CN100559654C - Energy harvesting circuits and associated methods - Google Patents

Energy harvesting circuits and associated methods Download PDF

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CN100559654C
CN100559654C CN 03823847 CN03823847A CN100559654C CN 100559654 C CN100559654 C CN 100559654C CN 03823847 CN03823847 CN 03823847 CN 03823847 A CN03823847 A CN 03823847A CN 100559654 C CN100559654 C CN 100559654C
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antenna
circuit
energy harvesting
inherent
energy
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CN 03823847
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CN1689190A (en
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克里斯托弗·C·卡佩利
哈罗尔德·斯维夫特
马林·H·迈克尔
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匹兹堡大学高等教育联邦体系
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Abstract

本发明提供了一种具有一个收获在空间发射的能量的固有调谐天线,这种固有调谐天线包括被结构成为天线提供再生反馈的部分,以使固有调谐天线具有一个实质上大于它的物理面积的有效面积。 The present invention provides inherent tuning of the antenna having a harvesting energy emitted in the space, which is inherent to tune the antenna structure comprises an antenna providing section becomes regenerative feedback, so that the inherent tune the antenna having a substantially greater than its physical area Effective area. 这种固有调谐天线包括固有分布电感、固有分布电容和固有分布电阻这些部分,使天线在所接收的处于一个特定频率的能量激励下发生共振,提供使天线再生的反馈。 This inherent tuning of the antenna include an inherent distributed inductance, distributed capacitance, and the inherent resistance of these intrinsic distribution portion, the antenna resonance occurs at a particular frequency in the received excitation energy to provide regenerative feedback of the antenna. 这个电路可以配置在一个集成电路芯片上。 This circuit may be disposed on an integrated circuit chip. 本发明还提供了一种所关联的方法。 The present invention also provides a method associated.

Description

能量收获电路及其所关联的方法互见相关申请 Energy harvesting circuit and associated method of cross-correlation, see Application

本申请要求享受2002年8月15曰提出的美国临时申请No.60/403,784"能量收获电路及其所关联的方法"("ENERGY HARVESTING CIRCUITS AND ASSOCIATED METHODS")的权益。 This application claims the benefit of August 15, 2002, saying the proposed US Provisional Application No.60 / 403,784 "energy harvesting circuit and method associated" ( "ENERGY HARVESTING CIRCUITS AND ASSOCIATED METHODS") interests.

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及一种具有一些为天线提供再生反馈(regen emth'e feedback)使天线有效面积实质上大于它的物理面积的电路部分的固有调谐天线(inherently tuned antenna),具体地说,本发明提供了适合诸如在集成电路芯片或者电路小片上以小型化形式使用的电路及所关联的方法。 The present invention relates to a regenerative feedback to provide a number of antenna (regen emth'e feedback) the effective area of ​​the antenna is substantially greater than the natural tuning of the antenna circuit portion of its physical area (inherently tuned antenna), in particular, the present invention provides suitable methods and associated circuitry such as on an integrated circuit chip or die used in compact form.

背景技术 Background technique

长时间以来,已知诸如RF信号之类的能量可以越空发送给各种类型的接收天线,用于各种用途。 Long it has been known as an RF signal energy over the air or the like may be transmitted to the receiving antennas of various types for various purposes.

Rudenberg在"无线电报中电波的接收,,("Der Empfang Elektricscher Wellen in der Drahtlosen Telegraphie,,, Annalen der PhysikIV, 25, l卯8, pp.446-466)揭示了通过非理想的储能电路与! Rudenberg "receiving radio waves ,, the datagram (" Der Empfang Elektricscher Wellen in der Drahtlosen Telegraphie ,,, Annalen der PhysikIV, 25, l d 8, pp.446-466) discloses a via non-ideal storage circuit ! /4 波长鞭状天线配合而引起的再生可以得到一个具有一个大于它的几何面积的有效面积的天线。 / 4 wave whip antenna complex shape can be regenerated due to an effective area greater than that of an antenna having a geometric area. 他揭示了使用l/4波长鞭状天线的线积分长度来获得这个有效面积。 He discloses the use of line integration length l / 4 wave whip antenna shape to obtain the effective area. 他说明了天线与可以近似为平面波的入射场交互作用通过感应使电流流入天线。 He described the incident field with the antenna can be approximated by a plane wave interaction induced current flowing into the antenna. 可以通过再生增强的电流在天线附近产生一个场,这个场与入射场交互作用,使得入射场线弯曲。 A field may be generated in the vicinity of the antenna enhanced regenerative current through the interaction of this field with the incident field, so that incident field line bending. 场线弯曲成使能量从入射的波阵面的一个具有从波阵面吸收能量的效应的这可参阅Fleming的"动作的原子、电和光"("On Atoms of Action, Electricity, and Light", Philo$ophical Magazine 14, p.591(1932)); Bahren的"粒子怎样可以吸收比入射到它上更多的光?" ("How Can a Particle Absorb More Than the Light Incident On It?", Am. J. Phys, 51, No.4, p.323(1983));以及详细说明Rudeinberg原理的Paul等人的"偶极子的光吸收"("Light Absorption by a Dipole", Sov. Phys. Usps 26, No.lO, p.923(1983))。 Field lines curved in the energy has the effect of absorbing energy from the wave front from an entrance of the wavefront of which can be found Fleming "atomic operation, electrical and optical" ( "On Atoms of Action, Electricity, and Light", Philo $ ophical Magazine 14, p.591 (1932)); Bahren of "how particles can absorb more than the incident to light it on?" ( "how can a particle absorb more than the light incident on it?", Am . J. Phys, 51, No.4, p.323 (1983)); and the detailed description of the principle Rudeinberg Paul et al., "light absorption dipole" ( "light absorption by a dipole", Sov Phys.. Usps 26, No.lO, p.923 (1983)). 这些原理全都针对可以模型化成调谐电路的天线或数学上模拟在原子物理学上遇到的情况。 Situations encountered in atomic physics simulation for these principles all the antenna can be modeled as a mathematical or tuned circuit.

再生被认为可以减小天线电路的电阻,从而使天线电流增大,罔. 此增大天线场的交互作用,结杲从较大的有效入射场面积吸收能量。 Regeneration is thought to reduce the resistance of the antenna circuit so that the antenna current is increased indiscriminately. This increased interaction antenna field, Gao junction from a larger effective area of ​​the energy absorption of the incident field. 这些现有的公开,虽然讨论了物理现象,但并没有涉及怎样可以达到这个效果。 These existing public, although the physical phenomena discussed, but did not involve how we can achieve this effect.

美国专利5,296,866揭示了利用与二十世纪二十年代的涉及包括与一个长线天线连接和与一个真空三极管的栅极电路连接的分立的电感器-电容器调谐电路的电子管无线电接收机的活动有关的再生的情况。 U.S. Patent No. 5,296,866 discloses the use in the 1920s and involves century includes a long antenna and is connected with a separate vacuum circuit transistor gate connected inductor - capacitor tube radio receiver tuning circuit Information on the activities of regeneration. 阳极电路的能量中有一些引入栅极天线电路。 Energy in the anode circuit of the gate there are introduced into the antenna circuit. 这类似于将一个负电阻引入天线-栅极电路。 This is similar to a negative resistance introduced antenna - gate circuitry. 例如,天线由于风引起的运动导致天线阻抗改变是电路因此振荡的稳定性不足的来源。 For example, since the movement of the antenna due to wind the antenna impedance change results in insufficient stability thus oscillation source circuit. 于是,建议用一个緩冲管电路将再生加到与天线电路隔离的第二放大级上。 Accordingly, a recommended buffer tube is applied to the reproducing circuit and the second amplifier stage is isolated from the antenna circuit. 这减小了寄生信号, 但是也显著地降低了灵敏度。 This reduces the spurious signals, but the sensitivity is significantly reduced. 这个专利还揭示了一些在通过引入负电感成分或电阻以抵消正电特性来改善性能上的工作。 This patent also discloses a number of negative inductor component by introducing to offset positively or resistance characteristics to improve the performance of the work. 然而,就本发明所考虑的在收获能量以变换成直流电的情况来说稳定性并不重要。 However, in the case of harvested energy into direct current under consideration is the stability of the present invention is not critical.

这个专利揭示了利用一个独立的储能电路的情况,用分立的电感器和分立的电容器来增大天线有效面积。 This patent discloses a case of using a separate tank circuit with discrete inductors and discrete capacitors to increase the effective area of ​​the antenna.

美国专利5,296,866还揭示了在减小天线电路阻抗从而减小不稳 U.S. Patent No. 5,296,866 discloses a further decrease in the impedance of the antenna circuit so as to reduce instability

定性和获得比其他配置的结果大的天线有效面积中以一种受控方式利用正反馈的情况。 And obtaining qualitative results than other configurations of the effective area of ​​the antenna in a controlled manner in the case of using positive feedback. 然而,这个专利需要用分立的电路来提供受控的正反馈。 However, this patent requires a separate circuit to provide positive feedback controlled. 对于比较小的天线,添加提供再生的分立电路元件增大了复杂性和成本,因此并不是理想的解决方案,特别是对于在一个诸如CMOS 芯片之类的集成电路芯片上实现的很小的平面天线来说。 For smaller antennas, discrete circuit elements added to provide regeneration increases the complexity and cost, and therefore is not an ideal solution, particularly for small plane on an integrated circuit chip, such as a CMOS chip or the like to achieve antennas.

