CN100352621C - Controller of robot for automatic polling high-voltage transmission line - Google Patents

Controller of robot for automatic polling high-voltage transmission line Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100352621C
CN100352621C CNB2004100710596A CN200410071059A CN100352621C CN 100352621 C CN100352621 C CN 100352621C CN B2004100710596 A CNB2004100710596 A CN B2004100710596A CN 200410071059 A CN200410071059 A CN 200410071059A CN 100352621 C CN100352621 C CN 100352621C
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robot
mouth
main frame
input buffer
automatic
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CNB2004100710596A
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CN1727129A (en
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梁自泽
谭民
李恩
熊晓明
张运楚
王吉岱
周凤余
叶文波
练波
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中国科学院自动化研究所
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Abstract

The present invention belongs to a controller of an automatic polling robot for a high-voltage transmission line, which relates to the technical field of robotics; the present invention is a control device containing a plurality of control units which are formed according to a hierarchical delamination control technique. Control tasks are reasonably divided to all the control units by the control device; all the control units communicate with each other through a wireless network or serial ports; the type of an obstacle is automatically judged and identified through information collected by a sensor and a camera head; all knuckles of the robot are controlled to move through the combination of an obstacle surmounting action sequence knowledge base stored in a computer, and an automatic obstruct surmounting function of the automatic polling robot is achieved. The present invention has a manual control function and realizes manual control. The present invention can realize that the automatic polling robot clamps upwards and clamps downwards along a line and automatically walks on the transmission line, the robot automatically surmounts familiar obstructs such as a shockproof hammer, a suspension clamp, etc. The present invention reduces the work load for polling the transmission line, saves labour and material resources and increases a work efficiency for polling lines.

Description

Controller of robot for automatic polling high-voltage transmission line

Technical field

The present invention relates to the Robotics field, the control system that relates to the 110kv high voltage transmission line automatic polling robot, be to have formed the controller of forming by a plurality of control modules, but formed the kinetic control system of the active obstacle of automatic crusing robot according to the Hierarchical Control technology.

Background technology

Transmission line of electricity is the main artery of power system, and its safe and stable operation directly has influence on the reliability of power system, must drop into the work of patrolling and examining that lot of manpower and material resources removes to carry out circuit.Generally adopt the manual inspection method to patrol and examine at present, not only workload is big, dangerous high, and a lot of dangerous places detect less than, cause certain hidden danger.For this reason, be necessary to develop a kind of automatic polling robot for transmission lines that can replace manual inspection,, improve working efficiency, reach and guarantee the transmission line of electricity purpose of safe operation in the hope of reaching the workload that alleviates polling transmission line.And to realize the automatic inspection function of robot, and just be necessary to develop the kinetic control system of a cover at automatic crusing robot, realize the active obstacle function of robot, finish automatic patrol task.Automatic crusing robot is different from industrial robot, mobile robot etc., its mechanical mechanism complexity, movable joint is many, and sensor information is various, if adopt the multiaxial motion card control mode in the industrial robot control then to be difficult for the real-time control of realization to automatic crusing robot.Therefore be necessary to develop a kind of multiple degrees of freedom control that realizes, handle the robot control system of multiple sensors information,, guarantee to realize the active obstacle function of robot as the nonshared control unit of automatic crusing robot.

Summary of the invention

The motion controller that the purpose of this invention is to provide the 110kv automatic polling robot for transmission lines, make automatic crusing robot can independently cross over various obstacles on the high-tension line, independently walking on the line, and then replace the mankind to carry out the work of patrolling and examining of transmission line of electricity, not only alleviate the workload of polling transmission line, also improve working efficiency and precision, reach and guarantee the transmission line of electricity purpose of safe operation.

