CN100513871C - Air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature, and equipment - Google Patents

Air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature, and equipment Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100513871C
CN100513871C CNB2006100323893A CN200610032389A CN100513871C CN 100513871 C CN100513871 C CN 100513871C CN B2006100323893 A CNB2006100323893 A CN B2006100323893A CN 200610032389 A CN200610032389 A CN 200610032389A CN 100513871 C CN100513871 C CN 100513871C
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China
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combustion
air
temperature
heat exchanger
burner hearth
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CN1959206A (en
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艾元方
蒋绍坚
蒋受宝
孙英文
张灿
韦启告
陈玉琴
黄文静
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Central South University
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Central South University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/34Indirect CO2mitigation, i.e. by acting on non CO2directly related matters of the process, e.g. pre-heating or heat recovery

Abstract

A method for burning low oxygen and high temperature air includes entering air into recuperative heat exchanger to be preheated, mixing it with high temperature smoke sent from ceramic check valve to form it to be low oxygen high temperature air being sent into firepot, carrying out volume-form combustion being able to be controlled at firepot, exhausting partial smoke out to ambient through smoke flow rate regulation valve after sensible heat of smoke is released at heat exchanger.

Description

A kind of air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature and device thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of energy-efficient and extremely low NO xThe air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature of discharging, the present invention also comprises the device of realizing this combustion method.
Technical background
The energy is the indispensable valuable source of human lives.The consumption of the Industry Branch energy accounts for more than 70% of national energy total flow, and all types of industries stove institute power consumption source account for wherein 1/3rd.If the industrial furnace thermal efficiency in the whole nation on average improves 10%, then be equivalent to save 100,000,000 tons of standard coals.In order to improve the thermal efficiency, common way is to improve the combustion air preheat temperature and adopt oxygen enrichment (even pure oxygen) burning.But these conventional means can cause NO xThe increase of discharge capacity.On the other hand, the environmental pollution of people's growing interest fuel combustion process generation.Developed country expands Air to restriction CO from the generation that limits acid rain x, NO xDischarging.1997 " Kyoto Protocols " that the end of the year, the UNFCCC each of the contracting parties signed at kyoto, Japan have been passed through minimizing greenhouse gas emission regulation.Like this, the both low NO of combustion requirements xDischarge energy-efficient again.Hypoxemia (contain oxygen and be lower than 15%) high temperature (the combustion air preheat temperature is higher than 800~1000 ℃) air burning that the boundary rises of burning in recent years has and localized hyperthermia hyperoxia district no longer occurs, and the burning indoor temperature distribution is more even, and the furnace high-temperature scaling loss weakens, CO 2Discharging reduces significantly, NO xGeneration is subjected to technical advantages such as obviously inhibition, has alleviated the pressure of current social development to the combustion technology development preferably.China absorb to introduce low-oxygen high-temperature air burning technology in last century Mo, but at present domestic mainly be the function that the high-temperature heat accumulation body heating combustion air (or combustion gas) of using it is realized waste heat recovery, fail good organization's low oxygen combustion and receive good environmental benefit.Therefore, low-oxygen high-temperature air burning engineering application report is also only at its fractional energy savings, do not mention or avoids NO xEmission problem.At present both at home and abroad the low-oxygen high-temperature air burning device used of industrial furnace (see scientific paper: " and Zhou Huaichun; contain cutting edge of a knife or a sword; Yao Hong etc. one of HTAC-21 century key technology. industrial furnace; 1998; (1): 19-31. " and " Qi Haiying, Li Yuhong is by long good fortune etc. the international development trend of HTAC. industry is heated; 2003, (1): 1-7. ") as shown in Figure 2.Burner mainly is made up of four-way change-over valve, two ceramic honey comb heat-accumulating burners, burner hearth, cooling tube and switch boards.
