CA2235566A1 - Motor vehicle monitoring system for determining a cost of insurance - Google Patents

Motor vehicle monitoring system for determining a cost of insurance Download PDF

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Publication number
CA2235566A1
CA2235566A1 CA 2235566 CA2235566A CA2235566A1 CA 2235566 A1 CA2235566 A1 CA 2235566A1 CA 2235566 CA2235566 CA 2235566 CA 2235566 A CA2235566 A CA 2235566A CA 2235566 A1 CA2235566 A1 CA 2235566A1
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Canada
Prior art keywords
vehicle
data elements
insurance
cost
driving
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Abandoned
Application number
CA 2235566
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French (fr)
Inventor
Robert J. Mcmillan
Alexander D. Craig
John P. Heinen
Original Assignee
Progressive Casualty Insurance Co
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Publication date
Family has litigation
Priority to CA2,229,238 priority Critical
Priority to CA 2229238 priority patent/CA2229238A1/en
Application filed by Progressive Casualty Insurance Co filed Critical Progressive Casualty Insurance Co
Priority to CA 2235566 priority patent/CA2235566A1/en
Publication of CA2235566A1 publication Critical patent/CA2235566A1/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=29402854&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=CA2235566(A1) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Application status is Abandoned legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06QDATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS OR METHODS, SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES; SYSTEMS OR METHODS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR ADMINISTRATIVE, COMMERCIAL, FINANCIAL, MANAGERIAL, SUPERVISORY OR FORECASTING PURPOSES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G06Q40/00Finance; Insurance; Tax strategies; Processing of corporate or income taxes
    • G06Q40/02Banking, e.g. interest calculation, credit approval, mortgages, home banking or on-line banking
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C5/00Registering or indicating the working of vehicles
    • G07C5/008Registering or indicating the working of vehicles communicating information to a remotely located station
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C5/00Registering or indicating the working of vehicles
    • G07C5/08Registering or indicating performance data other than driving, working, idle, or waiting time, with or without registering driving, working, idle or waiting time
    • G07C5/0841Registering performance data
    • G07C5/085Registering performance data using electronic data carriers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08GTRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
    • G08G1/00Traffic control systems for road vehicles
    • G08G1/20Monitoring the location of vehicles belonging to a group, e.g. fleet of vehicles, countable or determined number of vehicles

Abstract

A method and system of determining a cost of automobile insurance based upon monitoring, recording and communicating data representative of operator and vehicle driving characteristics. The cost is adjustable retrospectively and can be prospectively set by relating the driving characteristics to predetermined safety standards. The method comprises steps of monitoring a plurality of raw data elements representative of an operating state of the vehicle or an action of the operator. Selected ones of the raw data elements are recorded when the ones are determined to have an identified relationship to safety standards. The selected ones are consolidated for processing against an insurer profile and for identifying a surcharge or discount to be applied to a base cost of automobile insurance. A final cost is produced from the base costs and the surcharges or discounts.

Description

MOTOR VEHICLE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR
DETERMINING A COST OF INSURANCE
Background of the Invention The present invention relates to data acquisition and processing systems, and particularly to a system for monitoring motor vehicle operational characteristics and driver behaviour to obtain increased amounts of data relating to the safety of use for purposes of providing a more accurate determination of a cost of insurance for the vehicle.
Conventional methods for determining costs of motor vehicle insurance involve gathering relevant historical data from a personal interview with the applicant for the insurance and by referencing the applicant's public motor vehicle driving record that is maintained by a governmental agency, such as a Bureau of Motor Vehicles. Such data results in a classification of the applicant to a broad actuarial class for which insurance rates are assigned based upon the empirical experience of the insurer. Many factors are relevant to such classification in a particular actuarial class, such as age, sex, marital status, location of residence and driving record.
The current system of insurance creates groupings of vehicles and drivers (actuarial classes) based on the following types of classifications.
Vehicle:
Age;
manufacturer, model; and value.
Driver:
Age;
sex;
marital status;
driving record (based on government reports), violations (citations);
at fault accidents; and place of residence.
Coverage:
Types of losses covered, liability, uninsured motorist, comprehensive, and collision;
liability limits; and deductibles .
The classifications, such as age, are further broken into actuarial classes, such as 21 to 24, to develop a unique vehicle insurance cost based on the specific combination of actuarial classes for a particular risk. For example, the following information would produce a unique vehicle insurance cost.
Vehicle:
Age 1993 (three years old) manufacturer, model Ford, Explorer XLT
value $ 18,000.
Driver:
Age 38 years old sex male marital status single driving record (based on government reports) violations 1 point (speeding) at fault accidents 3 points (one at fault accident) place of residence 33619 (zip code) Coverage:

Types of losses covered liability yes uninsured motorist no comprehensive yes collision yes liability limits $100,000./$300,000./$50,000.
deductibles $500.I$500.
A change to any of this information would result in a different premium being charged, if the change resulted in a different actuarial class for that variable. For instance, a change in the drivers' age from 38 to 39 may not result in a different actuarial class, because 38 and 39 year old people may be in the same actuarial class. However, a change in driver age from 38 to 45 may result in a different premium because of the change in actuarial class.
Current insurance rating systems also provide discounts and surcharges for some types of use of the vehicle, equipment on the vehicle and type of driver. Common surcharges and discounts include:
Surcharges:
Business use.
Discounts:
Safety equipment on the vehicle airbags, and antilock brakes;
theft control devices passive systems (e.g. "The Club"), and alarm system; and driver type good student, and safe driver (accident free).

