CN100404444C - Method for decreasing sewage sludge from town and changing it to resources - Google Patents

Method for decreasing sewage sludge from town and changing it to resources Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100404444C
CN100404444C CNB2006101127908A CN200610112790A CN100404444C CN 100404444 C CN100404444 C CN 100404444C CN B2006101127908 A CNB2006101127908 A CN B2006101127908A CN 200610112790 A CN200610112790 A CN 200610112790A CN 100404444 C CN100404444 C CN 100404444C
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mud
sludge
minimizing
humic acid
organic
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CN1915868A (en
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聂永丰
王志玉
金宜英
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Tsinghua University
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Tsinghua University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/20Sludge processing

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  • Fertilizers (AREA)
  • Treatment Of Sludge (AREA)

Abstract

This invention discloses a method for treating sludge in city wastewater. The method comprises: (1) pulverizing sludge by ultrasonication so that large quantities of organic matters enter into the liquid; (2) treating the sludge by anaerobic/aerobic biodigestion to obtain organic macromolecular matters; (3) treating by anaerobic biodigestion to convert the majority of the organic matters into methane for utilization; (4) purifying the small molecular organic matters by aerobic biodigestion to obtain humic acid in the supernatant; (5) separating and recovering humic acid by membrane separation technique so that the output water satisfies state wastewater discharge standards. The obtained humic acid can be used as an organic liquid fertilizer. The method can be used to treat primary-precipitation sludge, residual active sludge, humic acid sludge and mixed sludge produced by city wastewater treatment plants. The obtained organic liquid fertilizer is safe and reliable.

