CA2696910C - Extraction of a component from a composition using supercritical fluid - Google Patents

Extraction of a component from a composition using supercritical fluid

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Publication number
CA2696910C
CA2696910C CA 2696910 CA2696910A CA2696910C CA 2696910 C CA2696910 C CA 2696910C CA 2696910 CA2696910 CA 2696910 CA 2696910 A CA2696910 A CA 2696910A CA 2696910 C CA2696910 C CA 2696910C
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CA
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Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
fluid
supercritical
component
extraction
device
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Active
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CA 2696910
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French (fr)
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CA2696910A1 (en )
Inventor
Hao Wang
Chen Zhao
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Peking University
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Peking University
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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G1/00Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal
    • C10G1/04Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal by extraction
    • C10G1/045Separation of insoluble materials
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D11/00Solvent extraction
    • B01D11/02Solvent extraction of solids
    • B01D11/0203Solvent extraction of solids with a supercritical fluid
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D11/00Solvent extraction
    • B01D11/02Solvent extraction of solids
    • B01D11/0292Treatment of the solvent
    • B01D11/0296Condensation of solvent vapours
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G1/00Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal
    • C10G1/04Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oil-shale, oil-sand, or non-melting solid carbonaceous or similar materials, e.g. wood, coal by extraction
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/10Feedstock materials
    • C10G2300/1033Oil well production fluids
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/20Characteristics of the feedstock or the products
    • C10G2300/201Impurities
    • C10G2300/208Sediments, e.g. bottom sediment and water or BSW
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/40Characteristics of the process deviating from typical ways of processing
    • C10G2300/4006Temperature
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/40Characteristics of the process deviating from typical ways of processing
    • C10G2300/4012Pressure
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10GCRACKING HYDROCARBON OILS; PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBON MIXTURES, e.g. BY DESTRUCTIVE HYDROGENATION, OLIGOMERISATION, POLYMERISATION; RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBON OILS FROM OIL-SHALE, OIL-SAND, OR GASES; REFINING MIXTURES MAINLY CONSISTING OF HYDROCARBONS; REFORMING OF NAPHTHA; MINERAL WAXES
    • C10G2300/00Aspects relating to hydrocarbon processing covered by groups C10G1/00 - C10G99/00
    • C10G2300/40Characteristics of the process deviating from typical ways of processing
    • C10G2300/44Solvents

Abstract

A system for extracting a component from a composition is disclosed and includes an extraction and separation device containing the composition that receives a supercritical fluid, wherein the supercritical fluid extracts the component from the composition and is then separated from the component. The system may also include a feed pump that receives and pressurizes a fluid, wherein the component is resolvable to the fluid in a supercritical phase; a solar collector that receives the fluid from the feed pump and heats the fluid to a supercritical phase to form a supercritical fluid, wherein the extraction and separation device receives the supercritical fluid from the solar collector; and a heat exchanger that receives the fluid from the extraction and separation device and cools the fluid for returning to the feed pump. A method utilizing this system is also disclosed.

Description

2 USING SUPERCRITICAL FLUID

3

4 FIELD OF THE INVENTION
[0001] The systems and methods disclosed herein relate to the extraction of a component from 6 a composition using supercritical fluid.

9 [0002] There has historically existed a need to separate compositions into their constituent parts. This can involve the removal of one or more components from a composition, or even 11 separation of a composition into all of its constituent parts. Such separations or extractions 12 have application in almost all fields of study. However, the accomplishment of such separations 13 or extractions have been subject to problems including complexity, inefficiency, and costly in 14 terms of time and money, to name a few.
16 [0003] One such separation is the extraction of oil from oil sands. In this context, the depletion 17 of conventional oil reserves and soaring oil prices lead to an increasing attention to oil sands as 18 an alternate fossil fuel resource. Of course, methods exist to extract components such as oil 19 from oil sands. For instance, the hot¨water extraction technique is one method for oil sand extraction. However, this method consumes a great amount of energy to produce hot water and 21 causes serious environmental problems. Indeed, one byproduct of the hot-water extraction 22 technique is tailings ponds, which contain toxins like heavy metals and oil. Another method, the 23 pyrolysis-extraction technique, causes much pollution because the pyrolysis of bitumen 24 produces organic toxins. Yet another method, the organic-solvent technique, also causes pollution because the solvent is not environmentally friendly.

27 [0004] It is thus clear that more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly methods for 28 separation and extraction of oil from oil sands are required. Further, such methods have far-29 reaching impacts in fields other than just oil extraction.

32 [0005] As one embodiment, a system for extracting a component from a composition may have 33 an extraction device configured to contain the composition and configured to receive a 34 supercritical fluid. The supercritical fluid extracts the component from the composition.
21975685.1 1 1 [0006] The system may also have a separation device configured to separate the component 2 from the supercritical fluid.

