CN100376065C - Wind power generating system based on direct current generator - Google Patents

Wind power generating system based on direct current generator Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100376065C
CN100376065C CNB2006100882746A CN200610088274A CN100376065C CN 100376065 C CN100376065 C CN 100376065C CN B2006100882746 A CNB2006100882746 A CN B2006100882746A CN 200610088274 A CN200610088274 A CN 200610088274A CN 100376065 C CN100376065 C CN 100376065C
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China
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generator
wind
output
energy conversion
input
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Expired - Fee Related
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CNB2006100882746A
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CN1925254A (en
Inventor
马宏忠
鞠平
严惠敏
张利民
徐树峰
王宏华
韩敬东
丁媛媛
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Hohai University HHU
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Hohai University HHU
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/72Wind turbines with rotation axis in wind direction
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/70Wind energy
    • Y02E10/76Power conversion electric or electronic aspects

Abstract

This invention relates to wind power generation system based on direct current, which adopts wind machine to directly drive direct current motor to generate energy through IGBT converter into legal alternating electricity into electronic network. According to network, it can join buffer memory battery between direct motor output and IGBT inverter and through memory battery discharging to compensate wind speed within small range to ensure motor output power basic stability.

Description

Wind generator system based on DC generator
Technical field
What the present invention relates to is a kind of key technology of the wind generator system based on DC generator, belongs to electrical control engineering field.
Background technology
Along with development of human society, the energy and environmental problem become the very urgent problem that the survival and development of mankind nowadays society are faced, and will become the inexorable trend of future development based on the energy resource structure of cleaning, regenerative resource.Wind energy as a kind of cleaning, pollution-free, easily realize the regenerative resource of large-scale development just more and more being subjected to the generally attention of countries in the world, wind power generation will become one of new forms of energy of tool DEVELOPMENT PROSPECT of 21 century.Wind-driven generator is one of equipment most crucial in the wind generator system, and its normal operation is the important assurance of whole wind force generating system safety, reliable, high-quality, economical operation, also is to improve the wind power generation reliability, reduces the key factor of wind power cost.In recent years, under numerous scientific research personnel and engineers and technicians' joint efforts, wind turbine generator has developed into speed-changing oar-changing apart from type by initial fixed pitch type, generating efficiency has had significant raising, and the main flow unit that now main in the world wind-powered electricity generation unit manufacturer produces mostly is the speed-variable frequency-constant wind-driven generator group that adopts double-fed asynchronous generator.
Traditional relatively asynchronous generator, double-fed asynchronous generator has apparent in view advantage, but this wind turbine generator need be equipped with step-up gear, this has not only increased unit cost and running noises, has reduced the utilization ratio of wind energy, and the gear box phenomenon such as the higher particularly leakage of oil of failure rate that is in operation is comparatively serious, thereby increases maintenance workload and reduced the utilized hourage of unit; Control system based on the wind generator system of double fed asynchronous machine is quite complicated, and to its reliability requirement height, its cost is also very high.Asynchronous generator ubiquity reactive power problem in addition.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is the problems referred to above of existing at wind-driven generator, according to the characteristics of wind generator system, and in conjunction with the characteristic of DC generator, and the maturation of high power contravariant device, proposed based on the directly actuated wind generator system of DC generator.This system comprises variable pitch wind energy conversion system, DC generator (prior art), IGBT inverter (prior art) and control corresponding adjusting part that excitation is adjustable.
Technical solution of the present invention: it is characterized in that adopting wind energy conversion system directly to drive DC generator and produce direct current energy, DC generator output directly links to each other with the input of IGBT inverter, DC generator produces direct current energy and becomes the alternating current that meets national regulation by the IGBT inverter, this alternating current is connected to the grid through step-up transformer, described wind energy conversion system adopts the variable pitch wind energy conversion system of the adjustable angle of attack again; When macrocyclic variation takes place in wind speed, by the pulp distance varying mechanism action, change the angle of attack of pneumatic equipment blades made, guarantee the power output of DC generator; And when frequent variation in short-term takes place wind speed, make full use of the pressure regulating performance of DC generator, come the output end voltage of stable DC generator by the exciting current of regulating DC generator; The pitched by above-mentioned wind energy conversion system and the exciting current of DC generator are regulated and are cooperatively interacted, and realize output end voltage constant of DC generator.
