CN100501758C - Communication method for reader and tag in RFID system - Google Patents

Communication method for reader and tag in RFID system Download PDF

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CN100501758C
CN100501758C CN 200610087226 CN200610087226A CN100501758C CN 100501758 C CN100501758 C CN 100501758C CN 200610087226 CN200610087226 CN 200610087226 CN 200610087226 A CN200610087226 A CN 200610087226A CN 100501758 C CN100501758 C CN 100501758C
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tag
reader
state
operation
step
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CN 200610087226
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CN101089872A (en )
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周丽敏
王宏刚
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中兴通讯股份有限公司
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06KRECOGNITION OF DATA; PRESENTATION OF DATA; RECORD CARRIERS; HANDLING RECORD CARRIERS
    • G06K7/00Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers, e.g. for reading patterns
    • G06K7/0008General problems related to the reading of electronic memory record carriers, independent of its reading method, e.g. power transfer

Abstract

本发明的一种无线射频识别(Radio Frequency Identification,以下简称RFID)系统中阅读器与标签的通信方法,包括如下步骤:第一步,阅读器检测工作区域内是否有标签存在;第二步,检测到的标签根据阅读器的选择操作指令的参数改变相应标志位;第三步,阅读器对所选标签进行查询;第四步,根据阅读器的仲裁方法,将唯一标签在一个时刻接入阅读器;第五步,阅读器和标签之间相互鉴权;第六步,阅读器对标签进行读写操作。 A radio frequency identification (Radio Frequency Identification, hereinafter referred to as RFID) reader and the tag communication method of a system, according to the present invention comprises the steps of: a first step, whether there exists within the tag reader detects the working region; a second step, changes detected tag according to the selection operation instruction corresponding parameters of the reader flag; a third step, the selected tag reader query; a fourth step of the method according to the reader arbitration, the access time of a unique tag reader; a fifth step of mutual authentication between the reader and the tag; a sixth step, the tag reader to read and write. 采用本发明的方法,能使标签的状态转移更灵活、与阅读器的操作过程对应更加明确,使它们之间的通信在框架和机制上更完善和强大,安全、高效,有利于全面提升RFID的性能。 Using the method of the invention, to make more flexible state transition labels, and the operation of the reader corresponds to more clearly, so that the communication between them stronger and better in the frame and mechanisms, safe, efficient and beneficial to enhance RFID performance.

Description

一种RFID系统中阅读器与标签的通信方法 An RFID system, a communication method of the reader and the tag

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及无线射频识别技术领域,特别是一种RFID系统中阅读器与标签的通信方法。 The present invention relates to the field of radio frequency identification technology, in particular a method for a communication system, the reader and the RFID tag.

背景技术 Background technique

在物品识别中,条码的使用非常,,因为它有很低的成本,然而却很受限制,比如受光线、污渍、遮挡物等的影响。 In the article recognition, barcode ,, because of its using a very low cost, however, is very limited, such as by the effects of light, stains, and the like covering. RFID技术的出现完全克服了这些缺点,RFID可以识别单个非常具体的物体,也可以同时对多个物体进行识读。 RFID technology appears completely overcome these shortcomings, a single RFID can identify very specific objects, may be simultaneously reading a plurality of objects.

RFID系统可以由至少一个由阅读器和一个电子标签组成。 RFID system may consist of at least one of a reader and electronic tag. 阅读器和标签之间通过无线的方式进行通信。 Between the reader and tag communicate via a wireless manner. 阅读器可以向标签发出询问信号并从标签读取相关信息。 The reader can emit an interrogation signal to the tag and read information from the tag. 随着RFID技术的发展,标签从只读小存储量不断向可写大存储量发展。 With the development of RFID technology, evolving from a read-only label a small amount of memory to write a large amount of storage. 标签可以分为有源标签(active tag)和无源标签(passivetag),有源标签内部备有电源,可以主动与阅读器通信;无源标签内部无电源,从阅读器发给的电磁波中吸取电能,作为其工作的电源, 并以背射的方式,将相关信息发送给阅读器,完成标签到阅读器的通信。 Tags can be divided into an active tag (active tag) and passive tags (passivetag), active tags with an internal power source, you can actively communicate with a reader; passive tag without an internal power drawn from the electromagnetic wave distributed in the reader electric energy as a power supply of its work, and is shot back manner, sends the relevant information to the reader, to complete the communication tag reader.

