CA2166009A1 - Absorbent article with improved waist elastic and containment system - Google PatentsAbsorbent article with improved waist elastic and containment system
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- CA2166009A1 CA2166009A1 CA 2166009 CA2166009A CA2166009A1 CA 2166009 A1 CA2166009 A1 CA 2166009A1 CA 2166009 CA2166009 CA 2166009 CA 2166009 A CA2166009 A CA 2166009A CA 2166009 A1 CA2166009 A1 CA 2166009A1
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2t 66009 PATENT
AN ABSORBENT ARTICLE WITH IMPROVED WAIST ELASTIC AND CONTAINMENT
5 Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an article having one or more ~l~sti- ;~ peripheral margins. More particularly, the invention relates to an article which incG-~,G~tes a JisLncti~el~ oelasLd-ed barrier or containment system at a v,~;stband portion of the 10 article.
~ach~und of the Invention Conventional absG,Lenl articles, such as di~t-~'o diapers, have been constructed with 15 various types of el-~ :tic:-~ w~:s~-Ands and ~'~stid~Pd leg bands or leg cuffs. Such articles have also included additional, oel~.3lid-~d conbinment or barrier naps at the leg and/or waist se, tions of the atticle. Particular article designs have incG",G-ated a ~llutchable outer cover c~n,posed of an elasto"~aric web ",alerial, such as a stretch-bonded laminab which includes a layer of nonwoven fabric. Other conventional designs 20 have included separate elaslu",aric or nonela~to",-~ric side panel ",e",be,a connecled to the lateral side edges of a ba~sheel or outercover ,"e"lber, and have induded fastening systems and fastening tabs conne~cd to the side panels for securing the artide on a wearer.
25 Artides whidh incG,~G,ate conven~ional waist flap configuraUons, however, have exhibited various sho,tcol,lings. For exa" rl~. it has been difficult to mainbin the desired ope-a~,on of ~e walst naps when the articles are being wom. Even when the waist flaps are constructed of an elasto,r~enc ",atcrial or otherwise ehstir;-ed it has been difficult to mainbin conbct between the movable edge of the waist flap and the wearer's body and 30 has been difficult to reliably hold the flap open for an errecti~o receipt and conbinment of 2~ 66009 urine and feces. As a result there has been a continued need for improved containment structures at the leg and waist regions of the absorbent articles.
Brief De3~iotion of the Invention The pr~sent invention can provide a distin~ ~ve article which includes a longitudinal length dimension, a lateral cross-di",ension, a front w~is~-and portion, a back waislLand portion, an inte""edidle portion which inter~onnecl~s the front and back waislLand pGI tiGns1 and a pair of laterally opposed elasti~ ;-Fd side margins. The article has a 10 bac~sheel layer, and a liquid pe""aable topsheel layer conna~ted in supe-~)osed relation to the bac~sheet layer. An abso,benl body is sandviched between the topsheel layer and the bacl~sheet layer and an el~slic;-acl waist pocket ",- ",ber is conn~ted to at least one of the bac~sheet and topsheet layers along at least one end margin of the artide. The waist pocket mernber includes an extending flange section and an extending S pocket section. The pocket section of the waist pocket ",e"lber includes a subsbntially fixed edge porbon secured to the article, and an elastic;~ed gdU,e-~d moveable edge portion, which is longitudinally spaced from the fixed edge portion. In particular a,pe~s the pocket section can also include a subalanLally liquid i",pe""eable pocket barrier layer, and a pocket fabric layer conne- ted in facing relabon with the pocket barrier layer.
20 In other a ~pe -~., a plurality of seperata, laterally extending pocket elasbc "-e."bera can be sandwiched between the pocket barrier layer and the pocket fabric layer to provide an ~la~ ad waist pocket co",pos.t~ which is sul~slantially laterally gdU,er~d.
The various ~sp~ of the invenbon can provide a barrier flap sb ucture which can more 25 reliably and more afr~t;l~e~J mainbin an open position when the associated absGIl~enl article is being worn. In addiffon, the open nap configuration can be sustained while avoiding n-.Oq~Si~e irribtion of the wearer s skin. The a--dngement~ of the constituent cG."pononl~ and the combination of ope~tional paldll.etera such as the controlled stiffness and the controlled articl ~'~'iQn of the barrier flap, can advar~sously provide an 30 improved abso~anl structure which can have less leakage and can afford in~easad conlfo,l to the wearer.
8rief DescnPtion of the Dran vinqs The invenUon will be more fully underslood and furthet advantages will become appafenl when refer~nce is made to the f~"D~ng detailed description and acco,npanying drawings s in which:
Fig. 1 r~presen~aL./ely shows a partially cut-away, top view of an article of the invention;
Fig. 2 repr~sentali~ely shows a schemdtic, e~anded cross-sectional view of the waist 10 elastic system and the waist, barrier flap system of the invention bken along a longitudinal centerline of the article when the flap or pocket secUon is in its flat-out, ~.ncont~d.,ted condit;on;
Fig. 3 r~pr~senldti~ely shows a sche",atic, e~panded cross-se-,tional view of the waist 15 elastic system and the waist, barrier flap system of the invenUon bken when the flap or pocket section is in its conb a~,lad and opened condiLon, Fig. 4 ~pr~sentati~ely shows an enlafged, top view of a wa;3UJand section of the article of the invention;
Fig. 5 r~p~sen~ati~ely shows an enlarged, top view of anoU ,er u ~is~h~d section of the arUcle of the invenUon having a notch formed into the wa;st~and of the bac~sl ,~, Fig. B r~p~sen~ti~ely shows a parUally cut-away, top view of anoU ,er articla having dual 25 9fOUpill9S Of elasUc strands in the pocket secUon of the barrier flap system of the invenUon.
Debiled D~s~otion of the Invention 30 The pr~sonl invention will be des~il,ed herein in relationship to producing an el~ctic;~d conbinment system for absG-bent arUcles, particularly ~lispos~l~le abso,l~nl articles.
The articles can be placed against or in proxi"~ity to the body of a wearer to absorb and conbin various aY~Id~tes .I;s~halyed from the body, and are intended to be d;s~.-led after a limited penod of use. The articles are not intended to be laundered or otherwise 3s n3~l~r~d for re-use. While the pr~senl description will particularly be made in the context -of a diaper article it should be underalood that the presen~ invention is also arplic~ble to otherartides sudhascaps gowns drapes covers adultincontinencega--"enta sanitary napkins children's training pants and the like.
s In addi~on the invenUon will be desc,ibed in the context of its various configurations and Aspe~. It should be apprecialed that altemative a"~ngei"ents of the invention can ~",prise any combination whidh includes one or more of the various configurations and ~specte of the invenUon.
o With ,~fer~nce to Figs. 1 2 and 3 a representative artide such as a diaper 10 includes a longitudinal length din,ension 26 a lateral aoss-di",ension 24 a frontwa;~UJand portion 12 a back w~ And portion 14 an intermediate portion 16 whidh in~af~onnec~s the front and back wais~and por~ions and a pair of laterally opposed el~-~lid~ed side margins 20. The artide has a backsheet layer 30 and a liquid permeable topsheet lS layer 28 connected in supe".osed relation to the bac ksheel layer. An absG,L.e,)t body 32 is sandwiched between the topsheet layer and the bac~sheet layer and an elasticized waist pocket ",ember 80 is conne~led to at least one of the bac~sheet and topsheet layers along at least one end margin 22 of the article.
20 The ,~presentati~ely shown artide indudes longitudinally opposed end margins 22 and a pair of laterally opposed el-~stic; ed side margins 20. The elasLd-e,-1. waist pocket ",e",ber 80 is connecled to at least one of the bac~sheet and topsheet layers along at least one end margin 22 of the artide. The shown waist podket ",el"ber 80 indudes an extending flange section 82 and an extending podcet section 84. The podcet section 84 25 of the waist pod(et n,el"ber 80 indudes a subsbnbally fixed edge portion 102 secured to the article and includes an el~sti~-;-ed gathered moveable edge portion 104 which is longihdinally spaced from the fixed edge portion 102. The pocket section also indudes a subsbnUally liquid ir"pe""eable pocket barrier layer 106 and a pocket fabric layer 108 conne~ ted in ~acing relabon with the pocket barrier layer. A plurality of sepa,dte laterally 30 extending pocket elastic members 110 are sandwiched between the pocket barrier layer 106 and the pocket fabric layer 108 to provide an elasti~ ed waist pocket compGsite 112 which is substantially laterally gaU ,er~d.