4 [0007] The system may also have a feed pump that receives and pressurizes a fluid. The component is resolvable to the fluid in a supercritical phase. The system may also include a 6 solar collector that receives the fluid from the feed pump and heats the fluid to a supercritical 7 phase to form a supercritical fluid. The extraction and separation device receives the 8 supercritical fluid from the solar collector. The system also may include a heat exchanger that 9 receives the fluid from the extraction and separation device and cools the fluid for returning to the feed pump.

12 [0008] The extraction and separation device of the system may have a water bath; a high 13 pressure cell in the water bath that contains the composition; a pump (for instance, a syringe 14 pump or a diaphragm pump) that charges the supercritical fluid through the cell; a filter contained in the cell that filters the supercritical fluid out of the cell;
and a separator that 16 receives the supercritical fluid and separates the supercritical fluid from the component. The 17 extraction and separation device of the system may also have a pressure gauge in the water 18 bath to control the pressure of the supercritical fluid.

[0009] The fluid of the system may be liquid carbon dioxide. Alternatively, the fluid of the 21 system may be water. The component of the system may be oil, and the composition of the 22 system may be oil sand. The feed pump of the system may pressurize the fluid to about 23 20MPa. The solar collector of the system may heat the fluid up to about 170 C. In order to 24 obtain good extraction ability, the fluid should be heated by the solar collector to a temperature of about 70 C.

27 [0010] The supercritical fluid of the system may be separated from the component in the 28 separator by decreasing the pressure of the supercritical fluid to change the fluid into a gaseous 29 state. The pressure may be decreased to about 4.5MPa.
31 [0011] The heat exchanger of the system may include a first exchanger component that 32 recycles the heat of the fluid; and a second exchanger component that cools the fluid into a 33 liquid state. The heat exchanger of the system may cool the fluid to about 20 C.

21975685.1 2 1 [0012] As another embodiment, a method for extracting a component from a composition may 2 include the steps of extracting the component from the composition with a supercritical fluid and 3 separating the component from the supercritical fluid.

[0013] The method may also include the steps of pressurizing a fluid, wherein the component is 6 resolvable to the fluid in a supercritical phase and heating the fluid to a supercritical phase to 7 form a supercritical fluid.

9 [0014] The method may also include the step of cooling the fluid after the separating step. The cooling step of the method may include the steps of recycling the heat of the fluid and cooling 11 the fluid into a liquid state. The cooling step of the method may include cooling said fluid to 12 about 20 C.

14 [0015] Other aspects, features, and advantages of the devices and/or processes and/or other subject matter described herein will become apparent in the teachings set forth herein. The 16 summary is provided to introduce a selection of concepts in a simplified form that are further 17 described below in the Detailed Description.

[0016] The foregoing and other features of the present disclosure will become more fully 21 apparent from the following description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
22 Understanding that these drawings depict only several embodiments in accordance with the 23 disclosure and are therefore, not to be considered limiting of its scope, the disclosure will be 24 described with additional specificity and detail through use of the accompanying drawings.
26 [0017] Figure 1 is a diagram of a system for extracting a component from a composition using a 27 fluid according to an embodiment disclosed herein.

29 [0018] Figure 2 is a diagram of an extraction and separation device according to an embodiment disclosed herein.

22535606.1 3 1 [0019] Figure 3 is a flow diagram of a method for extracting a component from a composition 2 according to an embodiment disclosed herein.

4 [0020] Figure 4 is a flow diagram of a method for extracting a component from a composition according to another embodiment disclosed herein.

9 [0021] In the following detailed description, reference is made to the accompanying drawings, which form a part hereof. In the drawings, similar symbols typically identify similar components, 11 unless context dictates otherwise. The illustrative embodiments described in the detailed 12 description, and drawings, are not meant to be limiting. It will be readily understood that the 13 aspects of the present disclosure, as generally described herein, and illustrated in the Figures, 14 can be arranged, substituted, combined, and designed in a wide variety of different configurations, all of which are explicitly contemplated and make part of this disclosure.

17 [0022] This disclosure is drawn, inter alia, to methods and systems related to the extraction of a 18 component from a composition using supercritical fluid. The extraction may be from a solid 19 composition, liquid composition, or a mixture. Such extractions may be used on all different scales. For instance, extraction on a small scale may be appropriate for analytical purposes, 21 whereas extraction on a large scale may be appropriate for industrial applications. More 22 specifically, this disclosure relates to a system and method involving placing fluid (for instance, 23 by heating using solar energy), such as liquid carbon dioxide, in a supercritical phase. Then, 24 the fluid in a supercritical phase can work as the extracting solvent to separate one component from another. For example, the system and method may be utilized to extract oil from oil sand.