当前所关注的是利用在诸如电子芯片之类的基片上形成的平面天线来开发可用于诸如移动电话、个人寻呼机、RFID之类的各种小型电子产品应用的较小天线。 The current interest is the use of a planar antenna formed on a substrate such as an electronic chip or the like to develop a small antenna such as mobile telephones, personal pagers, a variety of small electronic products such RFID applications can be used. 一般情况可参见美国专利4,598,276 、 6,373,447和4,857,893。 See generally U.S. Patent No. 4,598,276, 6,373,447 and 4,857,893.

美国专利4,598,276揭示了一种电子物品监^L系统和其中所用的标志器。 U.S. Patent No. 4,598,276 discloses an electronic article surveillance system and wherein ^ L marker used. 这种标志器包括一个具有电感和电容元件的调谐谐振电路。 This marker comprises a tuned resonant circuit having an inductance and a capacitance element. 调谐谐振电路形成在一个介质迭层板上,在介质的相对表面上有一些导电的多圏螺旋线。 Tune the resonant circuit is formed on a dielectric laminates, there are a plurality of conductive rings of the helix on the opposite surface of the medium. 由于相对螺旋线之间的分布电容,形成了电容性分量。 Due to the distributed capacitance between the opposing helix to form a capacitive component. 电路至少在两个以后接收的预定频率上共振,产生一个输出信号。 Circuit at a predetermined frequency after receiving resonance least two, produce an output signal. 其中没有揭示利用再生为调谐谐振电路产生一个比物理面积大的有效面积。 Wherein not disclose generating a large physical area than the effective area of ​​the regenerative tuned resonant circuit.

美国专利6,373,447揭示了利用在一个集成电路芯片上形成的与芯片上其他电路连接的一个或多个天线的情况。 U.S. Patent No. 6,373,447 discloses a case where a connection to other circuitry on the chip formed by an integrated circuit chip on one or more antennas. 这些天线形态包括回路、多圈回路、正方形螺:旋线、长线和偶极子。 These forms include loop antennas, multi-turn loop, square spiral: spin lines, and long dipole. 天线可以具有两个或更多个可以有选择地相互连接的段,以改变天线的有效长度。 The antenna may have two or more may be selectively interconnected segments, to change the effective length of the antenna. 此外, 能在两个由一个绝缘层分开的不同的金属化层内形成两个天线。 In addition, two antennas can be formed in two insulating layers separated by a different metal layers. 这样做的主要缺点是天线的发送和接收强度与回路区内的圏数成正比。 The main disadvantage of this is proportional to the number of transmit and receive rings of intensity antenna loop region. 其中没有揭示用再生增大有效面积的情况。 It does not disclose the case where the effective area is increased by regeneration.

美国专利4,857,893揭示了使用包括在芯片上的一个转发器电路内的平面天线的情况。 U.S. Patent No. 4,857,893 discloses using a planar antenna comprising within a transponder circuit on a chip. 转发器的平面天线使用芯片上的一些磁膜电感器以减少圏数,从而简化了电感器的形成。 Some magnetic film on a planar inductor using a chip transponder antenna to reduce the number of rings of, thereby simplifying the formation of the inductor. 它揭示了一种具有一个外径为lcmxlcm的多圏螺旋形线圏。 It reveals multiple rings of rings of a spiral wire having an outer diameter of the lcmxlcm. 在有高频电流通过线圈时,磁膜受到在一个难磁化方向上的驱动,每个导线周围的两个磁膜用作一个围绕着一个一圏的线圏的磁芯。 When high-frequency current through the coil, a magnetic film is driven in a direction of hard magnetization, each around two magnetic films as a conductor around a core of a wire rings of rings of the. 这些磁膜除它的自由空间电感之外还增大了线圏的电感。 The magnetic film other than its free space also increases the inductance of the inductor rings of wire. 其中没有揭示使用谐振电路的情况。 Wherein the case does not disclose the use of the resonance circuit. 这种方法的问题之一是需要为集成电路应用制造具有充分高的电感和Q的小型空心电感器。 One problem with this approach is the need to manufacture integrated circuit applications having a sufficiently high Q inductors and small core inductor. 这种小型空心电感器通过淀积一层坡莫合金磁膜或其他具有 This small core inductor by depositing a layer of permalloy or other magnetic film having

8大磁导率和电绝缘特性的适当材料以增大线圏的电感。 Suitable materials 8 large magnetic permeability and electrical insulating properties to increase the inductance of rings of wire. 这种方法增大了芯片上天线的复杂性和成本,由于在天线线圈之间需要有磁膜层, 因此减小天线也受到限制。 This method increases the complexity and cost of the chip antenna, since the antenna coil is required between the magnetic layer, thus reducing the antenna is limited.

在这里特别列为参考予以引用的共同待决美国专利申请 In this particular reference to be cited as a co-pending US Patent Application

No.09/951,032揭示了一种芯片上天线,其有效面积为实际面积的300 至400倍。 No.09 / 951,032 discloses a chip antenna, which is an active area of ​​300 to 400 times the actual area. 有效面积的增大是由于使用了一个用螺旋线导体的分布电感和电容形成的LC储能电路。 The effective area is increased due to the use of the LC tank circuit inductance and capacitance distribution with a spiral conductor is formed. 这是通过在天线内用极间电容和电感形咸LC储能电路来实现的。 This is achieved by the antenna-shaped salt LC tank circuit between the electrode capacitance and inductance. 这提供了有效面积大于物理面积的天线,而不需要添加分立的电路。 This provides an effective antenna area larger than the physical area, without adding a separate circuit. 此外,它还排除了要用磁膜。 It also ruled out the use of magnetic film. 结杲,使生产这种集成电路芯片上的天线更为方便,因为这种天线就是设计成在这种芯片上的超小型天线。 Gao junction, so that production of this antenna on the integrated circuit chip is more convenient, because the antenna is designed on the ultra-small chip antenna. 这种情况也可参见在这里特别列为参考予以引用的美国专利6,289,237。 This also can be found here especially to be cited as a reference to US Patent 6,289,237.

尽管有了前面这些发明,实际上仍然还非常需要可用于在空间内接收和发射能量的能提供一个实质上大于物理面积的有效面积的电路。 Despite the foregoing invention, in fact, still it has great need for receiving and transmitting energy to provide a circuit effective area substantially larger than the area of ​​the physical space. 还需要这样一种系统和有关方法,可以在提供这样的集成电路芯r白. Such a system is also required and related methods, the integrated circuit may provide a core of r.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明满足了以上所述的需要。 The present invention meets the needs described above.

在本发明的一个实施例中,能量收获电路具有一个如在这里所定义的固有调谐天线,被结构成使能量收获电路的至少部分能量提供给天线进行再生反馈,从而形成一个实质上大于天线物理面积的天线有效面积。 In one embodiment of the present invention, an energy harvesting circuit having a tuned antenna as intrinsic as defined herein, is structured such that at least part of the energy harvesting circuit to provide energy to the antenna for regenerative feedback, thereby forming a substantially larger than the physical antenna the effective area of ​​the antenna area. 这种电路可以用固有分布电感和固有分布电容连同固有分布 Such a circuit may be inherent distributed inductance and distributed capacitance, along with the inherent distribution of intrinsic

电阻一起形成一个提供再生反馈的储能电路(tank circuit)。 Forming a regenerative feedback to provide a tank circuit (tank circuit) together with the resistor. 这种电路在工作上可以是与一个负栽关联的。 Such a circuit may be planted in the work associated with a negative.

这种电路可以形成为一个独立应用的单元,而在另一个实施例中可以形成在一个集成电路芯片上。 Such a circuit may be formed as a stand-alone unit, the embodiment may be formed on a single integrated circuit chip in another embodiment.

优选的是,这种电路包括一个储能电路,而固有的分布电阻可以用来使所述天线再生。 Preferably, such circuitry including a tank circuit, the inherently distributed resistance of the antenna can be used to regeneration. 本发明提供了实现反馈和再生的具体电路和装置。 The present invention provides a means to achieve specific circuit and a feedback and regeneration.

天线可以呈现为在一个平面基片上的一个导电线圏,具有一个作为接地面的相对表面以及固有分布电感、固有分布电容和固有分布电阻。 The antenna may be presented as a rings of conductive lines on a planar substrate having a ground opposing surface as well as those inherent distributed inductance, distributed capacitance inherent and intrinsic distributed resistance.

这种能量收获电路也可以用来发射能量。 This energy harvesting circuit can also be used to transmit energy.

在一种有关能量收获的方法中,用这种电路来提供再生反馈,从而形成一个实质上大于天线物理面积的天线有效面积。 In one method of harvesting energy-related, with this circuit to provide regenerative feedback, thereby forming the antenna effective area substantially larger than a physical area of ​​the antenna.

