CN100573043C - The surface evenness automatic testing method - Google Patents

The surface evenness automatic testing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100573043C
CN100573043C CNB200810064158XA CN200810064158A CN100573043C CN 100573043 C CN100573043 C CN 100573043C CN B200810064158X A CNB200810064158X A CN B200810064158XA CN 200810064158 A CN200810064158 A CN 200810064158A CN 100573043 C CN100573043 C CN 100573043C
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road
coordinate
dimensional
striation
car
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CN101246000A (en
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刘宛予
谢凯
黄建平
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Nantong Binrui Intelligent Technology Co.,Ltd.
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Harbin Institute of Technology
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Abstract

The surface evenness automatic testing method, it relates to the surface evenness detection range, and it is inaccurate at prior art information, error source is many, complex structure can't solve the shortcoming of tilting of car body influence, and its three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly also comprises angular transducer; Three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly output terminal connects the disposal system input end; The structure striation that the structured light laser instrument sends covers vertical road surface, and disposal system is positioned at car body.Its method is: one, the structure striation of structured light laser instrument is by after the road surface three-dimensional information modulation, and imaging on area array CCD is gathered the car body information of jolting, simultaneously by calculating three-dimensional information; Two, the disease influence is removed in filtering; Three,, and calculate the IRI result of respective stretch with the distance calculation road surface difference of elevation of interval 250mm; Four, data storage, analysis and demonstration.Its advantage is the vertical profile complete and accurate that extracts, and is simple in structure, eliminates the influence that vehicle jolts.

Description

The surface evenness automatic testing method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of surface evenness detection range, be specifically related to a kind of flatness automatic testing method that is fit to finish highway pavement, especially high grade highway pavement.
Background technology
Along with the fast development of China's communication, the mileage in highway open to traffic number is in rapid increase.Surface evenness is to estimate one of most important index of road quality, and the indexs such as security, comfortableness and operating cost of vehicle ' are had direct influence, occupies crucial status in highway maintenance.Therefore, how the highway roughness index is carried out efficiently, detects accurately and estimates, be the problem that highway division is extremely paid close attention to always.In the highway development process, developed multiple detecting instrument and technology, and formulated the relevant detection rules.
At present, existing surface evenness automatic detection instrument mainly has the following disadvantages:
(1) error source is many, and existing surface evenness detecting instrument commonly used adopts the output result of range sensor to deduct the output of acceleration transducer and angular transducer to obtain measurement of higher degree value one time more.Error source is many, realizes complexity, and precision is low.
(2) efficient is low, and general each measurement can only obtain a road surface elevation, and therefore, the efficient that the surveying instrument data are obtained is low.
(3) do not carry out the anti-aliased processing of signal.Calculate international roughness index (IRI), require the input road surface difference of elevation of 250mm at interval.And mostly flatness detecting instrument commonly used is to measure an elevation every 250mm, and measuring accuracy is only considered the measuring accuracy of elevation single.In fact data are subjected to the influence of other diseases of road surface such as crack easily, promptly the signal aliasing phenomenon can take place.Existing flatness detecting instrument does not all carry out the anti-aliased processing of signal to data.
(4) can't better solve the problem that vehicle jolts.Vehicle jolts very big to the influence of highway pavement detection, and it not only comprises the up-down vibration of vehicle, and comprises that all around of car body tilts.Common surveying instrument is general only to be handled at the up-down vibration of vehicle, the method of handling mainly contains: (a) adopt the benchmark transfer principle to measure surface evenness, though can eliminate the influence that vehicle jolts in theory, owing to be the discrete type multimetering, measuring accuracy is difficult to guarantee.In addition, be difficult to keep the stable of benchmark in the use.(b) solving with the two accurate measurement of higher degree methods of the common beam of second order difference principle, is 00240679 " the high gift of money for a friend going on a journey of laser section " as the patent No., and this method error source is many, and the Vehicular vibration that is solved is a up-down vibration, can't solve the influence of tilting of car body.By as can be seen above, existing flatness automatic detection instrument generally has following shortcoming: error source is many, and efficiency of measurement is low, signal aliasing, and the influence that can't solve tilting of car body, thereby precision is low, poor repeatability.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is that existing flatness detecting instrument ubiquity error source is many, efficiency of measurement is low in order to solve, signal aliasing, can't solve the shortcoming of tilting of car body influence and the precision that causes is low, the problem of poor repeatability, and a kind of surface evenness automatic testing method is proposed.
Realize that the device of detection method of the present invention is made up of disposal system 2 and three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly 3, three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly 3 is horizontally arranged on the xsect of car body 1 bottom, three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly 3 comprises structured light laser instrument 3-2 and area array CCD 3-1, it is characterized in that the structure striation that structured light laser instrument 3-2 sends covers vertical road surface, the camera of area array CCD 3-1 projects the optical strip image that 4 places, road surface cover vertical road surface towards the road surface, below 4 of structured light laser instrument 3-2 to take structured light laser instrument 3-2; Three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly 3 also comprises angular transducer 3-3; The output terminal of three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly 3 is connected to the input end of disposal system 2; Disposal system 2 is positioned at car body 1.