The stream electricity is connected to the grid through step-up transformer.
The fast development of power electronic technology, the maturation of inversion transformation technique, and the shiploads of merchandise application of high power contravariant device, for the realization of patent of the present invention provides may.
Advantage of the present invention: 1. easy to adjust based on the wind generator system of DC generator, DC generator has good voltage-regulation characteristic, wind speed changes and causes that motor speed changes, and the exciting current of regulator generator can make the generator output voltage substantially constant.2. owing to adopt direct driving technologies, between wind energy conversion system and DC generator, do not need to install step-up gear, thereby reduced the running noises of unit, reduced maintenance workload, and when hanging down wind speed, have higher operational efficiency.3. because generator is output as direct current, therefore only need adopt the DC-AC inversion to incorporate system into by step-up transformer, the middle link that is incorporated into the power networks of AC-DC-AC of comparing traditional alternating current generator has been lacked the rectification link of previous stage AC-DC, not only save equipment investment, and improved operational reliability.4. according to the electrical network situation, can between the output of DC generator and IGBT inverter, insert buffer battery, compensate the fluctuation of wind speed among a small circle by charging and discharging of accumulator, guarantee the power output substantially constant of generator.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is an electric theory structure block diagram of the present invention
Fig. 2 system control principle block diagram
Fig. 3 is analogue system test connection figure of the present invention
Fig. 4 is for simulating the influence of wind speed variation to generator output voltage in the test
When Fig. 5 changed for generator loading in testing, the regulator generator exciting current can make output voltage constant
When Fig. 6 changed for simulating wind speed in the test, the regulator generator exciting current can make output voltage constant
Among the figure 1 is wind energy conversion system, the 2nd, and DC generator, the 3rd, the IGBT inverter, the 4th, step-up transformer, the 5th, electrical network, the 6th, power controller 7 is voltage controllers.The 8th, unit start and stop control unit, the 9th, become slurry apart from control unit, the 10th, become the slurry spacing mechanism, the 11st, the exciter current of generator control unit (among Fig. 2).
Embodiment
Contrast accompanying drawing 1, its structure is in this wind generator system, adopts wind energy conversion system directly to drive DC generator and produces direct current energy, becomes qualified alternating current by the IGBT inverter then, incorporates system into through step-up transformer.Annexation between them: wind energy conversion system 1 joins with the first input end of DC generator 2, the input of the output of DC generator 2 and IGBT inverter 3 joins, the input of the output of IGBT inverter 3 and step-up transformer 4 joins, the output of step-up transformer 4 links to each other with electrical network 5, the output of power controller 6 links to each other with the first input end of wind energy conversion system 1, and second input of the output of voltage controller 7 and DC generator 2 joins.
Described wind energy conversion system adopts the variable pitch wind energy conversion system of the adjustable angle of attack.When macrocyclic variation takes place in wind speed, by the pulp distance varying mechanism action, change the angle of attack of pneumatic equipment blades made, guarantee the power output of generator.And when frequent variation in short-term takes place wind speed, because pitched has lag time (particularly in the big wind energy conversion system of moment of inertia, hysteresis is more outstanding), can cause pitch frequently to be regulated significantly, the power output that causes generator is frequent fluctuation significantly, and electrical network is caused harmful effect.Because native system has adopted DC generator, therefore can make full use of the superior pressure regulating performance of DC generator in this case, come the output end voltage of stable generator by the exciting current of regulator generator.Like this, by cooperatively interacting that pitched and exciting current are regulated, just can be implemented in the stable control of the generator output voltage under the wind speed frequent variations situation.
Contrast accompanying drawing 2, main power section and Fig. 1 are basic identical, the output that is wind energy conversion system 1 directly links to each other with the input of DC generator 2, and the output of DC generator 2 links to each other with IGBT inverter 3 inputs, and the output of IGBT inverter 3 links to each other with the input of step-up transformer 4.The input of unit start and stop control unit 8 is controlled by wind speed and given wind speed limit value, and the output of unit start and stop control unit 8 and second input of wind energy conversion system 1 join; Controlled by wind speed, maximum power set-point and piston rod position, become the output of starching apart from control unit 9 and join by the 3rd input that becomes slurry spacing mechanism 10 and wind energy conversion system 1; The input of exciter current of generator control unit 11 is controlled by the output voltage of DC generator 2 and wind speed, and second input of the output of exciter current of generator control unit 11 and DC generator 2 joins.