本发明的另一个目的是提供可以用印制电路技术在一个适当的基片上形成的这种电路。 Another object of the present invention is to provide such a circuit may be formed using printed circuit technology on a suitable substrate.

本发明的一个目的是提供一种独特的适合能量收获和能量发射的电路,这些电路具有一个实质上大于它们的物理面积的有效面积。 An object of the present invention is to provide a unique circuit for energy harvesting and energy transmission, having an effective area of ​​one of these circuits is substantially greater than their physical area.

本发明的另一个目的是提供这样一些电路和有关方法,它们包括一个调谐谐振电路和用固有分布电感、固有分布电容和固有分布电阻实现这样的反馈。 Another object of the present invention is to provide a number of circuits and related methods, which comprise a resonant circuit and tuned with the inherent distributed inductance, distributed capacitance inherent and intrinsic distributed resistance effect such feedback.

本发明的又一个目的是提供可以在一个集成电路芯片或基片上形成的这种电路。 Still another object of the present invention is to provide such a circuit may be formed on one integrated circuit chip or substrate.

本发明的另一个目的是提供不需要用分立的电容器的这种电路。 Another object of the present invention is to provide such a circuit does not need to use separate capacitors.

本发明的另一个目的是提供考虑了天线导电线圏的尺寸和导电率以及与导电线圏邻近的材料的电容率的这种电路。 Another object of the present invention is considered to provide an antenna size and conductivity of the conductive wire and the rings of such a circuit with the capacitance of the conductive line adjacent rings of material.

本发明的又一个目的是提供多个产生所希望的在固有调谐天线内形成再生的反馈的装置。 Still another object of the present invention, the feedback means is formed in the intrinsic reproduced tune the antenna providing a plurality of generating desired.

本发明的又一个目的是提供可以有益地使用通过空间传送的由 Still another object of the present invention can be advantageously used to provide a transmission through a space

能量收获电路接收的RF能量的电路。 Energy harvesting circuit RF energy received by the circuit.

本发明的又一个目的是提供一种RF能量收获电路,其中天线的 Still another object of the present invention is to provide an RF energy harvesting circuit, wherein the antenna

有效能量收获面积大于天线物理面积而且与天线物理面积无关。 Energy harvesting antenna effective area greater than and independent of the physical area of ​​the physical area of ​​the antenna.

从以下结合附图对发明的说明中可以更完全地理解本发明这些及其他一些目的。 DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS The invention will be more fully understood from these and other objects of the present invention is the following.

附图说明图l为本发明的收获等效电路的原理图,示出了在理想条件下的情况。 FIG. L harvested present an equivalent circuit diagram of the invention, shows the case under ideal conditions.

图2为本发明的考虑由于源/负载阻抗不匹配而引起的再生传输的另一个收获等效电路的原理图。 An equivalent circuit diagram of a further regeneration transmitting harvested consideration of FIG. 2 of the present invention since the source / load impedance mismatch caused.

图3为本发明的将图2扩展为包括由于非理想的储能电路而引起的再生的另一个等效电路的原理图。 FIG 2 FIG. 3 of the present invention further extended to include the equivalent circuit of the regeneration tank circuit due to non-ideal due schematic.

图4为本发明的将不匹配再生源与将功率传送给负栽的实际源分开的可替代的等效电路的原理图。 FIG 4 of the present invention will not match the transmission power and renewable source to the negative principle an equivalent circuit of an alternative source separate from the actual planted FIG.

图5A示意性地例示了本发明的一个矩形线圏的能量收获电路的平面图。 FIG 5A schematically illustrates a plan view of the energy harvesting circuit rings of a rectangular wire of the present invention.

图5B例示了图5A的能量收获电路的沿图5A中的5B-5B切剖的剖视图。 Cross-sectional view of a cross-sectional cut along 5B-5B of FIG 5A 5A shows an energy harvesting circuit embodiment of FIG. 5B.

图6例示了本发明的一个能量收获电路的剖视图。 Figure 6 illustrates a cross-sectional view of an energy harvesting circuit of the present invention. 图7A示意性地例示了一个具有一个波长的尺寸和含有大量CMOS芯片或基片的正方形。 Figure 7A schematically illustrates a square having a size and a large wavelength CMOS chip or substrate contained.

图7B示意性地例示了与图7A有关的单个CMOS基片或芯片。 FIG. 7B schematically illustrates a single chip CMOS substrate or a related Figure 7A.

图8为一种集成芯片或基片上的再生天线的平面图。 8 is a plan view of the antenna on a reproducing integrated chip or substrate.

图9例示了沿图8的9-9切剖的剖视图。 Figure 9 illustrates a cut along the 9-9 section in FIG. 8 is a sectional view.

图10为本发明的一个示意性实施,示出了在单个产品单元内的多个固有调谐天线。 FIG 10 a schematic embodiment of the present invention, illustrating a plurality of inherent tuning of the antenna in a single product unit.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

如在这里所使用的,所谓"固有调谐天线(inherently tuned antenna),,是指一种连同周围材料一起的导电产品,包括但不限于芯片内电路、导体、半导体、互连和通路,起着一个天线的作用,具有固有的电感、电容和电阻的电特性,这些电感和电容可以组合在一起, 在所加的外部能量的激励下在一个所希望的频率上共振,为天线提供再生反馈,从而形成一个大于天线物理面积的天线有效面积。这种天线可以是一个独立的天线,也可以与一个集成电路芯片或电路小片集成在一起,带或不带附加的电气元件,使用所有这样一些元件的总电感、电容和电阻。 As used herein, the term "inherent tuning of the antenna (inherently tuned antenna) ,, refers to a product together along with the surrounding electrically conductive material including, but not limited to the circuit chip, conductors, semiconductors, interconnects and vias, plays a role of the antenna, electrical characteristics inherent inductance, capacitance and resistance, the inductance and capacitance can be combined in a desired resonant frequency of the excitation applied at the external energy, to the antenna to provide regenerative feedback, thereby forming the effective area of ​​the antenna is larger than a physical area of ​​the antenna. this antenna may be a separate antenna may be integrated with an integrated circuit chip or die together, with or without additional electrical components, the use of some of all such elements total inductance, capacitance and resistance.

如在这里所使用的,所谓"有效面积(effective area),,是指一个发射波阵面的其功率可以变换为有用的面积。 As used herein, "effective area (effective area) ,, it refers to one transmit power wavefront which may be converted into a useful area.

如在这里所使用的,所谓"能量收获(energy harvesting)"是指接收空间内的能量、截获其一部分加以收集或累积和变换后供立即或以后使用的天线或电路。 As used herein, the term "energy harvesting (energy harvesting)" refers to the energy in the receiving space, which intercepts a part of the antenna or circuit to be for immediate or later use after collection or accumulation and conversion.

如在这里所^吏用的,所谓"在空间内(in space)"或"通过空间(through space)"是指能量或信号通过空气或类似的媒体传输,无论是在一个封闭的还是部分封闭的环境内,而不是由硬线或印刷电路板传输电能。 As used herein ^ officials used, the so-called "in a space (in space)" or "through a space (through space)" refers to the energy or signal air or similar media transmission, either in a closed or partially closed within the environment, rather than transmission of electrical energy from a hard wire or printed circuit board.

来看等效电路如图1所示的固有调谐天线2(示于虚线方框内),图中示出了天线元4、由电感10和电容12组成的储能电路6以及地16。 View inherent tuning of the antenna equivalent circuit shown in FIG. 2 (shown in dashed box), it is shown in FIG. 4 antenna elements, and a tank circuit inductor 10 and capacitor 12 consisting of 6 to 16. 此外,还示出了任何集总阻抗18。 In addition, also it shows any lumped impedance 18. 负载22通过引线24电连接到集总阻抗上和通过引线32电连接到地30上。 Load 22 is connected to the lumped impedance and is electrically connected by a lead 32 to ground 30 via electrical leads 24. 这种能量收获电路适合高效地利用通过空间接收到的RF能量进行工作,如在这里所明确的。 This energy harvesting circuit adapted to efficiently utilize the RF energy received through the work space, as clear herein. 电路2可以配置在一个具有所希望的其他电路组件的集成电路晶片上。 2 circuit may be disposed on an integrated circuit chip having other circuit components desired. 所分布和寄生的电阻、电感和电容提供了一个有效的固态三维集成电路。 The distribution and parasitic resistance, inductance and capacitance provides an effective three-dimensional solid-state integrated circuit. 寄生电容是由于天线导线接近其他电路元件或可能的导体、半导体、互连 Since the parasitic capacitance is near the antenna conductor or other circuit elements may be conductive, semiconductive, interconnection

于器件或电路小片小而引起的相应邻近效应。 Corresponding to a proximity effect devices or die due to small.

第二个或另一个再生源是由于由负载22的阻抗与天线电路的等 The second or other renewable sources is due to the impedance of the antenna circuit of the load 22 or the like

效阻抗18不匹配而产生的驻波反射引起的。 18 effect the impedance mismatch of a standing wave caused by reflection.