Description

The minimizing of treatment of town sewage and sludge, method of resource
Technical field
The invention belongs to solid waste disposal, disposal technology field, be specifically related to a kind of minimizing, method of resource of treatment of town sewage and sludge.
Background technology
At present China's town sewage processing rate is 42%, and the quantity discharged in sewage sludge every year is approximately 1,300,000 tons (dry weights), and annual growth is greater than 10%.If town sewage all obtains handling, then produce sludge quantity per year and will reach 8,400,000 tons (dry weights), account for 3.2% of China's total solids waste.Mud also contains poisonous, objectionable impuritiess such as a large amount of germs, parasite, heavy metal except that containing ash content, organic matter, deal with improperly and very easily cause serious secondary pollution.Therefore, the outlet that solves a large amount of treatment of town sewage and sludge is to seek the method that makes sewage sludge decrement and resource utilization.
Contain great number of organic matters in the mud, its composition and content are different because of the source of sewage, treatment process, city resident's standard of living and dietary structure.Organic matter comprises easy decomposing organic matter and hardly degraded organic substance in the mud, easily decomposing organic matter comprises protein (about 46-52%), carbohydrate (about 7%), uric acid and nucleic acid etc., and they are effectively removed from mud is the effective way that makes sludge reduction; The overwhelming majority of hardly degraded organic substance is humic acid (about 18-23%) in the mud, comprises fulvic acid and humic acid, but is the main component of resource utilization in the mud.
At present make the means of sludge reduction mainly comprise physical method, chemical process and biochemical method both at home and abroad.Physical method comprises: steam heating, ultrasonic disintegration method etc.Independent physical method only can play the effect of fracturing cell walls, and is used in the mud subsequent treatment process more.Chemical process comprises: oxidation technology, uncoupling, high-solubility oxygen etc.Chemical process still is in the laboratory study stage mostly, also has a segment distance from industrial applications.Biological method comprises: technology such as biomembrance process, biological reinforced, mud control in age, membrane bioreactor, aerobic/anaerobic bio-digestion, microorganism predation.Bioprocess technology can realize that substantially not having mud effluxes, and effluent quality is unaffected substantially, also can realize industrial applications.Therefore physical method and biological method are combined, mud decrement is had better effect.
At present, China is also lower to the recycling rate of treatment of town sewage and sludge, and only be confined to compost, methods such as direct soil utilization and building materials utilization, but all there is certain drawback in these methods: traditional composting process is because floor space is big, cycle is long, the fertilizer poor quality, easily produce stink etc. and be eliminated gradually, new composting process is because power ventilation, facility investments such as high-temperature aerobic fermentation are higher, therefore only in the U.S., Japan, developed countries such as Europe are well used, and China is owing to often sneak into industrial sewage in the sanitary sewage, heavy metal content in the mud is higher usually, and heavy metals exceeding standard has further limited its application in the fertilizer of composting; There is the quick decomposition of heavy metal, pathogenic agent, NP surplus and mud in mud direct soil utilization and the oxygen deficient atmospheres and the odor pollution that produce equally, in recent years, along with mud agricultural standards (particularly synthesis of organic substance and heavy metal etc.) increasingly stringent, many countries, as Germany, Italy, Denmark etc., the agricultural ratio of mud constantly reduces; The building materials utilization of mud, owing to contain organic matter in the mud, the performance of the haydite that loss on ignition ambassador burns out etc. is not up to standard, has limited the blending amount of mud, makes the sludge building material utilization also be in the stage of research and trial mostly at China and western developed country.
Summary of the invention
More than each recycling sludge method all have different drawbacks, their application have in practice been limited, the object of the present invention is to provide a kind of method of new treatment of town sewage and sludge resource utilization, physics and biological synthesis means in conjunction with sludge reduction make mud obtain the utilization of resource utilization in minimizing.
The purpose of this invention is to provide the treatment process of a kind of treatment of town sewage and sludge minimizing, resource utilization, specifically comprise the steps:
1. with ultrasonication town sewage, mud, utilize its ultrasonic disintegration effect that mud is disintegrated, great number of organic matters enters in the liquid, reduce suspended solid (SS) in the mud thus make mud decrement.
2. in conjunction with anaerobic digestion and aerobic bio-digestion technology, obtain the macromole organic matter when making the further minimizing of mud, most of organic matter transformation is a biogas after anaerobic digestion, and the small molecules organic matter is further purified by aerobic sigestion, and residual organic is a humic acid in the supernatant liquor.
3. by membrane separation process and vapo(u)rization system, separate, humic acid in the concentrated supernatant, water outlet simultaneously reaches state sewage emission standard.
Described first step is to use the ultrasonication treatment of town sewage and sludge, and frequency of ultrasonic is 20-100KHz, and power is 10-100W, and temperature is controlled at 10-100 ℃, and the ultrasonication time is 10-40min, and the water ratio of mud is not less than 95% usually.In this step, utilize its ultrasonic disintegration effect that mud is disintegrated, great number of organic matters enters in the liquid, reduces the content of suspended solid (SS) in the mud, thereby reaches mud decrement.