A fastening system 40 is connected to the article at either or both of the laterally opposed 35 end re~ion~ 72 of at least one of the front and rear waistband sections. A cooper~n~
2~ 66009 side panel ",e,nber 56 can be assoc:~t~d with each fastening system and may be constructed to be nonel~,lic;-ed, or to be elasUc~lly s~etchable at least along a laterally extending cross-direction 24 of the article.
5 Fig.1 is a ,ep,esenld~e plan view of diaper 10 of the present invention in its flat-out uncont,a~ ted state (i.e. with all elastic induced gathering and cor,l.aclion removed).
ro,tions of the structure are partially cut away to more clearly show the interior construction of diaper 10, and the surface of the diaper which conlacts the wearer is facing the viewer. The outer edges of the diaper define a peri~,hery in which the 10 longitudinally extending side edge margins are designated 20 and the labrally extending end edge margins are designdted 22. The side edges define leg openings for the diaper and optionally are curvilinear and contoured. The end edges are shown as straight but optionally, may be curvilinear.
15 Diaper 10 typically includes a porous, liquid pe""eable topsheel 28; a subslantially liquid ilnpeil.,eable bacl~sheet 30; an absG,l,ent structure 32 positioned and connected between the topsheet and ba~sheet, a surge ",anag6",enl porUon 46; and elasUc ",e"~bers, such as leg el~Lcs 34 and waist elastics 42. The surge "~anag6..~6nt porUon is positioned in liquid communication with the absG,bent structure, and the absG,~nl 20 structure indudes a ,~tention porUon 48. The lopsheel 28, b_c~sheet 30, abso,l,enl structure 32 surge ",anage",enl porUon 46 and the elasUc ,ne",be~ 34 and 42 may be asse..~bled in a variety of wel~known diaper configuraUons. In addiUon the diaper can include a system of le~band barrier flaps, such as conbinment flaps 62.
25 As fep.esent~L~Iely shown, the top~heel 28 and backsheat 30 may be generally coe)~ensiJa, and may have length and width dill,ansions whidh are generally larger than the CGI~ onding di...ensions of abso.l,ent structure 32. Topsheet28 is associated with and slJpenn~pos&d on bacl~sheet 30 thereby defining the periphery of diaper 10. The waistband region cG...pnse those upper po,lions of diaper 10, which when wom, wholly 30 or partially cover or encirde the waist or mid-lower torso of the wearer. The inle,..,~ te region 1~ lies betv~een and inter~onne- b waistband regions 12 and 14, and indudes a crotdh region 18 whidh ~...p.ises that portion of diaper 10 whidh, when wom, is positioned between the legs of the wearer and covers the lower torso of the wearer.
Thus, the crotch region 18 is an area where repeated fluid surges typically occur in the 35 diaper or other ~ po~Able absG,benl article.
Topsheet 28 presents a body-facing surface which is cGIllF'--nt, soft-feeling, and non-i"itating to the wearer's skin. Further, the topsheet 28 can be less hydrophilic than ,eten~on portion 48, and is slJfricienUy porous to be liquid perrneable, permitting liquid to 5 penel,dtla through its thickness. A s~ topsheet 28 may be manufactured from a wide s ~le_lion of web materials, such as porous foams, retic~ t~d foams, apertured plastic films, natural fibers (for example, wood or cotton fibers), syntheUc fibers (for example, polyester or polypropylene fibers), or a combination of natural and synthetic fibers. Topsheet 28 is typically el"r'oycd to help isolate the wearer's skin from liquids 10 held in abso, bent structure 32. Various woven and nonwoven fabrics can be used for topsheet 28. For example, the topsheet may be cG",posed of a meltblown or spunbond~d web of polyolefin fibers. The topsheet may also be a bonded-carded-web - cGIllposed of natural and/or synthetic fibers.
15 For the purposes of the pr~sonl descfiption, the temm ~"GnJIoven web" means a web of ",ate.ial which is fommed without the aid of a textile weav;ng or knitting pnxess. The term "fa~rics~ is used to refer to all of the woven, knitted and nonwoven fibrous webs.
The topsheet fabrics may be cG,-,posed of a su~lantially h~d~upl~obic and sub~tantially 20 nonwettable ",aterial, and the hydr~phob-c i"aterial may optionally be treated with a su,raclanl or oU,an~ise processed to impart a desired level of wettability and hydrophilicity. In a parbcular embodiment of the invention, lopsheel 28 can be anGrw,wen, spunbond poly~,~pylene fabric cGIllposed of about 2.8-3.2 denier fibers formed into a web having a basis weight of about 20 gsm (g/m2 ) and density of about 25 0.13 gm/cc. The fabric can be surface treated with a ~ele ,'e~ amount of su.ra-,lant, such as about 0.28% TRITON X-102 su. ra~lant available from Union Carbide, a businesshaving omces in Danbury, Connecticut The su,rac~ant can be applied by any convont;onal means, such as spraying, printing, brush coating or the liko.
30 The su,raclant ",aterial, such as a convenLonal wetting agent, can be applied to a medial section of the t~psheet layer 28 to provide a greater wettability of the medial section, as cGmp<~d to a remainder of the topsheel layer 28. In particular conflgurations, the cross-di,~tional width of the medial section can be s~bslan~ally equal to or less than the cross~ile-,tional width of the surge ",anage",ent portion 46. In altemative 3s confi9urations, the medial secffon width can be subslanlially equal to or less than a cross-dilectional spac.,ng bet~,ecn a pair of adhesive strips employed to secure the conbinment flaps 62 onto topsheet 28 and to form a leak resislanl barrier seal onto the bac bsheet 30.
5 The sl"ra~lant-treated medial section can be appr~.i",ately centered with respecl to the longitudinal centerline of the diaper and can extend along subsla"tially the enUre length of the topsheet layer. AlbmaUvely the su, ra- lant treated medial section can beconstructed to extend along only a p,edete"nined portion of the topsheet length.
10 The various GonfiguraUons of the invention can include el~sti~;-ed legband barrier flaps such as the illustrated containment flaps 62. The shown configurations for example, include two containment flaps 62 which are connected to the bodyside surface of lopsheet layer 28. Suibble constructions and a"dngei"ents for containment flaps 62 are des~il~ed, for example, in U.S. Patent 4 704 116 issued November 3,1987 to K. Enloe 5 the ~isrlos~e of which is hereby in~o~ted by ~fer~nce in a ",anner that is consistent (not contradictory) herewith. Other configuraUons of the conbinment flaps ô2 aredes~iLed in U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 208 816 of R. Everett et al., filed March 4, 1994 and enUtled ABSORBENT ARTICLE HAVING AN IMPROVED SURGE
MANAGEMENT (Attomey docket No. 11 375), the ~iSClQsl ~e of which is hereby 20 inco.~,or~ted by r~fer~nce in a "~anner that is consistenl herewith.
Such containment flaps can be ~tlacl ,ed to topsheet layer 28 along length-wise extending fKed regions, such as fixed edges 64 of the flaps. A movable edge 66 of each containment flap includes a flap elasUc ",e"lber 68 which can con,pnse one or 25 more individual strands of elast~..,eric i"atenal. For example, a plurality of elasUc strands may be configured in a spaUally sepa~bd, generally parallel ~ ge.,-enl, and a suibble elasbc strand can, for example, be colllposed of a 470 decitex LYCRA elasto",er which is avaibble from E.l. DuPont de Nemours a business having offices in Wilmington Delaware. Altematively, the elasbc sbrands may be cG",posed of 700 denier 30 GLOSPAN S7 spandex e~ \erWhiCh iS available from Globe Manufactunn~ a business having offices in Fall River, l~ ssac~usetts. Elasbc "~ember 68 is conneclad to the movable edge of bhe conbinment flap in an elasUcally conb.-- tible condibon such bhat b'le cont,..- tion of the elasUc co.nponen~s thereof gdU,e,s and shG.~ens bhe edge of the conbinment flap. As a result the movable edge of each conbinment flap bnds to 35 position itself in a spaced relaUon away from th~ bodyside surfaces of topsheet 28 and/or 2 1 ~0~9 surge ",anage,nent porUon 46 toward a generally upright and appro~i"~-hly perpendicular configuraUon . especially in the crotch secUon of the diaper. In the shown embodiment, for example, the moveable edge of the containment flap i5 conne~.lad to the flap elasUcs by parUally doubling the flap ~aterial back upon itself by a limited amount 5 which is sufficient to endose the flap elasUcs 68.