Be generally two heat-accumulating burners selecting for use structure identical over the ground.When first burner was worked, high-temperature flue gas was discharged via another second burner, and reduced temperature significantly after the heat storage heat exchange of second burner, finally was discharged into atmosphere.Normal air (containing the oxysome volume concentrations is 21%) enters the heat absorption of first burner through the four-way heat exchange to valve, and temperature sprays into burner hearth after being raised to the fuel self-ignition point.The oxygen molecule mixing of combustion gas that sprays into through Gas Pipe in burner hearth and high temperature low concentration contacts the volume burning takes place.After the certain time interval, send instruction by switch board and make four-way change-over valve action, air enters second burner, is heated during through the high-temperature heat accumulation body of second burner, is heated to temperature levels near burner hearth in the short time at the utmost point.When second burner started, first burner quit work, and was converted to smoke evacuation and regenerative apparatus.Gas Pipe can be established one group of (see figure 2) of fixed-site, also can center on two heat-accumulating burner settings respectively.When two heat-accumulating burners all were provided with Gas Pipe, the periodicity break-make of combustion gas need be sent signal controlling by switch board, realized and the work of four-way change-over valve synchronous coordination.
As shown in Figure 2, the heat accumulating type high temperature air combustion technology key has:
Combustion-supporting air-spray will entrainment a large amount of combustion product gases in A, the burner hearth, could form uniform reduced oxygen gas stream in than the large space scope.This process need optimization is injected the high temperature combustion air speed of burner hearth and is injected direction through first burner or second burner.This speed with inject direction different and different with chamber structure, the construction investment that has strengthened combustion system undoubtedly.In addition and the exhaust gas volumn of entrainmenting and position be difficult to accurate control, make that combustion rate is difficult to quantitatively determine, decision combustion energy saving and NO xThe stove internal combustion flame behavior of discharge characteristics can not be regulated and control.
B, come high efficiency to reclaim high-temperature flue gas sensible heat and warm-up combustion-supporting air by heat storage type combustion.By in the one very short period of heat storage, flue gas need cool to the normal temperature level at flue gas, and this just requires big heat transfer intensity and high heat exchange frequency.
Be the big honeycomb ceramic heat accumulator of specific area to be set realize big heat transfer intensity at present, based on the PLC control technology QA four-way change-over valve be set and realize the high-frequency heat exchange.The honeycomb heat accumulation body gas channel is too small, and easily dust stratification is blocked, and this has just limited it can only be fuel with gas, and the pressure inside channel variation is excessive, must strengthen the power of engine, could guarantee the stable of air-flow, thereby increase operating cost.Require the heat storage high-temperature behavior good, do not have embrittlement when the big temperature difference of ability and high frequency conversion and peel off distortion.In addition, honeycomb heat accumulation body also needs anti-oxidant and corrosion, and arranged certain service life.
Switch fast and cause burner hearth internal combustion flame instability and conduct heat unstable.The easy scaling loss of four-way change-over valve needs high-pressure air source.Require the configuration switch board, increased combustion system automatic control technology and equipment requirement.Air-flow switches the pressure transient that also causes burner hearth, has certain degree of difficulty in little negative pressure control in stove.Increase moving component and produced noise pollution.
Analyze as can be known, heat accumulating type low-oxygen high-temperature air burning key technology is its engineering key in application of restriction.Most industrial furnaces are not noticed the importance of optimizing the gas stream in the stove tissue.The design of honeycomb ceramic heat accumulator and four-way heat exchange valve is manufactured and is limited by external monopolization to a great extent.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention provides a kind of burner hearth internal combustion flame stabilization, it is stable to conduct heat, the pressure stability in the burner hearth and combustion system is simple in structure, the air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature of dependable performance.