目前,RFID技术正处在国际化标准形成的关键阶段,关于超高频(Ultra-highfrequency,以下简称UHF) RFID空中接口的标准,国际上主要有两个规范:EPCglobalGEN2和ISO18000-6。 Currently, RFID technology is at a critical stage in the formation of international standards, with regard to UHF (Ultra-highfrequency, hereinafter referred to as UHF) RFID air interface standard, there are two international norms: EPCglobalGEN2 and ISO18000-6. EPCglobal GEN2是非盈利性标准化组织一全球产品电子代码(Electronic Product Code ,以下简称EPC)管理中心(简称EPCglobal)制定的第二代UHF空中接口标准(简称GEN2)。 EPCglobal GEN2 is a non-profit standards organization EPCglobal (Electronic Product Code, hereinafter referred to as EPC) Management Center (EPCglobal) to develop a second-generation UHF air interface standard (referred to as GEN2). 在GEN2中,阅读器与标签的通信过程中,就阅读器而言定义了三个过程:Select (选择)、Inventory (清点)、Access (访问),对应的标签状态为Ready (就绪)、Arbitrate (仲裁)、Reply (应答)、Acknowledged (确认)、Open (开放)、Secured (保护)、Killed (杀死),整^H1信过程在这些搡作和状态之间完成。 In GEN2, the communication process in the reader and the tag, the reader is defined in terms of three processes: Select (Select), the Inventory (inventory), Access (access), the corresponding tag state is Ready (READY), Arbitrate for (arbitration), the reply (answer), Acknowledged (confirmed), the open (open), Secured (protection), killed (killed), the whole process is completed ^ H1 channel for shoving and between these states. GEN2的设计是围绕EPC码的读取,对于标签承载其它类型的信息及其交互考虑不够。 GEN2 is designed to read the EPC code around, carrying enough label for other types of information and interactions considered. 阅读器的三个操作过程起到了简单易实现的作用,伹相对来说,在功能机制上不够严密,比如,安全机制,有W位随机或伪随机数据(RN16)的验证过程,但从机制上没有 During operation of the three readers acts as a simple and easy to implement, relatively Qu, tight enough on functional mechanisms, such as, security mechanism, the W bit random or pseudorandom data (the RN16) validation process, but the mechanisms not on

充分的考虑,也没有技术升级的空间。 Full consideration, there is no space technology upgrades. 在阅读器的操作过程与标签的状态的对应关系上不够明晰。 On a corresponding relationship between the operation state of the tag reader during a lack of clarity. 在GEN2中没有考虑对于手持终端的节能问题。 No problem to consider saving the handheld terminal in the GEN2.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明正是针对这些问题是提出一种用于阅读器和多个标签之间的高效、安全的通信方法,使阅读器与标签之间的通信在框架和机制上更完善和强大,使标签的状态转移更灵活、与阅读器的操作过程对应更加明确, 有利于全面提升RFID的性能。 The present invention is to solve these problems is to propose a method for efficient and secure method of communication between a plurality of tags and readers, communications between the tag reader and better and stronger on the frame and mechanism, so that the label state transition is more flexible, and the operation corresponding to the reader more clearly, help to enhance the performance of RFID.

鉴于上述,本发明的目的在于提供一种KFID系统中阅读器与标签之间的通信方法,在该方法中给出一种新的阅读器与标签之间通信的框架和新的功能机制,其包括如下步骤: In view of the above, an object of the present invention is to provide a communication method between the reader system KFID tag, gives a new framework for communication between reader and tag mechanisms and new features in this process, which comprising the steps of:

第一步,当标签进入有效的射频激活区,或者阅读器进入标签存在区后,阅读器发出检測信号,进行检洲操作,以检測区域内是否有标签存在: The first step, when the RF tag enters the effective active region, or into the tag reader existing zone, the reader emits a detection signal, for detecting Island operates to detect the presence of a label whether the area:

当标签存在时,标签上电,同时发出响应信号,并进入就绪状态,执行第二步; When the tag is present, an electrical tab, also issued a response signal, and a ready state, the second step;

如果没有响应就i人为没有标签存在,阅读器不再进行其它操作; If i is not respond to human presence is no tag, the reader will not perform other operations;

第二步,上述检澜到的响应的标签根据阅读器发出的选择操作指令的参数改变相应标志位,所选标签转入选择状态; The second step, Lan subject to change the tag response corresponding flag bit according to the selection operation instruction issued by the reader parameters, the selected tab into a selected state;

第三步,阅读器对上述所选标签进行査询操作; The third step, said selected tag reader to query operation;

第四步,上述所选标签对阅读器的魏操作指令进行响应,当有多个选择状态的标签同时在同一信道响应时,上述这些标签迸入仲裁状态,利用仲裁的方法,将唯一标签在一个时刻接入阅读器,此时阅读器进行接入 The fourth step, said selected operation command tags Wei reader responds, when a plurality of tags simultaneously selected state in response to the same channel, these labels into Beng arbitration state, the arbitration method, the unique tag a reader access time, an access reader case

第五步,当有唯一标签接入成功后,阅读器对标签进行鉴权操作,鉴权通过后,向标签发送带有密钥的指令,请求标签鉴权,此时标签处在鉴权状态,标签收到阅读器请求鉴权的指令后,对其进行鉴权,通过后标签 The fifth step, when the access is successful a unique tag, the tag reader performs authentication operation, the authentication is passed, sending commands to the tags with a key, requesting an authentication tag, then the tag in state authentication after receipt of a command tag reader authentication request, its authentication by the tag

转入开放状态;当阅读器与标签之间不需要鉴权时,省略此步,直接由第四步进入第六步; Into the open state; when no authentication between the reader and the tag, this step is omitted, directly to the sixth step from the fourth step;

第六步,当接入阅读器的标签进入开放状态后,阅读器对标签进行操作,包絲子操作、写子操作和"杀死"子操作;阅读器可以选择对标签的操作方式: A sixth step, when the access tag reader into the open state, operating the tag reader, with silk sub-operations, sub-operations and write "kill" the sub-operation; reader may select the operating mode of the tag:

如果阅读器选择读操作,首先发送指令,标签对指,行验证后,转入读状态,之后阅读器对标签进行读操作;这里读操作可以是多个不同读操作,通过读指令中不同权限的密钥区别,标签验证指令后,向阅读器发送阅读器需求的信息; If the viewer selects the read operation, first transmission instruction, refers to the tag line after verification, into the read state, then the tag reader read operation; where the read operation may be a plurality of different read operation, read command by different authorities the key difference, the tag verification instruction, the reader needs to send information to the reader;

如果阅读器选择写操作,首先发送指令,标签对指令进行验证后,转入写状态,之后阅读器对标签进行写操作,这里写操作可以是多个不同的写操作,通过写指令中不同权限的密钥区别; If the reader write operation is selected, first sends an instruction, instruction validation tags, into the write state, the tag reader after the write operation, the write operation there may be a plurality of different write operation, write instruction by different authorities the key difference;

当阅读器选择对标签进行"杀死"操作时,阅读器发送带有密钥的指令,标签对指令进行验证后,转入杀死状态。 When the selection of the tag reader to "kill" operation, the reader sends an instruction with the private key, validate the label instructions, into the state of kill.

进一步地,上述第三步中阅读器对所选标签进行查询操作时,通过指令对所选标签进行初始化,并发起清点,清点是指选择标签到对标签的操作结束的整个过程。 Furthermore, when the third step the selected tag reader query operation, the selected tag by the initialization command, and initiates an inventory, inventory tag refers to the process selection operation end of the label.

进一步地,上述第五步中在鉴权成功时,阅读器首先读取标签的唯一标识码,作为身份标识。 Further, the fifth step when the authentication is successful, the reader reads the first unique identification code label as identity.

进一步地,上述第六步中标签在开放状态下,根据阅读器的不同操作指令,选择进入标签的读状态、写状态或杀死状态,除断电的情况,处于读状态和写状态的标签可以通过阅读器指令返回开放状态或直接进入杀死状态。 Further, the sixth step, the label in an open state, depending on the operation command of the reader, enters the selected tag read state, the state of the write state or killed, in addition to case of power failure, in read mode and a write tag status you can return to the open state by reading the instructions, or enter directly kill the state.

进一步地,上述第六步中标签在开放状态、读状态、写状态及杀死状态之阀转移时,霈通过阅读器指令中不同权限级别的密钥认证。 Furthermore, when the above-mentioned sixth step, the label in an open state, the read state, a write state and the transition state to kill the valve, through the reader Pei instruction key authentication different privilege levels.

6进一步地,标签在杀死状态下不能再向其它任何状态转移。 6 Further, the label can no longer transfer any other state in the kill state.

进一步地,标签处在任何一个状态下,当断电后,必须从就绪状态重新开始。 Further, any label in a state, when the power failure and must start from the ready state.

进一步地,当,在仲裁、鉴权和开放状态下出现错误时,自动转入 Further, when, when an error occurs in arbitration, authentication and open, automatically transferred

就绪状态;当标签在读、写和杀死状态下出现错误时,自动转入开放状态。 Ready state; under the label when an error occurs in reading, writing and kill status, automatically transferred to the open state.

下面结合附图,对本发明的具体实施作进一步的详细说明。 Below with the accompanying drawings, a specific embodiment of the present invention will be further described in detail. 对于熟悉本技术领域的人员而言,从对本发明方法的详细说明中,本发明的上述和其他目的、特征和优点将显而易见。 For the person skilled in the art from the detailed description of the method of the present invention, the above and other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will be apparent.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图l本发明中阅读器的操作过程图。 Figure l in the present invention during operation of the reader of FIG.

图2本发明中标签的状态转移图。 2 of the present invention in the state transition diagram of the tag.

图3本发明中阅读器与标签的通信过程图。 FIG 3 FIG invention during communication of the tag reader.

具体实施方式 detailed description

下面结合附图对本发明的具体实施作详细说明如下。 BRIEF particular embodiment of the present invention are described in detail below in conjunction with the following.

如图l所示,本发明涉及到的阅读器的(逻辑)操作及其定义说明如 (Logical) and its operation is defined as shown in FIG. L, the present invention relates to a reader as described

下: under:

S0:检拥(即Detection) S0: check owner (ie Detection)

当阅读器进入一个工作区域后,阅读器发出一个检拥指令,用来检拥区域内是否有标签存在。 When the reader enters a work area, the reader issues an instruction subject hold, hold to check whether a tag is present within the region. Sl:选择(即Selection) Sl: Select (ie Selection)

阅读器通过一定的指令对有效区域内的标签进行选择和分类。 Reader selection and classification within the effective area of ​​the tag by certain instructions. 这里允许使用多,择指令对标签进行多次选择,直至完成预定的选择任务。 Herein allows multiple, optional selection instruction multiple labels, until the completion of a predetermined selection task.

S2:自(即Query) S2: self (ie Query)

阅^H对所选,进行査询,在这里阅读器通过指令对所选标签进行初始化,并发起清点。 Read ^ H selected, query, where the reader is initialized by the selected label instructions, and initiate inventory. 这里的清点是指从被选择到对标签的操作结束的整个过程。 Inventory here means the whole process from the operation of the tag is selected to end.