For achieving the above object, technical solution of the present invention provides a kind of controller of robot for automatic polling high-voltage transmission line, according to the Hierarchical Control structural design, be three grades of automatic crusing robot nonshared control units, by three control hierarchys: management level, organize and coordinate layer and execution level is formed

Wherein, management level are made of distance host, and distance host contains wireless network card; Organize and coordinate layer and constitute, organize and coordinate a layer main frame and contain wireless network card, change-over switch, image pick-up card and serial ports by organizing and coordinating a layer main frame; Execution level is by the monolithic slave computer, and motor driver, signal processor and sensor constitute;

The distance host of management level with organize and coordinate a layer main frame, carry out communication by wireless network card, wireless network card respectively by with the corresponding adapter of wireless network card be articulated in distance host the PCI slot and organize and coordinate on the bus of layer main frame; Organizing and coordinating layer main frame is electrically connected with the monolithic slave computer of execution level with serial ports, the monolithic slave computer of execution level is located on the automatic crusing robot, its motor driver is electrically connected with each drive motors of automatic crusing robot respectively, and its sensor is electrically connected via signal processor and monolithic slave computer.

Described controller of robot for automatic polling:

A. the distance host of management level adopts ICP/IP protocol and organizes and coordinates a layer host communication by wireless point to point network, organizes and coordinates layer main frame adopts full duplex asynchronous mode and execution level by serial ports monolithic slave computer communication; Distance host and organize and coordinate between layer main frame and can transmit control command, and realize that vision signal is from organizing and coordinating the wireless transmission of layer main frame to distance host; Organize and coordinate between the monolithic slave computer of layer main frame and execution level and can transmit control command and sensor information;

B. distance host provides friendly human-machine interface, and the macrotechnique order that provides operating personnel to start shooting, stop can to receive the video image that the transmission of display organization cooperation layer main frame comes, and can do image and analyze and storage; Organize and coordinate layer main frame and mainly finish obstacle detouring action planning, IMAQ, compression of images transmission, compression of images storage, image processing and analyzing, barrier identification; The monolithic slave computer of execution level can be realized the control to bottom robot drive motors, and information that can read sensor.

Described controller of robot for automatic polling, its described execution level, its signal processor is made up of address decoder, output latch, several input buffers; The monolithic slave computer of execution level, address decoder, output latch, motor driver, first input buffer, second input buffer and the 3rd input buffer are installed on the same circuit printing plate; The monolithic slave computer by serial ports with organize and coordinate a layer main frame and link to each other, the A mouth of monolithic slave computer links to each other with the I mouth of address decoder, the D mouth of output latch, first input buffer, second input buffer and the 3rd input buffer links to each other with the D mouth of monolithic slave computer, and the A mouth of output latch, first input buffer, second input buffer and the 3rd input buffer links to each other with the O mouth of address decoder; The I mouth of motor driver links to each other with the O mouth of output latch, and the O mouth links to each other with a joint motor of robot; The I mouth of first input buffer, second input buffer and the 3rd input buffer links to each other with sensor.

Described controller of robot for automatic polling, its described output latch is a plurality of, is connected with a plurality of joint motors respectively; First, second, third input buffer is a plurality of, and the I mouth of first, second, third input buffer is connected with a plurality of sensors respectively.

Described controller of robot for automatic polling, its described change-over switch is manual change-over switch, it is made up of a ternary commutator and an alternative selector switch, wherein, the O mouth of motor driver links to each other with the I1 mouth of selector switch, the output of commutator links to each other with the I2 of selector switch, and the O mouth of selector switch links to each other with motor M; Selector switch is provided with selection key.

Described controller of robot for automatic polling, its described sensor is a plurality of, comprises motor code-disc, sonac, infrared sensor and camera, sonac, infrared sensor and camera are fixedly arranged on respectively on the arm of automatic crusing robot; Motor code-disc, sonac, infrared sensor are electrically connected with execution level monolithic slave computer, the CMOS camera by image pick-up card with organize and coordinate a layer main frame and be electrically connected.

Described controller of robot for automatic polling, it can control the motion of 10 above motors in real time, finishes the required compound movement process of automatic crusing robot obstacle detouring; Can detect and handle multiple sensors signal more than 20 tunnel, determine robot motion's current state and external environment condition.