At least a pair of containment barrier flaps 62 are connecled to laterally opposed longitudinally extending regions of topsheet layer 28, and the connected topshect regions are located generally ad~acent to laterally opposed side edge regions of the 10 medial secUon of topsheet layer 28. The conne..led topshecl regions are located substanUally laterally inboaf:J of the leg elasUcs of the diaper arUde 10, but may opUonally be located outboard of the leg elasUcs In the various configuraUons of the invenUon the desired barrier flaps, sudh as the 15 containment flaps 62 and the waist flaps 84 may for example be constructed of a fibrous matcnal whlch is similar to the material co,npfising topsheet 28 or similar to the ",alarial cG",pfising surge n~anagement porUon 48. Other convcntiooal materials, such as polyn~ar films, may also be employed. In other aspac~ of the invention, the barrier flaps are constructed of a material which is pel",eable only to gas, such as ambient air.
20 Al~cl,,~r,e configurations of the invention can indude barrier flaps whidh are constructed of a Illate ial whidh is r~sislanl to a passage of ~queous liquid such as urine,U ,e.~th,~ugh. For example, the barrier flaps may be constructed of a spunbond-meltblown spunbond (SMS) laminab ",aterial. In the illustrated embodiment, for example, the barrier flaps can be constructed of a SMS material having a basis weight of 25 about 0.75 osy (about 25 g/m2). The spunbond layers are co",posad of poly"n~pylene fibers and the meltblown layer is co,nposed of meltblown polyp~pJlene fibers.
In the various configurations of the invention where selected materials or cG."ponents such as the barrier flaps 62 and/or 84, are configured to be pe,",eable to gas while 30 having a ,~s;slal-ce and limited pe"l,eability to aqueous liquid, the liquid resisbnt ",atcrial can have a construction which is capable of suppo,ling a hydn~head of at least about 45 cm of water subsbntially without l~-k~ge ~1 ~ercU ll~ugh. A suibble technique for determining the ,es;slance of a ",atenal to liquid peneb~Lon is Federal Test Method Standa.d FTMS 191 Method 5514, dated 31 December 1968.
~acl~sheet 30 may be con,posed of a liquid permeable l~,aterial, but pref6,~bly cG",pnses - a ,~atenal which is configured to be substanbally i,~,pe""eable to liquids. For example a typical ba~sheet can be manufactured from a thin plastic film or other flexible liquid-i",pai".~la ",alerial. Such "flexible" ,naterials are cGIllF'--nt and will readily 5 confo",~ to the general shape and contours of the wearer's body. ~acl~shcut 30 can help prevent the ~x~dates contained in absorbent structure 32 from wetting articles such as bedsl,eets and overya"~ents which contact diaper 10.
In particular embodiments of the invention backsheet 30 is a polyethylene film having a 10 thickness of from about 0.012 millimeters (0.5 mil) to about 0.051 millimebrs (2.0 mil). In the shown embodiment, for example, the backsheet is a film having a thickness of about 0.032 mm (about 1.25 mil). Altemative constructions of the backsheet may co",prise a woven or non-woven fibrous web layer which has been toblly or partially constructed or treated to impart a desired level of liquid i,~pe"neability to 5e:M cted regions of the 15 backsheet that are acl~a~nt or pr~xi",ale the absG,L,ent body. For example a clothlike ba~sheet may be cG",posed of an appr~xi",ately 0.5 osy (about 17.7 9/ m2 ) basisweight, poly~r~pylene spunbond fabric which is laminated and thermally bonded to a stretch-thinned polypropylene film having a thickness of about 0.0006 in (about 0.015 mm) and a film basis weight of about 14.5 9/ m2 . ~acl~shee~ 30 typically 20 provides the outer cover of the article. Optionally ho~.ei~r, the article may cG",pnse a sepai,ate outer cover ",ei "ber which is in ad~litiGn to the backsheet.
Cacksheet 30 may optionally include a micro-porous, un'dulable~ ",atenal which permits vapors to escape from abso, bent structure 32 while still preventing liquid sx~ld~tes from 25 passing through the bacl~sheet. For example the b,ed~hable bacl~sheet may be cG")posed of a mi~pG~uus polymer film or a nonwoven fabric which has been coabd or oUl~ is ~ treated to impart a desired level of liquid in~pelllleability. For Gx~."rle a suibble mi~por~us film is a PMP-1 material which is available from Mitsui ToatsuChemicals, Inc., a ~",pany having offices in Tokyo, Japan; or an XKO 8044 polyolefin 30 film available from 3M Company of Minneapolis Minnesotd. The bacl~sheel can also be e"-hossed or oU,e~Aris~ provided ~vith a matte finish to exhibit a more aesthetically pleasing appe~,ance.
The ske of bac~sheel 30 is typically deterrnined by the size of abso,benl structure 32 35 and the exact diaper desi~n sel~ted Backsheet 30 for exampb, may have a ~enerally 21 660(~
T-shape a generally l-shape or a modified hourglass shape and may extend beyond the terminal edges of abso,L.ent structure 32 by a sel~cl~d d;slance such as a disbnce within the range of about 1.3 cenli,net~ra to 2.5 cenUmeters (about 0.5 to 1.0 inch) to provide side margins.
s Topsheet 28 and backsheet 30 are connected or oU ,erv, ise asso~: ~'.ed tog~U ,er in an operable ",anner. As used therein the term "associ~led en~"-passes configurations in which topsheet 28 is direc~y joined to backsheet 30 by affxing topsheet 28 directly to backsheet 30, and configuraUons wher~i.) topsheet 28 is joined to backsheet 30 by o affxing topsheel 28 to int.:""~Jiata "~e",bera which in tum are affxed to backsheet 30.
Topsheet 28 and backsheet 30 can be affxed directly to each other in sel~ted regions such as in areas along the diaper penphery, by dttacl"nent means (not shov~n), such as an ~i-.D le5.\~e, sonic bonds, U ,e""al bonds or any other atlachmenl means known in the art. For example, a uniform conUnuous layer of adl ,es;~e, a paltd, l l6d layer of adhesive, 15 a sprayed pattem of adhesive or an array of sepa(ata lines, swirls or spots of construction a~ll ,e ~;ie may be used to amx topsl)e~t 28 to backsheet 30. It should be readily àppr~dated that the above-des~ il,ed atlac~""ent means may also be employed to int~onnecl and asse",ble togeU.er the various other cG",ponenl parts of the arUcle das~il,ed herein.
In the .~p.. sentali~ely shown embodiment of the invention, the topsheet layer 28 is ~;sposed and secured in facing relation with the backsheet layer 30 to retain and hold the r~tention portion 48 and the surge ,-,anage",ent 46 between the bacl~sheet layer and the topsheet layer. The marginal side regions of topsheet layer 28 are ope,ably conns :- e ~
25 to co.~sponding marginal side regions of the bacl;sheel layer 30. Each of the atlached marginal side regions of the t~psheel and ba~sheel layers is located laterally outboard of its co..~spol-ding, assoeiatsd side edge region of the surge ",anag~",..nl portion 46.
In par;ticular configurations of the invention the topsheet 28 can indude dtlach6d marginal end re~ions, whidh are located longitudinally outboard of the end edge regions 30 of the ,~,t~ntion portion 48 and/or surge ",anagemenl portion 46. Similarly, the ba~sh~t 30 can indude dllached marginal end regions, whidh can be located - longitudinally outho~rd of the end edge regions of the r~tention portion and/or surge ",anag.,..,enl portion.
~ -- 10 -2~ 66009 _..
ElasUc ",e"~bera 34 are disposed adjacent the penphery of diaper 10 along each of the longitudinal side edges 20. The leg elastic members 34 can be conne~ led to either or both of the topsheet and backsheet layers to provide el~slic;~ed side margins of the diaper article and can be arranged to draw and hold diaper 10 against the legs of the 5 wearer to provide elaslic;~ed leg bands or leg cuffs. Waist elasUc ",e"lbe,a 42 may also be d;sposed adjacent either or both of the end edges of diaper 10 to provide el~slic;~ed waistbands.
ElasUc "~e"~bera 34 and 42 are secured to diaper 10 in an elasUcally conUa~til~le o condition so that in a normal under strain configuration the eîastic ",en,b~ra effectively conlract against diaper 10. The elastic ",e",bera can be secured in an elastically contractible conditiGn in a number of ways; for exa"lF'a, the elastic members may be s~t~l ed and secured while diaper 10 is in an uncontra- lad condition. All_."ati~ely, diaper 10 may be conl~ac~ad, for example by pleaUng, and the elastic ",e",bera secured 15 and conneclad to diaper 10 while the elasUc "lel"bera are in their relaxed or unstr~tched condition. SUII other means such as heat-shrink elasUc " ,atefial may be used to gather the ga.",ent.