S3:接入(即Access) S3: Access (i.e. Access)

如果有多个标签在同一信道进行响应,将发生碰撞,这时将釆取一定的仲裁方法防止冲突,以保证唯一标签在一个时刻成功接入。 If multiple tags respond at the same channel, a collision occurs, then the arbitration will preclude taking a certain way to prevent conflicts to ensure a unique tag at the time the access success.

S4:鉴权(即Authentication) S4: authentication (ie Authentication)

阅读器和标签双方通过一定的鉴权机制相互认证为合法身份后,阅读器与标签之间就建立了一条安全的通信链路。 After both the reader and the tag through certain mutual authentication mechanism to authenticate the legal status, between the reader and the tag on the establishment of a secure communications link.

S5:操作(即Operation) S5: Operation (i.e. Operation)

阅读器对标签的操作包括S5R:读(Read)子操作,和S5W:写(Write) 子操作和S5D:"杀死"子操作。 Reader operation on the label include S5R: Reading (Read) sub-operations, and S5W: write (Write) sub-operations and S5D: "kill" the sub-operation.

如图2所示,本发明涉及到的标签状态及其定义说明如下S6:就绪(即Ready) 2, the present invention relates to a label state and is defined as follows S6: Ready (i.e., Ready)

就绪状态可以被看作一个,状态,用以表示一个还没有接受阅读器任何读写操作,也还没有进入一个清点过程的已上电的标签的状态。 It can be seen as a ready state, the state to indicate a read or write operation has not accepted any reader has not yet entered the power state of a tag inventory process. 在一 In a

个标签进入射频激活区后,除了杀死状态,掉电,就转入该状态。 After a tag enters the RF active region, in addition to killing state, power-down, the operation proceeds to state. 标签会 Label

一直保,状态,直至它收到来自阅读器的选择指令。 Paul has been the state until it receives a selection instruction from the reader.

S7:选择(即Selection) S7: Select (ie Selection)

在阅读器对标签迸行清点之前,会对标签根据需求选择,当阅读器发出选择指令时,响应的标签自动转入选择状态,同时产生相应的选择标识, 即改变相应的标志位,只有进入该状态的标签才会进入仲裁状态,响应后续的査询指令。 Before the reader into line inventory tag, the tag would be selected according to the demand, when the selection instruction issued by the reader, the tag response is automatically transferred to the selected state, while generating a corresponding selected identifier, i.e., the corresponding change flag, only into the the label states will enter the arbitration state, in response to a subsequent query command.

S8:仲裁(艮卩Arbitration) S8: Arbitration (Gen Jie Arbitration)

仲裁状态是一个保持状态,用于表示那些参与到当前的清点过程,伹还没有得到一个可用信道而唯一接入阅读器的标签。 Arbitration state is a hold state for indicating that the process involved in the current inventory, Qu a channel has not been the only available access tag reader. 处于这个状态的标签可以接收阅读器发过来的各种用于实现仲裁购指令,直到成功接入时才离开这个状态,进入鉴权状态。 Various tags in this state may receive a reader sent, instruction for implementing the arbitration available, leave this state until successful when access into the authentication state. S9:鉴权(即Authentication) S9: authentication (ie Authentication)

当标签被成功接入后,除了掉电或是Dead状态,标签进入鉴权状态。 When the label is successfully accessed, in addition to Dead state or power-down, the tag enters the authentication state. 在该状态下,标签响应阅读器发来的各种用干鉴权的指令,以保证双方的身份是合法的,才能建立安全的通信链路,使得后续的信息交互是安全的。 In this state, the tag reader sent in response to a variety of dry authentication command to ensure that the identity of the parties is legitimate, in order to establish a secure communications link so that subsequent information exchange is secure.

Sl(h开放(即Open) Sl (h open (ie Open)

当标签和阅读器相互鉴权成功后,标签进入开放状态。 When the tag and reader mutual authentication is successful, the label into the open state. 在该状态下, 标签根据阅读器的不同指令,选择进入读、写或杀死状态。 In this state, depending on the instruction tag reader, choose to enter a read, write or kill state. 除断电或杀死状态,处于读和写状态的标签可以通过阅读器指令返回开放状态。 In addition or kill off state, in the state of reading and writing a tag by reading the open state may return instructions.

Sll:读(即Read) Sll: read (ie, Read)

当标签进入开放状态后,可以根据阅读器的指令进入该状态。 When the tag enters the open state, it can enter the state according to the instruction of the reader. 在该状态下,阅读器有权读取标签的相关信息,对于不同区域的信息,需要用不同的指令,这些指令中带有不同读取权限的密钥。 In this state, the reader is entitled to read the tag information, the information for different areas, require different instruction, these instructions with different key read permission. 在该状态下,可以根据阅读器的不同指令转入写或杀死状态,或返回开放状态。 In this state, you can write into the state or kill, or return to the open state, depending on the instruction of the reader.