Method of the present invention has following steps to realize:
Step 1: car body (1) is in advancing, the structure striation that structured light laser instrument (3-2) sends projects on the road surface to be detected (4), this structure striation is gone up imaging by road surface three-dimensional information modulation back at area array CCD (3-1), thereby obtain the road surface data message, gather the information of jolting of car body (1) simultaneously by angular transducer (3-3); According to demarcating definite CCD two dimensional image coordinate system and the relational matrix between world's three-dimensional system of coordinate, calculate the three-dimensional information of striation position, road surface by disposal system (2), utilize the three-dimensional information of the information of the jolting road pavement striation position of the car body of gathering (1) to compensate again;
Step 2: on the basis of the three-dimensional information that obtains striation position, road surface, adopt the method for filtering, eliminate the influence of crack, projection, hollow, obtain the vertical contour curve in road surface;
Step 3: on the vertical contour curve in the road surface that obtains, get discrete spot elevation with the distance of spacing 250mm, the IRI calculation procedure of substitution standard obtains the IRI index of this road section surface;
Step 4: data storage, analysis and demonstration;
The described angular transducer of step 1 (3-3) adopts this formula:
x ′ y ′ z ′ = 1 0 0 0 cos β sin β 0 - sin β cos β cos α 0 - sin α 0 1 0 sin α 0 cos α x y z - 0 0 z 0
Parameter in the formula (x, y z) are some coordinate in the coordinate system when not jolting, and parameter (x ', y ', z ') be the coordinate of point in the back coordinate system that jolts; The α angle is the angle of xoz plane rotation, and the β angle is the angle of yoz plane rotation, z 0Be the distance that O ' moves with respect to O, and parameter (0,0, z 0) be the coordinate of new true origin under former coordinate system, the three-dimensional information that adopts this formula to carry out striation position, road surface compensates.
Principle of work: the purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of novel highroad pavement planeness automatic measurement system, it can accurately measure the international roughness index of highway pavement fast, satisfies the needs of relevant industries.The present invention detects principle design according to structural light three-dimensional and forms.During detection, each measurement all can be obtained approximately continuous road surface three-dimensional coordinate, and it specifically depends on the striation scope of laser radiation.The up-down vibration of car body does not influence the calculating of difference of elevation during detection, only need utilize angular transducer that the data that record are compensated, and can effectively eliminate the influence that vehicle jolts.Error source is few, the measuring accuracy height, and detection efficiency is also high simultaneously.Data processing software is at first removed the influence of surface deformations such as crack according to the sampled data characteristics, and the vertical profile of road pavement carries out anti-aliased filtering, and can calculate international roughness index (IRI) thus.
The present invention has following advantage: (1) error source is few, and measuring error is little.(2) better eliminated the influence that vehicle jolts.Present measurement method of planeness jolts in order to eliminate vehicle, methods that adopt the integration that measurement result by range sensor deducts the acceleration transducer measurement result and based on the measuring method of benchmark transfer principle etc. more, but these methods only attempt to eliminate the up-down vibration of vehicle, do not consider the influence of inclination of vehicle.We are in order to eliminate the influence that vehicle jolts, and by direct calculating difference of elevation with adopt angular transducer to guarantee that the benchmark of measuring realizes that not only the up-down vibration of vehicle does not influence measurement result, but also can the inclination of vehicle be compensated.(3) detection efficiency height.(4) the effectively influence of erasure signal aliasing, the precision of measurement is high with repeatability.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a structural representation of the present invention; Fig. 2 is the synoptic diagram of embodiment four; Fig. 3 is a three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly distribution schematic diagram; Fig. 4 is an image acquisition principle schematic of the present invention; Fig. 5 utilizes angular transducer to carry out the coordinate system synoptic diagram of compensation data.
Embodiment
Embodiment one: present embodiment is described in conjunction with Fig. 1~Fig. 5, present embodiment is made up of disposal system 2 and three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly 3, three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly 3 is horizontally arranged on the xsect of car body 1 bottom, three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly 3 comprises structured light laser instrument 3-2 and area array CCD 3-1, it is characterized in that the structure striation that structured light laser instrument 3-2 sends covers vertical road surface, the camera of area array CCD 3-1 projects the optical strip image that 4 places, road surface cover vertical road surface towards the road surface, below 4 of structured light laser instrument 3-2 to take structured light laser instrument 3-2; Three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly 3 also comprises angular transducer 3-3; The output terminal of three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly 3 is connected to the input end of disposal system 2; Disposal system 2 is positioned at car body 1.