The present invention is based on engineering practicability and reliability consideration, designed reliable manual switchable controller of robot for automatic polling system.Manual system is used for reaching the standard grade, rolling off the production line of robot, patrolling and examining of the unusual complicated section circuit of obstacle situation, the robot motion control under the situation etc. of breaking down, and automatic control system can guarantee that robot need not under the situation of human intervention, autonomous realization obstacle detouring moves, and finishes the patrol task of setting.

Distinguishing feature of the present invention is the mechanical feature of the Control System Design of automatic crusing robot and robot body is combined, the characteristics of nonshared control unit have been given full play to, utilize the advantage on the mechanism design, reduce the difficulty of control in real time, by rational control mode, remedy the deficiency on the robot mechanism simultaneously.

Technological core of the present invention is Hierarchical Control is incorporated in the design of controller, by control task is reasonably distributed, makes robot can finish motion control and patrol task fast and accurately.

The present invention adopts layering to pass the automatic crusing robot nonshared control unit that the rank technology is formed, and has realized the manual switching controls of robot, has finished typical obstacles such as stockbridge damper on the automatic leap transmission line of electricity, suspension clamp.This invention makes robot have stronger independence, can be implemented in the obstacle detouring action of not having under the human situation of intervening.Therefore, this invention can effectively alleviate the workload of polling transmission line, saves the required manpower and materials of line data-logging, has important effect for the working efficiency of line data-logging, the quality of guaranteeing to transmit electricity.

The major advantage of the hierarchical technology controller of robot for automatic polling that the present invention proposes is as follows: controller is made up of a plurality of control hierarchys unit, the a part of task to the motion control of automatic crusing robot obstacle detouring is finished in each unit, in motion control, has very big flexibility, the action control of various complexity can be finished, and current motion state and external environmental information can be detected in real time.For operating personnel one side, only need on distance host, to carry out simple control operation, just can realize control to the motion process of automatic crusing robot complexity, have the characteristics of the usefulness of being simple and easy to; Inner obstacle detouring program adopts the knowledge base mode to store, and for several typical obstacle on the transmission line of electricity, has all stored corresponding leap knowledge base, can realize the leap behavior of the common obstacle in the transmission line of electricity; Controller has manual handoff functionality, when normal operation, adopts the automatism function, be implemented in the line data-logging task under the situation that need not human intervention, roll off the production line and during fortuitous event, adopt manually control function last, make robot finish some and be difficult to course of action of independently finishing.

Description of drawings

Fig. 1 is the structured flowchart of controller of robot for automatic polling system.

Fig. 2 is the control wiring schematic diagram of the slave computer of execution level in the controller of robot for automatic polling;

Fig. 3 is an automatic/hand control wiring schematic diagram of organizing and coordinating layer in the controller of robot for automatic polling.

The specific embodiment

Fig. 1 is the structure composition diagram of this controller, and controller is made up of three parts, i.e. three control hierarchys: management level, organize and coordinate the layer and execution level.Wherein, management level are made of distance host, and distance host contains wireless network card; Organize and coordinate layer and be made of the PC104 main frame, the PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer contains wireless network card, change-over switch, image pick-up card and serial ports; Execution level is by the monolithic slave computer, and motor driver, signal processor and sensor constitute.

The distance host of management level and the PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer, carry out the Socket communication by wireless network card, organizing and coordinating layer is electrically connected with the monolithic slave computer of execution level with serial ports by the PC104 main frame, the monolithic slave computer of execution level is located on the automatic crusing robot (not illustrating among the figure), its motor driver is electrically connected with each drive motors (not illustrating among the figure) of automatic crusing robot respectively, and its sensor is electrically connected via signal processor and monolithic slave computer.Sensor comprises motor code-disc, sonac, infrared sensor and camera, and sonac, infrared sensor and camera are fixedly arranged on respectively on the arm (not illustrating among the figure) of automatic crusing robot.

