CN100476475C - Producing method for multiple cascade fibre-optical raster - Google Patents

Producing method for multiple cascade fibre-optical raster Download PDF

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CN100476475C
CN100476475C CN 03138361 CN03138361A CN100476475C CN 100476475 C CN100476475 C CN 100476475C CN 03138361 CN03138361 CN 03138361 CN 03138361 A CN03138361 A CN 03138361A CN 100476475 C CN100476475 C CN 100476475C
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optical
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cascade
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CN1553238A (en )
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戴恩光
王德翔
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北京大学
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本发明涉及一种多个级联光纤光栅的制作方法,其利用光纤包层直径不同,光纤在轴向应力的作用下应变量不同的原理,首先将光纤包层腐蚀成阶梯状变化的多段,然后对光纤施加轴向应力,采用普通光纤光栅的制作方法,用紫外光源对光纤进行照射制作光栅,从而使轴向应力撤除后,在同一光纤上形成了多个周期不同的光栅端,而且各级联光纤光栅之间的连接光滑,无缝隙。 The present invention relates to a method of making a plurality of cascaded optical fiber grating, utilizing the fiber cladding of different diameters, different optical fibers under the effect of axial stress strain principle, the fiber cladding is first etched in a multistage stepped change, axial stress is then applied to the optical fiber using an ordinary method for fabricating an optical fiber grating, the optical fiber is irradiated with ultraviolet light source making a grating, so that the axial stress is removed, the formation of a plurality of different grating periods on the same end of the optical fiber, and each of the connection between the cascaded fiber grating smooth and seamless. 本发明方法实施简便、无需特殊设备和工艺,使用普通模板就可以实现,各个光纤光栅中心波长的间隔可以方便地控制,制作成本和制作难度都大幅度降低,本发明可以广泛用于光纤通信和光纤传感领域。 The method of the present invention is simple, no special equipment and technology, can be achieved using the Normal template, each spacer fiber grating center wavelength can be easily controlled, production costs are significantly reduced, and the difficulty of making, the present invention can be widely used in optical communication and optical fiber sensing field.

Description

多个级联光纤光栅的制作方法技术领域本发明涉及一种光纤通信和光纤传感领域中使用的光器件的制作方法,特别是关于一种多个级联光纤光栅的制作方法。 A plurality of cascaded fiber grating manufacturing method Technical Field The present invention relates to a method for manufacturing an optical fiber communication device and the optical fiber sensor used in the art, particularly with respect to a plurality of one method for fabricating fiber gratings cascaded. 背景技术光纤光栅是一种直接制作在光纤纤芯中的光器件,由于它具有与光纤连接容易、插入损耗小、对偏振不敏感、体积小结构紧凑、成本低以及制作简单等显著优点,因此从上世纪九十年代以来一直是光通信领域研究的热点。 An optical fiber grating is an optical device fabricated directly in the fiber core, since it is easy to connect the optical fiber having a low insertion loss, low polarization sensitivity, small compact structure, low production cost and simple and other significant advantages, since the nineties of the last century has been a hot research field of optical communications. 目前不论光纤光栅的分析理论还是制作的工艺和技术都已经相当成熟,人们可以根据要求制作出各种不同的光纤光栅,比如各种切趾光纤光栅、啁啾光纤光栅、抽样光纤光栅等。 Regardless of the current theory of the fiber grating or the production processes and technologies are already quite mature, it can produce a variety of different fiber grating according to the requirements, such as various apodized fiber grating, chirped fiber grating, the fiber grating sampling. 随着密集波分复用技术在光纤通信领域的广泛使用,光网络正朝着大容量、长距离、智能化和全光网的方向飞速发展。 As dense wavelength division multiplexing technology is widely used in the field of optical communications, optical networks are rapidly moving in the direction of large-capacity, long-distance, all-optical networks and intelligent. 