Another technical problem that the present invention will solve provides a kind of device that can realize above-mentioned combustion method of simple in structure, dependable performance.
In order to solve the problems of the technologies described above, the technical solution used in the present invention is: combustion air enters heat exchanger, mixed with the partial fume that in burner hearth, comes out again behind the smoke pre-heating that in burner hearth, comes out, make mixing combustion air oxygen concentration be reduced to 8%~15%, further improving the combustion-gas flow temperature makes it surpass combustion gas self-ignition point temperature, mix combustion air then and enter burner hearth, mix combustion air low-oxygen high-temperature air burning controlled in burner hearth with fuel generation combustion velocity, a high-temperature flue gas part that produces is flowed through and is dropped near ambient temperature level behind the heat exchanger warm-up combustion-supporting air, enter environment again, remainder and the combustion air mixing that has been preheated enter the burner hearth burning again.
Desired combustion-gas flow temperature conditions and the oxygen concentration condition of burning all set up outside stove, by the stove internal combustion reaction speed of combustion-gas flow temperature and oxygen concentration decision, by the combustion flame volume of stove internal combustion reaction speed decision and temperature all can be artificially, quantitatively regulate and control.
With efficient dividing wall type heat exchanger warm-up combustion-supporting air, partial fume utilizes with dilute combustion air-flow oxygen concentration in the stove outer circulation; Combustion air can reach more than the combustion gas self-ignition point temperature through temperature after the heat exchanger preheating, and combustion air and flue gas do not mix in the heat exchanger; Flow to heat exchanger with warm-up combustion-supporting air from a kiln gas part, remainder and combustion air mix to reduce the combustion air oxygen concentration; Check-valves on the flue gas bypass pipe can prevent air reverse flow smoke intake pipeline; The flue gas flow control valve that is positioned on the cryogenic piping can be regulated the outer recycling ratio of flue gas of stove, thereby stove combustion-gas flow oxygen concentration and air preheating temperature are gone in control.
Use alkanes fuel such as CH 4, C 2H 6Or C 3H 8The time, go into stove combustion-gas flow oxygen concentration and be controlled between 8%~13%; Use H 2The time, go into stove combustion-gas flow oxygen concentration and be controlled between 10%~12%; When using CO, go into stove combustion-gas flow oxygen concentration not in 11%~15% scope.
Implement the device of above-mentioned air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature, comprise burner hearth and combustion-aid air pipe, described combustion-aid air pipe is by the heat exchanger described burner hearth that is connected, the smoke discharge pipe of described burner hearth is connected with described heat exchanger and is provided with the flue gas flow control valve, is provided with the check-valves that flows to described combustion-aid air pipe from described smoke discharge pipe between combustion-aid air pipe between described burner hearth and the described heat exchanger and smoke discharge pipe.
Described heat exchanger is a dividing wall type heat exchanger.
Described check-valves is ceramic check-valves.
Adopt the method and apparatus of technique scheme, fresh combustion air enters heat exchanger, and mix after the high-temperature flue gas preheating and through the high-temperature flue gas that check-valves is come, send into burner hearth, after air and flue gas mix, make the air oxygen concentration be reduced to 8%~15% on the one hand, combustion air temperature further raises on the other hand, makes low oxygen and aiding combustion mixed airflow temperature reach above combustion gas self-ignition point temperature levels.Meet and the low-oxygen high-temperature air burning takes place in burner hearth and through the combustion gas that Gas Pipe is brought, the cooling medium of partial combustion heat in cooling tube absorbs.Flow through heat exchanger warm-up combustion-supporting air and cooling near ambient temperature level of the flue gas part of smoke of coming out from burner hearth enters environment through the flue gas flow control valve; The air mixing that the remainder flue gas is flowed through check-valves and is preheated is with quantitative adjusting air oxygen concentration.Regulate flue gas flow control valve open degree, can regulate the stove outer circulation and utilize the flue gas ratio, regulate air preheating temperature and go into the combustion-supporting mixed airflow oxygen concentration of stove, satisfy desired oxygen concentration of low-oxygen high-temperature air burning and preheat temperature double requirements.