27 [0023] The fluid to be placed in supercritical phase may be one or more fluid. When in 28 supercritical phase, a supercritical fluid may be any substance at a temperature and pressure 29 above its thermodynamic critical point. Supercritical fluids combine properties of gases and liquids. For instance, supercritical fluids can diffuse through solids like a gas, and also dissolve 22535606.1 4 =
1 materials like a liquid. Fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide and water offer a range of 2 unusual chemical possibilities in both synthetic and analytical chemistry. For example, 3 supercritical fluids have solvent power similar to a light hydrocarbon for most solutes. Further, 4 supercritical fluids may be mixed or combined with additional fluids. For instance, carbon dioxide may be modified with co-solvents. Suitable co-solvents include ethanol and/or 6 methanol. However, it can be appreciated that one or more possible fluids may be utilized, 7 including, but not limited to carbon dioxide, water, methane, ethane, propane, ethylene, 8 propylene, methanol, ethanol and acetone.

[0024] The supercritical fluid will contain no surface tension due to the absence of a liquid/gas 11 phase boundary. By changing the pressure and temperature of the fluid, the properties may be 12 "tuned" to be more liquid or more gas like. Another property that may be considered is the 13 solubility of the component to be extracted in the fluid. Solubility in a supercritical fluid tends to 14 increase with density of the fluid (at constant temperature). Since density increases with pressure, then solubility also tends to increase with pressure. The relationship with temperature 16 may also be considered. At constant density, solubility will increase with temperature. However, 17 close to the critical point, the density can drop sharply with a slight increase in temperature.
18 Therefore, close to the critical temperature, solubility often drops with increasing temperature, 19 then rises again.
21 [0025] As one example, in a solar Rankine system using carbon dioxide, fluid pressure and 22 temperature can be increased respectively by a pump and a solar collector, as illustrated in 23 Figure 1. In this way, carbon dioxide fluid can be heated and pressed into supercritical phase.
24 The critical temperature and pressure of carbon dioxide fluid is about 31 C and about 7.2MPa.
The addition of modifiers may slightly alter the temperature and pressure. By mixing the 26 supercritical carbon dioxide fluid with oil sands, oil can be dissolved in the supercritical carbon 27 dioxide fluid and extracted from the oil sands. Depressurization of the fluid separates the oil 28 from the carbon dioxide because lowering the pressure reduces the solvent power of the 29 supercritical fluid. When the fluid is cooled down in the system, the heat of the fluid can be recycled.

32 [0026] Although many of the drawings, descriptions, and examples herein are directed to 33 extracting oil from oil sands using carbon dioxide, this disclosure is not so limited. This 21975685.1 5 1 disclosure can be applied to extracting any component from any composition using a fluid as 2 long as the component is resolvable to the fluid in a supercritical state.

4 [0027] As used herein, the term "resolvable to" means "able to be dissolved by."
6 [0028] Figure 1 illustrates a diagram of a system 10 according to one embodiment of this 7 disclosure. Figure 1 will first be described as shown. Then, Figure 1 will be described using a 8 specific example of extracting oil from oil sands with carbon dioxide.

[0029] As shown in Figure 1, a fluid flows from a feed pump 12 to a solar collector 14 to an 11 extraction and separation device 16 to a heat exchanger 18. In other words, the fluid flows into 12 the feed pump 12, then out of the feed pump 12 into the solar collector 14, then out of the solar 13 collector 14 into the extraction and separation device 16, and then out of the extraction and 14 separation device 16 into the heat exchanger 18. At this point, the fluid flows out of the heat exchanger 18 and back to the feed pump 12 so that the fluid flow is continuous. The fluid may 16 flow from one part of the system to the next through a pipe or any other means known to one of 17 ordinary skill in the art.

19 [0030] Starting at the feed pump 12, a fluid flows in the feed pump 12 and is pressurized. In other words, the feed pump 12 receives and pressurizes the fluid. In order to acquire good 21 pumping ability, the fluid can be already in a liquid state. In the system 10 shown in Figure 1, 22 the output of the heat exchanger 18 is a liquid. The feed pump 12 may be a simple piston pump 23 or any other conventional pump.

[0031] The pressurized fluid is heated by solar energy collected by the solar collector 14 to the 26 point where the fluid becomes supercritical. The solar collector 14 may be an evacuated solar 27 collector. The solar collector 14 may heat the fluid from about 20 C to about 170 C.