图1的储能电路6在一个设计成由分布电感10和分布电容12确定 FIG 6 is a tank circuit 10 is determined by the distributed capacitance and distributed inductance 12 is designed as a

的特定频率上共振。 Specific resonance frequency. 在理想情况下,储能电路6在谐振时呈现为一个无限大的阻抗,来自天线的能量馈给集总阻抗18。 In the ideal case, the tank circuit at resonance is 6 presents an infinite impedance, energy from the antenna feed 18 lumped impedance. 分布电阻实际上使得接收来自远端源的能量的天线由于储能电路6和天线电阻组合呈现到天线上的电压(能量)而发射能量。 Indeed distributed resistance so that the antenna receives energy from a remote source of resistance due to a combination of the tank circuit and the antenna 6 presents the voltage (energy) to emit energy on the antenna.

图1的电路具有对RF媒体呈现为一个再生"天线"的特性。 The circuit of FIG. 1 as having a pair of RF reproducing media presentation "antenna" characteristic. 这使这个电路提供一个实质上大于它的物理面积的天线有效面积,例如可以比物理面积大许多倍。 This makes this circuit provides a physical area is substantially greater than its effective area of ​​the antenna, for example, many times larger than the physical area. 这是通过将反馈或再生引入固有调谐天线来实 This is achieved by introducing natural feedback or regeneration tunable antenna Lysaght

现的。 Now of. 这个再生源例如是非理想的在CMOS芯片的有限空间内形成储能电路的直接结果。 The renewable source, for example, a direct result of non-ideal tank circuit formed in a limited space of a CMOS chip. 芯片组件相对紧邻提供了具有导电元固有电阻的电感10和电容12。 Chip assembly in relatively close proximity provide the inductor 10 and capacitor 12 having a specific resistance of the conductive element. 导电元是形成图1的理想天线元4的金属元。 The conductive antenna element is formed over the metal element 1 of FIG. 4 element.

本发明考虑了建立再生反馈的各种优选措施。 The present invention contemplates various preferred measures to establish regenerative feedback. 其中,就本优选途径来说,是使得在电路2的等效阻抗18与负载22之间产生受控的阻抗不匹配。 Among them, the preferred route, is controlled such that an impedance mismatch between the impedance of the equivalent circuit 18 and the load 22 2. 由不匹配引起的再生源作为一个等效电路的元件在图2中标为36。 Caused by the mismatch as a renewable source of equivalent circuit element labeled as 36 in FIG. 2.

再来看图l,在这个实施例中,谐振除了储能电路6将一定能量馈给天线4之外还将一些能量馈给接到电路2上的负载22。 Figure L again, in this embodiment, in addition to the resonant tank circuit 6 is fed to the antenna than a certain energy will be some energy feed 4 to the load circuit 2 to 22. 在电路2的输出等效电路与负载22之间可能有阻抗不匹配。 In the equivalent circuit between the output circuit 2 to the load 22 may have an impedance mismatch. 这个不匹配将导致能量向电路2反射,由于储能电路阻抗在谐振时很高,因此能量将导致天线4 附加发射。 This mismatch will cause the reflection of energy to the circuit 2, the impedance is high due to the tank circuit at resonance, the energy will cause additional 4 transmit antennas. 图1的天线电路2的再生作用使能量由天线电路2重新发射, 从而进一步增大了有效面积。 Regeneration of the antenna circuit 1 of FIG. 2 the energy re-emitted by the antenna circuit 2, thereby further increasing the effective area. 无论是由于储能电路6两端的电压降还是由于从负载22反射引起的天线4的再生作用将使得在天线4的区域内存在一个所发射的近场。 Either due to the voltage drop across the tank circuit 6 or 22 due to the regenerative effect caused by reflection from the antenna 4 so that the load is in a near-field memory in the region of the emitted antenna 4. 这个近场于是使天线具有一个实质上大于物理面积的有效面积。 Thus the near field of the antenna having an effective area substantially larger than a physical area. 这个有效面积例如可以为形成天线和储能电路6组合的导体的实际面积的1,000至2,000倍左右。 The effective area, for example, about 1,000 to 2,000 times the actual area of ​​the conductor forming the antenna may be a combination of 6 and a tank circuit.

另一个途径可以是分享天线所产生的功率。 Another approach may be to share the power generated by the antenna. 电路2输出的功率将具有某个值P。 Power output circuit 2 has a certain value P. 通过故意的不匹配,可以使这个功率的一部分aP反射入电路2。 By deliberate mismatch, you can make this part of the power reflected into aP 2 circuit. 其余的功率(la)P 62将传送给负载22。 The remaining power (la) P 62 will be delivered to the load 22. 在理想的匹配条件下, a=0, P传送给负载。 Under ideal matching conditions, a = 0, P delivered to the load. 虽然就其功能来说没有多少意义,但al意味着没有功率传送给负载。 Although there is little sense Functionally, but al means no power delivered to the load. 可以选择一个0<01<1的值通过使有效面积增大到某个最佳值使得传送给负载22的功率达到最大。 Values ​​can be selected from 0 <01 <1 by the effective area is increased to an optimum value so that the power delivered to the load 22 is maximum.

在经典的天线理论中, 一个匹配的负栽只可以得到二分之一的可用功率。 In classical antenna theory, a negative match available power plant can be only one-half. 在当前的环境中,P为传送给负载的功率,为总可用功率的二分之一。 In the present context, P is the power delivered to the load, one-half of the total available power.

另一个途径是通过电感进入天线线圈。 Another way is through the antenna into the inductive coil.

13本发明可以利用导电天线元的固有分布电感和固有分布电容来 13 using the inherent distributed inductance of the invention may be electrically conductive antenna element and to the inherent distributed capacitance

实现所希望的谐振储能电路(LC)。 To achieve the desired resonant tank circuit (LC). 所希望的频率是LC乘积的函数。 The desired frequency is a function of the LC product. 随着导体元件减薄,对于一个固定的LC值可以希望通过增大电感来适应减小电容。 As the conductor element is thinned, for a fixed value of the LC capacitor may be desirable to accommodate reduced by increasing the inductance. 这可以通过在天线的导电元之间添加一些附加的导体来实现。 This is done by adding some additional conductor between the conductive antenna element is achieved. 这些附加的元可以是一些单功能导体,也可以是一个或多个附加的天线。 These additional elements may be a number of single-function conductor may be one or more additional antennas.

来看图2,图中示出了电路2的一个修改型2',其中不匹配反射示为一个再生源36。 Turning to Figure 2, there is shown a modified type of circuit 2 ', which does not match the reflector 36 is shown as a renewable source. 电路的电接点42、 44示为接在引线38和引线40之间。 Electrical circuitry contacts 42, 44 is shown connected between the lead 38 and the lead 40.

来看图3,图中示出了RF频率能量收获电路的集中线性模型,经修改的电路2〃具有天线4、储能电路6,这个电路与储能电路6两端的电压降有关。 Turning to Figure 3, there is shown a linear model of centralized RF frequency energy harvesting circuit, the modified circuit has an antenna 2 〃 4, tank circuit 6, the voltage across this circuit 6 and down about the tank circuit. 除再生源36之外,还示出了再生源48。 In addition renewable source 36, but also illustrates a renewable source 48. 源48用来表示一个作为非理想的储能电路的再生源。 Source 48 is used to indicate as a renewable source of non-ideal tank circuit. 再生源36、 48协同工作,增大对有效面积的再生效果。 Renewable source 36, 48 work together to increase the effective area of ​​the regeneration.

来看图4,图中示出了一个经修改的能量收获电路2'",其中再生源50、 52用输入(em)和参数ct和P分别定量表示再生源36、 48,从而以与理想储能电路和理想匹配源一致的数学形式提供非理想的效应。阻抗和负载阻抗点54表示LC储能电路6上的电压。符号e!N表示天线物理面积产生的能量。 Figure 4, is shown an energy harvesting circuit 2 a modified '', wherein renewable source 50, 52 input (em) and quantitative parameters ct and P respectively represent renewable sources 36, 48, and thereby over consistent over the tank circuit to match the source and provides the mathematical form of the non-ideal effects of impedance and load impedance 54 represented by the voltage on point 6 LC tank circuit symbol e! N represents energy generated by the antenna physical area.

图4中还示出了电阻58,以考虑产生非理想的特性的电阻。 Figure 4 also shows a resistor 58, to account for non-ideal produce resistance characteristics. 有效阻抗18和再生源50右侧是源62和阻抗68,分別表示由负载看到的没有反射的源62和源的等效阻抗68 。 Effective impedance 18 and renewable sources 62 and 50 on the right side is the source impedance 68, respectively, seen by the load is not reflected by the equivalent impedance of source 62 and source 68.