当前大量需要性能价格比高的光滤波器和色散补偿器,而均匀光纤光栅和啁啾光纤光栅正好可以满足这种需求。 The current high cost performance requires a large number of optical filters and dispersion compensators, uniform fiber grating and chirped fiber gratings just to meet this demand. 同时,由于光纤光栅对一些环境参量比较敏感(如温度、轴向应变和侧向应力等),所以光纤光栅在传感领域也得到了广泛的应用。 Meanwhile, since the optical fiber grating is sensitive to a number of environmental parameters (such as temperature, strain axial and lateral stress, etc.), so that the FBG sensor field has been widely used. 综上所述,可以看出光纤光栅已经成为了光纤通信和光纤传感领域中的一个非常重要的光器件。 In summary, it can be seen FBG has become a very important means of optical fiber communication and optical fiber sensing field. 在很多实际应用中,比如制作多波长光纤激光器、对多个信道进行滤波或对多个信道进行色散补偿,往往需要多个光纤光栅。 In many practical applications, such as production of multiple wavelength fiber lasers, a plurality of channels or a plurality of filter channels dispersion compensation, often require a plurality of fiber gratings. 目前,主要有两种方法来满足这种需要: 一是将多个光纤光栅级联起来使用;二是采用抽样光纤光栅。 Currently, there are two main ways to satisfy this need: First, using a plurality of fiber gratings cascaded together; two sampled fiber grating is employed. 第一种方案的缺点是显而易见的,多个光纤光栅级联使用不仅提高了成本、增大了插入损耗、增加了操作的复杂性,而且由于各个光纤光栅的参数差异,比如插入损耗、带内反射率、反射带宽等,将会使整个级联器件的性能恶化。 Disadvantage of the first embodiment will be apparent, a plurality of fiber gratings cascaded only increases the cost, the insertion loss is increased, increasing the complexity of the operation, but since the parameters between the respective fiber gratings, such as insertion loss and inband reflectivity, reflection bandwidth, etc., will deteriorate the performance of the whole cascaded device. 第二种方案可以方便地同时制作多个光纤光栅,但是它需要特殊的模板,如正负掩模板,另外由于采用了抽样的方法所以光纤利用率降低。 The second embodiment can easily produce multiple fiber gratings, but it requires special templates, such as the negative mask, thanks to the additional sampling method so reduced fiber utilization. 发明内容针对上述问题,本发明的目的是提供一种可以实现无缝级联,且不会引入附加插入损耗的多个级联光纤光栅的制作方法。 SUMMARY In view of the above problems, an object of the present invention is to provide a seamless concatenation, and the method for fabricating a plurality of cascaded without introducing additional fiber gratings insertion loss. 为实现上述目的,本发明采用的技术方案是: 一种多个级联光纤光栅的制作方法,其特征在于:将光敏光纤的包层通过包层腐蚀技术腐蚀成直径呈阶梯状变化的多段,在采用紫外光源对光敏光纤照射制作多个级联的光纤光栅过程中,对光敏光03138361.0说明书第2/3页纤施加轴向拉应力。 To achieve the above object, the technical solution of the present invention is that: a plurality of one method for fabricating fiber gratings cascaded, wherein: the photosensitive optical fiber cladding by a cladding diameter was etched in etching technique multistage stepped change, in the production of the photosensitive ultraviolet light source using a plurality of cascaded optical fiber grating irradiation process, light is applied to the photosensitive axially 2/3 specification No. 03138361.0 fiber tensile stress. 在采用紫外光源对光纤照射制作多个级联的光纤光栅过程中,使用相位模板方法。 In the process using the ultraviolet light source to a plurality of cascaded optical fiber grating illumination produced using phase mask method. 在采用紫外光源对光纤照射制作多个级联的光纤光栅过程中,使用逐点写入法。 In the ultraviolet light source using a plurality of cascaded optical fiber grating produced during the irradiation, using the writing method, point by point. 在采用紫外光源对光纤照射制作多个级联的光纤光栅过程中,使用双光束干涉?去。 In the ultraviolet light source using a plurality of cascaded optical fiber grating produced during the irradiation, using the two-beam interference? Go. 紫外光源包括100nm〜500nm紫外光波段的所有光源。 All the ultraviolet light source comprises a source of ultraviolet light, 100nm~500nm. 所述光敏光纤为所述光纤自身具有光敏性的光纤。 The photosensitive optical fiber as the optical fiber itself has photosensitivity of an optical fiber. 