The distance host of management level, for automatic crusing robot is set corresponding patrol task, motion that also can remote control robot can also receive camera from patrolling and examining the image of patrolling and examining that the scene passes back.Organize and coordinate the PC104 main frame of layer, finish machine human motion analysis and path planning, the collection of video image, processing, compression, storage, transmission, the detection of target and analysis etc. are patrolled and examined in the analysis of obstacle and identification.The detected information of monolithic slave computer processes sensor of execution level also feeds back to the PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer with it, and carries out the motor movement order that the PC104 main frame organize and coordinate layer is issued, the running of control automatic crusing robot drive motors.Distance host with organize and coordinate the layer the PC104 main frame between set up point-to-point the connection by wireless network card, adopt ICP/IP protocol to carry out the Socket communication, distance host sends control command to the PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer, and the PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer sends video image and robot external environmental information to distance host.Organize and coordinate the PC104 main frame of layer and the slave computer of execution level and adopt full duplex asynchronous serial communication, 8 bit data with add up and verification mode, the PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer sends motion command to the slave computer of execution level, and the slave computer of execution level sends sensor information to the PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer.And when needs are manually controlled robot, then will organize and coordinate layer change-over switch of PC104 main frame and get to manual mode, so just can carry out directly manually control to robot.

The operation principle of Fig. 1 is as follows: distance host and the PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer form wireless communication LAN by the Orinoco wireless network card, and wherein the Orinoco wireless network card is respectively by being articulated in the PCI slot of distance host with the corresponding adapter of Orinoco wireless network card and organizing and coordinating on the PC104 host bus of layer.Operating personnel utilize distance host to send the start control command and set corresponding patrol task to the PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer by wireless network; After the PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer receives the control command of starting shooting, start motion control program, and begin to gather realtime graphic, be used for the visual servo motion control, and image compressed, stores, and determine whether to carry out the video remote transmission according to the order of distance host; The road wheel of robot moves ahead under the control of the slave computer of execution level, and when the sensor such as ultrasonic and infrared on being installed in robot detected the place ahead barrier is arranged, the slave computer of execution level sent to sensor information in the PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer; The PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer utilizes graphical analysis to determine the type of barrier and the concrete condition of the place ahead circuit again, and the planning of moving thus, obtain the motion sequence and the kinematic parameter in each joint of robot, and these orders are sent to the slave computer of execution level; The slave computer of execution level receives these orders, and carries out order one by one and carry out, and finishes the obstacle detouring action of robot.In the process of implementation, sensor also will detect some information, the slave computer of execution level still will send these information to the PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer in exectorial process, organizing and coordinating the PC104 main frame of layer will analyze and handle these information, judge whether the motion planning that is carried out is correct, whether need to adjust, formed a kind of sensor-based motion servo control system.In the motion planning of PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer, adopt control method based on knowledge base, be under control the knowledge rule storehouse required by experiment repeatedly, and utilize these rule bases to form the control system of motion plannings.This control mode has overcome because the circuit flexibility causes the uncertain factor that the circuit distortion is brought, overcome in the robot suspension motion and inevitably swung the destabilizing factor of being brought, more effectively finished control design robot motion planning.

Fig. 2 is the control wiring schematic diagram of the slave computer of controller of robot for automatic polling execution level.Among the figure, the signal processor of execution level is made up of address decoder C2, output latch C3, several input buffers C4, C5 and C6; C1 is the monolithic slave computer AT89S51 of execution level, it links to each other with the PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer by serial ports, C2 is address decoder 74LS138, C3 is output latch 74LS373, C4, C5 and C6 are input buffer 74LS244, and C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 and C6 are installed on the same circuit printing plate; The A mouth of C1 links to each other with the I mouth of C2, and the D mouth of C3, C4, C5 and C6 links to each other with the D mouth of C1, and the A mouth links to each other with the O mouth of C2; C7 is a motor driver, and M is a joint motor of robot, and E is a motor code-disc signal output unit, and S is a sonac, I is an infrared sensor, and the I mouth of C7 links to each other with the O mouth of C2, and the O mouth links to each other with M, the I mouth of C4 links to each other with E, and the I mouth of C5 links to each other with S, and the I mouth of C6 links to each other with I.

Wherein, output latch C3, the first input buffer C4, the second input buffer C5, the 3rd input buffer C6 are a plurality of (not illustrating among the figure), the joint motor that is connected with output latch C3 has 14, the sensor that is connected with the first input buffer C4 has 13, the sensor that is connected with the second input buffer C5 has 12, and the sensor that is connected with the 3rd input buffer C6 has 6.