In the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 1 leg elasUc members 34 extend essentially along 20 the complete length of inte""ediate region 16 of diaper 10. Alternatively, elasUc Ille,,lbe.s 34 may extend the enUre length of diaper 10 or any other length suibble providing the a"dngen,6nt of elasffcally conba- tible lines desired for the particular diaper design. Elastic ,.,e..,ba,~ 34 and 42 may have any of a variety of configurations. For example, the width of the individual eiasUc ",e",be.a 34 may be varied from 25 0.25 millimeters (0.01 inches) to 25 millimeters (1.0 inches) or more. The elasUc Illelllbela may compnse a single strand of elastic ",atenal or may cG",prise several parallel or non-parallel strands of elasUc matenal and the elasUc members may beapplied in a rectilinear or curvilinear a"dngement. Where mulUple strands are employed, the individual strands may b~ constructed to provide sub~l~,)Ually equal elasUc forces or 30 may be constn cted to provide Jifrer~nl elastic forces For exa.. ~I~ the individual strands may be of liffer~nt dia" ,ebr or other size, or may be configured with different amounts of elongation to ll ,er~by provide a gradient or other variation of elastic tensions.
Where the strands are non-parallel two or more of the strands may inbrsect or ~ U,a~ is~ inte.~onnecl within the elasUc member. The elastic "lembera may be afffixed to 35 the diaper in any of several ways which are known in the art. For exampb, the elastic 2t66oo~
Illelnbel~ may be ulbdson ~ally bonded heat and pressure sealed using a variety of bonding pa~te",s, or adhesively bonded to diaper 10 with selected pd~tellls of hot",e l or other type of adhesive. For example sprayed or swirled adhesive paUèi "s may be e",rloye~d.
s In the illustrated embodiments of the invention for eAa",~'e, leg elastic ",e",bers 34 may ~",pnse a carrier sheet to which are atlached a grouped set of el-slics co."posed of a plurality of individual elastic strands. The elasUc strands may inlersecl or be inle,~onnecled or be entirely sepa~aled from one anoU,er. The shown carrier sheet may 10 for example cG",prise a 0.002 cm thick film of une"-bossed poly"r~pylene ",alenal. The shown elastic strands can, for example be ~",posed of LYCRA elastomer which is available from DuPont. Each elastic strand can typically be within the range of about 470-1880 decitex (dtx) and dasi~bly is about 940 dtx or the equivalent in an embodiment of the invention wherein 3-4 strands are employed for each elqstic;-ed 15 leyl~and.. Another example of s~ 'e elasUc strands can be ~mposed of GLOSPAN
el -st~""er which is available from Globe Manufacturing Co. Each elastic strand can typically be within the range of about 240~1920 denier (den) and desirably is about 1400 den or the equivalent in an embodiment of the invenUon wherein 3~4 strands are employed for each elasth;-ed legband.
In addiffon, leg el~stics 34 may be generally straight or opUonally curved. For example, the curved ~'~sUçs can be inwardly bowed toward the longitudinal centerline of the diaper. In parbcular a"an~a."." ,ts, the curvature of the ebctics may not be configured or posiffoned sy,nmEt,ically relaffve to the labral centerline of the diaper. The curved 25 ela3Lcs may have an inwardly bowed and outwardly bowed, reflex~type of curvature, and the len~wise center of the s'~~tics may be offset by a s~lec~d disbnce toward either the front or rear wa;_~and of the diaper to provide desired fit and appean~n~.
Conventional arffdes have in~",Gratèd various barrier flap structures at their waistband 30 and/or le~band regions For exd..,r'e. such articles have typically incG.~.dted a single or mulff~layer piece of materidl, such as polymer films and film-nonN~ven laminates, at the waistband porffon of the article along the lateral cross-direction to fomm a waist flap or dam. The Illatefials, ho~e"er, typically exhibit similar behavior. When the materials are sb~tched they have a tendêncy to neck down thereby reducing their effective widths.
3s As they neck down, they tend to form relatively large corru~atiGns or furrows which 21 6600q extend subslantially along the direction of stretching. The presence of such corrugations can cause the barrier flaps particularly the waist flaps to ~ pse upon U ,ei "selvas tl ,ereby reducing the ability to remain open to receive and trap bodily wasb materials.
Additionally when the conventional ",aterials cont dct they tend to decr~ase in overall 5 stifrl~ess and this decr~ase in ~,nposite stiffness can again allow the barrier flaps to fold overor~ pseuponU,e",relves therebyreducingtheireffectiveness.
It has been discovered that particular barrier nap structures such as laminates inco",orating individual and separated elastic strands can provide structures which can 10 over~ome the sho, t~l,lings of prior structures. When stretched the s~anded laminates of the invention subslantially avoid the undesired stretch-wise corrugating effect typically seen aaoss the plane of the barrier flap and along the intended direction of stretch.
Desirably the amount of stretching does not exceed the amount of e'ongation at which the elasbc sb-ands were asse,-lbled into the laminab. When fully sbut~ hed and 15 elongalad the abanded laminab can lay substanUally flat. As bhe sbandad laminab relaxes and elasUcally tonb acls fine corrugabons of sufficient size and frequency can be provided wib't the furrows or valleys of bhe corrugate generally aligned to extend substanUally perpendicular to b' e direcUon of bhe co. Ibd~ tion. The fine corru~abons can enhance the Slirr~ ,ess of the flap sb-ucture and can improve its ability to remain open to 20 receive waste matelials. The sb-,,-ded laminates of bhe prt,sent invenUon substantially avoid nec~in~ when sb~tched. AddiUonally bhe geol"eb~ of bhe sbanded laminates U.e..,-el~es play an impG-lant role in the p6.fo..nanca of bhe ll.at2~isls when employed as a barrier dam structure such as the shown waist dam. The place,nenl of the strands can also play a role in the funcUonality of the various configurations of the laminas.
It has been found however that the identifi~tions of conventio"al types of materials or families of ,.,aleri31s have not been ~dequste for deriving waist flap structures that are sufficiently effecUve and reliable. It has been discovered that the pel fo. "~an~ and effecUveness of the waist dam is dependent upon parUcular comb-nations of p,ope ties 30 and behavior d~ar~ctenstic~ of the ",dlerials e",r ~ad to asse.,lble and construct the composite barrier flaps. For example, the incGI~ordtion of a flap ~Illposed of apolyur~U ,ane film or film laminate at the article w ~ And and the placemo,~)~ of a flap colllpos&d of a SMS (spunbond-meltblown-spunbond) nGr,~.o~en fabric laminate at the article waistband have not reliably provided a s~-rricianUy effective barrier flap stmcture.
35 It is imporlanl to further configure the materials with particular physical p~pe ties. One 2~66009 of the desired physical prupe,ties is the stiffness of the flap ",ei"ber, and the desired sliffl ,eiss can be acl-.eved in a variety of ways. For example contributing factors include the basis weight of the flap materials the stiffness or modulus of the individual cG"~ponenls the presence of adhesive added to laminas within the flap i"ei,lber the 5 paKem and distribution of the applied adhesive the presence of welding or ulbasonic trea~erlts the number of individual elastic strands emF Dye~d in the barrier flap structure the geome~ of the strand place",ent within barrier flap, the pr~sence and alignment of corrugations within the barrier flap, and the number of layers of con~ponents inco",orated within the barrier flap.
The pr~çent invention can provide a distinctive article such as the diaper 10 which has a aoss-wise, lateral di",ension 24 and a length-wise longitudinal di~"ension 26. The represen~ali~e diaper 10, has a front wa;;,ll,and portion 12, a rear or back v:_;sll,and portion 14 and an in~e""e-liate portion 16 which inte,connecls the front and rear 15 W ~ nd po, LiGns. The article includes a backsheet layer 30 having a laterally extending width and a longitudinally extending length. A porous, liquid pe""eabhtopsheel layer 28 has a laterally extending width and a longitudinally extending length and is connecled in supe"~osed relation to the backsheel layer 30. An abso,benl structure, such as the abso,l,enl body 32 is san~iched and oper~bly secured betv~cn 2 0 the bac~sheet layer 30 and the topsheet layer 28.