所述光敏光纤为所述光纤自身不具有光敏性或光敏性较弱,通过增强光敏性的方法得到的光纤。 The photosensitive optical fiber as the optical fiber itself does not have photosensitivity or less photosensitivity, the fiber obtained by the method of enhancing the photosensitivity. 本发明由于采取以上设计,其具有以下优点:1、本发明利用包层直径不同, 光纤在轴向应力的作用下应变量不同的原理,首先将光纤包层腐蚀成阶梯状变化的多段,然后对光纤施加轴向应力,釆用普通光纤光栅的制作方法,用紫外光源对光纤进行照射制作光栅,从而使轴向应力撤除后,在同一光纤上形成周期不同的多个光栅段,达到了在同一光纤上制成多个级联光纤光栅的目的,而且各级联之间的连接光滑,无缝隙,各个光纤光栅的参数好,如调制深度、带内反射率、时延特性等, 性能理想。 The present invention As a result of the above design, which has the following advantages: 1, the present invention utilizes the cladding of different diameters, different optical fibers under the effect of axial stress strain principle is first fiber cladding etched in a multistage stepped change, then applying an axial stress on the optical fiber, preclude the use of an ordinary method for fabricating an optical fiber grating, an optical fiber with the ultraviolet light source is irradiated to create a grating, so that after the removal of the axial stress, a plurality of different periodic grating sections formed on the same fiber, achieved in object of the plurality of cascaded fiber gratings formed on the same fiber, and the connection between the levels associated smooth, seamless, good individual fiber grating parameters such as modulation depth, in-band reflectivity, delay characteristics, performance over the . 2、本发明方法实施简便、控制容易、无需特殊设备和工艺,而且各个光纤光栅中心波长的间隔可以通过包层直径方便地控制,其与抽样光纤光栅的制作方法相比,使用普通模板就可以达到目的,其制作成本和制作难度都大幅度降低, 本发明可以广泛用于光纤通信和光纤传感领域。 2, the method of the present invention is simple, easy to control, no special equipment and technology, and the respective center wavelength of the fiber grating spacing can be easily controlled by cladding diameter, as compared with the method for fabricating fiber gratings sample, the template can use ordinary purpose, its production costs are significantly reduced and production difficulty, the present invention can be widely used in the field of optical fiber communications and fiber sensors. 附图说明图1是本发明处理后的光纤包层纵剖面示意图图2是本发明制作多个级联的光纤光栅过程中光纤受力示意图具体实施方式如图1所示,本发明首先通过光纤包层腐蚀技术,将光纤1的包层2腐蚀成直径不同的多段。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a fiber cladding of the present invention, the process 2 is a longitudinal sectional schematic view of a plurality of cascaded optical fiber grating made according to the present invention, the force during the fiber 1 shows a specific embodiment, the present invention firstly through the optical fiber cladding etching techniques, the cladding layer 2 of the optical fiber 1 into the corrosion multistage different diameters. 其中,每段长度和包层直径将根据相位模板的长度、需要的光纤光栅个数和所要求的各个光纤光栅中心波长的间隔来共同决定。 Wherein each length, and the length of the cladding diameter of the phase plate, the number of required fiber grating FBG and the respective center wavelength spacing required to jointly decide. 然后,如图2所示,将光纤1两端用光纤夹紧装置3固定住,注意将经过包层腐蚀处理成多段的光纤1部分置于两个夹紧装置3之间,使其位于可被紫外光源4 照射到的区域,并对光纤1施加适当的轴向拉伸应力。 Then, as shown in FIG. 2, the ends of the fiber with a fiber clamping device 3 is fixed, note that the optical fiber through the cladding etching section into a plurality of pieces placed between two clamping means 3, it can be located ultraviolet light source 4 is irradiated to the region, the optical fiber 1 and applying appropriate axial tensile stress. 由于包层2直径不同的各段, 截面积也不相同,因此在相同拉伸应力的作用下各段的伸张量也是不同的。 Due to the different segments, the cross-sectional area of ​​the cladding layer 2 is not the same diameter, and therefore the same tensile stress under the effect of the amount of elongation of each segment is different. 接着,用紫外光源4照射制作光纤光栅的相位模板5,就会在被照射的光纤l 上制成一个光栅周期相同的光纤光栅。 