Embodiment two: in conjunction with Fig. 1 present embodiment is described, present embodiment and embodiment one difference are that disposal system 2 is made up of image pick-up card 2-1, data collecting card 2-3 and computing machine 2-2; The output terminal of area array CCD 3-1 connects the input end of image pick-up card 2-1, image pick-up card 2-1 is connected in computing machine 2-2 inside, the output terminal of angular transducer 3-3 connects the input end of data collecting card 2-3, and the output terminal of data collecting card 2-3 is connected in computing machine 2-2 inside.Other composition is identical with embodiment one with connected mode.Image pick-up card 2-1 adopt in the good perseverance in Beijing from OK_M20A, data collecting card 2-3 adopts Taiwan to grind the PCI-1710L of China, computing machine 2-3 adopts Taiwan to grind magnificent industrial computer.
Embodiment three: in conjunction with Fig. 4 present embodiment is described, present embodiment and embodiment one difference are that angular transducer 3-3 is arranged on the position between structured light laser instrument 3-2 and the area array CCD 3-1; Other composition is identical with embodiment one with connected mode.
Embodiment four: present embodiment is described in conjunction with Fig. 3, present embodiment and embodiment one difference are on the transverse horizontal face of car bottom 1 at least one three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly 3 is arranged, to gather the information data of many vertical profiles in road surface; Other composition is identical with embodiment one with connected mode.
Embodiment five: present embodiment and embodiment one difference are that three-dimensional structure light vision-based detection assembly 3 is placed on middle part, front portion or the rear portion of car body 1.Other composition is identical with embodiment one with connected mode.
Embodiment six: the step of present embodiment is as follows:
Step 1: car body 1 is in advancing, the structure striation that structured light laser instrument 3-2 sends projects on the road surface 4 to be detected, this structure striation is by road surface three-dimensional information modulation back imaging on area array CCD 3-1, thereby obtain the road surface data message, gather the information of jolting of car body 1 simultaneously by angular transducer 3-3; According to demarcating definite CCD two dimensional image coordinate system and the relational matrix between world's three-dimensional system of coordinate, calculate the three-dimensional information of striation position, road surface by disposal system 2, utilize the three-dimensional information of the information of the jolting road pavement striation position of the car body of gathering 1 to compensate again;
Step 2: on the basis of the three-dimensional information that obtains striation position, road surface, adopt the method for filtering, eliminate the influence of crack, projection, hollow, obtain the vertical contour curve in road surface;
Step 3: on the vertical contour curve in the road surface that obtains, get discrete spot elevation with the distance of spacing 250mm, the IRI calculation procedure of substitution standard obtains the IRI index of this road section surface;
Step 4: data storage, analysis and demonstration.
Embodiment seven: present embodiment and embodiment six differences are to determine in the step 1 that the relation between CCD two dimensional image coordinate system and the world's three-dimensional system of coordinate is a linear relationship; The homogeneous coordinates M=of setting space three-dimensional coordinate point (X, Y, Z, 1) at first T, the X-Y scheme picture point homogeneous coordinates m=(x, y, 1) that it is corresponding TSecondly area array CCD 3-1 is desirable pinhole imaging system model; Then, can determine the relation between CCD two dimension optical strip image coordinate and its corresponding world's three-dimensional coordinate according to following relational expression:
aX+bY+cZ+d=0 ①
λm=ρM=A(R,T)M ②
1. formula is optic plane equations; The λ of formula in 2., ρ represents arbitrary scale factor, i.e. the projection degree of depth; (R T) is called the external parameter of video camera, and R is a rotation matrix, and T is a translation matrix; A is called the inner parameter of video camera; Calculate the road surface three-dimensional information; Other step is identical with embodiment six.
Embodiment eight: present embodiment and embodiment six differences are to determine in the step 1 that the relation between CCD two dimensional image coordinate system and the world's three-dimensional system of coordinate is a nonlinear relationship; Other step is identical with embodiment six.