A principal problem with such conventional insurance determination systems is that much of the data gathered from the applicant in the interview is not verifiable, and even existing public records contain only minimal information, much of which has little relevance towards an assessment of the likelihood of a claim subsequently occurring. In other words, current rating systems are primarily based on past realized losses. None of the data obtained through conventional systems necessarily reliably predicts the manner or safety of future operation of the vehicle. Accordingly, the limited amount of accumulated relevant data and its minimal evidential value towards computation of a fair cost of insurance has generated a long-felt need for an improved system for more reliably and accurately accumulating data having a highly relevant evidential value towards predicting the actual manner of a vehicle's future operation.
Many types of vehicle operating data recording systems have heretofore been suggested for purposes of maintaining an accurate record of certain elements of vehicle operation. Some are suggested for identifying the cause for an accident, others are for more accurately assessing the efficiency of operation. Such systems disclose a variety of conventional techniques for recording vehicle operation data elements in a variety of data recording systems.
In addition, it has also been suggested to provide a radio communication link for such information via systems such as a cellular telephone to provide immediate communication of certain types of data elements or to allow a more immediate response in cases such as theft, accident, break-down or emergency . It has even been suggested to detect and record seatbelt usage to assist in determination of the vehicle insurance costs (U.S. Patent No. 4,667,336).
The various forms and types of vehicle operating data acquisition and recordal systems that have heretofore been suggested and employed have met with varying degrees of success for their express limited purposes. A11 possess substantial defects such that they have only limited economical and practical value for a system intended to provide an enhanced acquisition, recordal and communication system of data which would be both comprehensive and reliable in predicting an accurate and adequate cost of insurance for the vehicle.
Since the type of operating information acquired and recorded in prior art systems was generally never intended to be used for determining the cost of vehicle insurance, the data elements that were monitored and recorded therein were not directly related to predetermined safety standards or the determining of an actuarial class for the vehicle operator. For example, recording data characteristics relevant to the vehicle's operating efficiency may be completely unrelated to the safety of operation of the vehicle. Further, there is the problem of recording and subsequently compiling the relevant data for an accurate determination of an actuarial profile and an appropriate insurance cost therefor.
Current motor vehicle control and operating systems comprise electronic systems readily adaptable for modification to obtain the desired types of information relevant to determination of the cost of insurance. Vehicle tracking systems have been suggested which use communication links with satellite navigation systems for providing information describing a vehicle's location based upon navigation signals. When such positioning information is combined with roadmaps in an expert system, vehicle location is ascertainable.
Mere vehicle location, though, will not provide data particularly relevant to safety of operation unless the data is combined with other relevant data in an expert system which is capable of assessing whether the roads being driven are high-risk or low-risk with regard to vehicle safety.
The present invention contemplates a new and improved motor vehicle monitoring, recording and communication system, which primarily overcomes the problem of determining cost of vehicle insurance based upon data which does not take into consideration how a specific vehicle is operated. The subject invention will base insurance charges with regard to current material data representative of actual driving characteristics of the vehicle and driver operation to provide a classification rating of the operator and the vehicle in an actuarial class which has a vastly reduced rating error over conventional insurance cost systems. Additionally, the present invention allows for frequent (monthly) adjustment to the cost of coverage because of the changes in operator behaviour and driving patterns. This can result in automobile insurance charges that are readily controllable by individual operators. The system is adaptable to current electronic operating systems, tracking systems and communication systems for the improved extraction of selected insurance related data.
Brief Summary of the Invention In accordance with the present invention, there is provided a method of determining a cost of automobile insurance that may be based upon monitoring, recording and communicating data representative of operator and vehicle driving characteristics, whereby the cost may be adjustable by relating the driving characteristics to predetermined safety standards . The method may comprise the steps of monitoring a plurality of raw data elements representative of an operating state of a vehicle or an action of the operator. Selected ones of the plurality of raw data elements may be recorded when they are determined to have an identified relationship to the safety standards. The recorded elements may be consolidated for processing against an insured profile. The recorded elements may be consolidated for identifying a surcharge or discount to be applied to a base cost of automobile insurance. The total cost of insurance obtained from combining the base cost and surcharges or discounts may be produced as a final cost to the operator.
In accordance with the present invention, there is provided a method of determining a cost of automobile insurance for a selected period that may be based upon monitoring, recording and communicating data representative of operator and vehicle driving characteristics during the period, whereby the cost may be adjustable by relating the driving characteristics to predetermined safety standards. The method may comprise determining an initial insured profile and a base cost of automobile insurance based on the insured profile, monitoring a plurality of data elements representative of an operating state of a vehicle or an _7_ action of the operator during t:he selected period, recording selected ones of the plurality of data elements when they are determined to have a preselected relationship to the safety standards, consolidating the selected data for identifying a surcharge or discount to be applied to the base cost and producing a final cost of automobile insurance for the selected period from the base cost and the surcharge or discount.
In accordance with the present invention, the recording may for example comprise identifying a trigger event associated with the raw data elements, e. g. one of the data elements, which has an identified, e. g.
preselected relationship to the safety standards so that the trigger information representative of the trigger event may be recorded. Both the one data element and the trigger information representative of the trigger event may be recorded .
In accordance with the present invention, the method may for example comprise a step of immediately communicating to a central control station via an uplink, information representative of the trigger event.
In accordance with the present invention, the trigger event response information generated by the control station may, for example, further be recorded.
In accordance with the present invention, the method may for example comprise steps of generating calculated data elements from the data elements, e.g. raw data elements.
In accordance with the present invention, the method may for example include generating derived data elements from the data elements, e.g.
raw data elements.
In accordance with the present invention, the step of consolidating may for example comprise accumulating the calculated and derived data elements in a recording device.
In accordance with the present invention, at least a portion of the data elements may, for example, be within an awareness and selected control of the operator and the method may comprise adjusting by an operator of the _g_ operator driving characteristics, thereby causing a change in the data elements to obtain the discount in the final cost.
In accordance with the present invention, the base cost, for example, may be for a predetermined period of time and the adjusting by the operator may for example be set to occur at predetermined intervals within the predetermined period.
In accordance with the present invention, the predetermined period of time may, for example, comprise two years and the predetermined intervals may comprise monthly intervals.
In accordance with the present invention, the monitoring may for example comprise calculating a total driving time of the vehicle and classifying relative portions of the driving time amongst a plurality of rating classifications comprising high, medium and low risk driving time, and further identifying geographic location for area of driving amongst a plurality of classifications comprising high, medium and low driving locations.
In accordance with the present invention, the consolidating may for example comprise calculation of a percentage of drive time in the drive time classifications and the drive location classifications.
In accordance with the present invention, there is also provided a process for acquiring and recording vehicle insurance related data during a time period via an on-board computer and recording system for adjusting an insurance cost during the time period. T'he process may comprise the steps of monitoring a plurality of data elements representative of vehicle operating states and driver actions during the time period, recording selected ones of the data elements in a vehicle record file of an on-board data storage device when they are identified as having a relationship material to determination of the insurance cost, identifying whether the selected ones comprise a trigger event, and if so identified, communicating information representative of the trigger event to a central control station for storage in a trigger file, and consolidating the vehicle record file and the trigger event file in a form for determining a vehicle cost of insurance for the time period.
In accordance with the present invention, the process may for example further include a step of communicating from the central control station S an order for dispatch of an emergency or assist vehicle in response to the identifying of a special trigger event determined to require driver assistance.
In accordance with the present invention, the step of monitoring may comprise calculating a total drive time of the vehicle and classifying relative portions of the driving time amongst a plurality of rating classifications comprising high, medium and low risk driving time, and further identifying geographic locations for area of driving amongst a plurality of classifications comprising high, medium and low risk driving locations.
In accordance the present invention, the step of consolidating may for example comprise calculation of a percentage of drive time in the drive time classifications and the drive location classifications.
The present invention may use information acquired from the vehicle to more accurately assess vehicle usage and thereby derive insurance costs more precisely and fairly. Ex~unples of possible actuarial classes developed from vehicle provided data include:
Driver:
Total driving time in minutes by each driver of the insured vehicle;
number of minutes driving in high/low risk locations (high/low accident areas);
number of minutes of driving at high/low risk times (rush hour or Sunday afternoon);
safe driving behaviour, using seat belts, use of turn signals, observance of speed limits, and observance of traffic control devices;
number of sudden braking situations; and number of sudden acceleration situations.
Vehicle:
Location vehicle is parked at night (in garage, in driveway, on street); and location vehicle is parked at work (high theft locations, etc.).
These new and more precise actuarial classes may be considered to be better predictors of loss because they are based on actual use of the vehicle and the behaviours demonstrated by the driver. This may allow the consumers unprecedented control over the ultimate cost of their vehicle insurance.
In accordance with the present invention, additional discounts and surcharges based on data provided by the insured vehicle may be available.
Examples of surcharges and discounts based on vehicle provided data include:
Surcharges:
Excessive hard braking situations occurring in high risk locations; and intermittent use of a safety device, such as seat belts.
Discounts:
Regular selection of low/high risk routes of travel;
regular travel at low/high risk times;
significant changes in driving behaviour that results in a lower risk;
vacation discount when the vehicle is not used;
regular use of safety devices; and unfailing observance of speed limits.
There may be some overlap between the use of actuarial classes and discounts and surcharges. Until data has been gathered and analysed it is not possible to determine which vehicle provided data may be used to determine actuarial classes and which may be used for surcharges or discounts.

