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Method for implementing optimization energy consumption in Ad hoc network

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Publication number
CN101141388A
CN101141388A CN 200710053022 CN200710053022A CN101141388A CN 101141388 A CN101141388 A CN 101141388A CN 200710053022 CN200710053022 CN 200710053022 CN 200710053022 A CN200710053022 A CN 200710053022A CN 101141388 A CN101141388 A CN 101141388A
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energy
consumption
network
node
layer
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CN 200710053022
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101141388B (en )
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李腊元
博 王
辉 郑
郑四海
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武汉理工大学
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    • Y02D70/00
    • Y02D70/20

Abstract

The present invention relates to a method for realizing optimized energy consumption in the Ad hoc network. The present invention proposes an energy model with cross-layer design based on the analyzing the characteristics of the Ad hoc network and by combining the condition of the energy consumption on each layer, the model firstly considers the energy consumption of the physical layer, the data link layer and the network layer of the node, thereby to establish the energy model to each node by utilizing the optimized theory, meanwhile, because the communication of the data information in the Ad hoc network is forwarded by multi-hop among the nodes, when a source node operates the forwarding to a target node for the best path, not only the energy consumption of each node on the path is required to be considered, but also the energy consumption of the complete path is required to be considered, finally the optimal path energy model is established according to the principle of least hop and the least energy consumption on the complete one path, thereby, to avoid the network fault and the impact on the rate of the data information transmission caused by the excessive energy consumption.

Description

一种Ad hoc网络中实现优化能量消耗的方法技术领域本发明属于无线网络领域,特别是一种Ad hoc网络中实现优化能量消耗的方法。 TECHNICAL FIELD one kind of Ad hoc networks to optimize the energy consumption of the present invention is in the field of wireless networks, in particular a method for optimizing the energy consumption to achieve Ad hoc networks. 背景技术在Ad hoc网络中,针对某一节点S的功率传输情况,在S的传输范围之内主要受在受邻居节点的信号传输的影响比较大,因此节点S的功率传输分布情况如图1所示。 Background Art In Ad hoc network, where a transmission power for a node S, S within the transmission range of the signal transmission is mainly affected by the influence of neighboring nodes by relatively large, so the distribution of the power transmitting node S 1 in FIG. Fig. Ad Hoc网络的特点是各节点地位平等,能自由移动,并且通过无线信道进行通信。 Characteristics of Ad Hoc network nodes is equal status, can move freely, and communicates via a wireless channel. 由于移动终端本身由电池供电, 因此,人们一般希望移动终端(如笔记本电脑等)在不充电的情况下能连续工作4-6个小时。 Since the mobile terminal itself is powered by a battery, therefore, it is generally desirable that the mobile terminal (e.g., laptop computers, etc.) can work continuously without charging 4-6 hours. 目前,要达到这个目标还存在一定的困难,这主要是由于电池的容量有限的缘故。 At present, to achieve this goal there are still some difficulties, mainly due to the limited capacity of the battery sake. 过去30年间,电池制造4支术一直没有取得突破性的进展。 Over the past 30 years, four battery manufacturing technique has been no breakthrough progress. 由于受制造技术的限制,单位重量的电池容量很难有大幅度提高。 Due to the limitation by the manufacturing technology, the battery capacity per unit weight is difficult to have greatly improved. 同时,随着移动终端性能的提升和功能的加强,对电能的需求不断提高,因此在Ad Hoc网络中采用各种节能机制成为延长其工作时间的一种主要手段。 