Described second step is that the sludge slurry after the ultrasonication at first enters anaerobic digester system, the additional carbon of anti-digestion is according to CODcr: nitrogen: phosphorus=200-100: 10-5: 1 ratio is added, the Controlling System temperature is at 30-36 ℃, and hydraulic detention time was at least 24 hours.In this step, most organic matter transformation is that methane recovery is made the energy in the mud.Enter the aerobic sigestion system then, dissolved oxygen (DO) is greater than 5mg/L, and hydraulic detention time was at least 24 hours.In this step, the small molecules organic matter is further purified by aerobic sigestion.Through anaerobic digestion and aerobic digestive process, can make that organic content obviously reduces in the mud, thereby reach mud decrement; Residual organic is a humic acid in the final supernatant liquor, and its concentration>90% helps further to its resource utilization.
Described third step is that the supernatant liquor that second step obtains is entered into ultrafiltration system, carries out membrane sepn, and operating pressure difference is 0.3-0.5MPa, and cycles of concentration is 5-10 times, and the relative molecular weight of holding back of used film is 500-5000.In ultrafiltration system, humic acid is separated, concentrated in the supernatant liquor; In this supernatant liquor, it is many that the content in the relative mud of heavy metal content will lack, and passes through ultrafiltration system again, and the heavy metal of ionic state is filtered, and therefore the heavy metal content in the humic acid liquid fertilizer that finally obtains is extremely low.Through evaporation concentration, cycles of concentration 5-10 doubly reclaims and obtains humic acid liquid fertilizer, meets national Ministry of Agriculture fertilizer usage criteria again, and water outlet simultaneously can reach state sewage emission standard.
Advantage of the present invention: 1, treatment of town sewage and sludge " ultrasonic disintegration and bio-digestion " combines, and is that physics decrement method and the biological decrement method with mud combines, and performance advantage separately makes the decrement effect more obvious.2, mud being carried out anaerobic digestion, and the biogas that produces in its process is used, is the important method that recycling sludge utilizes.3, after " bio-digestion " of mud, refractory organic contained in its supernatant liquor is based on humic acid, bigger according to its molecular weight, select the nanofiltration technique of technical feasibility, economical rationality to separate concentrated, mud is turned waste into wealth, obtain product---humic acid organic liquid fertilizer, so both the supernatant liquor behind the sludge reduction had been carried out recycling, but made the supernatant liquor qualified discharge again.4, present method practicality, advanced person, flow process is simple, takes up an area of fewly, and non-secondary pollution moves easyly, reliable, has tangible environmental benefit, social benefit and economic benefit.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is the processing flow chart of treatment of town sewage and sludge minimizing, resource utilization.
Embodiment
The invention provides the treatment process of a kind of treatment of town sewage and sludge minimizing, resource utilization, specifically comprise the steps (as shown in Figure 1):
First step is to use the ultrasonication treatment of town sewage and sludge, and frequency of ultrasonic is 20-100KHz, and power is 10-100W, and temperature is controlled at 10-100 ℃, and the ultrasonication time is 10-40min, and the water ratio of mud is not less than 95% usually.In this step, utilize its ultrasonic disintegration effect that mud is disintegrated, great number of organic matters enters in the liquid, reduces the content of suspended solid (SS) in the mud, thereby makes mud decrement.
Second step is that the sludge slurry after the ultrasonication at first enters anaerobic digester system, the additional carbon of anti-digestion is according to CODcr: nitrogen: phosphorus=200-100: 10-5: 1 ratio is added, the Controlling System temperature is at 30-36 ℃, and hydraulic detention time was at least 24 hours.In this step, most organic matter transformation is that methane recovery is made the energy in the mud.Enter the aerobic sigestion system then, dissolved oxygen (DO) is greater than 5mg/L, and hydraulic detention time was at least 24 hours.In this step, the small molecules organic matter is further purified by aerobic sigestion.Through the anaerobic and aerobic digestive processes, can make that organic content obviously reduces in the mud, thereby reach mud decrement; Residual organic is a humic acid in the final supernatant liquor, and its concentration>90% helps further to its resource utilization.
Third step is that the supernatant liquor that second step obtains is entered into ultrafiltration system, carries out membrane sepn, and operating pressure difference is 0.3-0.5MPa, and cycles of concentration is 5-10 times, and the relative molecular weight of holding back of used film is 500-5000.In ultrafiltration system, humic acid is separated, concentrated in the supernatant liquor; In this supernatant liquor, it is many that the content in the relative mud of heavy metal content will lack, and passes through ultrafiltration system again, and the heavy metal of ionic state is filtered, and therefore the heavy metal content in the humic acid liquid fertilizer that finally obtains is extremely low.Through evaporation concentration, cycles of concentration 5-10 doubly reclaims and obtains humic acid liquid fertilizer, meets national Ministry of Agriculture fertilizer usage criteria again, and water outlet simultaneously can reach state sewage emission standard.Exemplifying embodiment is below further specified.
Embodiment 1
The mixing sludge that certain urban wastewater treatment firm produces, its water content is 97.1%, and pH is 6.86, and TOC is 467.25mg/L, and specific conductivity is 2.05, and TS is 28.71g/L, and suspended solid SS is 28.26g/L, and VSS is 17.79g/L.