在图4的电路中,两个参数a和P用来标识天线分别由于以下两项重发的能量部分:(l)非理想的储能电路的电阻,P,以及(2)从一个接到输出端上的不匹配负载反射的能量,a。 In the circuit of Figure 4, the two parameters a and P are used to identify the antenna part of the energy due to the retransmission of two: (l) the resistance of the tank circuit of the non-ideal, P, and (2) from one to the the load does not match the energy reflected at the output, a.

通常,a和p可以是复函数,它们的具体值可以在一组所规定的状态下以经验得到。 Typically, a and p may be a complex function, and their specific values ​​can be obtained empirically in a state that a specified group.

作为例示,而没有任何丧失一般性,由于物理面积而获得的能量将标为电压em,以便用图4的等效RFEH电路进行讨论。 By way of illustration, without any loss of generality, due to the physical area of ​​the energy obtained is labeled voltage EM, for discussion RFEH equivalent circuit of Figure 4. e!N与功率和能量的关系简单地就是比例关系。 E! simply the proportional relationship between N and the power and energy.

14参数a表示em的由于图4的非理想储能电路通过辐射而损失的部分。 14 parameter indicates a non-ideal tank circuit portion in FIG. 4 by the em radiation loss. 从能量守恒来看,OSa化 From the point of view of energy conservation, OSa of

参数(3表示负栽能量的由于图4的负载阻抗与输出阻抗之间的阻抗失配而反射的部分。从守恒来看,o《p《i。 Parameter (negative planted 3 represents the reflected energy and partly because the impedance between the load impedance and the output impedance mismatch in FIG. 4. From the point of view of conservation, o "p" i.

项"eouT"是指导致有效面积增大的再生的总能量。 Item "eouT" refers to the total energy results in an increased effective area regeneration.

可以看到,在本电路内工作的天线不需要用分立的电容进行调谐。 Can be seen, the present antenna operates in a tuned circuit does not require a separate capacitance. 图1-4的L、 C和R都是由形成天线4的导体形成的分布参数元。 Figures 1-4 L, C and R are distributed parameter element formed of a conductor antenna 4 is formed. 用天线的形成储能电路的固有分布电感L和固有分布电容C建立调谐的谐振电路。 Establishing a resonant circuit tuned with the inherent distributed inductance of the tank circuit formed of an antenna and L inherent distributed capacitance C. 这个调谐电路是考虑到天线的导电线圏的导电率和导电线圈周围的物质的电容率设计的。 This tuning circuit is the permittivity of the material around the conductive coil and conductivity into consideration rings of conductive wire antenna design. 其他的导体和电位的影响形成有助于LIO、 C 12和R58的寄生分布参数元件。 Effect of other potential conductors and contribute to the formation LIO, C 12 and R58 parasitic distributed parameter element.

来看图5A和5B,在图5A中以平面图示出了安装在一个底下有一个接地面74的介质基片72上的矩形线圏天线70。 Turning to Figure 5A and 5B, in FIG. 5A illustrates a planar dielectric substrate mounted with a ground plane 74 of the rectangular wire 72 on the rings of the antenna 70 at a bottom. 螺旋天线70示为呈右旋形,其剖视图示于图5B。 The helical antenna 70 is shown as a right-shaped, cross-sectional view thereof is shown in FIG. 5B. 优选的是线圏本身具有一长度、迹线宽度和迹线厚度,该长度为射频(RF)源的波长的1/4,迹线的宽度比迹线的厚度大许多。 Preferred rings of the wire itself has a length, width, and trace trace thickness, the length of a radio frequency (RF) source of 1/4 of the wavelength, a width greater than the thickness of the traces traces many. 此外,基片72具有比它的厚度大许多的表面积,用高介电常数的材料制成。 Further, the substrate 72 having a surface area much greater than its thickness, made of a material with a high dielectric constant. 天线70的调谐基于分布电感L和分布电容C。 70 based on the distribution of the antenna tuning inductance L and distributed capacitance C. 天线的频率通常与电感L和电容C的乘积的平方根成反比。 Generally inversely proportional to the square root of the frequency of the antenna is the product of the inductance L and the capacitance C.

来看图6,图中示出了天线内的分布电容情况,要考虑的是两种分布电容。 Turning to Figure 6, there is shown a case where the distributed capacitance of the antenna, to be considered are two distributed capacitance. 第一种是在天线70的导电迹线之间诸如在具有相隔间隙84 的部分80与82之间形成的分布电容。 The first is between the antenna 70 such as a conductive trace having a portion spaced gap 84 is formed between the distributed capacitance 80 and 82. 另一种是在具有相隔间隙92的诸如线段80、 82之类的导电极迹线与地平面卯之间形成的分布电容。 Another is a distributed capacitance having spaced segments 92 of such a gap 80 is formed between the conductive electrode 82 such traces and the ground plane is d. total

如导电电极80、 82与基片地卯之间的距离92确定。 The conductive electrode 80, the distance between the base 82 and d 92 determines felled. 再加上电极70的导电面积乘以基片72的介电常数除以极间距离84。 Plus electrode 70 is multiplied by the area of ​​the conductive substrate 72 is divided by the dielectric constant distance between the electrodes 84. 通常,螺旋天线的导电迹线(诸如80、 82)与基片地卯之间的寄生电容将大于相隔距离84 的导电迹线之间的寄生电容。 Typically, the helical antenna conductive traces (such as 80, 82) and the parasitic capacitance between the base will be greater than the separation distance d felled parasitic capacitance between the conductive traces 84. 这使得螺旋天线在设计上更为灵活。 This allows the helical antenna is more flexible in design.

例如,如果希望减小天线而仍保持相同的响应频率,就可以减小金属迹线的宽度。 For example, if desired to reduce the antenna while still maintaining the same response frequency, it can reduce the width of the metal traces. 这样,可以通过減小导电迹线的尺寸来减小天线的导电迹线80、 82与接地基片90之间的寄生电容。 Thus, by reducing the size of the conductive antenna traces to reduce the parasitic capacitance between the conductive traces 80, the substrate 82 and the ground 90. 这样减小的效应可以用若千方式中的任何一种方式补偿,诸如改变天线螺旋形导电迹线的设计、在导电迹线之间淀积较高的介电材料或改变基底材料74的电容率。 Such effects may be reduced if any of the compensated one thousand ways, such as changing the antenna design spiral conductive traces deposited high dielectric material between the conductive traces or capacitance changes of the base material 74 rate. 随着使迹线相互靠近,诸如80、 82之类的导体之间的分布电容增大。 With close to each other so that the traces, the distributed capacitance between the conductors 80, 82 such as a increases.

从上述可见,本发明涉及能量收获和重发(如果需要的话)的电路和有关方法。 Seen from the foregoing, the present invention relates to energy harvesting and retransmission (if necessary) and related methods circuit. 它包括一个由导体4和使调谐谐振电路再生的装置形成的调谐谐振电路,其中这个电路具有一个实质上大于物理面积的有效面积。 It comprises a tuned resonant circuit formed by the conductor means and the tuning of the resonance circuit 4 regeneration, wherein the circuit has an effective area substantially larger than a physical area. 能量通过空间发射,空间可以是空气,起着媒体的作用,产生一个可以表征为每单位面积瓦特数或每单位面积焦耳数的波阵面。 Transmitting energy through space, space can be air, acts as the media, it may be characterized as generating a number of watts per unit area or the number of wavefront Joules per unit area. 用一个天线,就可以收获或聚集能量,将它变换成一种对于各种执行诸如检测或简单地标识在波阵面的空间内的物体之类的特定功能的电子、机械或其他器件有用的形式。 With one antenna, or can be harvested gather energy, converts it into a variety of execution such as an electronic, mechanical or other devices for detecting a particular function or simply identify in the space of the object wavefront such form that is useful for . 在聚集和变换能量加以利用时,更为方便的是考虑在空间内可得到的"功率"。 When the energy accumulation and conversion be utilized, it is more convenient to consider the space available in the "power." 如果"能量,,在聚集一段时间后再使用,考虑在空间内可得到的能量就更为方便。然而,在这里为了方便起见,这两个类型都将称为"能量收获"。 If the "energy ,, gathered in a period of time before use, consider the energy in the space available is more convenient. However, here for convenience, these two types will be referred to as" energy harvesting. "

实例l Examples l

可以看到,本发明适合配合可以配置在集成电路芯片上的极小的电路使用。 It can be seen that the present invention is suitable for use with extremely small circuit can be configured on an integrated circuit chip. 例如,假设收获的能量射频(RF)为915 MHz, 一个天线的有效面积通常不小于kxX2,其中k小于或等于l,也就是一边上给定的频率(X)的一个波长。 For example, assume that harvested energy radio frequency (RF) is 915 MHz, the effective area of ​​one antenna is generally not less than kxX2, wherein k is less than or equal to L, i.e. on the side of a given frequency (X) of a wavelength. 例如,如果天线是一个典型的半波偶极子,有效面积小于V不很多。 For example, if the antenna is a typical half-wave dipole, the effective area is not much less than V. 在915MHz,波长X大约为12.908英寸,结果用于能量收获的半波偶极子的k^在k等于0.13时将为21.66平方英寸。 At 915MHz, the wavelength X of about 12.908 inches, the result for the half-wave dipole energy harvesting k ^ k is equal to 0.13 for the 21.66 square inches. 半波特性意味着有关天线的大小的事。 Half the size of the wave characteristics mean that the antenna thing. 然而,可有益地使用本发明的天线的物理尺寸将实质上小于21.66平方英寸。 However, the antenna may be advantageously used according to the present invention will be substantially smaller than the physical size of 21.66 square inches.

