CN101169785A - Clustered database system dynamic loading balancing method - Google Patents

Clustered database system dynamic loading balancing method Download PDF

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CN101169785A
CN101169785A CN 200710114464 CN200710114464A CN101169785A CN 101169785 A CN101169785 A CN 101169785A CN 200710114464 CN200710114464 CN 200710114464 CN 200710114464 A CN200710114464 A CN 200710114464A CN 101169785 A CN101169785 A CN 101169785A
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database
gateway
load balancing
statement
client
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尹宏伟
李志强
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浪潮电子信息产业股份有限公司
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Abstract

本发明提供一种集群数据库系统的动态负载均衡方法,该方法是通过数据库网关系统,根据动态负载均衡算法判断数据库服务器的负载状况,发送数据库语句给负载最低的数据库服务器,并负责把结果返回给客户端。 The present invention provides a method for dynamic load balancing cluster database system, which through a database gateway system, according to the load condition of dynamic load balancing algorithm for determining the database server, database statements sent to the database server lowest load, and returns the result to be responsible for the clients. 并针对数据库语句的不同执行不同的数据同步机制。 And different data synchronization mechanism for the implementation of different databases statement. 对于数据库查询语句,数据库网关直接把相应结果返回给客户端;对于数据库更新语句,数据库网关把相应结果返回给客户端后,记录所更改表的状态,然后把更新语句发送给其他数据库服务器,以保持各数据库的数据一致性。 For a database query, the database gateway directly to the corresponding results back to the client; for database update statement, the database gateway to the corresponding results back to the client, record the change table status, and then send the update statements to other database servers to maintain data consistency of each database. 本发明的有益效果是在保持基于数据库网关(中间件)的集群的性能和可用性等优势的基础上,有效的通过动态负载均衡机制,提高了数据库集群的整体资源利用率,进一步提升了数据库的整体执行性能。 The beneficial effect of the invention is to maintain cluster-based database gateway (middleware) performance and availability advantages on the basis of an effective mechanism through dynamic load balancing, improve overall resource utilization database cluster to further enhance the database overall execution performance.

Description

集群数据库系统的动态负载均衡方法 Dynamic load balancing methods cluster database system

1、 技术领域 1. Field

本发明涉及计算机通信技术领域,具体地说一种集群数据库系统的动态负载均衡方法。 The present invention relates to computer communication technologies, and in particular a method for dynamic load balancing cluster database system.

2、 技术背景 2. Technical Background

对于所有的数据库而言,除了记录正确的处理结果之外,它们都面临着四方面的挑战:如 For all databases, in addition to record the correct processing results outside, they are faced with challenges in four areas: such as

何提高处理速度,数据可用性、数据安全性和数据集可扩性。 Increase the processing speed, data availability, data security and data set scalability. 随着IT应用的深入和有线,无线 With the deepening of IT applications and wired, wireless

网络的快速增长,电子事务处理业务对以上四方面提出了更高的要求。 The rapid growth of the network, electronic transaction processing services for more than four put forward higher requirements.

将多个数据库联在一起组成数据库集群来达到上述目标应该说是一个很自然的想法。 The multiple databases linked together to form a cluster database to achieve these goals should be said to be a very natural idea. 通常 usually

数据库集群技术分属两类体系结构:基于数据库引擎的集群和基于数据库网关(中间件)的集群。 Database clustering technology belong to two types of architecture: cluster-based database engine based database gateway (middleware) clusters.

基于数据库引擎的集群较多,大型数据库厂商的数据库集群系统多是这种结构,如Oracle RAC, DB2 UDB, SQL Server Cluster等等。 Based on more clustered database engine, a large database vendor's database is multi-cluster system this structure, such as Oracle RAC, DB2 UDB, SQL Server Cluster and so on. 这种类型的集群主要是依靠数据库自身的引擎机制来执行对数据语句的并行执行,这种集群的优点就是数据完整性、可管理性较好,但如果节点服务器通信频繁,会严重影响整个数据库的性能。 This type of clustering relies mainly on its own database engine mechanism to perform parallel execution of data statement, the advantages of this cluster is the data integrity, manageability better, but if the server nodes communicate frequently, it will seriously affect the entire database performance.