The control mode that described wind turbine generator starts before being incorporated into the power networks belongs to rotating speed control, when rotating speed reaches the startup wind speed, wind energy conversion system begins to start, rising along with rotating speed, the pitch angle of pneumatic equipment blades made changes continuously, make the rotating speed of DC generator rise to the given rotating speed value, treat that DC generator satisfies when being incorporated into the power networks condition, the electric energy that DC generator is sent is connected to the grid through IGBT inverter, step-up transformer.
After DC generator was connected to the grid, the output voltage of DC generator was influenced by wind speed, when wind speed is low, the rotating speed of DC generator is also low, when wind speed is lower than rated wind speed,, make DC generator output voltage constant substantially by the exciting current of regulator generator.By pulp distance varying mechanism attack angle of blade is transferred to zero simultaneously, and remain near zero, so that absorb wind energy most effectively.
When wind speed surpassed rated wind speed, if wind speed continues to increase, the wind energy that wind energy conversion system absorbs constantly increased.Mechanical output output on the wind-force arbor is greater than the electrical power of generator output, then the rotating speed of DC generator rises, on the one hand, suitably regulate exciting current, DC generator output voltage is descended, simultaneously, by becoming slurry after controlling unit, rotating speed control output will make the pulp distance varying mechanism action, change the pneumatic equipment blades made angle of attack, to guarantee DC generator power output substantially constant, keep DC generator and under the rated power state, move (being no more than the maximum allowable power of generator).Soon could realize by exciting current controller realize the constant output of DC generator voltage far beyond wanting the operate time of pulp distance varying mechanism the operate time just because of the exciting current controlling unit.
The exciting current of regulating DC generator can not change the power output of DC generator.Therefore, big wind speed changes by changing the pneumatic equipment blades made angle of attack regulates the power that wind energy conversion system is drawn from wind, be that rated output power is constant substantially to guarantee DC generator; Little frequent fluctuations in wind speed is regulated by changing exciter current of generator, and the output electric energy fluctuates among a small circle, cushions (look the electrical network situation, generally have only the low capacity electrical network of less stable just need consider to select for use the storage battery buffering) by storage battery.When wind speed surpassed given wind speed higher limit nmax or be lower than given lower limit nmin, 8 actions of unit start and stop control unit made compressor emergency shutdown.
The frequency of system's output voltage is controlled by inverter, and inverter also has certain pressure stabilization function within the specific limits simultaneously, makes output voltage more stable.
Verification experimental verification
Contrast accompanying drawing 3, in order to verify feasibility of the present invention, the spy has built based on the directly actuated simulation wind generator system of DC generator, do the formation simulation wind generator system that is rigidly connected with Z2-41 type separate excitation DC generator and Z2-42 type DC motor, simulate wind energy conversion system with DC motor, simulate change of wind velocity by the rotating speed of regulating motor.Its major parameter is as follows: rated power: 2.2kW; Rated voltage: 220V; Rated speed: 1450r/m; Rated excitation voltage: 220V; Rated exciting current: 0.77A.
Under the situation of DC generator band rated load operation, the change curve of DC generation set end voltage is as shown in Figure 4 (among Fig. 4 when wind speed changes, abscissa is the motor speed relevant with wind speed, be wind energy conversion system rotating speed (per unit value), ordinate is a generator output voltage, the different different exciting current of curve representation among the figure), Fig. 4 has illustrated that the wind energy conversion system rotating speed increases, and the motor output voltage increases.
Wind generator system moves under different wind speed, when generator with load when changing, for the terminal voltage of keeping DC generator is a rated value, the required exciting current and the relation of load are as shown in Figure 5 (among Fig. 5, abscissa is motor load (per unit value), ordinate is the DC generator exciting current, the different different rotating speed of curve representation among the figure), this has illustrated the adjusting exciting current, can overcome because the output voltage instability that load variations causes makes DC generator output voltage constant.
Under the DC generator band unequally loaded situation, when wind speed changes, for keeping the DC generation set end voltage is rated value, relation curve between required exciting current and the wind energy conversion system rotating speed is as shown in Figure 6 (among Fig. 6, abscissa is the motor speed relevant with wind speed, be wind energy conversion system rotating speed (per unit value), ordinate is the excitation magnetoelectricity stream of generator, the different different load of curve representation among the figure).Fig. 6 and Fig. 4 explanation although the wind energy conversion system rotation speed change is very big to the DC generator output voltage influence, are promptly regulated exciting current, and it is constant to make output voltage maintain specified value.
Test shows, within the specific limits, for the voltage fluctuation that wind speed and load variations cause, can keep the output end voltage constant of DC generator easily by the exciting current of adjusting DC generator.