In sum, the present invention be a kind of burner hearth internal combustion flame stabilization, the pressure stability in stable, the burner hearth of conducting heat and combustion system is simple in structure, its apparatus structure of the air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature of dependable performance simple, dependable performance, easily manufactured.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the related low-oxygen high-temperature air burning apparatus structure schematic diagram of invention;
Fig. 2 is conventional heat accumulating type low-oxygen high-temperature air burning apparatus structure schematic diagram.
The specific embodiment
As Fig. 1, invention is mainly by efficient dividing wall type heat exchanger 1, pottery check-valves 2, Gas Pipe 3, burner hearth 4, combustion-aid air pipe 11, smoke discharge pipe 12, cooling tube 5 and flue gas flow control valve 6 are formed, on burner hearth 4, be provided with cooling tube 5, Gas Pipe 3 and smoke discharge pipe 12, combustion-aid air pipe 11 is connected through efficient dividing wall type heat exchanger 1 back and burner hearth 4, the smoke discharge pipe 12 of burner hearth 4 is through efficient dividing wall type heat exchanger 1 and be provided with flue gas flow control valve 6, is provided with the check-valves 2 that flows to combustion-aid air pipe 11 from smoke discharge pipe 12 between combustion-aid air pipe 11 between burner hearth 4 and the efficient dividing wall type heat exchanger 1 and smoke discharge pipe 12.
Referring to Fig. 1, fresh air enters efficient dividing wall type heat exchanger 1 from combustion-aid air pipe 11, and is mixed after the high-temperature flue gas preheating and through the high-temperature flue gas that ceramic check-valves 2 is come, and enters burner hearth 4.After air after the preheating and high-temperature flue gas mix, the air oxygen concentration is reduced, combustion air temperature further raises on the other hand, makes low oxygen and aiding combustion mixed airflow temperature reach above combustion gas self-ignition point temperature levels.The low-oxygen high-temperature combustion air current is met and the air burning of positive displacement low-oxygen high-temperature is taken place in burner hearth 4 and through the combustion gas that Gas Pipe 3 is brought.The cooling medium absorption that a fuel combustion heat part is cooled and manages 5 li, after-heat becomes obvious heat of smoke from leaving burner hearth 4 through smoke discharge pipe 12.A high-temperature flue gas part of coming out through smoke discharge pipe 12 from the burner hearth 4 efficient dividing wall type heat exchanger 1 of flowing through cools to behind the warm-up combustion-supporting air near ambient temperature level, enters environment through flue gas flow control valve 6 again; The combustion air mixing that remainder is flowed through ceramic check-valves 2 and has been preheated with the dilution combustion air, and further improves the combustion-gas flow temperature.
Referring to Fig. 1, on the burner hearth 4 of invention cooling tube 5 is housed, to regulate ignition temperature.Cooling tube 5 can be water-cooling wall or air cooling wall, also can be solid or heated liquid spare.Being used to reclaim the dividing wall type heat exchanger 1 of high-temperature flue gas sensible heat and warm-up combustion-supporting air use, can be that following current, adverse current or distributary are arranged.Combustion-aid air pipe 11 between burner hearth 4 and the dividing wall type heat exchanger 1 and smoke discharge pipe 12 need insulation.The combustion-aid air pipe 11 and the smoke discharge pipe 12 that are connected with burner hearth 4 can be concentrated setting, also can disperse to be provided with.Low-temperature flue gas can be regulated the flue gas ratio that the stove outer circulation utilizes through flue gas flow control valve 6, regulates the combustion air preheat temperature and goes into the combustion-supporting mixed airflow oxygen concentration of stove, satisfies desired oxygen concentration of low-oxygen high-temperature air burning and preheat temperature double requirements.Pottery check-valves 2 is check valves, can prevent the reverse smoke discharge pipe 12 that flows to of preheated air effectively.2 thermal expansions of pottery check-valves are little, do not have embrittlement during high temperature, peel off and are out of shape.Burner hearth 4 has certain sealing property.