29 [0032] The supercritical fluid then flows through the extraction and separation device 16, which contains a composition. The supercritical fluid extracts a desired component from the 31 composition and carries the component away (not shown in Figure 1) from the rest of the 32 composition. The extraction and separation device 16 includes any structure capable of mixing 33 the supercritical fluid with the composition and then performing a separation. One example of 34 an extraction and separation device is illustrated in Figure 2.
21975685.1 6 =

2 [0033] As shown in Figure 2, the extraction and separation device 16 may include a pump 20 3 (for example a syringe or a diaphragm pump), a water bath 22, and a separator 24. The water 4 bath 22 may contain a pressure gauge 26 and a cell 28 (for example, a high pressure cell) with a filter 30. The composition is put in the cell 28. The supercritical fluid is charged into the cell 6 28 through the pump 20. The pressure gauge 26 may be used to control the pressure. The cell 7 28 is put in the water bath 22. The extraction portion of the extraction and separation device 16 8 can then maintain the temperature and pressure at a desired level.

[0034] After the supercritical fluid extracts the component from the composition, the 11 supercritical fluid with the component exits the cell 28 through a filter 30 and enters the 12 separator 24. The separator 24 decreases the pressure so that the supercritical fluid can be 13 changed into a gaseous state and can be easily separated from the component. After the 14 extraction and separation, the temperature of the fluid is maintained.
16 [0035] Turning back to Figure 1, the depressurized and high temperature fluid enters the heat 17 exchanger 18 for returning to the feed pump 12. The heat exchanger 18 may include two 18 exchanger components. If two exchanger components are used, the first exchanger component 19 is used for recycling the heat of the high temperature fluid, and the second exchanger component is used for cooling the fluid into a liquid state for good pumping ability. With two 21 exchanger components, they can be coupled in series and have the same or different intemal 22 structure. The heat exchanger 18 may alternatively have only one exchanger component as 23 long as the high temperature fluid can be cooled.

[0036] Figure 1 will now be described using a specific example of extracting oil from oil sands 26 with carbon dioxide.

28 [0037] Referring to Figure 1, working carbon dioxide flows from a feed pump 12 to a solar 29 collector 14 to an extraction and separation device 16 to a heat exchanger 18.
31 [0038] The liquid carbon dioxide flows in the feed pump 12 and is pressurized. In other words, 32 the feed pump receives and pressurizes the liquid carbon dioxide. In order to acquire good 33 pumping ability, the carbon dioxide fluid can be already in a liquid state and have a temperature 34 around 20 C before the liquid carbon dioxide arrives at the feed pump 12. In the system 10, the 21975685.1 7 . =
1 output of the heat exchanger 18 is liquid carbon dioxide. The feed pump 12 may pressurize the 2 carbon dioxide fluid from about 4.5MPa to about 20MPa.

4 [0039] The pressurized carbon dioxide fluid is heated by solar energy collected by the solar collector 14 to the point where the carbon dioxide fluid becomes supercritical. The solar 6 collector 14 may heat the carbon dioxide fluid from about 20 C to about 170 C. In order to 7 obtain good extraction ability in the system 10, the high pressure carbon dioxide fluid is heated 8 by the solar collector 14 to a temperature of about 70 C.

[0040] The supercritical carbon dioxide fluid then flows through the extraction and separation 11 device 16, which contains oil sands. The supercritical fluid extracts oil from the oil sands and 12 carries the oil away from the oil sands. The extraction and separation device 16 is further 13 illustrated in Figure 2.

[0041] As shown in Figure 2, the extraction and separation device 16 includes a pump 20, a 16 water bath 22, and a separator 24. The water bath 22 contains a pressure gauge 26 and a cell 17 28 (for example, a high pressure cell) with a filter 30. The oil sands are put in the cell 28. The 18 supercritical carbon dioxide fluid is charged into the cell 28 through the pump 20. The pressure 19 gauge 26 is used to control the pressure. The cell 28 is put in the water bath 22. The extraction portion of the extraction and separation device 16 can then maintain the temperature at about 21 70 C and the pressure at about 20MPa.

23 [0042] After the supercritical fluid extracts the oil from the oil sands, the supercritical fluid with 24 the oil exits the cell 28 through a filter 30 and enters the separator 24. The separator 24 decreases the pressure to about 4.5MPa so that the supercritical carbon dioxide fluid can be 26 changed into a gaseous state and can be easily separated from the oil.
After the extraction and 27 separation, the temperature of the fluid is maintained at about 70 C.