With the ultrasonication of 40KHz, power is 20W, and temperature is controlled at 80 ℃, and the ultrasonication time is 10min.Sludge slurry after the ultrasonication at first enters anaerobic digester system, and the additional carbon of anti-digestion is according to CODcr: nitrogen: the ratio of phosphorus=200: 5: 1 is added, and the Controlling System temperature is at 33 ℃, and hydraulic detention time is 24 hours, biogas generation 120-160mLCH 4/ gCOD.Enter the aerobic sigestion system then, dissolved oxygen (DO) is greater than 5mg/L, and hydraulic detention time is 24 hours.The clearance of VSS is 51.2%.With sludge slurry behind the bio-digestion centrifugal after, get its supernatant liquor and enter nanofiltration system, the relative molecular weight (MWCO) of holding back of nanofiltration membrane is 500-5000, operating pressure difference is 0.3-0.5MPa, cycles of concentration be 5-10 doubly.Obtain concentrated solution behind the membrane sepn, its TOC is 10000-20000mg/L, and color is dark red brown, shows to contain the very humic acid of high density.To its further evaporation concentration, TOC is greater than 8% (weight ratio) in the final concentrated solution after the evaporation (being organic liquid fertilizer), satisfy the content requirement of humic acid organic liquid fertilizer to organic carbon, heavy metal content is Cd≤0.01%, As≤0.002%, Pb≤O.002%, meet the national Ministry of Agriculture " fertilizer usage criteria ".It is transparent, colourless that film sees through liquid, reaches " urban wastewater treatment firm pollutant emission standard " first discharge standard.
Embodiment 2
The excess sludge that certain urban wastewater treatment firm produces, its water content is 96.7%, and pH is 6.65, and TOC is 681.61mg/L, and specific conductivity is 1.9, and TS is 34.15g/L, and suspended solid SS is 32.08g/L, and VSS is 17.56g/L.
With the ultrasonication of 60KHz, power is 40W, and temperature is controlled at 20 ℃, and the ultrasonication time is 10min.Sludge slurry after the ultrasonication at first enters anaerobic digester system, and the additional carbon of anti-digestion is according to CODcr: nitrogen: the ratio of phosphorus=180: 6: 1 is added, and the Controlling System temperature is at 36 ℃, and hydraulic detention time is 24 hours, biogas generation 180-210mLCH 4/ gCOD.Enter the aerobic sigestion system then, dissolved oxygen (DO) is greater than 5mg/L, and hydraulic detention time is 24 hours.The clearance of VSS is 53.8%.With sludge slurry behind the bio-digestion centrifugal after, get its supernatant liquor and enter nanofiltration system, the relative molecular weight (MWCO) of holding back of nanofiltration membrane is 500-5000, operating pressure difference is 0.3-0.5MPa, cycles of concentration be 5-10 doubly.Obtain concentrated solution behind the membrane sepn, its TOC is 12000-20000mg/L, and color is dark red brown, shows to contain the very humic acid of high density.To its further evaporation concentration, TOC is greater than 8% (weight ratio) in the final concentrated solution after the evaporation (being organic liquid fertilizer), satisfy the content requirement of humic acid organic liquid fertilizer to organic carbon, heavy metal content is Cd≤0.01%, As≤0.002%, Pb≤0.002% meets the national Ministry of Agriculture " fertilizer usage criteria ".It is transparent, colourless that film sees through liquid, reaches " urban wastewater treatment firm pollutant emission standard " first discharge standard.
Embodiment 3
The mixing sludge that certain urban wastewater treatment firm produces, its water content is 97.1%, and pH is 6.86, and TOC is 467.25mg/L, and specific conductivity is 2.05, and TS is 28.71g/L, and suspended solid SS is 28.26g/L, and VSS is 17.79g/L.
With the ultrasonication of 50KHz, power is 40W, and temperature is controlled at 70 ℃, and the ultrasonication time is 20min.Sludge slurry after the ultrasonication at first enters anaerobic digester system, and the additional carbon of anti-digestion is according to CODcr: nitrogen: the ratio of phosphorus=140: 7: 1 is added, and the Controlling System temperature is at 32 ℃, and hydraulic detention time is 24 hours, biogas generation 140-180mLCH 4/ gCOD.Enter the aerobic sigestion system then, dissolved oxygen (DO) is greater than 5mg/L, and hydraulic detention time is 24 hours.The clearance of VSS is 52.6%.With sludge slurry behind the bio-digestion centrifugal after, get its supernatant liquor and enter nanofiltration system, the relative molecular weight (MWCO) of holding back of nanofiltration membrane is 500-5000, operating pressure difference is 0.3-0.5MPa, cycles of concentration be 5-10 doubly.Obtain concentrated solution behind the membrane sepn, its TOC is 10000-20000mg/L, and color is dark red brown, shows to contain the very humic acid of high density.To its further evaporation concentration, TOC is greater than 8% (weight ratio) in the final concentrated solution after the evaporation (being organic liquid fertilizer), satisfy the content requirement of humic acid organic liquid fertilizer to organic carbon, heavy metal content is Cd≤0.01%, As≤0.002%, Pb≤0.002% meets the national Ministry of Agriculture " fertilizer usage criteria ".It is transparent, colourless that film sees through liquid, reaches " urban wastewater treatment firm pollutant emission standard " first discharge standard.
Embodiment 4
The excess sludge that certain urban wastewater treatment firm produces, its water content is 96.7%, and pH is 6.65, and TOC is 681.61mg/L, and specific conductivity is 1.9, and TS is 34.15g/L, and suspended solid SS is 32.08g/L, and VSS is 17.56g/L.
With the ultrasonication of 70KHz, power is 60W, and temperature is controlled at 50 ℃, and the ultrasonication time is 20min.Sludge slurry after the ultrasonication at first enters anaerobic digester system, and the additional carbon of anti-digestion is according to CODcr: nitrogen: the ratio of phosphorus=120: 9: 1 is added, and the Controlling System temperature is at 30 ℃, and hydraulic detention time is 24 hours, biogas generation 190-220mLCH 4/ gCOD.Enter the aerobic sigestion system then, dissolved oxygen (DO) is greater than 5mg/L, and hydraulic detention time is 24 hours.The clearance of VSS is 58.3%.With sludge slurry behind the bio-digestion centrifugal after, get its supernatant liquor and enter nanofiltration system, the relative molecular weight (MWCO) of holding back of nanofiltration membrane is 500-5000, operating pressure difference is 0.3-0.5MPa, cycles of concentration be 5-10 doubly.Obtain concentrated solution behind the membrane sepn, its TOC is 12000-20000mg/L, and color is dark red brown, shows to contain the very humic acid of high density.To its further evaporation concentration, TOC is greater than 8% (weight ratio) in the final concentrated solution after the evaporation (being organic liquid fertilizer), satisfy the content requirement of humic acid organic liquid fertilizer to organic carbon, heavy metal content is Cd≤0.01%, As≤0.002%, Pb≤0.002% meets the national Ministry of Agriculture " fertilizer usage criteria ".It is transparent, colourless that film sees through liquid, reaches " urban wastewater treatment firm pollutant emission standard " first discharge standard.