The present invention is using alkanes fuel such as CH 4, C 2H 6Or C 3H 8The time, regulate the combustion-gas flow oxygen concentration between 8%~13%, available energy efficient can reach maximum, as to go into stove combustion-gas flow temperature be 630 ℃, and oxygen concentration is 13% o'clock, and maximum available energy efficient reaches 57%; Going into stove combustion-gas flow temperature is 650 ℃, and oxygen concentration is 13% o'clock, and high thermal efficiency reaches 95%.
The present invention is using H 2The time, regulate the combustion-gas flow oxygen concentration between 10%~13%, the thermal efficiency and available energy efficient all reach maximum.As to go into stove combustion air current temperature be 650 ℃, and oxygen concentration is 10% o'clock, and maximum thermal efficiency reaches 96.5%, and the highest available energy efficient reaches 68%.
The present invention avoids using CO.When using CO, minimum of a value appears in the available energy efficient and the thermal efficiency.As to go into stove combustion-gas flow temperature be 1200 ℃, and oxygen concentration is between 11%~13% the time, and minimum available energy efficient has only 28%.Go into 1350 ℃ of stove combustion-gas flow temperature positions, oxygen concentration is between 13%~15% the time, and minimum thermal efficient has only 75%.
Referring to Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, the present invention's innovation is:
A, the honeycomb regenerator formula heat exchange of using the efficient wall-type heat exchange replacement between flue gas and the air to switch fast.Among Fig. 2, two heat-accumulating burners 9 and 10, four-way change-over valve 8 and be reduced to the efficient dividing wall type heat exchanger 1 of invention based on the switch board 7 of PLC principle.Two heat-accumulating burners 9 and 10 have been removed in invention, have fundamentally solved exhaust gas dust and have stopped up a gas channel difficult problem, make low-oxygen high-temperature air burning burning liquid even solid fuel.QA four-way change-over valve 8 has been removed in invention, has eliminated mechanicalness noise.Compare with the Fig. 2 that blocked by foreign technology, it is simple to invent used efficient wall-type heat exchange equipment, and relevant design and operation operating experience are abundant, and investment reduces significantly.
The essence variation has taken place in b, the approach of setting up low oxygen concentration burning.In Fig. 2, a large amount of flue gases circulate in burner hearth 4, can not quantitatively regulate combustion-gas flow flow and temperature, can not control air and flue gas hybrid position and mixability.Because combustion-gas flow temperature and combustion-gas flow oxygen concentration during burning can not be regulated exactly, combustion velocity also just can not accurately be regulated, and stove internal combustion flame volume, flame temperature and burning heat transfer etc. all can not accurately be regulated.The flow that the aperture that is in the flue gas flow control valve 6 on the cryogenic piping can change by pass flue is regulated in invention, thus conveniently adjusted combustion air current oxygen concentration.The heat exchange area that designs efficient dividing wall type heat exchanger 1 can guarantee flue gas waste heat recovery and the air preheat effect that low oxygen combustion is essential, adds that the control of by pass flue flow can conveniently be controlled into stove combustion-gas flow temperature.Because combustion-gas flow temperature and combustion-gas flow oxygen concentration are accurately regulated in the stove external enwergy, combustion velocity also just can be regulated exactly, thereby realizes that combustion velocity is adjustable, the low-oxygen high-temperature air burning that burning behavior is controlled.
C, because the low-oxygen high-temperature combustion air-flow is sent into the fixed-site in the stove, fixedly the position is sent in combustion gas.Gas Pipe 3 fixed-site, invention can realize the burning of fixed single flame formula, and stove internal combustion and heat transfer are stable, and burning control is convenient.
Even with temperature, the high temperature scaling loss weakens, energy-efficient and low NO xDischarging is the forge furnace of main application target, heating furnace, protective atmosphere heat-treatment furnace; the ladle baking stove; reflection smelting furnace and glass-melting furnace, and on the industrial furnace in machinery, petrochemical industry, glass ceramics, boiler and waste incineration field, all can implement the present invention.