The operation principle of Fig. 2 is as follows: be handed down to the order of the required execution of C1 by the serial ports of PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer, C1 selects control object C3 by the A mouth, and control command is sent to C3 by the D mouth, C3 sends the signal amplification to motor driver C7 again, and then driver C7 drive motors M finishes corresponding motion command.C1 regularly selects query object C4, C5, C6 respectively by the A mouth by timer internal, code-disc output signal, sonac status signal, infrared sensor status signal just enter into the D mouth of C1 respectively by the I mouth of C4, C5, C6, C1 is decided by internal processes according to the state value that is inquired and carries out corresponding operation then.

Fig. 3 is a wiring schematic diagram of organizing and coordinating the automatic/hand control of layer in the controller of robot for automatic polling.C7 is motor driver (with the C7 among Fig. 2) among the figure, and C8 is ternary commutator, and C9 is the alternative selector switch, and 0 mouthful of C7 links to each other with the I1 mouth of C9, and the output of C8 links to each other with the I2 of C9, and the C of C9 is the selection key of selector switch; The O mouth of C9 links to each other with motor M.

Its operation principle is as follows: press the C button of C9, the O of C9 and I1 are connected, the output signal of computer is joined with motor M through the O mouth of the O mouth arrival C9 of C7, can realize the automatic control function of computer; The C button of C9 is ejected, the O of C9 and I2 are joined, the output signal of tri-state switch C8 arrives the O of C9, and then joins with motor M, thereby by manually controlling tri-state switch C8, can realize the manual control to motor.

The control that the control system of being built by control structure shown in Figure 1 has been finished the independent technological leapfrogging stockbridge damper, suspension clamp of automatic crusing robot, rolled off the production line on manually.Built the bionical automatic crusing robot of three arms of 13 movable joints has been arranged, robot is made up of three road wheels, three arm folding joints, three arm telescopic joints, two arm pitching joints (each one on front and back arm), 13 joints such as (each one on front and back arms), two arms swing joints, sonac all is housed on each arm is used for surveying barriers such as stockbridge damper and suspension clamp, and infrared sensor is housed is used for detecting the position of power transmission line in arm, the CMOS camera is housed on the arm is used for gathering the circuit picture.

The present invention realizes rolling off the production line on automatic crusing robot manually control device with active obstacle.

When rolling off the production line manually, because robot adopts the arm folding to embrace the line mode, before reaching the standard grade, control mode got to manual control model, manually three mechanical hand palms of control are all opened, device was suspended to robot on the transmission line of electricity near utilization was reached the standard grade, transmission line of electricity is entered among the palm of pickpocket's arm, and it is all closed manually to control three machine palms then, has just finished the function of manually reaching the standard grade of robot.Manually line process and last line process are similar down, carry out in the other direction.

Active obstacle is what to finish the independent technological leapfrogging function of stockbridge damper and suspension clamp under the automatic crusing robot automatic control mode.Operating personnel pass through distance host, the start of control robot, stop, advance, simple operations such as retreat, after robot starts, by being installed in sonac on the robot arm, controller detects the barrier situation in robot the place ahead, by CMOS camera collection barrier picture, through image processing and analyzing, pick out the barrier type, call the obstacle detouring knowledge base that is stored in computer-internal then, according to current robotary and external environment condition situation, to the next single-chip microcomputer transmission fill order of execution level, the next single-chip microcomputer is directly controlled the bottom motor by the PC104 main frame of organizing and coordinating layer.Controller is finished the obstacle detouring action according to knowledge base, up to the whole course of action of realizing that barrier is crossed over.