作为第二个例子, 一个有效面积为半波偶极子的0.5的四分之一波长的"鞭状,,天线具有为增益的线性函数的有效面积,在这种情况下有效面积的k大约为0.065。据此,有效面积应为0.065X2,即10.83平方英寸。 As a second example, the effective area of ​​a half-wave dipole quarter wavelength of 0.5 ",, whip antenna having an effective area as a linear function of the gain, k In this case, the effective area of ​​about 0.065 Accordingly, the effective area should be 0.065X2, that is 10.83 square inches.

考虑一个长度约为3.073英寸的正方形螺旋天线,其中螺旋线形成在一个1560微米的正方形内,就前景来看, 一个加工好的互补金属氧化物半导体(CMOS)片可以具有与这正方形螺旋线相同的尺寸。 Consider a length of about 3.073 inches square helical antenna, wherein the helix is ​​formed within a 1560 square micron, on perspective, a processed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip may have this same square helix size of. 因此, 在一个波长的正方形内可以安装44,170个这样的片。 Thus, a wavelength within the square can be installed 44,170 of such sheet. 这情况例示于图7A和7B,其中图7A示出了边长为入的一个正方形,而图7B示出了边长为1560微米的单个正方形芯片。 This situation is illustrated in FIGS. 7A and 7B, wherein FIG 7A shows a side length of the square, while FIG. 7B illustrates a side length of 1560 square microns single chip. .这建立了一个适当设计的具有能量收获能力的天线和收获与诸如半波偶极子之类的传统天线的相同的能量的芯片的尺寸之间的关系。 This establishes a relationship between the size of the chip energy of the same design having a suitable energy harvesting capability of the antenna and the conventional antenna, such as gains and half-wave dipole of such. 边为一个波长的正方形可以选来作为确定 A square edge wavelength can be selected as determined

效益的度量基础,在这里将称为S(jE。 Measure basic benefit, in this case will be referred to S (jE.

实例2 Example 2

为了提供进一步的比较,可以考虑一个测试天线,它是在一个作 To provide a further comparison, consider a test antenna, as it is in a

形。 shape. 这个天线设计成能提供一个整个为915 MHz的波长的四分之一的 This antenna is designed to provide for the entire quarter of a wavelength of 915 MHz

方形螺旋线,i旋线形成在一个边长为;560微米的正方形内。 Square spiral line, i-line is formed in a rotating side length; the 560 square microns. 结果, 导线的长度为四分之一波长,但是它没有呈现为传统的四分之一波长的鞭状天线。 As a result, a quarter wavelength length of wire, but it does not appear as a conventional quarter wavelength whip antenna. 1560微米的边形成的物理天线的边为0.061417英寸,从而提供的螺旋天线的物理面积为0.00377209平方英寸。 Physical antennas 1560 microns side edges formed is .061417 inches, the physical area of ​​the helical antenna so as to provide for 0.00377209 in2.

在形成正方形螺旋线中,所用的是一个导电的铝线圏,正方形电阻为0.03欧姆。 Forming a square spiral, used is an electrically conductive aluminum rings of square resistance of 0.03 ohms. 导电线圈作为AMI—ABN—1.5jiCMOS工艺的一部分形成在小片上。 Conductive coil AMI-ABN-1.5jiCMOS As part of the process is formed on the die. 电极和电极间尺寸为电极迹线13.6微米,电极间距离19,2 微米,而基片是p型硅。 Between the electrode and the electrode size of 13.6 microns electrode trace, the distance between the electrodes 19, 28 m, and a p-type silicon substrate. 基片的尺寸为2,2微米平方,厚约为0.3微米。 Size of the substrate is 2,2 [mu] m square, a thickness of about 0.3 microns. 这个小片焊接到一个印刷电路板上,再安置在四个黄铜SMA RF连接器上。 The die soldered to a printed circuit board, and then placed on the four brass SMA RF connector. 由这个阵列馈电的电路是一个与一个类似的天线/电路串联的》 This array by the electric circuit is fed with a similar antenna / circuit series "

摔《贝 Fall "Tony

立的电荷泵(倍压器),结果所形成的组合向两个并联的发光二极管电。 Vertical charge pump (voltage multiplier) results formed by combining the two light emitting diode electrically connected in parallel. 这个测试天线,为了反馈或再生,用作对控制天线的比较基础。 This test antenna, for feedback or regeneration, as basis of comparison to the control of the antenna. "控制天线(control antenna),,选择成提供一个等于有效面积的物理面积。结果,所收获的能量就只是功率密度与等于物理面积的有效 "Antenna control (control antenna) ,, selected to provide a physical area equal to the effective area. As a result, the energy just harvested power density equal to the physical area of ​​the active

面积的乘积。 The product of the area. 测试天线可以认为是图5A所示的天线。 Test antenna may be considered an antenna shown in FIG. 5A. 外尺寸为1560微米乘1560孩史米的正方形螺旋线的面积为2,433,600孩i米平方。 An outer dimension of 1560 microns by children history area 1560 square meters helix to 2,433,600 square meters child i. 或者,也可以将物理面积认为在这种情况下是会产生物理面积为1,063,223微米平方的金属导体。 Alternatively, the physical area may be considered in this case will produce a physical area of ​​the metal conductor of 1,063,223 square microns. 图5A所示的这种测试天线放置在一个915MHz的RF 场内,离发射天线8英尺。 This test antenna shown in FIG. 5A is placed on a 915MHz RF field, and eight feet from the transmitter antenna. 发射机发射的功率约为6瓦,天线方向性增益约为6。 Power transmitter transmits about 6 watts, antenna directivity gain is about 6. 对于无方向性的情况,在8英尺处球面的总表面积为4x3.14 x R2 = 4 x 3.14 x 82 = 804.25平方英尺。 For non-directional, the spherical surface 8 feet total surface area of ​​4x3.14 x R2 = 4 x 3.14 x 82 = 804.25 square feet. 供电天线的增益在最有利方向约为6,在最有利方向给出的功率密度为[6x6瓦/804.25平方英尺! Power supply antenna gain of about 6 in the most advantageous direction, the power density given in the most advantageous direction [6x6 square feet /804.25 watts! = 0.0447622瓦/平方英尺。 = 0.0447622 Watts / square foot. 将1560平方微米假设为物理面积,于是测试天线的物理面积为0.0000262平方英尺。 The 1560 square micrometers assumed physical area, then the area of ​​the test antenna is physically 0.0000262 square feet. 因此,按照经典的定义应收获的能量为0.0447622瓦/平方英尺x 0.0000262平方英尺=1.17277微瓦。 Thus, according to the classical definition of energy to be harvested 0.0447622 watts / ft x 0.0000262 = 1.17277 square foot microwatts. 尺寸如所列举的螺旋天线放置在所示RF发射机和天线所产生的场内。 As exemplified dimensions helical antenna RF transmitter and disposed within the field generated by the antenna shown in FIG. 仅仅根据功率密度和控制天线的物理天线尺寸,即每平方英寸的瓦数或 The only power density and physical size of the antenna of the antenna control, i.e. the number of watts per square inch or

每基片面积的瓦数,就由天线的面积截获的功率预期为1.17277微瓦。 Watts per chip area, it is intercepted by the area of ​​the antenna is expected to 1.17277 microwatts power. 在这种情况下,物理尺寸假设为正方形螺旋线的总面积。 In this case, it is assumed that the physical size of the total square area of ​​the helix.

两个这样的天线在扣除天线到一个受驱动的有效荷载之间的任何损耗后驱动这个2.50毫瓦的负载。 Two such antenna drive the load at 2.50 mW after any loss between the payload to a deduction of the driven antenna. 传送给负载的功率是2.50毫瓦,每个天线提供1.25亳瓦的功率。 Power transfer to the load is 2.50 mW, each antenna Bo provide 1.25 watts of power. 结果,通过一个有效面积收获的功率与物理面积之比为(1.25x 10-3瓦)/(1.17255 x 10-6瓦)=1,066。 As a result, the ratio of power through a physical area of ​​the effective area is harvested (1.25x 10-3 W) / (1.17255 x 10-6 Watts) = 1,066. 因此,天线的有效面积等于0.0000262平方英尺x 1,066 = 0.0279:292平方英尺。 Accordingly, the effective area of ​​the antenna is equal to 0.0000262 ft2 x 1,066 = 0.0279: 292 square feet. 这些结果表明,对于测试天线,有效面积为1,066 Sqe,实测功率为i.25 亳瓦,而对于控制天线,有效面积为1SQE,实测功率为1.17255微瓦。 These results indicate that, for testing the antenna, the effective area of ​​1,066 Sqe, i.25 Bo is the measured power watts, and for controlling the antenna, the effective area of ​​1SQE, 1.17255 Found microwatts power. 因此,测试天线具有一个等于1,066个小片的几何面积的有效面积,而概念上的控制天线具有一个相当于1.0个小片的几何面积的有效面积。 Thus, a test antenna having equal effective area of ​​1,066 pieces showed geometric area, and the control concept of an antenna having an effective area on a small sheet of 1.0 equivalent geometric area. 这两个天线之间的主要差别是在测试天线中用了固有调谐电路和向固有调谐电路提供引起再生的反馈的装置。 The main difference between these two antennas are used in the test antenna tuning circuit and a feedback inherent in the apparatus due to the inherent reproduced provide the tuning circuit.