S12:写(即Write) S12: write (ie, Write)

当标签进入开放状态后,可根据阅读器指令进入该状态。 When the tag enters the open state, you can enter this state upon reading instructions. 在该状态下, 阅读器有权对标签进行写操作。 In this state, the reader has the right to write to the tag. 对于不同区域的写操作,需要不同指令, 这些指令中带有不同写权限的密钥,以完成不同的写操作。 For a write operation in different regions, different instructions, these instructions keys with different write access to complete different write operation. 在该状态下, 标签可以根据不同的指令转入读和杀死)状态,或返回开放状态。 In this state, the tag can be read and transferred to kill) state according to different instructions, or return to the open state.

S13:杀死(即Dead) S13: kill (ie Dead)

当标签进入开放状态后,可根据阅读器指令进入该状态。 When the tag enters the open state, you can enter this state upon reading instructions. 在该状态下, 标签不再响应阅读器任何其它指令,可以称为是杀死状态。 In this state, the tag reader no longer responds to any other instruction, the state may be referred to kill. 在该状态下, 标签不能再向其它任何状态下转移。 In this state, the label can no longer transfer any other state.

如图3所示,本发明提供的阅读器与标签的通信方法的具体过程包括如下步骤: As shown in FIG. 3, the specific process of the communication method of the reader and the tag according to the present invention comprises the steps of:

第一步阅读器对所在工作区域进行检澜,检測是否有标签存在 The first step in the work area where the reader to carry out inspection Lan, detect whether there is a label

当标签进入有效的射频激活区,或者阅读器进入标签存在区后,阅读器进行如图1中的S0:检測(Detection)操作:首先由阅读器发出检澜信号,比如一个特定的连续载波,标签对其信号进行解调,并背射出一个特 When the RF tag enters the effective active region, the presence of the label into the reader or region, as shown by the reader for 1 S0: detection (Detection) Operation: Lan detection signal emitted by the first reader, such as a specific continuous carrier, demodulate its tag signal and a dorsal emitted Laid

定的响应信号,确保阅读器能判别出标签的存在,即图3中S14至S15。 Given a response signal, the reader can be determined to ensure the presence of the label, i.e., FIG. 3 S14 to S15. 当标签存在时,标签上电,同时发出响应信号,并进入如图2中S6:就绪(Ready)状态,即图3中S15至S16。 When the tag is present, an electrical tab, also issued a response signal, and enters as shown in S6: ready (the Ready) state, i.e., FIG. 3 S15 to S16.

第二步阅读器X^洲到的预通信标签进行选择 Step X ^ Chau reader to tag pre-selected communication

当5^拥到有标签存在时,对标签进行选择,即图3中S16至S17。 When ^ 5 to hold the label is present, the labels are selected, i.e., FIG. 3 S16 to S17. 此时阅读l^进行图1中的S1:选择(Selection)操作。 At this time, for reading l ^ in FIG. 1 S1: Select (Selection) operation. 标签根据选择指令的参数改变相应标志位,并转入图2中的S7:选择(Selection)状态。 The change flag tag corresponding parameter selection instruction, and transferred in FIG. 2 S7: Select (Selection) state. 更具体地说,在这里阅读器可以通过一个或多个选择指令对有效区域内的标签进行选择和分类。 More specifically, where the reader can be selected and classified in the effective area of ​​the tag by one or more selection instruction. 这个指令可以在指令中包含特定的信息,通过参,择标签。 The instructions may be included in the instruction-specific information by reference, optional label. 这个指令中可以包含一个特定的序列,并指定与标签中存储的信息的特定部分进行逻辑运算,并以此结果来改变标签的部分标识,以达到选择的目的。 This command may comprise a particular sequence, and to specify the logical operation performed with the tag information stored in the specific portion and thereby to change the result of the identification tag portion, to achieve the purpose of selection. 比如在指令中包含信息序列101010,并用于选择标签的某段存储信息和它相同的标签。 Such as information contained in an instruction sequence 101010, and storing information for selecting a certain tag and its same label. 在具体应用中,比如,在仓库中,选择所有的某个指定厂商生产的某类食品,那么阅读器会根据这些特征所对应的编码特征,在指令中要求与之匹配,然后再标识这类物品,以便后续操作。 In a specific application, for example, in the warehouse, to select all of a given class of food manufacturers, the reader will be based on the encoding of these features corresponding, matching requirements in the instruction, and then identifying such articles for subsequent operations.

第三步阅读器对所选标签进行査询 The third step of the selected tag reader queries

阅读器对所选标签进行图1中的S2:査询(Query)操作,即图3中的S18至S19。 Tag reader selected in FIG. 1 S2: query (Query) operation, i.e., in FIG. 3 S18 to S19. 并通过一定的指令对所选标签进行初始化,并开始清点标签。 And initializes the selected tag by a certain command, and starts inventory tags.

第四步标签接入阅读器 The fourth step access tag reader

所选标签对阅读器的查询指令进行响应,当有多个标签同时在同一信道响应时,将发生冲突,在此,可以采用一定的仲裁方法,比如用ALOHA 算法来避免冲突。 The selected tag query command the reader responds, when a plurality of tags responding simultaneously on the same channel, conflicts will occur in this case, some arbitration method may be employed, such as using ALOHA algorithm to avoid collision. 此时标签处于图2中的S8:仲裁(Arbitration)状态。 In this case the label in S8 in FIG. 2: Arbitration (. Arbitration) state. 通过仲裁后,此时阅读器进行图1中的S3接入(Access)操作,将唯一的标签在一个时刻接入阅读器,即图3中S19至S20。 In this case the reader through the access after arbitration S3 in FIG. 1 (Access) operation, a unique tag reader access time, i.e., S19 in FIG. 3 to S20.