Meanwhile, with the strengthening and lifting functions of the mobile terminal performance, the demand for electricity continues to increase, and therefore various power saving mechanism in Ad Hoc networks has become a primary means to extend their working hours. 从Ad hoc网络层次结构上来分析,整个网络中的能量消耗主要集中在物理层、数据链路层和网络层。 Ad hoc network hierarchy from up analysis, the energy consumption of the whole network, mainly in the physical layer, data link layer and a network layer. 物理层主要是各个节点接收到邻居节点发送信号时的接收功率和本身节点的一些硬件器件(CPU, LCD等)的消耗。 The physical layer hardware mainly because some devices receive power when the own node and the neighboring node receiving the transmission signal each node (CPU, LCD, etc.) consumption. 数据链路层主要是基于MAC层的IEEE 802. 11 的DCF(Distributed Coordination Function)在独立的网络配置下共享无线信道的基本接入方式的基础之上。 The data link layer is mainly based on IEEE MAC layer DCF (Distributed Coordination Function) 802. 11 radio channels in the shared network configuration substantially independent access of the above. 当某个节点(处于Sleep状态) 将要正常工作时,先要监听无线共享信道是否被占用,如果被占用则要继续监听等待若干个随机时间片段,以此来为占用信道发送数据包做准 When a node (in Sleep state) will work, first listen for wireless shared channel is occupied, and if occupied will have to continue to monitor the random wait several time segments in order to send packets as occupied channels do registration

备;或者当节点处于Active状态,节点正常发送数据包。 Preparation; or when the node is in the Active state, the normal node sending data packets. 因此,在这一层中节点的能量消耗主要是由节点处于Active状态还是Sleep状态决定的。 Thus, the energy of the nodes in this layer is mainly consumed by the node in the Sleep state or Active state decisions. 网络层的能量消耗主要集中在多跳转发的一条路径,包括建立路径和维护路径过程。 The energy consumption of the network layer is concentrated in a multi-hop path, including the establishment and maintenance of a path route process. 发明内容本发明的目的是在分析Ad hoc网络特点和网络各个层次结构消耗能量的基础上,结合无线网络中的无线信号传输模型,来综合考虑建立一种新的Ad hoc网络中跨层次能量模型,而提供一种Ad hoc网络中实现最优的能量消耗方法。 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention is based on the analysis and the characteristics Ad hoc networks various levels of energy consumption on the network structure, with a wireless signal transmission in a wireless network model, considered to establish a new Ad hoc network level across energy model while there is provided a Ad hoc networks to achieve optimal energy consumption method. 为了实现上述目的,本发明所采用的步骤是:第一步骤:源节点S在要发送的数据包RREQ中添加一个数据项cost 来保存能量消耗E(S);第二步骤:当邻居节点i收到数据包RREQ时,取出数据项cost的内容设为cost。 To achieve the above object, the present invention steps are employed: a first step of: adding a data source node S in the cost item RREQ packet to be sent to save energy consumption E (S); a second step of: when the neighbor node i when the packet is received RREQ, extracted set of content data items cost cost. ld,并结合该节点的能量消耗E(i),更新数据项cost的内容为costnew(costnew=cost。ld+E(i)) , ^己录前项节点为S,并依次向i的下一个邻居节点转发数据包RREQ,并向源节点S发送数据包RREP来建立通向源节点的反向路径;第三步骤:依次执行步骤2,当中间节点j接收到从不同三个邻居节点k, l,m节点发送的数据包RREQ时,分别取出对应的数据项cost (设对应的内容为cosU, cosh, costm,并且这三个值各不相同),首先进行判断这三个值,得到最小的设为数据项costmin,如果数据项costk= cost产cosU选取其中之一作为j的上游节点m,记录前项节点m,同时转发数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点m发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径; ld, the combined energy consumption of the nodes E (i), updating the contents of the data item cost costnew (costnew = cost.ld + E (i)), ^ nodes already recorded in the preceding paragraph is S, and the sequence of the i a neighbor node to forward the RREQ packet, and the source node S sends the RREP packet to establish a reverse path to the source node; a third step of: sequentially performing step 2, the intermediate node j when k is received from a neighbor node three different , l, when the node sending the packet RREQ m respectively extracted data item corresponding cost (provided corresponding to the content cosU, cosh, costm, and these three different values), these three values ​​is determined firstly, to give the minimum set of data items costmin, if the data item costk = cost production cosU selected as one of the upstream node J is m, m recorded in the preceding paragraph node, and forward the RREQ packet to the next node, and to transmit data upstream node m RREP packet to establish a path to an upstream node;