可以看到,可以采用许多方法来制造本发明的电路。 Can be seen, a number of methods can be employed for manufacturing a circuit according to the present invention. 例如,可以采用半导体生产技术,高效地制作包括功能完全的本发明的再生天线 For example, a semiconductor manufacturing technology, making efficient regeneration comprising an antenna according to the invention fully functional

18电路的所有所希望的电路的单片组件。 All components desired monolithic circuit 18 circuit. 芯片例如可以呈现为CMOS器件或MEMS器件。 For example, the chip may be presented as a MEMS device or a CMOS device.

制造本发明的收获电路的另一种方法是通过印刷诸如天线之类的电路的组件。 Another method of manufacturing a circuit according to the present invention, harvesting is by a circuit, such as a printed antennae components. 图8和9示出了一个有效面积大于它的物理面积的印刷天线。 8 and 9 show an effective area greater than its physical area of ​​the printed antenna. 通过将诸如图8和9中标为110的线圏之类的天线设计成具有特定的电极和极间尺寸使得在印刷到一个接地基片上时可以提供所希望的天线正方形线圈和LC储能电路,可以实现这种结构。 By winning, such as FIGS. 8 and 9 like wire rings of the 110 antenna designed to have a particular electrode and the inter-electrode gap dimensioned such that when printed on a ground substrate can provide desired antenna square coil and the LC tank circuit, this structure can be achieved. 基片112和地1】4 可以是以上所说明的类型的。 Substrate 112, and may be from 1] 4 of the type described above. 非导体的基片112可以是任何适当的介质,例如树脂质塑料膜或玻璃之类。 Non-conductive substrate 112 may be any suitable medium, such as a resin plastic film or glass. 基片112具有配置在其对侧的接地面114。 Substrate 112 having disposed on opposite sides of the ground plane 114 thereof. 供线圈110用的已知的适当导电剂中有例如导电环氧树脂和导电油墨。 Known conductive agent suitable for use in the coil 110 for example, a conductive ink and a conductive epoxy. 印刷技术可以是例如喷墨或丝网印刷之类的标准印刷。 Printing techniques, for example, may be a standard ink jet printing or screen printing or the like. 这种印刷天线连同电路一起使用,提供所希望的对本电路系统的再生。 This antenna is used in conjunction with printed circuit, to provide the desired reproduction of the circuitry. 在这里所说明的天线和组件以外的其他所希望的电子器件诸如二极管之类也可以通过印刷配置到基片112上,以形成本发明的一个印刷的电荷器件。 Outside and antenna assemblies described herein other desired electronic device such as a diode or the like may be arranged on the substrate 112 by printing, to form a charge-printing device of the present invention.

虽然在这里的说明主要集中在能量收获上,但可以理解,本发明也可以用于能量发射。 Although the description herein focuses on the harvesting of energy, it is understood that the present invention may also be used for energy transmission. 为之收获能量、进行工作的电子电路通常需要通过媒体与一个远程设备通信。 Whom harvested energy, the electronic circuit generally requires working with a remote device via a communication medium. 这样的通信可能需要一个RF天线。 Such communication may require one RF antenna. 这个天线将配置在硅片上,从而遭受到同样的寄生效应。 This antenna is disposed on a silicon wafer, subjected to the same so that parasitic effects. 然而,这样一 However, such a

个发射天线可以或可以不设计成能作为一个能量收获天线进行工作。 Transmit antennas may or may not be designed to operate as an energy-harvesting antenna.

可以看到,本发明,特别是对于小型化成在集成电路芯片或小片上使用的,可以广泛地应用于许多方面,诸如蜂窝电话机、RFID应用、 电视接收机、个人寻呼机、电子摄象机、电池充电器、传感器、医学设备、电信设备、军事装备、电光学和交通工具之类。 Can be seen that the present invention, in particular for small on the integrated circuit chip or into small pieces for use, can be widely used in many aspects, such as a cellular phone, the RFID application, a television receiver, a personal pager, an electronic camera, battery chargers, sensor, medical equipment, telecommunications equipment, military equipment, optical and electrical vehicles and the like.

图10示出了多个各配置在一个适当的基片上的天线,诸如分别具有相应的介质基片136、 138、 140和接地面142、 144、 146的天线130、 132、 134,用来提供一个收获通过空间传送的能量的有效装置。 FIG 10 shows a plurality of each disposed on a suitable substrate antennas, each having a respective such as the dielectric substrate 136, 138, 140 and the ground plane 142, 144, 146 antenna 130, 132, 134, to provide effective means of a harvesting energy transmitted through the space. 在这个实施例中,由于再生不仅通过储能电路而且还通过在这个再生天线组内各天线之间的电感150、 152,从而相对几何或者物理面积增大了 In this embodiment, since not only reproduction but also through the tank circuit via the inductance between antennas in the antenna group 150 reproduction, 152, so that the relative geometry or increased physical area

19天线有效面积。 19 antenna effective area. 接近空间内的天线130、 132、 134的能量场标为16CK 162、 164,可以是915兆赫的RF场。 Antennas within close space 130, 132, 134 of the energy field labeled 16CK 162, 164, 915 may be MHz RF field. 每个天线收获能量,在每个天线内产生电流。 Each energy harvesting antenna, generates a current in each antenna. 这电流又产生一个》兹场,可以通过对再生天线组的相邻天线的感应使电流增大。 This current in turn generates a "hereby field, it can be obtained by increasing the current to the induction of the regeneration of adjacent antennas antenna group. 这样增大电流导致增大天线场的交互作用, 因此从比单独使用各个天线还大的入射场的有效面积吸收能量。 Such increase in current causes an increase in the interaction of the antenna field, thus using the respective antennas from a single larger than the effective area of ​​the energy absorption of the incident field.

因此,可以看到,本发明提供了一种用于收获能量和发射能量的电路的高效电路及其所关联的方法,这种电路包括一个调谐谐振电路和使调谐谐振电路再生的固有装置,这种电路具有一个比它的物理面积大的有效面积。 Thus it can be seen, the present invention provides a method for efficient energy harvesting circuit of the circuit and a transmitter for its associated energy, which circuit comprises a tuned resonant circuit and the resonant circuit tuned so that the intrinsic reproducing apparatus, which kind of circuit has a large physical area than its effective area. 可取的是调谐谐振电路由形成一个储能电路的固有分布电感和固有分布电容形成。 Preferably the resonant circuit is tuned to form a tank circuit formed by the inherent distributed inductance and distributed capacitance inherent. 调谐电路结构成提供所希望的再生反馈,从而产生一个实质上大于物理面积的有效面积。 The tuning circuit configuration to provide a desired regenerative feedback, resulting in an effective area substantially larger than a physical area. 与有些现有技术不同,不需要用分立的电感或分立的电容来作为调谐电路元件。 Some of the prior art, the need to use a separate inductor or capacitor as a discrete element circuit tuning. 此外-, 可以用多个电路相互配合,诸如图10所示的层叠实施例的情况。 Further -, can use a plurality of circuits with each other, the case of embodiments such as that shown in FIG laminate 10 embodiment.

虽然在这里是以一些具体的实施例为例进行说明的,但对于熟悉该技术领域的人员来说在不背离如在所附权利要求书中所给出的本发明的精神实质和专利保护范围的情况下在具体细节上可以作出种种变动是显而易见的。 While there is some specific embodiments will be described as an example, but for those skilled in the art without departing from it spirit and scope of the patent protection of the invention as set forth in the appended claims We can make all kinds of changes in the specific case of details is obvious.