In accordance with the present invention, there is also provided a system for determining a cost of automobile insurance for a selected time period based upon monitoring, recording and communicating data representative of operator and vehicle driving characteristics, whereby the cost is adjustable by relating the driving characteristics to predetermined safety standards. The system may comprise means for determining an insured profile and a base cost of automobile insurance based on the insured profile, means for monitoring a plurality of data elements representative of an operating state of a vehicle or an action of the operator during the selected time period, means for recording selected one of the plurality of data elements when they are determined to have a preselected relationship to the safety standards, means for consolidating the selected ones for identifying a surcharge or discount to be applied to the base cost, and means for producing a final cost for the selected time period from the base cost and the surcharge or discount.
In accordance with the invention, the system may for example include means for immediately communicating to a central control station via an uplink information representative of a trigger event associated with the data elements whereby a dispatch of an emergency vehicle may be selectively made.
In accordance with the present invention, the system may for example include means for generating calculated data elements.
In accordance with the present invention, the system may for example further include means for generating derived data elements.
In accordance with the present invention, the means for monitoring may for example comprise means for calculating a total driving time of the vehicle and classifying relative portions of the driving time amongst a plurality of rating classifications comprising high, medium and low risk driving times, and means for further identifying geographic locations of driving area and classifying the identified geographic locations for area of driving amongst a plurality of classifications comprising high, medium and low risk driving locations.