第四步骤:依次执行步骤3,当目的节点D接收到邻居节点n发送的数据包RREQ,数据项cost里的数据内容就是从源节点S到目的节点的前项节点的整个一条路径所消耗是总能量之和数据项costw,更新数据项cost = costw + E(D),记录前项节点n,并向上游节点发送数据包RREP 来建立通向上游节点的路径,整个过程结束,同时节点S到节点D的路径建立成功。 Fourth Step: Step 3 sequentially performed, when the destination node D receives the packet transmitted RREQ n neighbor nodes, the data in the data item cost from the source node S content is the entire path to the destination node before entry node is consumed and total energy costw data items, the data items updated cost = costw + E (D), recorded in the preceding paragraph node n, and to establish a path to an upstream node upstream node transmits the RREP packet, the process is complete, while the node S the path to node D successfully established. 上述第3步骤中,如果数据项cosU, costt,,cosU都不相等,则进行下面的过程:第一步:当数据项cost^等于数据项costk时,节点j更新数据包RREQ中的数据项cost = costk+E(j),并记录前项节点k,同时转发数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点k发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径;第二步:当数据项cost^等于数据项costi时,节点j更新数据包RREQ中的数据项cost = cost!+E(j),并记录前项节点l,同时转发RREQ 数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点1发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径;第三步:当数据项cost^等于数据项cos"时,节点j更新数据包RREQ中的数据项cost = cosU+E(j),并记录前项节点m,同时转发RREQ数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点m发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径。本发明是为网络中从源节点到目的节点能够正常发送数据包之前,要保证能够建 In the third step, if the data item cosU, costt ,, cosU not equal, perform the following procedure: Step: When the data item is equal to cost ^ costk data item, the node update packet RREQ j data items cost = costk + E (j), and recorded in the preceding paragraph node k, and forward the RREQ packet to the next node, and transmits the RREP packet to the upstream node k to establish a path to the upstream node; Step 2: After data item cost ^ equal COSTI items, item data update packet RREQ node j in cost = cost! + E (j), and before the record entry node L, and forward the RREQ packet RREQ to the next node, and the upstream RREP packet data transmission node 1 to create a path to the upstream node; the third step: when the data item is equal to the data item cost ^ cos ", cost data item update packet RREQ node j in = cosU + E (j), m and recorded in the preceding paragraph node, and forward the RREQ packet RREQ to the next node, and transmits an upstream node m to establish the RREP packet path to an upstream node. for the network from the source node to the destination node according to the present invention can be normal before sending the packet, make sure it can build 立一条最优的路径,该路径满足的约束条件就是该路径上节点的能量消耗尽量较少,以及路径的整体能量消耗最少,但是并不一定要求路径上的跳数最少,因此,本发明与以往的路径建立方法(跳数最少,不考虑能量)有所区别,本发明主要是基于在网络中从源节点向目的节点发送的路由请求包RREQ,该RREQ包中包含一个字革殳cost,以此来记录整个路径上的能量消耗,当中间节点将要转发该RREQ包时,逐次比较从上游节点(与该中间节点相邻)接收到RREQ包的字段cost,选择最小的能量消耗来更新该RREQ包,同时建立到所选上游节点的路径,此过程以此类推,直到目的节点,以达到最优的能量消耗。附图说明图1为Ad hoc网络功率传输;f莫型拓朴图。具体实施方式下面结合附图对本发明作进一步的详细描述。