As napl~senldti~ely shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, the diaper 10 can have a waist pocket ",el"ber 80 which can include a laterally and longitudinally extending flange section 82, and a laterally and longitudinally extending barrier flap or pocket section 84. The flange 25 section can, for example, be connected to the bodyside surface of the lopsl-eel 28. The flap or pocket section 84 of the waist pocket member 80 includes a subslanlially fixed edge portion 102 which is secured to the article along and i,.""e~i;ately a,ljacenl the boundary of the flange section 82 and includes an elaslic;-9d gathered moveable edge portion 104, which is longitudinally spaced from the fixed edge portion 102 by a ~Sele_led 30 di~la,)ce. The pocket section thereby provides an operable waist dam and waist flap construction. The pocket section also includes a subslantially liquid i",pe,.,~eable pocket barrier layer 10~, and a pocket fabric layer 108 which is connected in facin~ relation with the pocket barrier layer. The pocket fabric may for example be cGIllposed of a woven or nonwoven fabric, and in the shown arrangement the fabric layer is des;rably a 3s nonwoven. A plurality of sepa,~le, laterally extending pocket elasUc ",e"~bers 110 are 2~ 66009 sar,dv.iehed and operably conne~ ted between the pocket barrier layer 106 and the pocket fabric layer 108 to provide an elasli~ d waist pocket ~,"posita 112 which is gdU,e,~d subslantially along the lateral cross-direction 24 and is elasUcally sbetcl,able at least along the cross-direction. The shown a,rangement includes elaslics ",ember~
5 which are aligned subslantially parallel to one another but optionally can include other sepa,~led configurations and alignments of the elastics Desirably the fabric layer 108 is a"dnged for pla~i"ent against the wearer's skin although the barrier layer 106 may optionally be ~Fpo .-ted for placei"ent im",e.liltely adjacenl the wearer's skin.
10 In a particular aspect of the invention, the flange section 82 of the waist pocket ",ei"ber 80 can include a subatanlially liquid i",pe""eable flange barrier layer 114, and a flange fabric layer 116 which is oper~bly connecl-~d and secured in facing relaUon with the flange barrier layer. The flange fabric may for example be composed of a woven or nonv"oven fabric, and in the shown arrangement, and the fabric layer is desi~bly a 15 nonwoven. A plurality of sepa~te, laterally extending flange elastic ",e"lbe,a 118 are sandwiched and opei dbly conne. led between the flange barrier layer 114 and the flange fabric layer 116 to provide an elasbci ed nange ~",posite 120, which is subalanbally laterally gdU~er~d by the flange elastic members and is elastically sb~tcl)able at least along the cross-direction 24. The shown a"angemenl includes el~stics i"e"~bers which 20 are subslantially parallel to one anoU ,er but optionally can include other separated configurations of the e ~stics which may be non-parallel. Desi~bly, the fabric layer 116 is a.,dngad for place",e"~ against the wearer's shn, although the barrier layer 114 may optionally be a, p Dint~d for place",en~ i"~",eJ;alely adjacen~ the wearer s skin. Particular configurations of the flange section 82 can be constructed and a"d,)ged to be 25 subslantially coterminous with its assoc:~ed end edge margin 22 of the article.
In particubr configurations of the invention such as the a"z,nge."6nls shown in Figs. 2 and 3 the pocket section 84 of the waist pocket mei "ber 80 can be integrally formed with the flange section 82 of the waist pocket member. In these a"ange",enls, the pocket 30 barrier layer 106 is integrally formed with the flange barrier layer 114 to provide a combined, flange-pocket barrier layer, and the fabric pocket layer 108 is integrally formed with the fabric flange layer 11~ to provide a combined flange-pocket fabric layer. The ~ep.~ ~enl~LJel~ shown a"dnge",ent furUler includes a flange-pocket barrier layer which is subsbntially coextensive with the flange-pocket fabric layer.
In othera,-ange",enls of the invention, the elasUc ",embers 118 in the flange section 82 are spaced from the closest elastic members 110 in the pocket section 84 by a predetei"lined boundary space 122 which provides a separation dislance of at least about 2 mm. In particular Aspe~ , the sepa(ation distance provided by the boundary 5 SpaGng di~lance is at least about 8 mm, and optionally is at least about 16 mm. The separation dislance provides an amount of isolation which effectively permits the flange elastic members to operate subslantially separately from the pocket elastic members.
Ac,cordingly, the 9dU ,ering provided by the flange elastics can be sub~antially sepa(aled from the gathering provided by the pocket elastics.
With r~ference to Fig. 4, the fastener tabs 36 at the laterally opposed sides of the diaper 10 are desi,~bly subslantially aligned along a central, aoss-directional aligr,l,)6nl line 130. In particular aspe~e of the invention, the alignment line 130 sul,slantially c D.n~des with, and lies within, the boundary space 122 which sepa~tes the set of pocket section 15 el~stics 110 from the set of flange section elastics 118 within the waist pocket ",e"~ber 80. In desired configuraUons, the distal, terminal edge 105 of the pocket section can be aligned with or positiGned relaUvely close to a central force line 130 which is created when a tensioning force, F, is applied to the fastening bbs. Having the disbl edge generally aligned with the force line 130 can ope,dbly stretch the pocket section 84, 20 particular~y the movable edge portion 104 of the pocket section, and can cause the pocket section to sbnd away from the article. In particular, the pocket section can be more efFe~,ti~ely urged to sbnd away from the bodyside surface of the topshee~ 28 duning use to create a more effective pocket or waist flap structure to capture bodily fluids and waste. AddiUonally, the flap stnucture of the waist pocket section 84 can more 25 eff~ti~ely mainbin conbct with the body throughout a range of ",otions produced by the wearer, and can provide an improved gasket at the region of the movable edge portion 104.
With ~fe~nce again to Fig. 2, anoU ,er aspect of the invenUon can include a 30 configuraUon in which a ono of the elastic members 110 in the pocket section 84 is located most proximally adjacenl to the sul)s~anLally fixed edge porUon 102. In addiUon, such adjacenl elasUc ",e"lber is located between the subslantially fixed edge porUon 102 and the moveable edge porUon 104 of the pocket section, and is spaced from the subslanlially fixed edge portion 102 of the pocket section by a pr~Ai",al spacing d;slance 35 124 whiCh is not less than about 2 mm, and optionally is not less than about 4 mm. In further aspe~ of the invention the proximal spacing dis~ance 124 is not more than about 13 mm and optionally is not more than about 8 mm. The proper selection of the spacing dis~ance 124 can help the pocket section 84 particularly its movable edge regionmaintain an open position spaced-away from the topsheet of the artide. If the dislance is 5 too small the pocket section may not open reliably. If the ~listance is too great the pocket section may not ~dequ~tely resist excessi~e co"~p~ing.
With r~fefence to Figs. 2 and 3 the pocket section 84 of the waist pod~et ,.,e",ber 80 can be secured to an app~ nted region of the article sud~ as the topsheel 28 by a 10 region of atla~""en~ 126. In the shown andngernent the atlacl,l"ent 126 extends out of the boundary space 122 to secure the flange section 82 to the topsheet. Optionally the aUa~""en~ 126 can be substantially res~i- lad to the boundary space 122, at least within a section of the boundary space 122 which is in a laterally middle or medial portion of the artide and a separale atla~,rnent can secure the flange section 82 to the article.
S Accordingly the allach",ent region 126 can operably provide the subsbntially fixed edge portion 102 of the pocket section 84. In adclition the podcet secbon 84 of the waist pocket ",e."ber 80 has laterally oppos~d end se~.liGns 128 whidh are secured to lie substantially nat against the topaheet 28. As a result the podcet section 84 of the waist podcet ~el~lber can be secured to the topshee~ 28 with a generally U-shaped 20 a"an~e"~enl of dtla~""en~ (Figs. 1 4 and 6).
With refar~nca to Fig. 5 particular configurations of the invention can have thebacl~sh&et layer 30 constructed v~/ith at least one longihdinally brminal waistband edge 94 whidh has an inwardly extending notch region 9~ formed therein. The flange 25 section 82 of the waist pocket ",e"lber 80 is configured and ~"~nged to span across the notch region 9~. In addition the marginal edge pGI tions of the ba~sheel which are immediately ~Jjacent the notch section can be oper~bly connected and atlached tosponding pG, tions of the flange section.
30 In the various configuraUons of the invention the ~is~ nd notch region 96 can have a variety of shapes and sizes. The notch region can have a curvilinear shape a rectilinear shape or comb-naLons thereof. Desirably the ~ l-and notch region 9ô can be suL~lantially laterally cen~ered in the aoss-direclional medial region of the bac~sl-aet 30.
In the various ~"ange"~ents of the invenUon the cross-di~ctional extent of the notch 35 region 9B is not more than about 80% of the overall, cross-di~ onal extent of the total article, and desi,dbly is not more than about 40% of the overall, cross-directional extent of the article to provide improved performance. In addition, the cross-direc.tiGnal extent of the notch region 96 can be not less than about 10% of the overall, cross-di.~..tiGnal extent of the arUcle, and desirably is not less than about 20% of the overall, cross-5 di~ ,lional extent of the article to provide desired levels of co"~to,l and wasteconbinment. In still other aspe~l~, the longitudinal or depth extent of the notch region 96 is within the range of about 2-15% of the overall longitudinal extent of the total arUde. In a diaper-type article, for e).~r"r le, the notch region 96 can have a maximum, longitudinally inward extent of at least about 9 mm. AltemaUvely, the inward extent of 10 the notch region 9~ is at least about 12.5 mm, and opUonally is at least about 15 mm.