The means for consolidating may comprise means for calculating a percentage of drive time in the drive time classifications and the drive location classifications.
One benefit obtained by use of the present invention is a system that may provide precise and timely information about the current operation of an insured motor vehicle that may enable an accurate determination of operating characteristics, including such features as miles driven, time of use and speed of the vehicle. This information can be used to establish actual usage based insurance charges, eliminating rating errors that are prevalent in traditional systems and may result in vehicle insurance charges that can be directly controlled by individual operators.
It is another benefit of the subject invention that conventional motor vehicle electronics may be easily supplemented by system components comprising a data recording, a navigation system and a communications device to extract selected insurance relevant data from the motor vehicle.
In accordance with the present invention, there is further provided a method of generating an actuarial class system for determining vehicle insurance costs for adjusting premiums for an insurance period of time based on data derived from motor vehicle operational characteristics and driver behaviour during the insurance period of time. The method may comprise the steps of monitoring a plurality of data elements representing vehicle operating states and driver actions during the insurance period of time, recording selected ones of the data elements in a vehicle record file when the ones are identified as having a relationship material to determination of a cost of insurance, setting a plurality of actuarial classes associated with corresponding degrees of safety of operation of the vehicle, and consolidating the vehicle record files with selected actuarial classes for determining a corresponding cost of insurance for the vehicle in correspondence with a one of the actuarial classes for the insurance period of time.

In accordance with the present invention, the monitoring and recording steps may for example occur continuously and concurrently with actual vehicle operation for acquiring the data elements during actual vehicle use.
In accordance with the present invention, at least a portion of the plurality of data elements may for example be within an awareness and selective control of a driver. The process may for example comprise adjusting by the driver of driving behaviour to change the portion of data elements for matching the vehicle record with an other one of actuarial classes.
It is yet another object of the present invention to generate actuarial classes and operator profiles relative thereto based upon actual driving characteristics of the vehicle and driver, as represented by the monitored and recorded data elements for providing a more knowledgeable, enhanced insurance rating precision.
In accordance with the present invention, there is also provided an integrated system for extracting data from multiple sensors, and screening, aggregating and applying the data for insurance rating purposes, the data being generated by an actual operation of a specific motor vehicle during a selected data collection period. The integrated system may comprise means for extracting a plurality of data elements from the multiple sensors wherein the elements are representative of vehicle operating states and driver actions during the selected data collection period, means for screening the data elements and aggregating selected ones of the data elements in a vehicle record file of an on-board storage device when the selected ones are identified as having a relationship material to determination of a cost of insurance for the vehicle, means for associating the aggregated selected data elements with predetermined actuarial classes indicative of a degree of safety of operation of the vehicle, and means for producing a cost of insurance for the selected data collections period.
In accordance with the present invention, the integrated system may for example include means for generating calculated data elements and derived data elements which are further aggregated for association with the actuarial classes.
The subject new insurance rating system may retrospectively adjust and prospectively set premiums based on data derived from motor vehicle operational characteristics and driver behaviour through the generation of new actuarial classes determined from such characteristics and behaviour, which classes heretofore have been unknown in the insurance industry. The invention may comprise an integrated system to extract via multiple sensors, screen, aggregate and apply for insurance rating purposes, data generated by the actual operation of the specific vehicle and the insured user/driver.
Other benefits and advantages of the subject new vehicle insurance cost determination process will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon a reading and understanding of the specification.
Brief Description of the Drawings The invention may take physical form in certain parts and steps and arrangements of parts and steps, the preferred embodiments of which will be described in detail in this specification and illustrated in the accompanying drawings which form a part hereof and wherein:
FIGURE 1 is a flowchart generally describing a data gathering process from a vehicle;
FIGURE 2 is a flowchart detailing the gathering and consolidating of appropriate information for determining a cost of insurance and the resulting insurance billing process;
FIGURE 3 is a suggestive perspective drawing of a vehicle including certain data element monitoring, recording and communicating devices;
FIGURE 4 is a block diagram of a vehicle on-board computer and recording system implementing the subject invention for selective communication with a central control center and a global positioning navigation system;