本发明包括两部分:第一部分对各个节点建立能量模 Li an optimal path, this path satisfies the constraints is the energy consumption of the nodes on the path is less possible, and a minimum overall energy consumption route, but does not necessarily require the least number of hops on the path, therefore, the present invention relates to a conventional method for establishing a path (minimum number of hops, energy is not considered) differ, the present invention is mainly based on the routing network request packet RREQ sent by the source node to the destination node from the RREQ contains a word leather Shu cost package, in order to record the energy consumption of the entire path, if the intermediate node to forward the RREQ packet, the successive approximation (adjacent to the intermediate node) from an upstream node receives the RREQ packet cost field, select the smallest updating the energy consumption RREQ packet, while establishing a path to the selected upstream node, and so this process until the destination node, in order to achieve optimum energy consumption BRIEF DESCRIPTION oF dRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a power transmission Ad hoc network;. F MO type topography. dRAWINGS the invention is described in further detail below in connection with specific embodiments of the present invention comprises two parts: the first part of the mold to establish the energy of each node ,第二部分是在第一部分的基础之上,建立一种从源节点到目的节点满足能量消耗最小和路径的跳数较小(同时满足能量消耗最小和路径的跳数最小是一个NP问题)的最优能量消耗模型。上述模型的建立首先设定以下条件:(1) 网络中的每个节点的初始能量都相等。(2) 每个节点本身的硬件结构和器件相同,从而认为所消耗的能量是相同的(设为P)。(3) 每个节点在整个网络的拓朴结构的情况下,处于两种状态:活动状态(active)(正常工作状态)和睡眠状态(sleep)。 The second part is on the basis of the first portion, to establish a depleted from the source node to the destination node satisfy the minimum hop count and the path of energy is small (while satisfying the minimum energy consumption and minimum hop count path problem is NP) . optimal model the energy consumption of the above model is first set the following conditions: (1) initial energy of each node in the network is equal to (2) the same as the hardware configuration of each node and the device itself, so that the consumption. energy is the same (to P) (3) in the case where each node of the whole network topology, in two states: an active state (active) (normal operation state) and a sleep state (sLEEP). (4) 当节点处于sleep状态时,继续监听共享的信道,以此来主动地占用信道发送数据包可能会涉及到能量的消耗,从而认为这些能量也是相同的为Q。 (4) When the node is in the sleep state, continue to monitor the shared channel, in order to occupy the channel is actively transmitting data packets may be related to the consumption of energy, so that the energy is the same as Q. (5) 每个节点在物理层发送数据包的长度戸dte加&,信道的带宽bandwidth和发送功率p,都是相同的。 (5) sent by each node in the physical layer packet length plus dte & Kobe, bandwidth of the channel bandwidth and transmission power p, are the same.

(6)为了保证节点与节点之间通信传输的效率,相邻两节点之间的距离不得超过D,如果超过D,则认为接收节点获取不到发送节点传送的数据包。 (6) In order to ensure the transmission efficiency of the communication between the node and the node, the distance between two adjacent nodes can not exceed D, if more than D, then the receiving node that receives the packet transmitted by the sending node can not. 模型构造:无线信号传输模型在当前Ad hoc网络中无线信号传输模型主要分为三类:Free Space 模型,Two Ray Ground Reflection模型和基于以上两种模型优点的混合模型。 Model structure: In this wireless signal transmission model Ad hoc network wireless signal propagation model divided into three categories: Free Space Model, Two Ray Ground Reflection and mixture models based on the advantages of two or more models. 1、 Free Space模型这个模型的假设条件是:接收节点和发送节点都在对应的传输范围之内。 1, Free Space Model assumptions of this model are: the sending node and the receiving node are within the transmission range of the corresponding. 该模型基本代表了发送节点的传输范围为一个圆形。 The model basically represents the transmission range of the transmitting node is a circle. 如果接收节点在这个范围之内,发送节点就接收所有的数据包,否则丢弃所有的数据包。 If the receiving node within this range, the sending node to receive all packets, all packets will be dropped. ........................................................................(1)(4;r)2d .丄其中Pt:发送节点的发送功率,Gt::发送节点的天线增益,Gr:接收节点的天线增益,;i:无线传输介质的波长,d:发送节点和接收节点之间的距离。 .................................................. . ...................... (1) (4; r) 2d Shang wherein Pt: transmitting power of the transmitting node, the antenna gain Gt :: transmitting node , Gr: antenna gain of the receiving node,; i: wavelength, d wireless transmission medium: between sending and receiving nodes of the distance. 2、 Two Ray Reflect ion模型传输模型中也很少使用的情况就是两个节点之点就在对方的传输范围之内。 2, where the model Two Ray Reflect ion transport model is rarely used nodes in two points within the transmission range of each other. Two Ray Reflection模型考虑了直接的传输路径和地面反射的路径两种情况。 Two Ray Reflection model considers the transmission path and the direct path of the reflection surface in both cases. 使用这种模型能够在节点之间很长距离的情况下要比Free Space模型能很准确的预测出接收节点的接收功率。 This model can be used can be very accurately predicted received power receiving node than the node between the Free Space model a long distance under the circumstances. .....................................................................(2) .................................................. ...................(2)

公式中的参数意义如(1)式。 The meaning of the parameters in equation (1). 其中&, ^分别为接收节点和发送节点的天线高度。 Wherein &, ^ respectively sending node and receiving node antenna height. 3、混合模型综合考虑在的功率消耗方面,Two Ray Reflection模型比Free Space 模型淆惑比较快。 3, considering the hybrid model in terms of power consumption, Two Ray Reflection model is faster than the Free Space model confusion and confusion. 但是Two Ray Reflection模型由于在接收接点和发送节点的天线的相互影响,在节点之间距离较短的范围内达不到很好的效果。 Two Ray Reflection Model but due to the mutual influence in the contact receiving antenna and the transmitting node, reach very good results within a short distance range between nodes. 相反在这种情况下Free Space模型表现出很好的性能。 In contrast in this case Free Space model showed good performance. 因此我们设置一个交叉距离de来表示距离的过渡值,从而得到一个混合模型。 We therefore set to represent a cross-de transition distance value of the distance, to thereby obtain a hybrid model. (1) d < d。 (1) d <d. 时,用(1)公式,把公式中的d换成dc。 When, by (1) formula, the formula d into dc. (2) d > dc时,用(2)公式(3) d = de= ("hthr) /2时,可以用(l), (2)公式得到相同的值。 模型的建立:第一部分:节点的能量消耗^漠型假设某一节点为i,该节点的能量消耗为E(i),通过对Ad hoc网络各个层次来分析,每个节点能量的消耗主要集中在三个层次。物理层邻居节点发送信号的接收功率,数据链路层主要涉及节点的两种状态sleep 和active。当节点的状态为sleep时,节点要监听共享信道,占用信道来为acitve状态过渡到active (正常工作)准备,从而消耗了能量;当节点的状态为acitve时,节点转发数据包正常工作也要消耗能量。网络层在进行则寻找路径(建立路径和维护路径)进行转发数据包。因it匕,E(i) = aEactive + Esleep其中Eaetive= Pt. time + P" time + P, EslMP= Q, or为赏罚系数。 (2) d> When dc, with (2) Equation (3) d = de = ( "hthr) / 2, can be used (L), (2) formula to obtain the same value of the model: The first part: the energy consumption of the nodes assume ^ desert type of a node i, the energy consumption of the node E (i), by analyzing the various levels of Ad hoc network, each node energy consumption mainly in three levels. physical layer received power of a neighbor node of the transmission signal, the data link layer is primarily directed to two states of sleep and active nodes. when the node state is sleep, the node to monitor the shared channel to occupy a channel to transition to the active (work) as acitve state preparation, thereby consuming energy; state when the node is acitve, the node forwards the packet work which consumes energy during the network layer is to find the path (route path establishment and maintenance) for forwarding data packets because it dagger, E.. (i) = aEactive + Esleep wherein Eaetive = Pt. time + P "time + P, EslMP = Q, or coefficient of punishment. 分三种情况来综合分析各个层次该节点的能量消耗情况:(1)当"=1表示该节点的能量主要消耗在网络层的路由建立过程,维护过程和物理层无线信号传输模型的接收功率。(2 )当"=0表示该节点的能量的主要消耗在数据链路层中节点处于sle印状态时要监听物理共享信道的繁忙程度。 