29 [0043] Turning back to Figure 1, the depressurized and high temperature carbon dioxide fluid enters the heat exchanger 18 for returning to the feed pump 12. The heat exchanger 18 may 31 include two exchanger components. If two exchanger components are used, the first exchanger 32 component is used for recycling the heat of the high temperature carbon dioxide fluid, and the 33 second exchanger component is used for cooling the fluid into a liquid state for good pumping 34 ability. The temperature of the fluid may be about 35 C after the first exchanger component and 21975685.1 8 1 about 20 C after the second exchanger component. The pressure of the fluid is maintained at 2 about 4.5MPa before and after entering the heat exchanger 18. With two exchanger 3 components, they can be coupled in series and have the same or different internal structure.
4 The heat exchanger 18 may alternatively have only one exchanger component as long as the high temperature carbon dioxide fluid can be cooled down to about 20 C.

7 [0044] As one example, the heat exchanger 18 may be a carbon dioxide/water heat exchanger, 8 which uses water pumps to recycle the water flow and gather the heat from water in a cooling 9 tower. In order to achieve a good heat exchange between carbon dioxide and water, a shell and tube design can be used for the heat exchanger components, with the tube side being for 11 carbon dioxide and the shell side being for water, as an example. The temperature of the water 12 used to recover heat in the first exchanger component is determined by the temperature of the 13 carbon dioxide fluid coming out of the extraction and separation device 16 and the cooling 14 capacity of the cooling tower of the first exchanger component. The temperature of the water used to recover heat in the low-temperature heat recovery system, i.e. the second exchanger 16 component, is about 10 C.

18 [0045] Besides carbon dioxide, water can be used in a similar system by the same principles to 19 separate a component resolvable to water. In addition to oil, many other kinds of biomass resolvable to different supercritical fluids, such as carbon dioxide, can be extracted by the 21 system and method of the disclosure.

23 [0046] The method of this disclosure will now be more fully described with reference to Figures 24 1-4. The method is for extracting a component from a composition.
26 [0047] In a first embodiment of the method, as shown in Figure 3, one step is extracting a 27 desired component from a composition with a supercritical fluid (step 110). This step 110 may 28 occur in an extraction and separation device, which contains the composition. The supercritical 29 fluid extracts a desired component from the composition and carries the component away from the rest of the composition. The extracting step 110 may involve charging the supercritical fluid 31 with a pump, such as a syringe pump or a diaphragm pump, through a high pressure cell in a 32 water bath. The cell contains the composition. The extracting step 110 then may involve 33 filtering the supercritical fluid out of the cell through a filter. The extracting step 110 may also 34 include controlling the pressure of the supercritical fluid with a pressure gauge in the water bath.
21975685.1 9 1 A further step of the method of Figure 3 is separating the component from the supercritical fluid 2 (step 120). This step 120 may also occur in the extraction and separation device. The 3 separating step 120 may involve separating the supercritical fluid from the component in a 4 separator. The separating step 120 may also include decreasing the pressure of the supercritical fluid to change the fluid into a gaseous state. For example, the pressure may be 6 decreased to about 4.5MPa.

8 [0048] In a second embodiment of the method, as shown in Figure 4, one step is pressurizing a 9 fluid (step 210). This step 210 may be done with a feed pump 12. The component being extracted should be resolvable to this fluid when the fluid is in a supercritical phase. The 11 pressurizing step 210 may involve pressurizing the fluid to about 20MPa.

13 [0049] Another step is heating the high pressure fluid to a supercritical phase to form a 14 supercritical fluid (step 220). This step 220 may be done with a solar collector. The heating step 220 may involve heating the fluid up to about 170 C. More particularly, the heating step 16 220 may involve heating the fluid to about 70 C.

18 [0050] Further, another step is extracting the desired component from the composition with the 19 supercritical fluid (step 230). This step 230 may occur in an extraction and separation device, which contains the composition. The supercritical fluid extracts a desired component from the 21 composition and carries the component away from the rest of the composition. The extracting 22 step 230 may involve charging the supercritical fluid with a pump (such as a syringe pump or a 23 diaphragm pump) through a high pressure cell in a water bath. The cell contains the 24 composition. The extracting step 230 then may involve filtering the supercritical fluid out of the cell through a filter. The extracting step 230 may also include controlling the pressure of the 26 supercritical fluid with a pressure gauge in the water bath. A further step of the method is 27 separating the component from the supercritical fluid (step 240). This step 240 may also occur 28 in the extraction and separation device. The separating step 240 may involve separating the 29 supercritical fluid from the component in a separator. The separating step 240 may also include decreasing the pressure of the supercritical fluid to change the fluid into a gaseous state. For 31 example, the pressure may be decreased to about 4.5MPa.