FIGURE 5 is a flowchart generally illustrating a method for acquiring and recording vehicle insurance related data; and FIGURE 6 is a tabular illustration of various sources of insurance-related data, a necessary interface for acquiring the data and an exemplary sample rate therefor.
Detailed :Description of the Invention Referring now to the drawings, wherein the showings are for purposes of illustrating the preferred embodiments of the invention only and not for purposes of limiting same, the FIGURES show an apparatus and method for monitoring, recording and communicating insurance related data for determination of an accurate cost of insurance based upon evidence relevant to the actual operation and in particular the relative safety of that operation.
Generally, a vehicle user is charged for insurance based upon statistical averages related to the safety of operation based upon the insurer's experience with other users who drive similar vehicles in a similar geographic area. The invention allows for the measure of the actual data while the motor vehicle is being driven. Such data measurement will allow the vehicle user to directly control his/her insurance costs by operating the vehicle in a manner which he/she will know will evidence superior safety of operation and a minimal risk of generation of an insurance claim. Examples of data which can be monitored and recorded include:
1. Actual miles driven;
2. Types of roads driven on (high risk vs. low risk); and, 3. Safe operation of the vehicle by the vehicle user through:
A. speeds driven, B. safety equipment used, such as seat belt and turn signals, C. time of day driven (high congestion vs. low congestion), D. rate of acceleration, E. rate of braking, F. observation of traffic signs.
With reference to FIGURE 3, an exemplary motor vehicle is shown in which the necessary apparatus for implementing the subject invention is included. An on-board computer 300 monitors and records various sensors and operator actions to acquire the desired data for determining a fair cost of insurance. Although not shown therein, a plurality of operating sensors are associated with the motor vehicle to monitor a wide variety of raw data elements.
Such data elements are communicated to the computer through a connections cable which is operatively connected to the vehicle data bus 304 through an SAE-J 1978 connector, or OBD-II connector or other vehicle sensors 306. A driver input device 308 is also operatively connected to the computer 300 through connector 307 and cable 302. The computer is powered through the car battery 310 or a conventional generator system (not shown). Tracking of the vehicle for location identification can be implemented by the computer 300 through navigation signals obtained from a GPS (global positioning system) antenna or other locating system 312. The communications link to a central control station is accomplished through the cellular telephone, radio, satellite or other wireless communication system 314.
FIGURE 4 provides the block diagram of the in-vehicle computer system. The computer 300 is comprised of four principal components, an on-board data storage device 402, an input/output subsystem 404 for communicating to a variety of external devices, a central processing unit and memory device and a real time operating kernel 408 for controlling the various processing steps of the computer 300. The computer 300 essentially communicates with three on-board vehicle devices for acquisition of information representative of various actual vehicle operating characteristics. A driver input console 410 allows the driver to input data representative of a need for assistance or for satisfaction of various threshold factors which need to be satisfied before the vehicle can be operated. The physical operation of the vehicle is monitored through various sensors 412 in operative connection with the vehicle data bus, while additional sensors 414 not normally connected to the data bus can be in direct communication with the computer 300 as will hereinafter be more fully explained.
The vehicle is linked to an operation control center 416 by a communications link 418, preferably comprising a conventional cellular telephone interconnection. A navigation sub-system 420 receives radio navigation signals from a GPS 422.
The type of elements monitored and recorded by the subject invention comprise raw data elements, calculated data elements and derived data elements. These can be broken down as follows:
Raw Data Elements:
Power train sensors RPM, transmission setting (Park, Drive, Gear, Neutral), throttle position, engine coolant temperature, intake air temperature, barometric pressure;
Electrical sensors brake light on, turn signal indicator, headlamps on, hazard lights on, back-up lights on, parking lights on, ropers on, doors locked, - 1g -key in ignition, key in door lock, horn applied;
Body sensors S airbag deploylr~ent, ABS application, level of fuel in tank, brakes applied, radio station tuned in, seat belt on, door open, tail gate open, odometer reading, cruise control engaged, anti-theft disable;
Other sensors vehicle speed, vehicle location, date, time, vehicle direction, IVHS data sources.
Calculated Data Elements:
rapid deceleration;
rapid acceleration;
vehicle in skid;
wheels in spin;
closing speed on vehicle in front;
closing speed of vehicle in rear;
closing speed of vehicle to side (right or left);