Three cases comprehensive analysis of various levels of energy consumption of the node: (1) When the "= 1 represents energy consumption of the node receiving the main power in the process of establishing the network layer routing, wireless signal transmission maintenance process and a physical layer model (2) when the "= 0 indicates busy to monitor physical shared channel when the primary energy consumption of the node in the node is the data link layer printed sle state. (3)当1〉"〉0时表示节点的能量消耗在此时该节点现在处于active 状态,即将过渡到sleep状态时,也就是物理层,数据链路层和网络层三个层次的总能量的消耗。第二部分:从网络中的某一源节点到目的节点之间最优路径的能量消耗摸型,本部分是基于第一部分的能量消耗模型提出的。当整个Ad hoc网络中存在一条从某一源节点S到目的节点D之间n 跳路径r时(该路径经过1,2,…j, ...n节点时)的总能量消耗E(r)。E(r) = SE(i) ................................................................................. (3)/=1因此,当网络中存在R条从源节点S到目的节点D的路由时,根据首先考虑所有路径中能量消耗最小的路径,然后在从剩下的路径中选择路径跳数较小的原则,来选择一条最优的路径。模型的求解:对第一部分模型进行求解:一般情况下,每个节点的能量公式Energy = Power x time, (3) when 1> "> 0 represent the energy consumption of the nodes of the node at this time is now in the active state, i.e. the transition to sleep state, i.e. the total energy of the physical layer, data link layer and the network layer of the three layers the consumption of the second part: one in the network between the source node to the destination node the best path energy consumption touch type, this section is based on an energy consumption model proposed by the first portion when present in an entire Ad hoc networks. total energy from a source node S r to the n-hop path between the destination node D (the path passes 1,2, ... j, ... n nodes) consumption E (r) .E (r) = SE (i) ............................................... .................................. (3) / = 1 Thus, when the article exists in the network from the source R when the route to the destination node S to node D, first consider the solution of the model in accordance with all paths the path of least energy consumption, and then select a smaller number of hops of the path from the rest of the principle of the path, to select an optimal path. : the first part of the model is solved: in general, the energy of each node equation energy = power x time, 每一个节点发送或接收一个包所消耗的能量是由该节点发送或接收功率和处理包的时间决定的。根据Ad hoc网络物理层信道的特点,得出time = 8x戸cfe加'^ ,处理包的时间由发送数据包的大小和该数据包的带宽决定的。4寻出,Eactive= Pt* time + Pr* time + P = (Pt+ Pr) Xtime + P = (Pt+ Pr) X8 x戸cfe加ze+ P ...................................................................................................... (5)其中Pr和Pt可才艮据前面无线信号传输^莫型计算得出。三种传输才莫型对应三种不同计算的结果。(以下公式推导以two Ray Reflection才莫型为例) 结合Ad hoc网络的特点,每个节点只要在邻居节点的传输范围D之内, 就能够得到该邻居节点所发送信号的接收功率j殳节点i的邻居节点为j, i有t个邻居节点。从而Ea"ive公式进一步修改。 Energy transmitting each node or receiving a packet consumption is the time of transmission by the node or the received power and the processed packet determined according to the characteristics of Ad hoc network channel physical layer, obtained time = 8x Kobe cfe plus' ^, processing .4 packet time determined by the bandwidth of the size of the transmitted data packet and the data packet to find out, Eactive = Pt * time + Pr * time + P = (Pt + Pr) Xtime + P = (Pt + Pr) X8 x Kobe cfe plus ze + P ............................................... .................................................. ..... (5) wherein Pt and Pr can only Gen wireless signal transmission according to the foregoing type Mo ^ calculated. Mo only three transmission type corresponding to three different calculation results. (the following equation was derived to two Ray Reflection Mo type, for example) the characteristics of Ad hoc networks, as long as each node within the transmission range of the neighbor node D, it is possible to obtain the received power of a neighbor node j Shu node transmits the neighbor node i is signal j, i have t neighbor nodes. so Ea "ive formula for further modification. 对(5)式修改得出:<formula>formula see original document page 11</formula>其中A, G„, Zz,为节点1的发送功率,天线增益和高度,^y为节点i与邻居节点j的距离,p;,, G,,//力为邻居节点j的发送功率,天线增益和高度。因此得出节点i所消耗的总的能量:印)=<formula>formula see original document page 11</formula>其中0〈^^^ D, lq,sn。 