Claims (27)

1.一种能量收获电路,所述能量收获电路包括: 一个被配置为在工作时与负载关联的固有调谐天线;以及其中所述天线的至少一些部分被结构成用固有分布电感和固有分布电容形成一个储能电路,根据在所述负载的阻抗和所述天线的等效阻抗之间的不匹配产生的再生反馈,所述天线具有一个大于它的物理面积的有效面积。 1. An energy harvesting circuit, the energy harvesting circuit comprising: a configured to work with the load associated with the inherent tuning of the antenna; and wherein at least some portion of the antenna structure is inherent to a distributed inductance and distributed capacitance inherent forming a tank circuit, regenerative feedback is generated in accordance with a mismatch between the impedance of the equivalent load impedance and the antenna, the antenna has an effective area greater than its physical area.
2. 如权利要求l的能量收获电路,其中: 所述能量收获电路不需要分立的电容器。 The need for a discrete energy harvesting circuit capacitor: l wherein the energy harvesting circuit as claimed in claim.
3. 如权利要求l的能量收获电路,其中:所述天线包括一个具有预定宽度、预定高度和预定导电率的导电线圈。 as claimed in claim l 3. energy harvesting circuit, wherein: the antenna comprises a having a predetermined width and a predetermined height and a predetermined conductive coil conductivity.
4. 如权利要求3的能量收获电路,包括: 与所述导电线圏邻接设置的具有预定电容率的材料。 4. The energy harvesting circuit as claimed in claim 3, comprising: a material having a predetermined capacitance with the conductive lines of adjacent rings of the set.
5. 如权利要求l的能量收获电路,其中: 所述能量收获电路是一个独立应用的电路。 L as claimed in claim 5. The energy harvesting circuit, wherein: said circuit is a separate circuit energy harvesting applications.
6. 如权利要求l的能量收获电路,其中: 所述能量收获电路形成在一个集成电路芯片上。 l energy harvesting circuit as claimed in claim 6, wherein: said energy harvesting circuit formed on a single integrated circuit chip.
7. 如权利要求l的能量收获电路,其中:所述天线具有一个为所述天线的物理面积的1000至2000倍左右的有效面积。 7 l of the energy harvesting circuit as claimed in claim, wherein: the antenna has an effective area of ​​about 1000 to 2000 times the physical area of ​​the antenna.
8. 如权利要求3的能量收获电路,包括:一个基片,具有第一表面和与所述第一表面相对的第二表面,所述导电线圏是一个在所述第一表面上形成的平面天线,所述第二表面具有一个接地面;以及所述天线使形成所述储能电路的所述固有分布电感和所述固有分布电容以及固有分布电阻用于实现所述再生反馈。 8. The energy harvesting circuit as claimed in claim 3, comprising: a substrate having a first surface and a second surface opposite the first surface, the rings of conductive lines is formed on said one surface of the first the planar antenna, said second surface having a ground plane; and the forming of the antenna tank circuit and the inherent distributed inductance of the inherent distributed capacitance and distributed resistance for realizing the inherent regenerative feedback.
9. 如权利要求8的能量收获电路,其中:所述能量收获电路被结构成在所述导电线圏与所述接地面之间提供所述固有分布电容的至少一个主要部分。 9. The energy harvesting circuit as claimed in claim 8, wherein: said energy harvesting circuit is structured to provide at least a major portion of the inherent distributed capacitance between the rings of conductive lines and the ground plane.
10. 如权利要求8的能量收获电路,其中:所述能量收获电路被结构成在所述导电线圏各段之间提供所述固有分布电容的至少一个主要部分。 10. The energy harvesting circuit as claimed in claim 8, wherein: said energy harvesting circuit is structured to provide at least a major portion of the inherent distributed capacitance between the conductive wire rings of segments.
11. 如权利要求8的能量收获电路,包括:所述能量收获电路被结构成在所述导电线圏与所述接地面之间提供所述固有分布电容的一部分,和在所述导电线圏各段之间提供所述固有分布电容的一部分。 11. The energy harvesting circuit as claimed in claim 8, comprising: said energy harvesting circuit is provided as part of the inherent distributed capacitance between the rings of conductive lines and the ground plane structure, and the rings of the electrically conductive wire providing an inherent part of the distributed capacitance between segments.
12. 如权利要求l的能量收获电路,其中: 所述能量收获电路被结构成接收RF能量。 L as claimed in claim 12. The energy harvesting circuit, wherein: said energy harvesting circuit is structured to receive RF energy.
13. 如权利要求l的能量收获电路,其中: 所述能量收获电路具有用于所述再生反馈的固有分布电阻。 13 l of the energy harvesting circuit as claimed in claim, wherein: said energy harvesting circuit having a resistance profile for the intrinsic regenerative feedback.
14. 如权利要求l的能量收获电路,其中:所述能量收获电路被结构成提供根据在所述负载的所述阻抗和所述天线的所述等效阻抗之间的不匹配产生的一个驻波反射的所述再生反馈。 L 14. The energy harvesting circuit as claimed in claim, wherein: said energy harvesting circuit is to provide a structure in accordance with the impedance of the antenna and the mismatch between the load impedance produced by an equivalent regenerative feedback of the reflected wave.
15. —种能量收获方法,所述方法包括:提供包括固有调谐天线和与所述天线电连接的负载的能量收获电路;在所述天线中利用固有分布电感和固有分布电容形成一个储能电路;通过空间将能量传送给所述天线;以及生的再生反馈,根据所述再生反馈,所述天线具有一个大于它的物理面积、的有效面积。 15. - The method of harvesting energy species, the method comprising: providing an energy harvesting circuit includes an inherent tuning antenna and the load electrically connected to the antenna; the inherent advantage of the inherent distributed inductance and distributed capacitance in the antenna tank circuit is formed in a ; effective area and a regenerative feedback students, according to the regenerative feedback, the antenna has an area greater than its physical,; the energy to the space by the antenna.
16. 如权利要求15的能量收获方法,包括: 使用一个不需要分立的电容器的电路作为所述能量收获电路。 16. The energy harvesting method as claimed in claim 15, comprising: using a circuit does not require a separate capacitor as the energy harvesting circuit.
17. 如权利要求15的能量收获方法,包括:在所述天线中使用一个具有预定宽度、预定高度和预定导电率的导电线圏。 17. The energy harvesting method as claimed in claim 15, comprising: using an antenna having a predetermined width in said predetermined height and a predetermined conductivity of the rings of conductive lines.
18. 如权利要求17的能量收获方法,包括: 使用与所述导电线圏邻近配置的具有预定电容率的材料。 18. The energy harvesting method as claimed in claim 17, comprising: using a material having a predetermined permittivity of the adjacent rings of conductive lines disposed.
19. 如权利要求15的能量收获方法,包括: 用一个独立应用的电路作为所述能量收获电路。 A separate circuit, as the application of energy harvesting circuit: 19. 15. A method of harvesting energy, including the claims.
20. 如权利要求15的能量收获方法,包括:用一个在一个集成电路芯片上形成的电路作为所述能量收获电路。 20. The energy harvesting method as claimed in claim 15, comprising: a circuit formed on an integrated circuit chip as said energy harvesting circuit.
21. 如权利要求15的能量收获方法,包括:效面积的所述能量收获电路。 21. The energy harvesting method as claimed in claim 15, comprising: effective area of ​​the energy harvesting circuit.
22. 如权利要求17的能量收获方法,包括: 利用一个平面天线作为所述导电线圏;利用一个具有第一表面和与所述第一表面相对的第二表面的基片,所述导电线圈被构建在所述第一表面上,而所述第二表面上具有一个接i也面;以及利用用于实现所述再生反馈的、具有形成一个储能电路的固有分布电感和固有分布电容以及固有分布电阻的天线作为所述天线。 22. The energy harvesting method as claimed in claim 17, comprising: using a planar antenna is used as the conductive wire rings of; using a first surface and a second surface of the substrate opposite the first surface having the conductive coil It is built on the first surface, and also having a contact surface on said i second surface; and using feedback for achieving the regeneration of a tank circuit is formed with the inherent distributed inductance and distributed capacitance inherent and distributed resistance inherent antenna as the antenna.
23. 如权利要求22的能量收获方法,包括:利用在所述导电线圏与所述接地面之间的所述固有分布电容的至少一个主要部分。 23. The energy harvesting method as claimed in claim 22, comprising: using at least a major portion of the inherent distributed capacitance between the rings of conductive lines and the ground plane.
24. 如权利要求22的能量收获方法,包括:利用在所述导电线圈各段之间的所述固有分布电容的至少一个主要部分。 24. The energy harvesting method as claimed in claim 22, comprising: using at least a major part of the inherent distributed capacitance between the segments of the conductive coil.
25. 如权利要求22的能量收获方法,包括:利用在所述导电线圏与所述接地面之间的所述固有分布电容的一部分和在所述导电线圏的各段之间的所述固有分布电容的一部分。 The use of a portion between segments between said rings of said conductive lines and the ground plane and the rings of the inherent distributed capacitance of the conductive lines: The energy harvesting 25. The method of claim 22, comprising inherent part of distributed capacitance.
26. 如权利要求15的能量收获方法,包括:所述能量收获电路具有固有分布电阻用于所述再生反馈。 26. The energy harvesting method as claimed in claim 15, comprising: an energy harvesting circuit having the resistance profile for the intrinsic regenerative feedback.
27.如权利要求15的能量收获方法,包括:所述能量收获电路被结构成提供根据由所述负载的所述阻抗和所述天线的所述等效阻抗之间的不匹配引起的驻波反射的再生反馈。 27. The energy harvesting method as claimed in claim 15, comprising: said energy harvesting circuit architecture to be provided according to the standing wave caused by a mismatch between the impedance of the equivalent impedance of the antenna and the load reflection regenerative feedback.
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