space to side of vehicle occupied;
space to rear of vehicle occupied;
space to front of vehicle occupied;
lateral acceleration;
sudden rotation of vehicle;
sudden loss of tire pressure;
driver identification (t:hrough voice recognition or code or fingerprint recognition);
distance travelled; and environmental hazard conditions (e.g. icing, etc.).
Derived Data Elements:
vehicle speed in excess of speed limit;
observation of traffic signals and signs;
road conditions;
traffic conditions; and vehicle position.
This list includes many, but not a11, potential data elements.
With particular reference to FIGURE 1, a flowchart generally illustrating the data gathering process of the subject invention is illustrated. Such a process can be implemented with conventional computer programming in the real time operating kernel 408 of the computer 300. The process is identified with initially a begin step 100 (key in ignition?) and a check of whether the vehicle is operating at step 102. If the vehicle is not operating a reverification occurs every two (2) minutes as shown at step 104. It should be noted that the computer is continually powered by at least the vehicle battery 310 (FIGURE
3), but it can be appreciated that during operation the generator (not shown) will supply the energy. If the vehicle is operating, then there is a step of recording sensor information 106. The recording comprises monitoring a plurality of raw data elements, calculated data elements and derived data elements as identified above. Each of these is representative of an operating state of the vehicle or an action of the operator. Select ones of the plurality of data elements are recorded when the ones are determined to have an identified relationship to the safety standards. For example, vehicle speed in excess of a predetermined speed limit will need to be recorded but speeds below the limit need only be monitored and stored on a periodic basis. The recording may be made in combination with date, time and location. Other examples of data needed to be recorded are excessive rates of acceleration or frequent hard braking.
The recording process would be practically implemented by monitoring and storing the data in a buffer for a selected period of time, e.
g. , thirty seconds. Periodically, such as every two minutes, the status of all monitored sensors for the data elements is written to a file which is stored in the vehicle data storage 402. The raw, calculated and derived data elements listed above comprise some of the data elements to be so stored.
Certain of the recorded sensor information may comprise a trigger event of which inquiry is identiFled at step 108. "Trigger events" are defined as a combination of sensor data requiring additional action or which may result in a surcharge or discount during the insurance billing process . Certain trigger events may require immediate upload 110 to a central control which will then be required to take appropriate action. For example, a trigger event would be rapid deceleration in combination with airbag deployment indicating a collision, in which case the system could notify the central control of the vehicle location.
Alternatively, if the operator were to trigger on an emergency light, similarly the system could notify the central control of the vehicle location indicating that an emergency is occurring. The trigger information is recorded, as at step 116, and whatever response is taken by the central control is also recorded at step 118.
The trigger information recording step 116 and the recording sensor information step 106 may impart recording of information in the on-board data storage device 402 or memory 406. The event response information recording at step 118 will usually occur in the central control station. Such response information could be the dispatch of an emergency vehicle, or the telephoning of police or an EMS
unit.
Trigger events are divided into two groups: those requiring immediate action and those not requiring immediate action, but necessary for proper billing of insurance. Those required for proper billing of insurance will be recorded in the same file with all the other recorded vehicle sensor information. Those trigger events requiring action will be uploaded to a central control center which can take action depending on the trigger event. Some trigger events will require dispatch of emergency services, such as police or EMS, and others will require the dispatch of claims representatives from the insurance company.
The following comprises an exemplary of some, but not all, trigger events:
Need for Assistance:
These events would require immediate notification of the central control center.
1. Accident Occurrence. An accident could be determined through the use of a single sensor, such as the deployment of an airbag.
It could also be determined through the combination of sensors, such as a sudden deceleration of the vehicle without the application of the brakes.
2. Roadside assistance needed. This could be through the pressing of a "panic button" in the vehicle or through the reading of a sensor, such as the level of fuel in the tank. Another example would be loss of tire pressure, signifying a flat tire.
3. Lock-out assistance needed. The reading of a combination of sensors would indicate that the doors are locked but the keys are in the ignition and the driver has exited the vehicle.
4. Driving restrictions. The insured can identify circumstances in which he/she wants to be notified of driving within restricted areas, and warned when he/she is entering a dangerous area. This could be applied to youthful drivers where the parent wants to restrict time or place of driving, and have a record thereof.
Unsafe Operation of the Vehicle These events would be recorded in the in-vehicle recording device for future upload. Constant trigger events would result in notification of the driver of the exceptions .
1. Excessive speed. The reading of the vehicle speed sensors would indicate the vehicle is exceeding the speed limit. Time would also be measured to determine if the behaviour is prolonged.
2. Presence of alcohol. Using an air content analyser or breath analyser, the level of alcohol and its use by the driver could be determined.
3. Non-use of seatbelt. Percent of sample of this sensor could result in additional discount for high use or surcharge for low or no use.
4. Non-use of turn signals. Low use could result in surcharge.
5. ABS application without an accident. High use could indicate unsafe driving and be subject to a surcharge.
With particular reference to FIGURE 2, a general flowchart describing the steps of the gathering of appropriate information for billing insurance on a periodic basis is illustrated.
At the initiation of the vehicle insurance billing process, the central billing system of the insurer will acquire 202 the vehicle sensor record file from the sensor record file 204 from each vehicle to be billed. This process of data acquisition will involve a periodic uploading of the vehicle file 204. This file will be uploaded to the central system when the storage device 402 in the vehicle approaches capacity, on command, or when the billing process starts. All the information from the combination of files stored in the vehicle will be used to determine the bill for the insurance on the vehicle for the prior insurance period.
Data acquisition is also made from the trigger event response file 206 in the acquisition step 208. This data is stored in the central control center, and includes information for response activities listed above which require additional billing for services rendered to the insured.
At step 210, the vehicle sensor record file and the trigger event response file are consolidated . Such files will include all the activity for which the insured is to be billed for the prior period. At step 212, a11 the information comprising the insured profile, which is already maintained and stored in other insurance files, is applied to t:he consolidated activity files for the immediately prior period. This insured profile includes the information about coverages including limits and deductibles, which are necessary for establishing the appropriate cost of insurance for the subject insured. At step 214, the acquired consolidated file information from step 210 and the overall insured profile acquired at step 212 are combined and processed against a surcharge or discount algorithm file, which include the specific factors for the various usage patterns and trigger events. The surcharges and discounts are continuously adjusted based on the loss results associated with driving behaviours demonstrated. Finally at step 216, the appropriate billing is produced showing the charges for insurance and other services for the prior period. The billing can be sent electronically or in printed form to the insured for payment.
With particular reference to FIGURE 5, a general diagram of the process for acquiring and recording vehicle insurance related data is illustrated.
At step 502, the raw data elements are collected from the vehicle sensors that provide the raw data elements identified above. Calculated data elements are generated in step 504 and derived data elements are generated at step 508. As noted, it is necessary to collect certain database information elements at step 506 prior to generating the derived data elements. A sample of all the data elements is stored in the vehicle at step 510. The sample rate or the recording of the information is controlled based upon the particular insurance billing recording needs predetermined by an algorithm developed by the insurance company . The algorithm will change depending on the particular type of insurance related requirements for the information. At step 512, if a certain incident, for example collision, occurs then a snapshot is generated of a11 the relevant data elements at the time of the incident, 514.
With reference to FIGURE 6, various examples of sources of insurance related data, the interface required to acquire the data and an example of the sample rate are illustrated for a preferred embodiment of the subject invention. Accordingly, it can be seen that for a certain information database comprised of maps, speed limits, traffic signs, and highway conditions is stored in the data storage device of the computer and can be obtained on demand therefrom. Acquiring data from vehicle sources such as engine data, body data and electrical data is obtained through a conventional SAEJ l978 connector with an exemplary sample rate of 10-15 Hz. The other sources of relevant data, such as IVHs, GPS, security system or any additional systems are obtained through various I/O ports and the sample rate can be varied in accordance with the desired goals of the insurer.
One of the useful consequences of the subject invention is that other products could be marketed to a particular vehicle operator based on information provided from the subject invention from the operator's motor vehicle. Since the invention includes processes for gathering, extracting and analysing information provided by the vehicle, a more informed judgment can be made about a determination of when and which products could be marketed to that motor vehicle operator. For example, by knowing that a vehicle operator travels on vacation in that vehicle to a certain resort location may give rise to a marketing of a package of products particular to the type of travel or the location.
Another example would relate to the knowledge that the vehicle operator attends particular types of sporting events which may give rise to certain types of products catered to fans of that sporting event.
The invention has been described with reference to preferred embodiments. Obviously, modifications and alterations will occur to others upon a reading and understanding of the specification. It is our intention to include a11 such modifications and alterations insofar as they come within the scope of the appended claims or the equivalents thereof.