33 [0051] A further step of the method may include cooling the fluid (step 250). This step 250 may 34 occur in a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger may include two exchanger components. In 21975685.1 10 1 this case, the cooling step may include recycling the heat of the fluid (step 252) and cooling the 2 fluid into a liquid state (step 254). The step 252 would be done with the first exchanger 3 component, and the step 254 would be done with the second exchanger component. The 4 cooling step may involve cooling the fluid to about 20 C.
6 [0052] As discussed above with the system of this disclosure, this method may be applied to 7 extracting any component from any composition using a fluid as long as the component is 8 resolvable to the fluid in a supercritical state. As specific examples, the fluid may be liquid 9 carbon dioxide and/or water. The component may be oil when the composition is oil sand.
11 [0053] With respect to the use of substantially any plural and/or singular terms herein, those 12 having skill in the art can translate from the plural to the singular and/or from the singular to the 13 plural as is appropriate to the context and/or application. The various singular/plural 14 permutations may be expressly set forth herein for sake of clarity.
16 [0054] It will be understood by those within the art that, in general, terms used herein, and 17 especially in the appended claims (e.g., bodies of the appended claims) are generally intended 18 as "open" terms (e.g., the term "including" should be interpreted as "including but not limited to,"
19 the term "having" should be interpreted as "having at least," the term "includes" should be interpreted as "includes but is not limited to," etc.). It will be further understood by those within 21 the art that if a specific number of an introduced claim recitation is intended, such an intent will 22 be explicitly recited in the claim, and in the absence of such recitation no such intent is present.
23 For example, as an aid to understanding, the following appended claims may contain usage of 24 the introductory phrases "at least one" and "one or more" to introduce claim recitations.
However, the use of such phrases should not be construed to imply that the introduction of a 26 claim recitation by the indefinite articles "a" or "an" limits any particular claim containing such 27 introduced claim recitation to disclosures containing only one such recitation, even when the 28 same claim includes the introductory phrases "one or more" or "at least one" and indefinite 29 articles such as "a" or "an" (e.g., "a" and/or "an" should typically be interpreted to mean "at least one" or "one or more"); the same holds true for the use of definite articles used to introduce 31 claim recitations. In addition, even if a specific number of an introduced claim recitation is 32 explicitly recited, those skilled in the art will recognize that such recitation should typically be 33 interpreted to mean at least the recited number (e.g., the bare recitation of "two recitations,"
34 without other modifiers, typically means at least two recitations, or two or more recitations). In 21975685.1 11 1 those instances where a convention analogous to "at least one of A, B, or C, etc." is used, in 2 general such a construction is intended in the sense one having skill in the art would understand 3 the convention (e.g., "a system having at least one of A, B, or C" would include but not be 4 limited to systems that have A alone, B alone, C alone, A and B together, A and C together, B
and C together, and/or A, B, and C together, etc.). It will be further understood by those within 6 the art that virtually any disjunctive word and/or phrase presenting two or more alternative 7 terms, whether in the description, claims, or drawings, should be understood to contemplate the 8 possibilities of including one of the terms, either of the terms, or both terms. For example, the 9 phrase "A or B" will be understood to include the possibilities of "A" or "B" or "A and B."
11 [0055] While various aspects and embodiments have been disclosed herein, other aspects and 12 embodiments will be apparent to those skilled in the art.
22535606.1 12

Claims (54)