Parallel Computers公司的ICX-UDS是一种基于数据库网关(中间件)的集群,ICX独立于数据库引擎,可以支持任何类型的关系型数据库产品。 Parallel Computers company ICX-UDS is based on a database gateway (middleware) cluster, ICX is independent of the database engine, it can support any type of relational database products. 其主要特征是对于数据库査询语句, 数据库网关会依次把语句发送给后台数据库服务器,起到负载均衡的效果;对于数据库更新语句,数据库网关会把更新语句发送给所有的后台数据库服务器,以保持数据库的数据一致性。 Its main feature is for database queries, database gateway will in turn send the statement to the backend database server for load balancing effect; for database update statement, the database gateway will update statements sent to all the back-end database server, in order to maintain database data consistency.

ICX数据库网关在提高数据库整体执行性能和可用性方面起到了很大的作用,但是在资源的利用率上仍有所欠缺。 ICX Database Gateway played a significant role in improving overall database performance and availability to perform, but there are still lacking in resource utilization. 比如采用简单轮巡方式发送数据库査询语句,可能会产生有的数据库服务器负载很高,而有的数据库服务器还很空闲的情况。 For example, a simple way to send polling the database query, the database may cause some server load is high, and some database server is still idle situation. 而且对于更新语句的处理也过于简单, 在某种程度上浪费了数据库服务器的资源使用率。 But also for the update process is too simple statement, to some extent wasted resource usage of the database server.

3、 发明内容 3. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

本发明的用于集群数据库系统的动态负载均衡方法,就是在上述技术基础上,研究如何通过动态负载均衡机制,来提高基于数据库网关(中间件)的集群的资源利用率。 A method for dynamic load balancing cluster database system according to the present invention, the above technique is based on how dynamic load balancing mechanism to improve resource utilization based database gateway (middleware) cluster.

本发明的一种用于集群数据库系统的动态负载均衡方法,是通过数据库网关系统,采用动态负载均衡算法判断数据库服务器的负载状况,然后发送数据库语句给负载最低的数据库服务 One inventive dynamic load balancing method for a clustered database system, the database gateway system by using dynamic load balancing algorithm load condition determining database server, the database and then send the statement to the service database minimum load

器,针对数据库语句的不同执行不同的数据同步机制,把结果返回给客户端。 , A different implementation of different data synchronization mechanism for database statements, the results returned to the client.

数据库网关系统是只与关系型数据库语句有关的独立于数据库内部特征的执行系统,负责 Database Gateway system is independent of the internal features of the database system to perform only relational database statements related charge

链接动态负载均衡机制以及保持多个数据库服务器的数据一致性。 Links dynamic load balancing mechanism to maintain data consistency and multiple database servers.

动态负载均衡算法,是指根据数据库服务器的处理器、内存、10的负载情况,动态计算数 Dynamic load balancing algorithm, the number of processor means according to the database server, the memory, the load 10, the dynamic calculation of

据库服务器的负载能力,判断负载最低的数据库服务器。 According to the load capacity of the database server, database server to determine the lowest load.

针对数据库语句的不同执行不同的数据同步机制,是指对于数据库査询语句,数据库网关 Different data synchronization mechanism for the implementation of different database statement refers to the database query, the database gateway

直接把相应结果返回给客户端;对于数据库更新语句,数据库网关把相应结果返回给客户端后, Directly to the corresponding results returned to the client; statements for database updates, database gateway corresponding to the result returned to the client,

记录所更改表的状态,然后把更新语句发送给其他数据库服务器,以保持各数据库的数据一致性。 Record the changed state of the table, and then update statements sent to other database servers to maintain data consistency of each database.

本发明的有益效果是在保持基于数据库网关(中间件)的集群的性能和可用性等优势的基础上,有效的通过动态负载均衡机制,提高了数据库集群的整体资源利用率,进一步提升了数据库的整体执行性能。 The beneficial effect of the invention is to maintain cluster-based database gateway (middleware) performance and availability advantages on the basis of an effective mechanism through dynamic load balancing, improve overall resource utilization database cluster to further enhance the database overall execution performance.