Claims (27)

1. A method of determining a cost of automobile insurance for a selected period based upon monitoring, recording and communicating data representative of operator and vehicle driving characteristics during said period, whereby the cost is adjustable by relating the driving characteristics to predetermined safety standards, the method comprising:
determining an initial insured profile and a base cost of automobile insurance based on said insured profile;
monitoring a plurality of data elements representative of an operating state of a vehicle or an action of the operator during the selected period;
recording selected ones of the plurality of data elements when said ones are determined to have a preselected relationship to the safety standards;
consolidating said selected ones for identifying a surcharge or discount to be applied to the base cost; and, producing a final cost of automobile insurance for the selected period from the base cost and the surcharge or discount.
2. The method as described in claim 1 wherein said recording comprises identifying a trigger event associated with a one of the data elements having the preselected relationship and recording both the one data element and trigger information representative of the trigger event.
3. The method as described in claim 1 further including immediately communicating to a central control station via an uplink information representative of a trigger event associated with a one of the data elements.
4. The method as described in claim 3 further including recording trigger event response information generated by said control station.
5. The method as described in claim 1 further including generating calculated data elements from said data elements.
6. The method in claim 5 further including generating derived data elements from said data elements.
7. The method as described in claim 6 wherein said consolidating comprises accumulating said calculated and derived data elements.
8. The method as described in claim 1 wherein at least a portion of the data elements are within an awareness and selected control of the operator and wherein the method further comprises adjusting by an operator of the operator driving characteristics thereby causing a change in the data elements to obtain the discount in the final cost.
9. The method as described in claim 8 wherein the base cost is for a predetermined period of time and wherein the adjusting by the operator is set to occur at predetermined intervals within the predetermined period.
10. The method as described in claim 9 wherein the predetermined period of time comprises two years and the predetermined intervals comprise monthly intervals.
11. A process for acquiring and recording vehicle insurance related data during a time period via an on-board computer and recording system for adjusting an insurance cost during the time period comprising steps of:
monitoring a plurality of data elements representative of vehicle operating states and driver actions during the time period;