Claims (7)

1, a kind of air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature, it is characterized in that: combustion air enters heat exchanger, mixed with the partial fume that in burner hearth, comes out again behind the smoke pre-heating that in burner hearth, comes out, make and mix the reduction of combustion air oxygen concentration, further improving the combustion-gas flow temperature makes it surpass combustion gas self-ignition point temperature, mix combustion air then and enter burner hearth, mix combustion air low-oxygen high-temperature air burning controlled in burner hearth with fuel generation combustion velocity, a high-temperature flue gas part that produces is flowed through and is dropped near ambient temperature level behind the heat exchanger warm-up combustion-supporting air, enter environment again, remainder and the combustion air mixing that has been preheated enter the burner hearth burning again.
2, air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: burn desired combustion-gas flow temperature conditions and oxygen concentration condition are all set up outside stove, by the stove internal combustion reaction speed of combustion-gas flow temperature and oxygen concentration decision, all can manually regulate quantitatively and control by the combustion flame volume and the temperature of the decision of stove internal combustion reaction speed.
3, according to the air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature of claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: described heat exchanger is efficient dividing wall type heat exchanger (1), with described efficient dividing wall type heat exchanger (1) warm-up combustion-supporting air, partial fume utilizes with dilute combustion air-flow oxygen concentration in the stove outer circulation; Combustion air temperature after efficient dividing wall type heat exchanger preheating can reach more than the combustion gas self-ignition point temperature, and combustion air and flue gas do not mix in the efficient dividing wall type heat exchanger; Flow to efficient dividing wall type heat exchanger with warm-up combustion-supporting air from a kiln gas part, remainder and combustion air mix to reduce the combustion air oxygen concentration; Check-valves on the flue gas bypass pipe can prevent air reverse flow smoke intake pipeline; The flue gas flow control valve that is positioned on the cryogenic piping can be regulated the outer recycling ratio of flue gas of stove, thereby stove combustion-gas flow oxygen concentration and air preheating temperature are gone in control.
4, according to the air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature of claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: when using alkanes fuel, go into stove combustion-gas flow oxygen concentration and be controlled between 8%~13%; Use H 2The time, go into stove combustion-gas flow oxygen concentration and be controlled between 10%~12%; When using CO, go into stove combustion-gas flow oxygen concentration outside 11%~15% scope.
5, implement the device of the described air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature of claim 1, comprise burner hearth (4) and combustion-aid air pipe (11), it is characterized in that: described combustion-aid air pipe (11) is connected by heat exchanger and described burner hearth (4), the smoke discharge pipe (12) of described burner hearth (4) and described heat exchanger is connected and be provided with flue gas flow control valve (6) behind described heat exchanger is provided with the check-valves that flows to described combustion-aid air pipe (11) from described smoke discharge pipe (12) between combustion-aid air pipe (11) between described burner hearth (4) and the described heat exchanger and smoke discharge pipe (12).
6, device according to claim 5 is characterized in that: described heat exchanger is dividing wall type heat exchanger (1).
7, according to claim 5 or 6 described devices, it is characterized in that: described check-valves is ceramic check-valves (2).
CNB2006100323893A 2006-10-11 2006-10-11 Air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature, and equipment Expired - Fee Related CN100513871C (en)

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CNB2006100323893A CN100513871C (en) 2006-10-11 2006-10-11 Air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature, and equipment

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CNB2006100323893A CN100513871C (en) 2006-10-11 2006-10-11 Air burning method in low oxygen and high temperature, and equipment

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CN100513871C true CN100513871C (en) 2009-07-15

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CN101650133B (en) * 2009-09-01 2010-12-01 北京沃克能源科技有限公司 Recycling system of smoke gas energy for realizing high-temperature and low-oxygen combustion
CN102095200B (en) * 2011-03-17 2012-08-08 北京沃克能源科技有限公司 Double heat accumulation type high-temperature oxygen-deficient combustor with oxygen-enriched air supply
CN102322630B (en) 2011-09-24 2014-03-19 刘伟奇 Method and devices for burning macromolecular matters efficiently and cleanly
CN114459028A (en) * 2020-10-30 2022-05-10 芜湖美的厨卫电器制造有限公司 Combustor and gas equipment
CN117534295B (en) * 2024-01-09 2024-04-05 德州晶华药用玻璃有限公司 Kiln for borosilicate glass production and application method thereof

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