried out after receiving two nodes.

4, only receive (1), (2) when the mobile node order, then the expression location will from X to switch to Y to, otherwise then by Y to switch to X to.

Fig. 4 illustrates radio node power and is made as-during 10dbm, and the transformation curve between RSSI register read value (decimal system) and the actual range.Because the data that read from register are hexadecimal, but the drafting of transformation curve is for convenience done sexadecimal number have been done metric conversion at Fig. 4.Carried a RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) in the CC2420 radio transmitting and receiving chip, promptly the received signal power index by the analysis to this index, can obtain the distance value with transmit leg in the middle of wireless receiving and dispatching.The RSSI value can be read by the RSSI.RSSI_VAL register, and it is the numerical value of a 8bit.For this numerical value, be the take over party continuously through 8 symbol periods (128 μ s), and, again the RSSI value is averaged the result who obtains by after 8 the AD conversion.

Received power can be calculated by following formula:

P=RSSI_VAL+RSSI_OFFSET[dBm]

Wherein RSSI_VAL is the digital value of 8bit, and RSSI_OFFSET is a side-play amount, and according to the system development experience, this off-set value that Chipon gives is-45dBm, if promptly by what RSSI obtained be-15dbm, then Shi Ji RF input power approximately is-60dBm.Yet wireless transmission has its tangible instability after all, and the direction of node placement height, surrounding environment, dual-mode antenna etc. all can influence the value of RSSI.According to University of California Berkeley, the experimental data that electronic engineering and computer science department are announced, this side-play amount of common RSSI_OFFSET is not-45dBm in outdoor, needs concrete on-the-spot test also to be proofreaied and correct.

Can adjust the communication range of sensor node to the TXCTRL.PA_LEVEL register value of writing, the radio node emissive power is set in this programme is-10dBm, according to experimental data, the RSSI that distance transmission point 2m receives with interior node substantially is the value below the 0X80, the RSSI that node beyond the distance transmission point 2m is received is the above value of 0X80 substantially, when distance was 40 meters left and right sides, signal attenuation was serious, so that can't normally receive substantially.Do the curve match with the data that record, meet the regularity of distribution of natural logarithm substantially, to obtaining the corresponding relation of RSSI value and distance after the curve segmentation linearization, as Fig. 4.Because in actual measurement, all data all adopt integer, digitized processing, this makes transformational relation to simplify more, also provides RSSI value within can survey scope tables of data corresponding with actual range for your guidance at this this programme, and is as shown in table 1.

Table 1 can be surveyed the corresponding tables of interior part RSSI value of scope and actual range

RSSI value (sexadecimal) EC EB EA E9 E8 E7 E6 E5 E4 E3 Respective distances value (rice) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 RSSI value (sexadecimal) E2 E1 E0 DF DE DD DC DB DA D9 Respective distances value (rice) 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 25 27 30

Claims (4)

1. downhole coal mine personnel real-time radio positioning method, it is characterized in that adopting mobile node and beaconing nodes to cooperatively interact, mobile node places the miner to wear the inside of ore deposit cap, at mine tunnel internal fixation beaconing nodes, location algorithm moves on mobile node, location algorithm adopts the distributed real-time localization method based on the radio node radio-frequency (RF) signal strength, thereby produces comparatively accurate in locating result, and utilizes wireless network transmissions to aboveground database to store; Described distributed real-time localization method based on the radio node radio-frequency (RF) signal strength is an one dimension location algorithm in the tunnel, and concrete steps are as follows:
A. fill in two-dimensional matrix with the data of the beaconing nodes received, the X coordinate figure of the beaconing nodes that first behavior is received, distance value between this mobile node to be measured of second behavior and the received mark node, this value converts from received signal power index RSSI value and gets, and the columns of this two-dimensional matrix is the beaconing nodes sum that this mobile node to be measured can receive;
B. according to the size of all X coordinates in the above-mentioned two-dimensional matrix two-dimensional matrix is carried out from small to large rearrangement, and the distance value of correspondence is also done corresponding sequencing;
C. make error function:
E is the average error value in the following formula, and N is the beacon sum that receives, x iBe beacon coordinate, d iBe beacon and mobile node distance value to be measured, X is the mobile node coordinate figure to be measured that will find the solution;
For making average error value E minimum, then to after the error function differentiate
Order Then have:
D. to appearing at separating outside the scope should be arranged, get the beaconing nodes coordinate figure that all can receive, the substitution error function is got the beaconing nodes coordinate figure that the makes E function minimum estimated value as X; Because the situation explanation extreme point of minimal value outside field of definition should be on beaconing nodes;
E. be that weights and the preceding X coordinate that once calculates are made linear filtering to estimating that the X coordinate is done with 0.5, thereby obtain the final estimation X coordinate figure of node to be measured.
2. downhole coal mine personnel real-time radio positioning method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described distribution method at mine tunnel internal fixation beaconing nodes is the own characteristic according to the tunnel of the face of digging well, beaconing nodes can only be laid in supporting surface one side in the tunnel that mines for coal, but can not be close to the tunnel wall cloth establishes, place one every coverage, guarantee in a node communication scope, can have at least two nodes and it to communicate.
3. downhole coal mine personnel real-time radio positioning method according to claim 2, it is characterized in that the localization method of corner, down-hole being: lay two miniwatt beaconing nodes at the tunnel corner, being used for detection and location switches, and realize the judgement of switching direction, set power is very little, communication distance has only 5m, can participate in the maintenance of whole Routing Protocol, but does not participate in the location; Location switching for the corner comprises the following aspects regulation:
A. because to such an extent as to the very little place far away slightly of power of two miniwatt beaconing nodes just can not receive the signal that it sends, have only when mobile node is close, could normally receive the signal of these two nodes, promptly work as mobile node and move to straight line tunnel edge, just can receive the signal of these two nodes;
B. the location in two straight line tunnels be made as respectively X to Y to, the direction that when mobile node arrives X, Y to positioning corner, can whether take place and switch according to the switching of the order decision that receives these two miniwatt beaconing nodes oneself;
C. when mobile node is only received the signal of a node in two miniwatt beaconing nodes, do not carry out the switching of coordinate and location, all switchings must be carried out after receiving two nodes;
D. only when receiving these two beaconing nodes information in certain sequence, just will from X to switch to Y to, otherwise then by Y to switch to X to.
4. downhole coal mine personnel real-time radio positioning method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the conversion method between described received signal power index RSSI and the actual range is: when radio node power be made as-during 10dbm, the transformational relation between RSSI register decimal system read value and the actual range is represented with the piece-wise linearization curve; After the experimental data finishing analysis, the mapping table that forms a RSSI register sexadecimal read value and actual range in the scope is as follows surveying:
CN2007101718122A 2007-12-06 2007-12-06 Downhole coal mine personnel real-time radio positioning method CN101187702B (en)

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