Claims (7)

1. controller of robot for automatic polling high-voltage transmission line, according to the Hierarchical Control structural design, by three control hierarchys: management level, organize and coordinate layer and execution level is formed, it is characterized in that:
Wherein, management level are made of distance host, and distance host contains wireless network card; Organize and coordinate layer and constitute, organize and coordinate a layer main frame and contain wireless network card, change-over switch, image pick-up card and serial ports by organizing and coordinating a layer main frame; Execution level is by the monolithic slave computer, and motor driver, signal processor and sensor constitute;
The distance host of management level with organize and coordinate a layer main frame, carry out communication by wireless network card, wireless network card respectively by with the corresponding adapter of wireless network card be articulated in distance host the PCI slot and organize and coordinate on the bus of layer main frame; Organizing and coordinating layer main frame is electrically connected with the monolithic slave computer of execution level with serial ports, the monolithic slave computer of execution level is located on the automatic crusing robot, its motor driver is electrically connected with each drive motors of automatic crusing robot respectively, and its sensor is electrically connected via signal processor and monolithic slave computer.
2. controller of robot for automatic polling as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that:
A. the distance host of management level adopts ICP/IP protocol and organizes and coordinates a layer host communication by wireless point to point network, organizes and coordinates layer main frame adopts full duplex asynchronous mode and execution level by serial ports monolithic slave computer communication; Distance host and organize and coordinate between layer main frame and can transmit control command, and realize that vision signal is from organizing and coordinating the wireless transmission of layer main frame to distance host; Organize and coordinate between the monolithic slave computer of layer main frame and execution level and can transmit control command and sensor information;
B. distance host provides friendly human-machine interface, and the macrotechnique order that provides operating personnel to start shooting, stop can to receive the video image that the transmission of display organization cooperation layer main frame comes, and can do image and analyze and storage; Organize and coordinate layer main frame and mainly finish obstacle detouring action planning, IMAQ, compression of images transmission, compression of images storage, image processing and analyzing, barrier identification; The monolithic slave computer of execution level can be realized the control to bottom robot drive motors, and information that can read sensor.
3. controller of robot for automatic polling as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: described execution level, and its signal processor is made up of address decoder, output latch, several input buffers; The monolithic slave computer of execution level, address decoder, output latch, motor driver, first input buffer, second input buffer and the 3rd input buffer are installed on the same circuit printing plate; The monolithic slave computer by serial ports with organize and coordinate a layer main frame and link to each other, the A mouth of monolithic slave computer links to each other with the I mouth of address decoder, the D mouth of output latch, first input buffer, second input buffer and the 3rd input buffer links to each other with the D mouth of monolithic slave computer, and the A mouth of output latch, first input buffer, second input buffer and the 3rd input buffer links to each other with the O mouth of address decoder; The I mouth of motor driver links to each other with the O mouth of output latch, and the O mouth links to each other with a joint motor of robot; The I mouth of first input buffer, second input buffer and the 3rd input buffer links to each other with sensor.
4. controller of robot for automatic polling as claimed in claim 3 is characterized in that: described output latch is a plurality of, is connected with a plurality of joint motors respectively; First, second, third input buffer is a plurality of, and the I mouth of first, second, third input buffer is connected with a plurality of sensors respectively.
5. controller of robot for automatic polling as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described change-over switch is manual change-over switch, it is made up of a ternary commutator and an alternative selector switch, wherein, the O mouth of motor driver links to each other with the I1 mouth of selector switch, the output of commutator links to each other with the I2 of selector switch, and the O mouth of selector switch links to each other with motor M; Selector switch is provided with selection key.
6. as claim 1,2 or 3 described controller of robot for automatic polling, it is characterized in that: described sensor is a plurality of, comprise motor code-disc, sonac, infrared sensor and camera, sonac, infrared sensor and camera are fixedly arranged on respectively on the arm of automatic crusing robot; Motor code-disc, sonac, infrared sensor are electrically connected with execution level monolithic slave computer, the CMOS camera by image pick-up card with organize and coordinate a layer main frame and be electrically connected.
7. controller of robot for automatic polling as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: can control the motion of 10 above motors in real time, finish the required compound movement process of automatic crusing robot obstacle detouring; Can detect and handle multiple sensors signal more than 20 tunnel, determine robot motion's current state and external environment condition.
CNB2004100710596A 2004-07-28 2004-07-28 Controller of robot for automatic polling high-voltage transmission line CN100352621C (en)

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