4、 附图说明 4. BRIEF DESCRIPTION

附图1为动态负载均衡机制的数据库操作执行过程示意图。 Figure 1 is a schematic view of a database operation execution dynamic load balancing mechanism.

5、 具体实施方式 5. DETAILED DESCRIPTION

本发明的一种用于集群数据库系统的动态负载均衡方法,是通过数据库网关系统,根据动态负载均衡算法判断数据库服务器的负载状况,发送数据库语句给负载最低的数据库服务器, 并负责把结果返回给客户端,并针对数据库语句的不同执行不同的数据同步机制。 A method for dynamic load balancing for cluster database system according to the present invention, by a database gateway system, according to the load condition of dynamic load balancing algorithm for determining the database server, database statements sent to the database server lowest load, and returns the result to be responsible for the client and different perform different data synchronization mechanism for database statement.

这里所说的数据库网关,就是上面提到的基于数据库网关(中间件)的集群的数据库网关, 它是一种独立于数据库内部特征的执行系统,只与关系型数据库语句有关,负责接动态负载均衡机制以及保持多个数据库服务器的数据一致性。 Here's database gateway is based on a database gateway (middleware) database gateway cluster, it is an independent internal database features mentioned above execution system, only with relational database statements related to, responsible for handling dynamic load balancing mechanisms, and maintain data consistency multiple database servers.

当数据库网关接收到客户端发来的数据库语句时,会根据动态负载均衡算法来判断后台的哪个数据库服务器负载最低。 When the database gateway receives a client statement sent to the database, the database server which will be judged according to the minimum load backstage dynamic load balancing algorithm. 这种动态负载均衡算法与数据库服务器的处理器、内存、10等负载情况相关,通过一定的运算机制得出。 This dynamic load balancing algorithm to the database server processor, memory, and other load-related 10, obtained by a certain calculation mechanism. 而处理器、内存、10等负载的获得是通过安装在数据库服务器上的代理软件收集并周期性发送给数据库网关的。 And a processor, memory, and the like to obtain a load 10 is collected and sent to a database gateway periodically by agent software installed on the database server.

同时,数据库网关会针对数据库语句的不同而执行不同的数据同步机制。 At the same time, the database gateway will perform different data synchronization mechanism for different databases statements. 对于数据库査询语句,数据库网关直接把相应结果返回给客户端,因为査询语句并不会破坏数据库系统中的数据,因而不需要数据同步。 For a database query, the database gateway directly to the corresponding results back to the client, because the query does not destroy data in the database system, and therefore does not require data synchronization.

而对于数据库更新语句,数据库网关在把数据库服务器生成结果返回给客户端后,会记录所更改表的状态(正在同步),然后把更新语句发送给其他数据库服务器,在所有数据库服务 For database update statement, the database gateway server to generate the database after the results back to the client, it will record the changes to the table status (synchronous), then send an update statement to other database servers, database services in all

器数据保持一致后,再把更改表的同步状态去掉。 After the data is consistent, then change the synchronization state table is removed. 实施例 Example

附图1描述了动态负载均衡机制的具体工作过程。 Figure 1 describes the specific processes and dynamic load balancing mechanism. 在这个例子中,后台采用3台真实的数据库服务器,安装同一类型、同一版本的数据库软件。 In this example, three background using a real database server, install the same type, the same version of the database software. l个数据库客户端通过数据库网关来访问后台的数据库服务器。 l database client to access back-end database server through a database gateway.

运行在各数据库服务器上的代理程序会动态收集服务器的处理器、内存、IO等负载情况, 并周期性的发送给数据库网关(比如每10秒发送一次)。 The processor runs the agent on each database server dynamically collection server, memory, IO and other load, and periodically sent to the database gateway (such as once every 10 seconds transmission). 数据库网关会实时根据负载均衡算法计算各数据库服务器的负载情况,并采用权值方式来表示。 Database Gateway will load real-time calculation for each database server based load balancing algorithm, and using weights to represent ways. 权值越低,表示服务器负载越低。 The lower the weight, the lower the server load. 比如在某一时刻,数据库1的权值为10,数据库2的权值为20,数据库3的权值为30。 For example at a time, to the database 10 the value 1, value 2 to the database 20, to the database 3 is 30.