recording selected ones of the data elements in a vehicle record file of an on-board data storage device when said ones are identified as having a relationship material to determination of the insurance cost;
identifying whether said selected ones comprise a trigger event, and if so identified, communicating information representative of the trigger event to a central control station for storage in a trigger event file; and, consolidating said vehicle record file and said trigger event file in a form for determining a vehicle cost of insurance for the time period.
12. The process as defined in claim 11 further including communicating from the central control station an order for dispatch of an emergency or assist vehicle in response to the identifying of a special trigger event determined to require driver assistance.
13. A system of determining a cost of automobile insurance for a selected time period based upon monitoring, recording and communicating data representative of operator and vehicle driving characteristics, whereby the cost is adjustable by relating the driving characteristics to predetermined safety standards, the system comprising:
means for predetermining an insured profile and a base cost of automobile insurance based on said insured profile;
means for monitoring a plurality of data elements representative of an operating state of a vehicle or an action of the operator during the selected time period;
means for recording selected ones of the plurality of data elements when said ones are determined to have a preselected relationship to the safety standards;
means for consolidating said selected ones for identifying a surcharge or discount to be applied to the base cost; and, means for producing a final cost for the selected time period from the base cost and the surcharge or discount.
14. The system as described in claim 13 further including means for immediately communicating to a central control station via an uplink information representative of a trigger event associated with the data elements whereby a dispatch of an emergency vehicle may be selectively made.
15. The system as described in claim 13 further including means for generating calculated data elements.
16. The system as described in claim 15 further including means for generating derived data elements.
17. A method of generating an actuarial class system for determining vehicle insurance costs for adjusting premiums for an insurance period of time based on data derived from motor vehicle operational characteristics and driver behaviour during said insurance period of time, comprising:
monitoring a plurality of data elements representing vehicle operating states and driver actions during said insurance period of time;
recording selected ones of the data elements in a vehicle record file when said ones are identified as having a relationship material to determination of a cost of insurance;
setting a plurality of actuarial classes associated with corresponding degrees of safety of operation of the vehicle; and, consolidating said vehicle record files with selected actuarial classes for determining a corresponding cost of insurance for the vehicle in correspondence with a one of the actuarial classes for the insurance period of time.
18. The process for determining a cost of insurance as defined in claim 17 wherein said monitoring and recording steps occur continuously and concurrently with actual vehicle operation for acquiring the data elements during actual vehicle use.
19. The process for determining a cost of insurance as defined in claim 18 wherein at least a portion of the plurality of data elements are within an awareness and selective control of a driver, the process further comprising adjusting by the driver of driving behaviour to change said portion of data elements for matching said vehicle record with an other one of the actuarial classes.
20. An integrated system for extracting data from multiple sensors, and screening, aggregating and applying the data for insurance rating purposes, the data being generated by an actual operation of a specific motor vehicle during a selected data collection period comprising:
means for extracting a plurality of data elements from the multiple sensors wherein the elements are representative of vehicle operating states and driver actions during the selected data collection period;
means for screening the data elements and aggregating selected ones of the data elements in a vehicle record file of an on-board storage device when said selected ones are identified as having a relationship material to determination of a cost of insurance for the vehicle;
means for associating the aggregated selected data elements with predetermined actuarial classes indicative of a degree of safety of operation of the vehicle; and means for producing a cost of insurance for the selected data collection period.
21. The method as described in claim 1 wherein said monitoring comprises:
calculating a total driving time of the vehicle and classifying relative portions of the driving time amongst a plurality of rating classifications comprising high, medium, and low risk driving times; and further identifying geographic locations of driving area and classifying the identified geographic location for area of driving amongst a plurality of classifications comprising high, medium, and low risk driving locations.
22. The method as described in claim 21 wherein said consolidating comprises calculation of a percentage of drive time in the drive time classifications and the drive location classifications.
23. The process as defined in claim 11 wherein said monitoring comprises:
calculating a total driving time of the vehicle and classifying relative portions of the driving time amongst a plurality of rating classifications comprising high, medium, and low risk driving times; and further identifying geographic locations of driving area and classifying the identified geographic locations for area of driving amongst a plurality of classifications comprising high, medium, and low risk driving locations.
24. The system as defined in claim 11 wherein said consolidating comprises calculation of a percentage of drive time in the drive time classifications and the drive location classifications.
25. The system as defined in claim 13 wherein said means for monitoring comprises:

means for calculating a total driving time of the vehicle and classifying relative portions of the driving time amongst a plurality of rating classifications comprising high, medium, and low risk driving times; and means for further identifying geographic locations of driving area and classifying the identified geographic locations for area of driving amongst a plurality of classifications comprising high, medium, and low risk driving locations.
26. The system as defined in claim 25 wherein said means for consolidating comprises said means for calculating a percentage of drive time in the drive time classifications and the drive location classifications.
27. The system as described in claim 20 further including means for generating calculated data elements and derived data elements, said calculated and derived data elements being further aggregated for association with the actuarial classes.
CA 2235566 1998-02-11 1998-04-22 Motor vehicle monitoring system for determining a cost of insurance Abandoned CA2235566A1 (en)

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US7440846B2 (en) 2004-01-30 2008-10-21 Nec Corporation Vehicle information collection system having point issuing device
US7774217B1 (en) 2004-11-19 2010-08-10 Allstate Insurance Company Systems and methods for customizing automobile insurance
US8046246B1 (en) 2004-11-19 2011-10-25 Allstate Insurance Company Processing an application for insurance coverage
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US8219427B1 (en) 2004-11-19 2012-07-10 Allstate Insurance Company Processing an application for insurance coverage
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US10282785B1 (en) 2004-11-19 2019-05-07 Allstate Insurance Company Delivery of customized insurance products and services
WO2007128119A1 (en) * 2006-05-05 2007-11-15 Intelligent Mechatronic Systems Inc. Recording and reporting of driving characteristics
EP2003610A1 (en) 2007-06-11 2008-12-17 Swiss Reinsurance Company Emergency intervention system and appropriate method for automatically redressing malfunctions in means of transport
ITMO20110017A1 (en) * 2011-02-04 2012-08-05 Meta System Spa electronic equipment for vehicles
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