Claims:
1. A system for extracting a component from a composition, the system comprising:
a solar collector configured to receive a pressurized fluid and to heat, by solar energy, the pressurized fluid to a supercritical state to form a supercritical fluid; and an extraction device configured to contain the composition and configured to receive the supercritical fluid and to maintain the supercritical fluid in the supercritical state during the extraction of the component from the composition, wherein the extraction device comprises a pump configured to drive the supercritical fluid through the extraction of the component.
2. The system of claim 1, further comprising a separation device configured to receive the supercritical fluid including the extracted component, and configured to decrease the pressure of the fluid while maintaining an elevated temperature to change the supercritical fluid to a gaseous state and separate the component from the gas.
3. The system of claim 1 further comprising a feed pump, the feed pump configured to receive and pressurize a fluid and deliver the fluid to the solar collector.
4. The system of any one of claims 2, or 3, further comprising a heat exchanger, the heat exchanger comprising:
a first exchanger component that recycles the heat of the fluid; and a second exchanger component that cools the fluid into a liquid state.
5. The system of claim 4 further wherein heat received from the fluid in the separation device is recycled to heat the fluid entering the extraction device.
6. The system of claim 2 wherein the extraction device and the separation device comprise:
a water bath;
a high pressure cell in the water bath that contains the composition;
the pump that charges the supercritical fluid through the cell; and a filter contained in the cell that filters the supercritical fluid out of the cell.
7. The system of claim 6 wherein the extraction device and the separation device further comprise a pressure gauge configured to gauge the pressure of the fluid.
8. The system of claim 1 wherein the solar collector heats the fluid to about 170°C.
9. The system of claim 4 wherein the heat exchanger cools the fluid to a temperature of about 20°C.
10. The system of any one of claims 1 to 9 wherein the composition is bituminous sands, the component is bitumen and the fluid is carbon dioxide.
11. A system for extracting a component from a composition, the system comprising:
a solar collector configured to receive a pressurized fluid and to heat, by solar energy, the pressurized fluid to a supercritical state to form a supercritical fluid;
an extraction device configured to contain the composition and configured to receive the supercritical fluid and to maintain the fluid in the supercritical state during the extraction of the component from the composition into the supercritical fluid; and a pump configured to drive the supercritical fluid through the extraction device wherein the supercritical fluid extracts a component from the composition.
12. The system of claim 11, further comprising a separation device configured to receive the supercritical fluid including the extracted component, and configured to decrease the pressure of the fluid while maintaining an elevated temperature to change the supercritical fluid to a gaseous state and separate the component from the gas.
13. The system of claim 12, further comprising a heat exchanger, the heat exchanger comprising:
a first exchanger component that recycles the heat of the fluid; and a second exchanger component that cools the fluid into a liquid state.
14. The system of claim 13 wherein heat received from the fluid in a gaseous state in the separation device is recycled to heat the fluid entering the extraction device.
15. The system of claim 12 wherein the extraction device and the separation device comprise:
a water bath;
a high pressure cell in the water bath that contains the composition;
a connection to said pump that charges the supercritical fluid through the cell;
and a filter contained in the cell that filters the supercritical fluid out of the cell.
16. The system of claim 15 wherein the extraction device and the separation device further comprise a pressure gauge configured to gauge the pressure of the fluid.
17. The system of claim 11 wherein the supercritical fluid is at a temperature of about 170°C.
18. The system of claim 13 wherein the heat exchanger cools the fluid to a temperature of about 20°C.
19. The system of any one of claims 11 to 18 wherein the composition is bituminous sands, the component is bitumen and the fluid is carbon dioxide.
20. A system for extracting a component from a composition, the system comprising:
a solar collector configured to receive a pressurized fluid and to heat, by solar energy, the pressurized fluid to a supercritical state to form a supercritical fluid;
an extraction device configured to contain the composition and configured to receive the supercritical fluid and to maintain the fluid in the supercritical state during the extraction of the component from the composition into the supercritical fluid;
and a heat exchanger, the heat exchanger comprising first exchanger component that recycles the heat of the fluid and a second exchanger component that cools the fluid to a liquid state, wherein the extraction device comprises a pump configured to drive the supercritical fluid through the extraction of the component.
21. The system of claim 20, further comprising a separation device configured to receive the supercritical fluid including the extracted component, and configured to decrease the pressure of the fluid while maintaining an elevated temperature to change the supercritical fluid to a gaseous state and separate the component from the gas.
22. The system of claim 21 wherein heat received from the fluid in a gaseous state in the separation device is recycled to heat the fluid entering the extraction device.
23. The system of claim 21 wherein the extraction device and the separation device comprise:
a water bath;
a high pressure cell in the water bath that contains the composition;
the pump that charges the supercritical fluid through the cell; and a filter contained in the cell that filters the supercritical fluid out of the cell.
24. The system of claim 23 wherein the extraction device and the separation device further comprise a pressure gauge configured to gauge the pressure of the fluid.
25. The system of claim 20 wherein the supercritical fluid is at a temperature of about 170°C.
26. The system of claim 20 wherein the heat exchanger cools the fluid to a temperature of about 20°C.
27. The system of any one of claims 20 to 26 wherein the composition is bituminous sands, the component is bitumen and the fluid is carbon dioxide.
28. A method of extracting a component from a composition, comprising the steps of:
receiving a pressurized fluid and heating the fluid to a supercritical state using a solar collector via solar energy; and extracting a component from a composition in an extraction device using a supercritical fluid, the extraction device being configured to contain the composition and configured to receive the supercritical fluid and to maintain the fluid in a supercritical state during the extraction of the component from the composition into the supercritical fluid, driving the supercritical fluid through the extraction device using a pump.
29. The method of claim 28, further comprising the step of separating the component from the supercritical fluid in a separation device, the separation device being configured to receive the supercritical fluid including the extracted component, and configured to decrease the pressure of the fluid while maintaining an elevated temperature to change the fluid to a gaseous state and separate the component from the gas.
30. The method of claim 28 further comprising pressurizing a fluid using a feed pump, the pressurized fluid being received from the feed pump by the solar collector.
31. The method of any one of claims 29 or 30, further comprising the step of cooling the fluid to a liquid state in a heat exchanger, the heat exchanger comprising:
a first exchanger component that recycles the heat of the fluid; and a second exchanger component that cools the fluid into a liquid state.
32. The method of claim 31, further comprising the step of recycling the heat received from the fluid in a gaseous state in the separation device to heat the fluid entering the extraction device.
33. The method of claim 29, wherein the extraction device and the separation device comprise:
a water bath;
a high pressure cell in the water bath that contains the composition;
the pump that charges the supercritical fluid through the cell; and a filter contained in the cell that filters the supercritical fluid out of the cell.
34. The method of claim 33, further comprising the step of using a pressure gauge to monitor the pressure of the fluid in the extraction device and in the separation device.
35. The method of claim 28 wherein the solar collector heats the fluid to about 170°C.
36. The method of claim 31 wherein the heat exchanger cools the fluid to a temperature of about 20°C.
37. The method of any one of claims 28 to 36 wherein the composition is bituminous sands, the component is bitumen and the fluid is carbon dioxide.
38. A method of extracting a component from a composition, comprising the steps of:
heating a pressurized fluid to a supercritical state to form a supercritical fluid using a solar collector via solar energy;
driving the supercritical fluid through an extraction device using a pump; and extracting a component from a composition in the extraction device using the supercritical fluid, the extraction device being configured to contain the composition and configured to receive the supercritical fluid and to maintain the fluid in a supercritical state during the extraction of the component from the composition into the supercritical fluid.
39. The method of claim 38, further comprising the step of separating the component from the supercritical fluid in a separation device, the separation device being configured to receive the supercritical fluid including the extracted component, and configured to decrease the pressure of the fluid while maintaining an elevated temperature to change the fluid to a gaseous state and separate the component from the gas.
40. The method of claim 39, further comprising the step of cooling the fluid to a liquid state in a heat exchanger, the heat exchanger comprising:
a first exchanger component that recycles the heat of the fluid; and a second exchanger component that cools the fluid into a liquid state.
41. The method of claim 40, further comprising the step of recycling the heat received from the fluid in a gaseous state in the separation device to heat the fluid entenng the extraction device.
42. The method of claim 39, wherein the extraction device and the separation device comprise:
a water bath;
a high pressure cell in the water bath that contains the composition;
a connection to said pump that charges the supercritical fluid through the cell; and a filter contained in the cell that filters the supercritical fluid out of the cell.
43. The method of claim 42, further comprising the step of using a pressure gauge to monitor the pressure of the fluid in the extraction device and in the separation device.
44. The method of claim 38 wherein the supercritical fluid is at a temperature of about 170°C.
45. The method of claim 40 wherein the heat exchanger cools the fluid to a temperature of about 20°C.
46. The method of any one of claims 38 to 45 wherein the composition is bituminous sands, the component is bitumen and the fluid is carbon dioxide.
47. A method of extracting a component from a composition, comprising the steps of:
heating a pressurized fluid to a supercritical state to form a supercritical fluid using a solar collector via solar energy;
extracting a component from a composition in an extraction device using the supercritical fluid, the extraction device being configured to contain the composition and configured to receive a supercritical fluid and maintain the fluid in a supercritical state during the extraction of the component from the composition into the supercritical fluid;
and cooling the fluid to a liquid state in a heat exchanger, the heat exchanger comprising:
a first exchanger component that recycles the heat of the fluid and a second exchanger component that cools the fluid into a liquid state, wherein the extraction device comprises a pump configured to drive the supercritical fluid through the extraction of the component.
48. The method of claim 47, further comprising the step of separating the component from the supercritical fluid in a separation device, the separation device being configured to receive the supercritical fluid including the extracted component, and configured to decrease the pressure of the fluid while maintaining an elevated temperature to change the fluid to a gaseous state and separate the component from the gas.
49. The method of claim 48, further comprising the step of recycling the heat received from the fluid in a gaseous state in the separation device to heat the fluid entering the extraction device.
50. The method of claim 48, wherein the extraction device and the separation device comprise:
a water bath;
a high pressure cell in the water bath that contains the composition;
the pump that charges the supercritical fluid through the cell; and a filter contained in the cell that filters the supercritical fluid out of the cell.
51. The method of claim 50, further comprising the step of using a pressure gauge to monitor the pressure of the fluid in the extraction device and in the separation device.
52. The method of claim 47 wherein the supercritical fluid is at a temperature of about 170°C.
53. The method of claim 47 wherein the heat exchanger cools the fluid to a temperature of about 20°C.
54. The method of any one of claims 47 to 53 wherein the composition is bituminous sands, the component is bitumen and the fluid is carbon dioxide.
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