第五步阅读器和标签相互鉴权 The fifth step the reader and the tag mutual authentication

当有唯一标签接入成功后,阅读器对标签进行鉴权,鉴权通过后,向标签发送带有密钥的指令,请求标签鉴权,即图3中S20至S21。 When access successfully has unique tag, the tag reader performs authentication, authentication is passed, sending commands to the tags with a key, requesting an authentication tag, i.e. S20 in FIG. 3 to S21. 此时, 阅读器的操作为图1中的S4:鉴权(Authentication),标签处在图2中的S9:鉴权(Authentication)状态。 In this case, the reader operates as in FIG. 1 S4: authentication (the Authentication), the label in FIG 2 S9: authentication (the Authentication) state. 标签收到请求鉴权的指令后,对其进行鉴权,通过后转入S10:开放(Open)状态,即图3中S21至S22。 After receipt of the label instruction request authentication, the authentication subjected, after transferred through S10: open (the Open) state, i.e., FIG. 3 S21 to S22. 通过鉴权相互识别合法身份后,阅读器首先读取标签合法的唯一标识码,如唯一识别内码(Unique identifier,简称UID码)。 After identifying the legal status of each other by authentication tag reader reads the first unique identifier valid, such as the unique identifier (Unique identifier, abbreviated code UID). 更具体地说,比如标签可 More specifically, such tags may

以首先发送一个带密钥的指令,在指令中同时包括一个随机数,当阅读器收到指令后,对密钥进行验证,验证通过后,返回收到的随机数。 To send a first instruction with a key, while in the instruction comprises a random number, when the reader receives a command for key authentication, authentication by a random number, the received return. 当双方通过一定的鉴权机制相互认证为合法身份后,阅读器与标签之间就建立了一条安全的通信链路。 When the two sides through some authentication mechanism to authenticate each other as legal status, between the reader and the tag on the establishment of a secure communications link.

第六步阅读器对标签进行读写 The sixth step of the tag reader to read and write

当标签进入S10:开放(Open)状态后,阅读器可以选择对标签的操作方式。 When a tag enters S10: after opening (the Open) state, the reader can choose the operating mode of the tag. 如果选择图1中S5R:读(Read)操作,,首先发送指令,使标签转入图2中的S11:读(Read)状态,之后阅读器对标签进行读操作, If you choose to FIG. 1 S5R: Read (Read) command to operate, to first send the label into in FIG. 2 S11: Read (Read) state, after the tag reader to read,

这里读操作可以是多个不同读操作,通过读指令中不同权限的密钥区别, 即图3中S22至S23。 Here a plurality of different read operation may be a read operation, the read command through the key distinction different privileges, i.e., FIG. 3 S22 to S23. 标签验证指令后,向阅读器发送阅读器需求的信息, 即图3中S23至S24,比如,标签的EPC信息、用户信息等。 After verification command tag, the reader sends the information reader needs, i.e., S23 to S24, FIG. 3, for example, the EPC tag information, the user information and the like. 如果阅读器选择图1中的S5W:写(Write)操作,首先发送指令,使标签转入图2 中的S12:写(Write)状态,之后阅读器对标签进行写操作,这里写操作可以是多个不同的写操作,通过写指令中不同权限的密钥区别,即图3中S24至S25,比如,通过不同指令或参数可以改写EPC信息、用户信息等, If the reader selected in FIG. 1 S5W: Write (the Write) operation, first transmission instruction, the label into S12 in FIG. 2: Write (the Write) state, then the tag reader write operation, the write operation may be where a plurality of different write operation by the write permission instruction to distinguish between different keys, i.e. S24 to S25 in FIG. 3, for example, EPC information can be rewritten, the user instructions or information through different parameters,

对于一些重要信息的改写,需要指令中带有密钥。 For some important rewriting of information, with key need instruction. 当阅读器选择图1中S5D:"杀死"(Dead)操作时,阅读器发送带有密钥的指令,标签对指令进行验证,并转入如图2中的S13:杀死(Dead)状态,此过程为图3 中的S26至S27。 When the reader 1 in FIG selected S5D: "killed" when (Dead) operation, the reader sends an instruction with the private key, validate the label instructions, and transferred in FIG. 2 S13: Kill (Dead) state, the process of S26 to S27 in FIG. 3. 这种操作会使标签不再响应任何指令。 This tag will not respond to any operator command.