对第二部分才莫型进行求解:当有一条n跳的路径r时,对应的该路径上的能量消耗E(r卜2印)<formula>formula see original document page 11</formula>为了简化上述模型,假设在Ad hoc网络中每个节点的天线高度都为h,天线的增益都为G,每个节点的发送功率都为p,,则(8)式得出的结 Of (5) to modify the formula derived: <formula> formula see original document page 11 </ formula> wherein A, G ", Zz, node 1 is the transmission power, antenna gain and height, ^ y i and node neighbor node a distance j, p; ,, G ,, // force the neighboring node j as transmit power, antenna gain, and thus the height of the total energy consumed by node i stars: printing) = <formula> formula see original document page . 11 </ formula> where 0 <^^^ D, lq, sn Mo type of the second portion was solved: when an n-hop route r, the path corresponding to the energy consumption E (r Bu 2 India) <formula> formula see original document page 11 </ formula> to simplify this model, it is assumed in the Ad hoc network antenna height of each node is h, are antenna gain G, the transmission power of each node p ,, is the (8) formula derived junction

果如下:<formula>formula see original document page 12</formula> 同时可以根据(9)式,对(4)式的结果进行转化,推导出满足路径的能量消耗最小和跳数比较少的一条最优路径,如下:<formula>formula see original document page 12</formula>................. (10)从而可以看出最优路径的求解主要由节点与节点传输距离和节点周围邻居节点的数目决定的。 Results are as follows: <formula> formula see original document page 12 </ formula> while according to (9), the result (4) is transformed derived energy to meet path consumes minimal and hop relatively small one of the most shortest paths, as follows: <formula> formula see original document page 12 </ formula> ................. (10) can be seen mainly by solving the optimal path node transmission distance and the number of nodes of node neighbors determined. 由于Ad hoc网络的拓朴结构变化比较频繁, 在节点与节点的传输距离邻居节点的数目都要根据实际网络的拓朴结构进行分析和计算。 Since the topology change Ad hoc networks more frequently, to be analyzed and evaluated according to the actual network topology in the node from the transmission node and the number of neighbor nodes. 按照此方法Free Space模型和混合模型,也能够分别得出第一部分和第二部分的能量模型。 According to this method Free Space and mixture models, it is possible to obtain, respectively, a first portion and a second portion of the energy model. 本发明在分析Ad hoc网络的特点的基础上,结合网络中各个层次上能量消耗的情况,提出了一种跨层设计的能量模型,而提供一种Ad hoc 网络中实现最优的能量消耗方法。 The present invention is based on the analysis of the characteristics of the Ad hoc networks, the network in conjunction with various levels of energy consumption, the energy model is proposed cross-layer design, to provide one in Ad hoc networks to achieve optimal energy consumption method . 该模型先着重考虑了节点的物理层, 数据链路层和网络层的能量消耗,从而利用最优化理论来对各个节点建立能量模型,同时由于Ad hoc网络中数据信息的通信都是由节点与节点进行多跳来进行转发的,因此在源节点向目的节点进行转发寻找最好的路径时,同时不仅要考虑路径上每个节点的能量消耗,而且也要考虑整 The important consideration to model physical layer node, a data link layer and the network layer of the energy consumption, so that optimal use of the energy model established theory respective nodes, and because the communication of data information by the Ad hoc network nodes are multi-hop node to be forwarded, so be looking for the best path forwarding, and not only to consider the energy consumption of each node on the path to the destination node in the source node, but also to consider the whole

个路径上的能量消耗,因此最终根据整个一条路径上的能量消耗最小和跳数较少的原则,来建立最优路径能量模型,从而来避免能量过多消耗所带来的网络断裂和影响传输数据信息的效率。 The energy consumption on the paths, so the final minimum and consumes less energy in accordance with the principles of hops across the entire path, to establish the optimal path energy model, thereby avoiding excessive transmission network and impact fracture energy consumption caused by the efficiency of data information. 本说明书中未作详细描述的内容属于本领域专业技术人员公知的现有技术。 In this specification is not described in detail belong to the prior art techniques known to technicians.