Next, the ultraviolet light source 4 phase plate 5 made of fiber gratings is irradiated, a will be made of the same grating period fiber grating in the optical fiber is irradiated l. 将光纤1从夹紧装置3上取下后,光纤1将会收缩回复到施加应力前的状态。 After the optical fiber 1 is removed from the clamping device 3, a fiber will shrink to return to the state before the application of stress. 由于包层2直径不同的各段伸张量不同,所以相应各段的收縮量也就不同,这样就使得在拉伸应力作用下各段相同的光栅周期变得不再相同,其具体大小与相应的包层直径相关,直径越细,伸张量越大,收縮后光栅周期越短,反之越长。 2 due to the different amounts of different diameters done cladding segments, the corresponding segments of the amount of shrinkage is different, so that the tensile stress in the respective segments of the same grating period is no longer the same, and the specific size corresponding to related to the diameter of the cladding, the small diameter, the larger the amount of elongation, after shrinking the shorter the grating period, the longer and vice versa. 包层2直径不同的各段每段都相当于一个光纤光栅,经过退火处理后,这些包层2直径不同的多段就形成了多个级联的光纤光栅。 Cladding layer 2 of different diameters segments with each segment corresponding to a grating, after the annealing treatment, two different diameters of these multi-clad fiber grating is formed of a plurality of cascaded. 而且这些光纤光栅是无缝级联的,其不同于普通多个光纤光栅级联在一起,因为应力的变化是连续的,而不会随着阶梯状的包层形成阶梯状的变化,从而各级联之间光纤光栅周期的变化也是连续的。 And these fiber gratings are cascaded seamless, which is different from ordinary plurality of fiber gratings are cascaded together, since the stress change is continuous, and stepped change is not formed with a stepped cladding layer, whereby each of the fiber grating period changes between successive cascade also. 上述实施例中,从理论上说,施加在光纤l轴向拉应力也可以是压应力,但是其实现起来有一定难度, 一般采用轴向拉应力比较现实。 The above-described embodiment, theoretically, the tensile stress applied to the optical fiber may be l axial compressive stress, but to achieve certain degree of difficulty, the general axial tensile stress more realistic. 上述实施例中,紫外光源4包括100nm〜500nm紫外光波段的所有光源,在用紫外光源4照射制作光纤光栅的方法中,除使用相位模板法外,还可以采用双光束干涉法、逐点写入法等。 The above-described embodiment, the ultraviolet light source 4 include all 100nm~500nm ultraviolet light wavelength band, in the method of manufacturing an optical fiber grating is irradiated with the ultraviolet light source 4, except that the template phase method, but also two-beam interference method may be employed, point by point writing into law. 光纤1采用光敏光纤,而光敏光纤包括在制作光纤过程中使其自身具有光敏性的光纤,也包括在制作光纤过程中不具有或具有很弱光敏性的光纤,这些光纤可以通过增强光敏性的方法(如载氢处理),使其成为具有较大光敏性的光纤。 Photosensitive optical fiber using the optical fiber 1, the optical fiber comprises a photosensitive optical fiber so that it itself has photosensitivity in the production process of the fiber, but also has no or weak photosensitivity optical fiber in the production process, these fibers can be enhanced photosensitivity the method (e.g., the hydrogen treatment is contained), making the fiber having a greater photosensitivity. 上述实施例中,包层的腐蚀方法、通过紫外光源照射制作光纤光栅的方法、光纤增强光敏的方法均为成熟技术,在此就不再详述。 The above-described embodiment, etching the cladding, the method of manufacturing the fiber grating by irradiating ultraviolet light source, an optical fiber method are amplified photosensitive mature technology, it is not described in detail here. 5 5

Claims (7)

  1. 1、一种多个级联光纤光栅的制作方法,其特征在于:将光敏光纤的包层通过包层腐蚀技术腐蚀成直径呈阶梯状变化的多段,在采用紫外光源对光敏光纤照射制作多个级联的光纤光栅过程中,对光敏光纤施加轴向拉应力。 1, a plurality of one method for fabricating fiber gratings cascaded, wherein: the photosensitive optical fiber cladding by a cladding diameter was etched in etching technique multistage stepped change in the production of a plurality of ultraviolet light source is irradiated on the photosensitive optical fiber using process cascaded fiber grating, the photosensitive optical fiber for applying axial tensile stress.