Claims (6)

1. the minimizing of treatment of town sewage and sludge, method of resource is characterized in that, this method includes the following step: use ultrasonication mud, utilize its ultrasonic disintegration effect that mud is disintegrated, great number of organic matters enters in the liquid, reduces consubstantiality suspended substance in the mud, thereby makes mud decrement; In conjunction with anaerobic digestion and aerobic digestion process, in the further minimizing of mud, obtain the macromole organic matter, organic matter transformation after anaerobic digestion is that biogas is used, and the small molecules organic matter is further purified by aerobic sigestion, and residual organic is a humic acid in the supernatant liquor; By membrane separation process and vapo(u)rization system, humic acid in separation, the concentrated supernatant, water outlet simultaneously reaches state sewage emission standard.
2. the minimizing of treatment of town sewage and sludge according to claim 1, method of resource, it is characterized in that: the sewage sludge of described minimizing, resource utilization is the various mud that produced after the town sewage plant sewage disposal.
3. the minimizing of treatment of town sewage and sludge according to claim 1, method of resource, it is characterized in that: the frequency of the ultrasonic generator of described ultrasonication mud is 20-100KHz, temperature is controlled at 10-100 ℃, power is 10-100W, the ultrasonication time is 10-40min, and the water ratio of mud is not less than 95%.
4. the minimizing of treatment of town sewage and sludge according to claim 1, method of resource, it is characterized in that: in the anaerobic digestion process of mud, hydraulic detention time was at least 24 hours, the additional carbon of anti-digestion is according to CODcr: nitrogen: phosphorus=200-100: 10-5: 1 ratio is added, the Controlling System temperature is at 30-36 ℃, hydraulic detention time in the aerobic sigestion process of mud was at least 24 hours, dissolved oxygen DO>5mg/L.
5. the minimizing of treatment of town sewage and sludge according to claim 1, method of resource, it is characterized in that: in membrane separation process, operating pressure difference is 0.3-0.5MPa, cycles of concentration be 5-10 doubly, the relative molecular weight of holding back of used film is 500-5000.
6. the minimizing of treatment of town sewage and sludge according to claim 1, method of resource is characterized in that: the evaporation concentration multiple be 5-10 doubly.
CNB2006101127908A 2006-09-01 2006-09-01 Method for decreasing sewage sludge from town and changing it to resources Expired - Fee Related CN100404444C (en)

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CN101391837B (en) * 2008-06-20 2010-09-01 哈尔滨工业大学水资源国家工程研究中心有限公司 Method for implementing sludge decrement by using municipal sewage pipe network
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