In other a"dngei"enls, the inward extent of the notch region 9~ is not more than about 65 mm. AltemaUvely, the maximum inward extent can be not more than about 55 mm, and opUonally can be not more than about 45 mm. When measuring the! di",ensions of the notch region 96, the article is placed in its subslantially flat-out, uncontraobd 15 cond;tion with the elasUc gathers at the arUcle w~ And suL stantially removed.
Wlth r~fer~nce to Figs. 2 and 3, a one of the pocket elastic m6",b6,a 110 is located most proximally aJJacent to the terminal edge 105 of the moveable ed~e porUon 104 of the pocket secUon 84 and is spaced from the temminal edge by a spac~ng disbnce 107 of not 20 more than about 13 mm. AltemaUvely, the edge spa~ng dislance is not more thanabout 7 mm, and opffonally i5 not more than about 1 mm. In a further aspect, theterminal edge 105 is subslanUally unf 'de~ld In parUcular, the terminal edge portion of the pocket section is not folded back upon itself to envelop and enclose one or more of the pocket e'~sUcs The posiUoning of elasUc ,llehlbe-s proximab the disbl, terminal 25 edge 105 can help to mainbin the open posiUon of the pocket secUon 84 across subsbntially the full width of the pocket secUon. As a result, the pocket ~ection can beKer provide a functional barrier dam structure.
The various alldng6l..enls of the invenffon can also be constructed to provide the flange 30 and pocket se~tions 82 and 84, r~specli~ely, with desired stiffoess values. In particular, either or both of the flange and pocket sections can have a sliffnass value which is at least about 5 mg. Alte,.l.,ti~ ly, the sliff,)ess can be at least about 15 mg, and opffonally, can be at least about 30 mg to provide improved pe, to""dnce. In other a~p~s of the invenUon, either or both of the flange and pocket sections can have a sti~f,)ess which is 35 not more than about 250 mg. Altemaffvely, the sffffness can be not more than about 200 mg, and optionally, can be not more than about 170 mg to provide improved pe, ru""ance. Where the slirrness is too low, the pocket section can be e~c~ssively susceptible to ~ o"~pcing. Where the stiffness is too high, the pocket or flange seclions may cause excessi~/e i" itd~ion to the wearer.
The slifrnesses of the flange and pocket seclions of the waist pocket member 80 can be determined by e",r!oy;ng the test ",etl,odol~yy of TAPPI T543 om-94, and by en,Fl~y;,)g a Gurley Digital S~frness tester, Model 4171-D, a device available from Teledyne Gurley, a business having offices located in Troy, New York. The slirr"esses can be expressed 10 as milligrams (mg) which ~~ spond to Standa,-J Gurley Units of milligrams-force.
Accordingly, the s~irr"ess values of the various se~,lions of the waist pocket ",ei"ber 80 are bending stifr,~esses. For the purposes of the present invention, the axis about which a bending moi"enl is app~ied to the sample during the slirr"ess testing is a bending axis which Is aligned subslanUally parallel to the direcUon of elastic stretch and gathering 15 provided by the Acso~ ~d elastic mei"bers, such as elasUc ",ei"bera 110 and/or 118.
With regard to the stifh ,ess tesUng of the pocket secUon 84, for example, the bending axis of the bst sample of the pocket section would be along an axis line which would have been subslantially aligned with the artide cross-direction 24, as observed when the pocket section was originally asse",bled in the artide.
In regard to either or both of the flange section 82 and podket section 84 of the waist pocket i"e",ber 80, the barrier layer can be provided by polymer films or fabrics having low pe""eability to liquid, and comb.nations thereof. Polymer films may, for example, be cGIllposed of polyolefins, poly~ilers, polya",:des and the like. Nonwoven i"aten31s can 25 indude spunbond-meltblown-spunbond (SMS) fabrics, meltblown fabrics, calendered nonwoven sheets and the like. With respect to the passaga of liquid through its thickness, the barrier layer is constructed to exhibit a hyd~head of resisbnce whidh is suffficient to provide an effective barrier against the pass~ge liquids, such as urine.
30 For example, the barrier layer may be composed of a 0.0006 indh (0.015 mm) cast, e"~bosse~ film, such as a CT (XEM400.1), or a 0.0004 inch (0.010 mm) blown film, such as XSF-367, available from Cons~'-d~ted Thermopl~sUcs, a business having officeslocated in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin. The barrier layer may also be a 0.00035 inch (0.0089 mm) stretch-thinned film, such as XP1024A, available from Edison rlaslics a 35 business having offices located in Macalester, Oklahoma.
With regard to either or both of the flange section 82 and pocket section 84 of the waist podcet me",ber the fabric layers 108 and/or 116 can be cG",posed of a fine denier low basis weight nonwoven ",ate,ial. Exa",F es of such nonwoven fabrics indude s polypropylene spunbond ",alen~ls t-co.nponent polypropyiene/polyethylene spunbond ,nate~ials meltblown",alenals SMSi"atenals through-air-bondedcardedwebs point-bonded bonded-carded webs and the like.
For example the fabric layer may co",prise a 0.5 osy (17 gsm) poly"r~pylene spunbond 10 fabric cG",posed of fibers having denier of less than about 4 den. The fabric layer can alle..,ati~/cly have fibers with deniers of less than about 3 den and opbonally can indude fibers having deniers of less than about 2.5 den.
Either or both of the pocket elasbc members 110 and flange elasbc ",e",bera 118 can be 15 CCSIllpO5Gd of strands of natural or synthebc elaslo",enc materials such as natural or s~ ~lhetic nubbers. In particular aspecl~ of the invenbon the elasbc ",e--lber~ can include sbands having a denier of not less than about 100 denier. Alte--ldti~ely the elasbc e--lbe.~ can have a denier of not less than about 280 and opbonally can have a denier of not less tha~l about 360. In other ~spec~ of the invenbon the elasbc ,--e--lbe.~ can 20 indude sbands having a denierof not more than about 1920 den. Alte-..~ti~ly the elasbc menlbel ~ can have a denier of not more than about 1140 den and optionally can have a denier of not more than about 560 den. For example the podcet elastic m~i-lbel:~ 110 and/or the flange elastic Illelllbel~ 118 can indude 360 denier GLOSPAN S7 elastic strands available from Globe Manufacturing Co.
To produce the flango and podcet seclions of the waist podcet ",el,lber 80 the podcet elastics and/or the flange elastics can be elongated 50-350 p~,~enl (as determined with resp~l to the unst~t~hed length of the elastics) prior to assel,lt,ly into the waist pocket ",e,.lber to form the podcet CGIllpoS;te 112 and/or the nange cGlllposita 120. For 30 example the flange ~ stics 118 can be configured with about 150 pef~ent elongation and the pocket ~ ~sLss 110 can have an elongation of about 175 per~nl.
The number of elastic strands and the spacing between the strands can be selected and anang d to provide desired polfo,..,ance. For example the cl~stics can be selectively configured to provide a desired gasketing function against the wearer's skin while avoiding e~;oessive i"itation and reJI"ar1dng of the wearer's skin.
In particular aspeels of the invention, the number of elastic strands in each of the flange 5 section 82 andtor pocket section 84 can be at least about 2, and alle" ,dti~ely is at least about 3. In further aspe~C of the invention, the number of elastic strands in each of the flange section and/or pocket section can be not more than about 25. Altematively, the number of elastic strands in each of the sections can be not more than about 20, and optionally can be not more than 15. Laminates with too many strands aaoss the 10 longitudinal depth of the pocket section can undesi~ably cause the flap structure to lay closed, subslantially flat against the topsheet of the article, while laminates having too few strands can e~oessively co"~se and fold in upon them-r-slves. The appropriatë
- number of strands, the apprupriata spaG"g between strands, and the appr~pfiab spacing of the strands from the fixed and movable edges of the pocket section are 15 dependent upon the physical prvpeities of the individual laminate co."pQnents, as well as the dimensions of the flaps.
In other aspe.lC of the invention, the elastic ",e",bers of the flange section 82 and/or pocket section 84 can have an elastic spacing ~Jislance 132 which is at least about 2 mm.
20 Alte",dti.~e,ly, the elssffcs spacing dislancs 132 can be at least about 3 mm, and optionally can be at least about 4 mm. In further Acpe.,~, the elasUc n,e,.lbe~s of the flange section 82 and/or pocket section 84 can have an elasUc spa~ng d;slance 132 which not more than about 13 mm. AltemaUvely, the elastics spaGng distance 132 can be not more than about 11 mm, and optionally can be not more than about 8 mm to 25 provide improved control over the operalion of the barrier flap structure.