Claims (3)

1、一种Ad hoc网络中实现优化能量消耗的方法,所采用的步骤是: 第一步骤:源节点S在要发送的数据包RREQ中添加一个数据项cost来保存能量消耗E(S); 第二步骤:当邻居节点i收到数据包RREQ时,取出数据项cost的内容设为costold,并结合该节点的能量消耗E(i),更新数据项cost的内容为costnew=costold+E(i),记录前项节点为S,并依次向i的下一个邻居节点转发数据包RREQ,并向源节点S发送数据包RREP来建立通向源节点的反向路径; 第三步骤:依次执行步骤2,当中间节点j接收到从不同三个邻居节点k,l,m节点发送的数据包RREQ时,分别取出对应的数据项为costk,costl,costm,并且这三个值各不相同,首先进行判断这三个值,得到最小的设为数据项costmin,如果数据项costk=costl=costm选取其中之一作为j的上游节点m,记录前项节点m,同时转发数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并 1. A method for implementing Ad hoc network to optimize energy consumption, the step is adopted: a first step of: adding a data source node S in the cost item RREQ packet to be sent to save energy consumption E (S); second step: when the energy neighbor node i receives a packet RREQ, extracted set of content data items cost costold, combined with the consumption of the nodes E (i), updating the contents of the data item cost costnew = costold + E ( i), before the record entry node S, and sequentially forwards the packet RREQ to the next neighbor node i, and the source node S sends the RREP packet to establish a reverse path to the source node; a third step: perform step 2, when the intermediate node j receives from the three different neighboring nodes k, l, packet RREQ m sent by the node, each data item corresponding to the extracted costk, costl, costm, and these three different values, first, the determination of these three values, obtain the minimum set of data items costmin, if the data item costk = costl = costm select one of the upstream nodes m j, the recording before entry node m, and forward the packet to the next RREQ node, and 向上游节点m发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径; 第四步骤:依次执行步骤3,当目的节点D接收到邻居节点n发送的数据包RREQ,数据项cost里的数据内容就是从源节点S到目的节点的前项节点的整个一条路径所消耗是总能量之和数据项costD-1,更新数据项cost=costD-1+E(D),记录前项节点n,并向上游节点发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径,整个过程结束,同时节点S到节点D的路径建立成功。 Sending to the upstream node m to establish the RREP packet path to an upstream node; and a fourth step of: sequentially performing Step 3, when the destination node D receives the RREQ packet transmitted neighbor node n, the data item in the cost of the data content is from the source node S to the entire path before the entry node to the destination node is the total energy consumed by the sum of the data items costD-1, the updated data item cost = costD-1 + E (D), recorded in the preceding paragraph node n, and the upstream RREP packet to the node to establish a data transmission path to the upstream node, the process is complete, while the node S to node D, the path is established successfully.
2、 如权利要求1所述的一种Ad hoc网络中实现优化能量消耗的方法,其特征在于:第3步骤中,如果数据项costk,cost,,,cosL都不相等, 则进行下面的过程: 第一步:当数据项cost^等于数据项costk时,节点j更新数据包RREQ中的数据项cost = costk+E(j),并记录前项节点k,同时转发数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点k发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径;第二步:当数据项cosUu等于数据项cost,时,节点j更新数据包RREQ中的数据项cost = cost,+E(j),并记录前项节点l,同时转发RREQ 数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点1发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径;第三步:当数据项cosUn等于数据项cosU时,节点j更新数据包■Q中的数据项cost = cost,E(j),并记录前项节点m,同时转发RREQ 数据包RREQ给下一个节点,并向上游节点m发送数据包RREP来建立通向上游节点的路径。 2, one kind of Ad hoc network as claimed in claim 1 implemented method of optimizing energy consumption, characterized in that: a third step, if the data item costk, cost ,,, cosL not equal, the following procedure is performed : the first step: when the data item when the data item cost ^ costk equal node cost data item j in the update packet RREQ = costk + E (j), and recorded in the preceding paragraph node k, and forward the packet to the next RREQ node, and transmits the path upstream node k RREP packet to establish access to the upstream node; Step 2: After a data item equal to the data item cosUu cost, cost data item, the update packet RREQ node j in = cost, + E (j), and before the record entry node L, and forward the RREQ packet RREQ to the next node, and transmits a packet path to establish leading RREP upstream node upstream node; the third step: when the data item is equal cosUn COSU data item, the data item cost node update packet ■ Q j in = cost, E (j), and the record of node m in the preceding paragraph, and forward the RREQ packet RREQ to the next node, and to transmit data upstream node m RREP packet to establish a path to the upstream node.
3、、如权利要求1所述的一种Ad hoc网络中实现优化能量消耗的方法,其特征在于:能量消耗<formula>formula see original document page 3</formula>其中:凡,(^,/?„为节点1的发送功率,天线增益和高度,^为节点i与邻居节点j的距离,p,, G, h,为邻居节点J的发送功率,天线增益和高度;0<dys D, lsfc^n。 3 ,, one kind of Ad hoc network as claimed in claim 1 implemented method for optimizing the energy consumption, characterized in that: the energy consumption of <formula> formula see original document page 3 </ formula> where: where, (^, / ? '1 of the node transmission power, antenna gain, and the height, h is the distance from node i to node j neighbors, p ,, G, h, the transmission power of the neighboring node J, and the height of antenna gain; 0 <dys D, lsfc ^ n.
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