当数据库网关接收到来自客户端的数据库语句后(步骤1),首先会判断数据库语句的种类, 是单纯的数据库査询语句,还是包含有删除、插入等操作的更新语句。 When (Step 1) Database Gateway receives a statement from the client database, the database will first determine the type of statement, a simple database query or update statements contain deletions, insertions, and other operations. 如果为査询语句,会把此査询语句发送给负载最低的数据库1服务器(步骤2),当查询结束后(步骤3),会把相应结果直接发送给客户端(步骤4)。 If the query, the query will be sent to this lowest load database server 1 (step 2), when the (Step 3) the end of the query, the results will be sent directly to the corresponding client (step 4).

如果接收到的是数据库更新语句,首先数据库网关会把此语句发送给负载最低的数据库1 服务器(步骤2),当更新结束后(步骤3),会把相应结果直接发送给客户端(步骤4)。 If the received update statement is the database, the first database gateway will send the statement to this lowest load database server 1 (step 2), when the (Step 3) the end of the update, the corresponding results will be sent directly to the client (Step 4 ). 同时,记录此语句对哪个表作了更新,并标注所更新的表同步状态(此时如有语句对此表进一步操作,将延后执行或发送给数据库1)。 Meanwhile, the recording sheet to which this statement been updated, and the updated label table synchronization state (at this time, if this statement table further operation will be delayed to a database or perform 1). 之后,把已经执行过的更新语句同时发送给数据库2 和数据库3 (步骤5),待数据同步结束后,会把更新结果发送给数据库网关(步骤6)。 Thereafter, the update statement have been performed at the same time and sent to the database 2 database 3 (step 5), until the end of data synchronization, transmits the result to the database will update the gateway (step 6). 此时, 数据同步完成,把具有同步状态的表的标注去掉。 At this time, data synchronization is completed, the label having a synchronization state table is removed.

Claims (4)

1、集群数据库系统的动态负载均衡方法,其特征在于:通过数据库网关系统,采用动态负载均衡算法判断数据库服务器的负载状况,然后发送数据库语句给负载最低的数据库服务器,针对数据库语句的不同执行不同的数据同步机制,把结果返回给客户端。 1, dynamic load balancing method of clustered database system, wherein: through a database gateway system using the load condition of dynamic load balancing algorithm determines the database server, and then send the database statements to the lowest load database server, different execution against database statements different data synchronization mechanism, the results returned to the client.
2、 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于数据库网关系统是只与关系型数据库语句有关的独立于数据库内部特征的执行系统,负责链接动态负载均衡机制以及保持多个数据库服务器的数据一致性。 2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the same data is separate from the internal signature database system database gateway system performs only relational database statement relating to dynamic load balancing mechanism is responsible for the link and holding a plurality of database servers sex.
3、 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于动态负载均衡算法,是指根据数据库服务器的处理器、内存、10的负载情况,动态计算数据库服务器的负载能力,判断负载最低的数据库服务器。 3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the dynamic load balancing algorithm, based on the database server processor means, the memory, the load 10, the load capacity is calculated dynamic database server, database server determines the lowest load.
4、 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,针对数据库语句的不同执行不同的数据同步机制,是指对于数据库查询语句,数据库网关直接把相应结果返回给客户端;对于数据库更新语句,数据库网关把相应结果返回给客户端后,记录所更改表的状态,然后把更新语句发送给其他数据库服务器,以保持各数据库的数据一致性。 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the different synchronization mechanism to perform different data against a database statement, means for database queries, database gateway directly to the corresponding results returned to the client; statements for database updates, database gateway returns the results to the corresponding client, after the change of state record table, and then transmits the update statement to other database servers, in order to maintain data consistency for each database.
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