To furthe~ controî the oper~Uon of the barrier flap stnJcture, such as the pocket section 84, The poclcet elastic ~"el"be~ 110 may be unifommly spaced across the entire width of the lamina ( as determined along a dil"ension which is subsbntially 30 perpendicular to the stretching di..,ension of tho elastic ,.,6."ber), or they may be grouped into d;s~la and distinct functional sets. For example, Fig. 8 ,epr~sc.)tali~ely shows a laminate having more than one h,nclional groupings of pocket e'oeUcs 110.
Such mulUple grouping may bee placed in either or both of the pocket or flange se-,tions of the waist pocket ,nel"ber 80 to control the operation of the barrier flap and to enhancs 35 p~F~ )a~
In particular aspe~ of bhe invention the flange elasUc members 118 can be a"dnged to provide for a flange cout,~ /e force and the pocket elastic me",bers can be a"anged to provide for pocket contra- ti~e force. In a parUcular aspect of the invenbon bhe5 cont,a. li~e force exerted by the flange elastics is configured to be relatively greater than the con~racli~/e force exerted by the pocket elastics. As representaUvely shown in Figs. 1 and 4, for exa",F'~, the flange elastics can be longer, or oU,erv.,se larger or more sl,ongly conbaclad, bhan bhe pocket elasUcs. Such an a"ange",ent can provide a desired relative co"b dction between the flange and pocket se~;tions of bhe waist pocket member 80 when 10 the waist pocket is operably assembled to the final article and can help maintain a desired, open condition of bhe pocket secUon 84 during use on the wearer.
In a desired aspect of the invention, bhe elasbc ",e"~ber~ in eibher the waist flange, pocket or bobh ngions may be opel~bly zone-tensioned, as r~presontab~ely shown in 15 Figs. 1 and 4. The zone tensioning may be ach;eved in a variety of ways. For example, an a.ll ,esiva or other bonding ",echani ~. " may be applied only in bhe areas where bhe retra. tion of the elasUc "~en~bera is intcnded to gabher bhe flap cGIllposib. In the regions where the bonds are absent the remaining elasUc Illelllbel~ can conba. ~ sul,;.lantially wib'lout gdUIeling bhe flap co",posite. AltemaUvely, other techniques such as 20 ulb-asonics can be employed to ope,ably deaden the elasUc ",e"~ber~ in bhe regions where elasUc ,~t.~ction is not desired.
The elast~l"eric ll lalllbela 11 0 and/or 118 can be atla~hed to eibher or bobh of bheir associated barrier and fabric layers wibh a suitable securing means, such as a selected 25 paKem of adhesive or other type of bonding. For example, the adhesive may be applied by spraying aJIIe3.v2 d;scontinuous d~.p'et~ or fila",ents and/or may be applied by arranging generally conUnuous lines of adhesive in a s~lect.~ paKem such as a svvirl paKem. AltemaUvely, the ela_to",e,ic "~embers 110 and/or 118 can be dtlachad to at least one of the barrier and fabric layers with a plurality of individual, longitudinally 30 extending s~ips of adl.ei:vQ. Each individual adhesive strip is spaUal~ sepa,d~ed from i."",aJiately adjacanl adhesive strips by a ~;s~te dis~nce, and each individual adhesive strip is a"dnged to aKach substa,ltially an individual one of the elzslo",anc ",e"lbe,a to the at least one of the barrier and fabric layers. In the shown a"ange,~,enls, for example, the strips of adhesive can be aligned subslantially parallel to one anoU ,er.
With ,~fe,ence to Figs. 1 and 4 the pocket secUon 84 of the waist ."e,nber 80 may be configured to bridge and span over the inward facing bodyside surfaces of the longitudinally extending containment flaps 62. Desi,ably the movable edge po-tions 104 of the pocket section 84 are subslanlially unconnected and undtlached to the distal 5 movable edges 66 of the containment flaps 62 to thereby reduce inlera~ bon b2twecn the elasLi~ d containment flaps 62 and the el~stic;~ed pocket section 84. In addiUon it is desirable to zone the elasUc tension exerted by the elasUc ."e"lbe,a 68 en~F'oy0d to elaslic;~a the containment flaps 62. More parUcularly the elasUc tension in the containment flaps is substantially r~sbicled to a longitudinally medial secUon of each 10 containment flap. Accordingly the end regions of each conbinment flap parUcularly the end regions generally a~jacent to the pocket secUon 84 are substantially free of elasUc tension exerted by the elasUc .nembe-~ 68. The distal edges 66 can also be secured to the topsheet layer 28 with a suibble attaching ~-,echani3.n to further isolate the distal edges 66 of the containment flaps away from the ope.~lion and opening of the pocket 15 section 84.
The above-desc, il,ed zoned tensioning of the containment naps 62 can be aol ,.eved in a variety of ways. For example the elastic cont,a~.tibility of the elasUc Ille-llb~ 68 in the appr~pnale end regions of the conbinment flaps can be operably deadened such as by 2 0 a ~"e~ han.c-l ulbdson.c or U ,e- " ,al t~ ~~at,nent which effec ti~ely "kills~ or oU .en~is a dea. ti~a'.~s the eksti~ty or cGr,b;3ctibility in the selected regions. Alten~z~ely the elasUc Illell~bela 68 in the end regions of the conbinment flaps may be subsbntially unaUached to the conbinment flap ."alerial. Accordingly the elasUc ,nembe,a at the conbinment flap end regions can elasUcally retract subsbnUally without eAe. ting a 25 gdulelin9 tension onto the end regions of the containment flaps 62. In further configurations the disbl end regions of the containment flaps can be subsldntially enUrely immobilked, such as by operdbly securing the end regions onto the topsheet layer 28 wittl a~l ,es;~e, sonic bonds or other attaching ",ec l~.anis",s.
30 In the various a"angel"Qnls of the invenUon the selected abro,bent body such as provided by the absG, l,enl structure 32 is posiUoned and operdbly secured between the topsheet 28 and the backsheet 30 to fomm the diaper 10. The absGI bent body has a construction which is generally cG",pr~ssible conrol",able non-i,r,taling to the weare~s skin and capable of absorbing and retaining liquid body P~ d~t*s It should be 35 I-nde,~tood that for purposes of this invention the abso,ben~ structure may co",pnse a single, integral piece of ",aterial, or alle."ati~ely, may con,prise a plurality of individual sepa~t~ pieces of ",alerial which are operably assembled together. Where the abso,benl structure cG",pnses a single, substantially integral piece of ",alenal, the ",dlerial could include the desired structural features formed into selecled spaUal regions 5 thereof. Where the absorbent structure comprises multiple pieces, the pieces may be configured as d;s~l:te layers or as other nonlayered shapes and configurations.
Fu,U,e"~\ore, the individual pieces may be coextensive or non-coe~tensive, depending upon the requir~"~enls of the product. It is preferred, ho/~ever, that each of the individual pieces be a,fanged in an operable, inli,nate contact along at least a portion of its 10 boundary with at least one other adjacent piece of the absG,bent structure. r, ~rer~bly, each piece is connected to an a~acent portion of the absG, bent structure by a suitable bonding and/or fiber entanglement ",echan;s"" such as ulbdson-~ or adhesive bonding, or r"echan ~~' or hydraulic needling.
15 In the repr~sentatively shown embodiments, absoll,ent structure 32 has a liquid-acq~ iffon zone, a target zone, and a contoured, curvilinear penphery, particularly along its side edges. The two generally mirror-image, inwardly bowed, lateral edges provide for a narrower intel",ediale section suitable for positioning in the crotch of the wearer. In the shown abso, l,enl structure 32, a front section thereof includes two transversely spaced 20 ear regions and a central region. The target zone encG",passes the area whererepe~ted liquid surges typically occur in abso,l,enl structure 32. When the diaper is wom, the ear regions are configured to generally engage the sides of the wearer's waist and torso, and central region is configured to generally engage the medial portion of the weare~s waist and torso.