另外,在开放(Open)状态下,标签可以根据阅读器指令选择进入读(Read)、写(Write)和杀死(Dead)状态中的任何一个,在读(Read)、 写(Write)状态下,可以根据阅读器指令相互转换状态,或转入杀死(Dead) 状态,或者返回开放(Open)状态。 Further, in the open (the Open) state, the label can choose to enter a read (Read) The reader command, write (the Write) and kill any one of (Dead) state, read (Read), write (the Write) state , may be mutually converted according to the state of the reader command, or transfer killing (Dead) state, or return opening (the open) state. 当进入杀死(Dead)状态后,标签不再转入其它状态。 When entering the killing (Dead) state, the label is no longer transferred to other states. 在一个特定的应用场合中,不,所有的标签都必须进行读操作、或写操作、或同时进行读写操作,所以可以进行选择。 In a particular application, it is not, all tags must be read, or write, or read and write operations simultaneously, so you can make a selection. 比如, 在超市或仓库的物品管理过程中,物品是通过附在其上的标签的唯一身份 For example, in a supermarket or warehouse goods management process, the article is attached by its label on the unique

码(Identification,以下简称ID)去识别的,这个标签的ID是预定好,并是唯一的。 Code (Identification, hereinafter referred to as ID) to identify, ID, a predetermined label is good, and is unique. 对物品的管理过程,是以ID的管理为主线的,这样在基于RFID 的管理系统中,后台的数据库会实时的对现有的物品进行监測,比如,当物品为繊物品时,必须读取它的物品信息,如名称、材料、大小、保质期、存放环境等等。 Management for goods, based on the management ID of the main line, so that the RFID-based management system, the database in real time back to the conventional article monitoring, for example, when the article is Xian article, must be read it takes item information, such as name, material, size, shelf life, storage environment, etc. 当这个物品在长期存放后,比如,要调整它的价格, 那么当与标签建立通信后,就可以直接进行写操作,改写价格信息存储区。 When this item after long-term storage, for example, to adjust its price, then when establishing communications with the label, you can directly write, rewrite price information store. 当物品存放时间大于保质期后,直接对其进行"杀死"操作,而不需要再进入操作的其它状态。 When the time is longer than the shelf life of items stored directly subjected to "kill" the operation, without the need to re-enter other state of operation. 因为这些监測是在后台数据库中预先做好的。 Because these monitoring database in the background pre-made.

在本发明中,第五步在系统设计时可以不使用,即可以允许从第四步直接进入第六步。 In the present invention, the fifth step may not be used in the system design, i.e., from the fourth step may be allowed to proceed to Step 6 directly. 比如在工厂的生产线上,对产品的识别是不存在安全危险的,因此,为提高效率可以将其省略。 For example, in the factory production line, the identification of the product is no security risk, therefore, to improve the efficiency may be omitted. 但是如果是用于门禁系统,则要注重其系统的通信安全,保留第五步。 But if it is used in access control systems, will have to pay attention to the security of its communications system, retaining the fifth step.

在本发明中,图2所示的状态为标签的一种逻辑状态,每个逻辑状态可能对应多个物理状态。 In the present invention, a logical state of the state shown in FIG. 2 as a tag, each logical state may correspond to a plurality of physical state. 比如在仲裁(Arbitration)状态中,根据对不同指令的响应,会产生多个物理响应状态。 For example, in the arbitration (. Arbitration) state, the response of different instructions, in response generates a plurality of physical state. 比如,在写(Write)状态下,根据写入的不同内容,会有不同的物理状态。 For example, in writing (the Write) state, depending on the written content, have different physical state. 标签处在任何一个状态下,当掉电后,必须从就绪(Ready)状态重新开始。 Tag in any state, when the power failure must be from the ready (Ready) state to start again. 当标签在仲裁(Arbitration)、 鉴权(Authentication)和开放(Open)状态下出现错误,自动转入就绪(Ready)状态。 When the tag errors in the arbitration (Arbitration), authentication (Authentication) and open (Open) state, automatically transferred Ready (Ready) state. 当标签在读(Read)、写(Write)和杀死(Dead)状态下出现错误,自动转入开放(Open)状态。 When the label read (Read), writing (Write) and kill (Dead) status error occurs, automatically transferred to open (Open) state.

以上详细说明了本发明的实施方式,但这只是为了便于理解而举的形象化的实例,不应被视为是对本发明范围的限制。 Embodiment described in detail above embodiment of the present invention, but only examples of figurative cited for ease of understanding, not to be considered as limiting the scope of the present invention. 同样,任何所属技术领域的普通专业人员均可根据本发明的技术方案及其较佳实施例的描述, 做出各种可能的等同改变或替换,但所有这些改变或替换都应属于本发明的权利要求的保护范围。 Similarly, any person of ordinary skill in the art can According to the present invention and described preferred embodiments, made various possible equivalent modifications or substitutions, but all these changes or substitutions should belong to the present invention the scope of the claims.

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Claims (7)