Claims (4)

1. based on the wind generator system of DC generator, it is characterized in that adopting wind energy conversion system directly to drive DC generator and produce direct current energy, DC generator output directly links to each other with the input of IGBT inverter, DC generator produces direct current energy and becomes the alternating current that meets national regulation by the IGBT inverter, this alternating current is connected to the grid through step-up transformer, described wind energy conversion system adopts the variable pitch wind energy conversion system of the adjustable angle of attack again; When macrocyclic variation takes place in wind speed, by the pulp distance varying mechanism action, change the angle of attack of pneumatic equipment blades made, guarantee that the power output of DC generator is constant; And when frequent variation in short-term takes place wind speed, make full use of the pressure regulating performance of DC generator, come the output end voltage of stable DC generator by the exciting current of regulating DC generator; The pitched by above-mentioned wind energy conversion system and the exciting current of DC generator are regulated and are cooperatively interacted, and realize output end voltage constant of DC generator.
2. the wind generator system based on DC generator according to claim 1, the first input end that it is characterized in that described wind energy conversion system and DC generator directly joins, the input of the output of DC generator and IGBT inverter joins, the output of IGBT inverter and the input of step-up transformer join, the output of step-up transformer links to each other with electrical network, the output of power controller links to each other with the first input end of wind energy conversion system, and second input of the output of voltage controller and DC generator joins.
3. the wind generator system based on DC generator according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the control mode that the DC generation unit starts before being incorporated into the power networks belongs to rotating speed control, when rotating speed reaches the startup wind speed, wind energy conversion system begins to start, along with the rising of rotating speed, the pitch angle of pneumatic equipment blades made changes continuously, makes the rotating speed of DC generator rise to the given rotating speed value, treat that DC generator satisfies when being incorporated into the power networks condition, the electric energy that DC generator is sent is connected to the grid through the IGBT inverter.
4. the wind generator system based on DC generator according to claim 1 is characterized in that the output of unit start and stop control unit and second input of wind energy conversion system join, and unit start and stop control unit is according to wind speed and given wind speed limit value control wind energy conversion system; Become the output of starching apart from control unit and join, become slurry and pass through to become slurry spacing mechanism control wind energy conversion system according to wind speed, maximum power set-point and piston rod position apart from control unit by the 3rd input that becomes slurry spacing mechanism and wind energy conversion system; Second input of the output of exciter current of generator control unit and DC generator joins, the exciter current of generator control unit is controlled the DC generator exciting current according to the output voltage and the wind speed of DC generator, thereby makes the output end voltage constant of DC generator.
CNB2006100882746A 2006-07-07 2006-07-07 Wind power generating system based on direct current generator Expired - Fee Related CN100376065C (en)

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CN102739084A (en) * 2011-04-12 2012-10-17 徐夫子 Electric-energy converted electric-power energy electricity symbiosis apparatus

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CN101871433B (en) * 2010-06-11 2012-07-11 哈尔滨工程大学 Variable-speed constant-frequency wind power generation device having energy storing device
CN101917014B (en) * 2010-08-20 2012-06-13 河海大学 Accumulator charging and discharging control method for smoothening power fluctuation of wind power station
CN102110990B (en) * 2011-02-28 2012-10-17 中南大学 Wind power generation system based on reverse loose matrix converter and method thereof

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