  2. 2、 如权利要求1所述的多个级联光纤光栅的制作方法,其特征在于:在采用紫外光源对光纤照射制作多个级联的光纤光栅过程中,使用相位模板方法。 2. The manufacturing method of claim 1, the plurality of the cascaded fiber gratings, characterized in that: the ultraviolet light source using a plurality of cascaded optical fiber grating produced during the irradiation, using the phase mask method.
  3. 3、 如权利要求l所述的多个级联光纤光栅的制作方法,其特征在于:在采用紫外光源对光纤照射制作多个级联的光纤光栅过程中,使用逐点写入法。 3. A method for fabricating a plurality of cascaded fiber gratings according to claim l, wherein: the ultraviolet light source using a plurality of cascaded optical fiber grating produced during the irradiation, using the writing method, point by point.
  4. 4、 如权利要求l所述的多个级联光纤光栅的制作方法,其特征在于:在采用紫外光源对光纤照射制作多个级联的光纤光栅过程中,使用双光束千涉法。 4. A method for fabricating a plurality of cascaded optical fiber grating according to claim l, wherein: the ultraviolet light source using a plurality of cascaded optical fiber grating produced during the irradiation, using a double beam method intervention.
  5. 5、 如权利要求1或2或3或4所述的多个级联光纤光栅的制作方法,其特征在于:紫外光源包括100nm〜500nm紫外光波段的所有光源。 5. The manufacturing method of claim 1 or 2 or 3 or 4, wherein the plurality of cascaded fiber gratings claim, wherein: the ultraviolet light source comprises a light source 100nm~500nm all UV bands.
  6. 6、 如权利要求5所述的多个级联光纤光栅的制作方法,其特征在于:所述光敏光纤为所述光纤自身具有光敏性的光纤。 6. The method as defined in the plurality of cascaded optical fiber grating according to claim 5, wherein: said photosensitive optical fiber as the optical fiber itself has photosensitivity of an optical fiber.
  7. 7、 如权利要求5所述的多个级联光纤光栅的制作方法,其特征在于:所述光敏光纤为所述光纤自身不具有光敏性或光敏性较弱,通过增强光敏性的方法得到的光纤。 7, a plurality of cascaded as claimed in the method of manufacturing an optical fiber grating 5, characterized in that: said photosensitive optical fiber as the optical fiber itself does not have photosensitivity or weak photosensitivity, obtained by the method of enhancing the photosensitivity optical fiber.
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CN1328648A (en) 1998-08-19 2001-12-26 三星电子株式会社 Apparatus for manufacturing long-period fiber gratings and apparatus for manufacturing two-band long-period fiber grating using the same
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用布拉格光纤栅制作啁啾光纤光栅. 韦占雄,秦莉,韦欣,王庆亚,郑伟,张玉书.光学学报,第19卷第11期. 1999

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