  1. 1、一种RFID系统中阅读器与标签的通信方法,其包括如下步骤:第一步,当标签进入有效的射频激活区,或者阅读器进入标签存在区后,阅读器发出检测信号,进行检测操作,以检测区域内是否有标签存在:当标签存在时,标签上电,同时发出响应信号,并进入就绪状态,执行第二步;如果没有响应就认为没有标签存在,阅读器不再进行其它操作;第二步,上述检测到的响应的标签根据阅读器发出的选择操作指令的参数改变相应标志位,所选标签转入选择状态;第三步,阅读器对上述所选标签进行查询操作;第四步,上述所选标签对阅读器的查询操作指令进行响应,当有多个标签同时在同一信道响应时,上述这些标签进入仲裁状态,利用仲裁方法将唯一标签在一个时刻接入阅读器,此时阅读器进行接入操作;第五步,当有唯一标签接入成功后,阅 1, a communication method in an RFID system reader and a tag, comprising the steps of: a first step, when the RF tag enters the effective active region, or into the tag reader existing zone, the reader emits a detection signal, detected operation to the detection zone whether the label is present: when the tag is present, an electrical tab, also issued a response signal, and a ready state, the second step; if there is no response to that no label is present, the reader will not be further operation; the second step, the label in response to the detected change in the corresponding flag bit according to the selection of the parameters of operation instruction issued by the reader, the selected tab into a selected state; a third step, said selected tag reader to query operation ; fourth step, said selected query operation instruction tag reader responds, when a plurality of tags responding simultaneously on the same channel, these tag enters the arbitration state, the arbitration to access the unique tag at a time to read , a reader for the access operation at this time; fifth step, when the access is successful a unique tag, reading 器对标签进行鉴权操作,鉴权通过后,向标签发送带有密钥的指令,请求标签鉴权,此时标签处在鉴权状态,标签收到阅读器请求鉴权的指令后,对其进行鉴权,通过后标签转入开放状态;当阅读器与标签之间不需要鉴权时,省略此步,直接由第四步进入第六步,且标签直接转入开放状态;第六步,当接入阅读器的标签进入开放状态后,阅读器对标签进行操作,包含读子操作和写子操作、“杀死”子操作;阅读器可以选择对标签的操作方式:如果阅读器选择读操作,首先发送指令,标签对指令进行验证后,转入读状态,之后阅读器对标签进行读操作;这里读操作可以是多个不同读操作,通过读指令中不同权限的密钥区别,标签验证指令后,向阅读器发送阅读器需求的信息;如果阅读器选择写操作,首先发送指令,标签对指令进行验证后,转入写状 After the operation is to authenticate the tag, the authentication is passed, sending commands to the tags with a key, requesting an authentication tag, the tag in this case the authentication state, the tag reader receives the authentication request command, to that performs authentication, by the label into the open state; when no authentication between the reader and the tag, this step is omitted, directly to the sixth step from the fourth step, and the label directly into the open state; a sixth step , when the access tag reader into the open state, operating the tag reader, comprising a read and write the sub-sub-operations, to "kill" the sub operation; reader may select the operation mode of the tag: If the selected reader after the read operation, first sends an instruction, instruction tags to verify, read into the state, after the tag reader read operation; where the read operation may be a plurality of different read operations, the read command key distinguished by different privileges, after verification command tag, the reader needs to send information to the reader; if the reader write operation is selected, first sends an instruction, instruction tags to verify, write into shape 态,之后阅读器对标签进行写操作,这里写操作可以是多个不同的写操作,通过写指令中不同权限的密钥区别;当阅读器选择对标签进行“杀死”操作时,阅读器发送带有密钥的指令,标签对指令进行验证后,转入杀死状态。 State, then the tag reader write operation, the write operation may be where a plurality of different write operation by the write permission instruction key distinguish different; and when the selection of the tag reader to "kill" operation, the reader transmission instruction with the private key, validate the label instructions, into the state of kill.
  2. 2、 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征是上述第三步中阅读器对所选标签进行查询操作时,通过指令对所选标签进行初始化,并发起清点, 清点是指从选择标签到对标签的操作结束的整个过程。 2. The method according to claim 1, wherein said third step when the reader queries the tag of the selected operation, the selected tag by the initialization command, and initiates an inventory, the inventory means to select the label from the operation of the tag end of the whole process.
  3. 3、 根据权利要求l所述的方法,其特征是上述第五步中在鉴权成功时,阅读器首先读取标签的唯一标识码,作为标签的身份标识。 3. The method as claimed in claim l, wherein the unique identification code at the fifth step, the above authentication is successful, the reader first reads a tag, as the identity tag.
  4. 4、 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征是上述第六步中标签在开放状态下,根据阅读器的不同操作指令,选择进入标签的读状态、写状态或杀死状态,除断电的情况,处于读状态和写状态的标签可以通过阅读器指令返回开放状态或直接进入杀死状态。 4. The method of claim 1, wherein said sixth step, the label in an open state, depending on the operation command of the reader, enters the selected tag read state, the state of the write state or killed, in addition to off the labels are read and write states can return to the open state by reading the instructions, or enter directly kill the state.
  5. 5、 根据权利要求1或4所述的方法,其特征是标签在杀死状态下不能再向其它任何状态转移。 5. The method as claimed in claim 1 or claim 4, characterized in that a state can no longer transfer any other state under the label killed.
  6. 6、 根据权利要求l所述的方法,其特征是标签处在任何一个状态下, 当断电后,必须从就绪状态重新开始。 6. A method as claimed in claim l, characterized in that a tag in any state, when the power failure, must start from a ready state.
  7. 7、 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征是当标签在仲裁、鉴权和开放状态下出现错误时,自动转入就绪状态;当标签在读、写和杀死状态下出现错误时,自动转入开放状态。 7. The method of claim 1, wherein when an error occurs in the tag arbitration, and authentication open state into ready state automatically; when an error occurs in the label reading, writing and killed, and the automatic into the open.
CN 200610087226 2006-06-13 2006-06-13 Communication method for reader and tag in RFID system CN100501758C (en)

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