Embodiment nine: in conjunction with Fig. 4 and Fig. 5 present embodiment is described, when present embodiment and embodiment six differences are to utilize angular transducer 3-3 that data are compensated, for the ease of analyzing, we have defined following coordinate system, car body 1 is measured when jolting along y axle forward travel
Tilt: the xoz plane has rotated the α angle, be counterclockwise just (from y axle forward),
Tilt forward and back: the yoz plane has rotated the β angle, be counterclockwise just (from x axle forward),
Pitch: the distance that true origin moves along the Z axle is z0, moves to just along z axle forward;
Three kinds of vehicles situation of jolting,
x ′ y ′ z ′ = cos α 0 - sin α 0 1 0 sin α 0 cos α x y z (tilting)
x ′ y ′ z ′ = 1 0 0 0 cos β sin β 0 - sin β cos β x y z (tilting forward and back)
x ′ y ′ z ′ = x y z - 0 0 z 0 (pitching)
We can draw as drawing a conclusion:
When a kind of motion in above three kinds of situations only took place vehicle, corresponding formula just can be realized the conversion on the left side above we directly utilized;
Yet multiple motion often takes place in vehicle in the reality.At this moment, we can utilize the compound motion of above-mentioned situation to realize transformation of coordinates.By the above transformational relation that can get between the new and old coordinate that pushes over:
x ′ y ′ z ′ = 1 0 0 0 cos β sin β 0 - sin β cos β cos α 0 - sin α 0 1 0 sin α 0 cos α x y z - 0 0 z 0
(x, y z) are some coordinate in the coordinate system (road surface coordinate system) when not jolting, (and x ', y ', z ') be the coordinate of point in the back coordinate system (CCD coordinate system) that jolts.The a angle for the angle of xoz plane rotation (counterclockwise for just, from y axle forward), the β angle is the angle of yoz plane rotation, (counterclockwise for just, from x axle forward), z0 is the distance that moves with respect to O of O ' (moving to just along z axle forward), (0,0, be the coordinate of new true origin under former coordinate system z0), the three-dimensional information that adopts this formula to carry out striation position, road surface compensates.
Embodiment ten: present embodiment is that with embodiment six differences filtering method is the method that linear and nonlinear filtering combine in the step 2, its objective is the influence of eliminating noise and other pavement disease data.Other step is identical with embodiment six.
Embodiment 11: present embodiment is that with embodiment ten differences method linear and that nonlinear filtering combines adopts wavelet transformation and medium filtering to combine.Other step is identical with embodiment nine.

Claims (4)

1, surface evenness automatic testing method is characterized in that its step is as follows:
Step 1: car body (1) is in advancing, the structure striation that structured light laser instrument (3-2) sends projects on the road surface to be detected (4), this structure striation is gone up imaging by road surface three-dimensional information modulation back at area array CCD (3-1), thereby obtain the road surface data message, gather the information of jolting of car body (1) simultaneously by angular transducer (3-3); According to demarcating definite CCD two dimensional image coordinate system and the relational matrix between world's three-dimensional system of coordinate, calculate the three-dimensional information of striation position, road surface by disposal system (2), utilize the three-dimensional information of the information of the jolting road pavement striation position of the car body of gathering (1) to compensate again;
Step 2: on the basis of the three-dimensional information that obtains striation position, road surface, adopt the method for filtering, eliminate the influence of crack, projection, hollow, obtain the vertical contour curve in road surface;
Step 3: on the vertical contour curve in the road surface that obtains, get discrete spot elevation with the distance of spacing 250mm, the IRI calculation procedure of substitution standard obtains the IRI index of this road section surface;
Step 4: data storage, analysis and demonstration;
The described angular transducer of step 1 (3-3) adopts this formula:
x ′ y ′ z ′ = 1 0 0 0 cos β sin β 0 - sin β cos β cos α 0 - sin α 0 1 0 sin α 0 cos α x y z - 0 0 z 0
Parameter in the formula (x, y z) are some coordinate in the coordinate system when not jolting, and parameter (x ', y ', z ') be the coordinate of point in the back coordinate system that jolts; The α angle is the angle of xoz plane rotation, and the β angle is the angle of yoz plane rotation, z 0Be the distance that O ' moves with respect to O, and parameter (0,0, z 0) be the coordinate of new true origin under former coordinate system, the three-dimensional information that adopts this formula to carry out striation position, road surface compensates.
2, surface evenness automatic testing method according to claim 1 is characterized in that in the step 1 determining between CCD two dimensional image coordinate system and the world's three-dimensional system of coordinate to be linear relationship; The homogeneous coordinates M=of setting space three-dimensional coordinate point (X, Y, Z, 1) at first T, the X-Y scheme picture point homogeneous coordinates m=(x, y, 1) that it is corresponding TSecondly area array CCD (3-1) is desirable pinhole imaging system model; Then, can determine the relation between CCD two dimension optical strip image coordinate and its corresponding world's three-dimensional coordinate according to following relational expression:
aX+bY+cZ+d=0 ①
λm=ρM=A(R,T)M ②
1. formula is optic plane equations; The λ of formula in 2., ρ represents arbitrary scale factor, i.e. the projection degree of depth; (R T) is called the external parameter of video camera, and R is a rotation matrix, and T is a translation matrix; A is called the inner parameter of video camera; Calculate the road surface three-dimensional information.
3, surface evenness automatic testing method according to claim 1 is characterized in that in the step 1 determining between CCD two dimensional image coordinate system and the world's three-dimensional system of coordinate to be nonlinear relationship.
4, surface evenness automatic testing method according to claim 1 is characterized in that the method that filtering method combines for linear and nonlinear filtering in the step 2.
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