AbsGIbent structure 32 may be manufactured in a wide variety of sizes and shapes (for example, ~langular, trap~ l, T-shape, I-shape, hourglass shape, etc.) and from awide variety of materials. The size and the absoll.enl capa~ty of absG~enl structure 32 should be c~l"palible with the size of the intended wearer and the liquid loading imparted 30 by the intanded use of the absG,Lent article. FlJrther, the size and the absGIbent capa~ of absG, ben~ stmcture 32 can be varied to accGmn~oda~e wearers ranging from infants through adults. In addi~on, it has been found that with the pr~senl invention, the densi~es andtor basis v.eigl~ts of the respective surge l"anage",enl 46 and ,~tanlion 48 pGI Lons, as well as their relative ratios, can be vaned In a particular aspect of the 35 invention, the absolbent structure has an absorbent capacity of at least about . .
of syntheUc urine. Altematively the absorbent structure can have an absG,l,ant capadty of at least about 400 gm of syntheUc urine to provide improved pe, f~ " "ance.
Various types of wettable hydrophilic fibrous ",aterial can be used to fomm the s component parts of absoil,ent structure 32. Exa",~'es of suitable fibers include naturally occurring organ c fibers ~",posed of ir,l,insically wettable ",atefial, such as cellulosic fibers; synthetic fibers co",posed of cellulose or cellulose derivatives such as rayon fibers; ino~an c fibers co",posed of an inherenUy wettable ",alerial such as glass fibers;
synbheUc fibers made from inher~nUy wettable bhe""opl?stic polymers such as particular 10 polyester or polyamide fibers; and synthetic fibers cG",posed of a nGn~etlable then"opl~slic polymer, such as polypropylene fibers, which have been hydrophilized by appr~pnat~ means. The fibers may be hydrophilized for example by tredb~,enl wibhsilica, beabnent with a mate,ial which has a suitable hydrophilic moiety and is not readily removable from the fiber or by sheathing the nonwettable, hydr~phobic fiber wibh a 15 hydrophilic polymer during or aKer bhe fo""ation of bhe fiber. For bhe purposes of the p,t,sent invenUon, it is conle",plated bhat sel~ct~d blends of the various types of fibers ,.,en~oned above may also be employed.
As used hereiri the term "hydrophilic" describes fibers or the surfaces of fibers which are 20 wetted by the aqueous liquids in contact with the fibers. The degree of wetUng of the ",ate,;als can, in tum, be described in terrns of the contact angles and the surface tensions of the liquids and ...ate.i~ls involved. Equipment and techn 4ues suibble for measuring the wettability of parUcular fiber ,.,atenal-~ or blends of fiber mabrials used for the surge manag~,--ent portion 4~ can be provided by a CAHN, SFA-222 Surface Force 2s Analyzer System, or a sub~lantially equivalent system. When measured with this system, fiben having contact angles less than 90~ are desiynat~d "wettable~ or hydrophilic, while fibers having contact angles greater than 90~ are designated "nonwettablr or hydl~phsb-~
~o RetQntion portion 48 can c~impnsG a matrix of hydrophilic fibers, such as a w~b ofcellulosic fluff, mixed with partides of high-abso, I.enc~ material. In particular d--dng~,.,enls"~tenti~n portion 48 may comprise a mixture of supe~bsG,l~nt hydroge~
forming partides and synthetic polymer meltblown fibers, or a mixture of supe,db~G,~nl partides with a fibrous coform ",alerial comprising a blend of natural fibers and/or 35 synthetic polymer fibers. The s-,pe.abso,l,ent particles may be subslantially -- 2s -hG."ogeneously mixed with the hydrophilic fibers or may be nonur,ifo,.nly mixed. For example the concentr~lions of superabsoil,ent pa, li- las may be a"anged in a non-step-wise gradient through a substanUal portion of the thickness (z-direction) of the absG,b~,)t structure, ~,vith lower concer,~dlions toward the bodyside of the abso.~nt structure and 5 relatively higher concent(ations toward the outerside of the abso, bent structure. Suitable z-gradient configurations are desc,ibed in U.S. Patent No. 4 699,823 issued October 13 1987 to Ke " ~ nberger et al. the ~;SCIQSI ~e of which is i, ICGI ~ord~ed herein by refer~nce in a ",anner that is consislent with the present descripLon. The superdbsGI~nl particles may also be al,anged in a generally discr~te, layer v~ithin the matrix of hydrophilic fibers 10 or may be configured as discrete, sepa,~le pocket regions of supe,abQG,benl ",alerial.
In addition two or more f if Feren~ types of superabso, bent may be selectively positioned at difrer~nt locations within or along the fiber matrix.
The~ high-absG,ber,f ~ ",alerial may CGmpriSe absG,ben~ gelling ",aterials, such as 15 superabso,Lenls. The abso,bent gelling "iaterials can be natural, syntheUc and modified natural poly,.,er~ and ",aterials. In addition, the absG,l,ent gelling ",ate,ials can be inoraan:c ,-,aterials, such as silica gels, or organic compounds such as aoss-linked polymers. The temm "aoss-linked" refers to any means for effectively r~ndenng normally water-soluble mdlelials subslantially water insoluble but swellable. Such means can 20 include for example physical enbnglement crysblline domains, covalent bonds ionic complexes and assoc,~tions, I,yd~ophilic a550f a~ons such as hy-l~gan bonding, and hy.J~uph,o~ c a55GC 'ions or Van der Waals forces.
Examples of synthetic abso,~enl gelling ",aterial polymers include the alkali mebl and 25 a"""on-um salts of poly(acrylic acid) and poly (",eU,aflylic acid), poly(acrylam:des), poly(vinyl ethers), maleic anhydride copolymers with vinyl ethers and alpha-olefins poly(vinyl p~rr~lidone), poly(vinyl~"o,lJholinone) poly(vinyl alcohol), and mixtures and copoly."~r~ thereof. Further poly.. ,ers su ~ble for use in the ab~o. L f nl structure include natural and modified natural poly.-,ers such as hydrolyzed acrylonitrile~raKed sbrch 30 acrylic acid graKed sbrch methyl cellulose. carboxymethyl cellulose hydroxypropyl cellulose, and the natural gums, such as alginates, ~.anU ,an gum locust bean gum and the like. Mixtures of natural and wholly or partially syntheUc absG, I,ent polymers can also be useful in the pr~sent invenUon. Other suitable abso,l,en~ gelling materials are dis~losed by Assa-ason et al. in U.S. Patent No. 3 901 236 issued August 26 1975.
35 r~uCeSS~S for prepaling syntheUc absorbent gelling polymers are fl;sf losed in .- -- 26 --U.S. Patent No. 4,076,663 issued February 28, 1978 to Masuda et al. and U.S. Patent No. 4 286,082 issued August 25 1981 to Tsubakimoto et al.
Synthetic abso,Lenl gelling ",alenals typically are xerogels which form hydrogels when 5 wetted. The term "hyd~ugel however has cGilllllonly been used to also refer to both the wetted and unwetted forms of the ",alenal.
As ",enUoned previously, the high-abso,benc~ ",alerial used in .etenLon portion 48 is generally in the form of discr~ta particles. The particles can be of any desired shape, for 10 example, spiral or semi-spiral cubic rod-like polyhedral, etc. Shapes having a large greatest di,.,ension/smallest di",ension ratio, like needles, flakes and fibers, are also conle..,plated for use herein. Conglo,nerates of particles of absG-bent gelling malerial may also be used in r~tcntion portion 48.
15 rlefe--~:d for use are particles having an average size of from about 20 microns to about 1 millimeter. "Particle size" as used herein means the v eighted average of the smallest dimension of the individual ps. li- 1as.
Suitable high-absG. 6ar,- ~r ",aterials can have particular cha-acto.istics of AbsG. 6enl 20 CP~racity (sû~etimeS lefen~d to as UAC") Defo.."ation Under Load (sG",eti",es ~efe~ d to as "DUL"), and the Wi~ing Index (sGmeli.nes r~fe..ad to as nWI'~. These pa(c,..,ater~
are dGs~i66d in detail in U.S. Patent Arp' -~Uon Serial No. 757 787 of S. Byerly et al.
enUtled ABSORBENT COMPOSITES AND ABSORBENT ARTICLES CONTAINING
SAME and filed on September 11, 1991 (Attomey Docket No. 10,174), the ~isclos~re of 2 5 which is hereby inco, ~.ated by r~fef~nce in a ",anner that is consistent with the pr-~sonl sp~i~tion.
In a particular aspect of the invention absoibent r~tention portion 48 coi-,pnsas a matrix of subsbntially hyd~philic fibers having a quanUty of highabsG,l,~nc~ material 30 distributed therein. Selc~t~ superc,bsG,l,enl polymers having improved absG,Lenl properties can be i,.~pG.lan~ for ..,~i,.,iLing the pe(fo--,-ance while retaining the desired thinness of the aLsG,benl article. To provide improved pe- h . ..,ance the particles of sup6rdbsGIl~nl material can be se'e~ted to provide an absG,6enc~-under-load (AUL) value which is within the range of about 25 40 and provide a AbsGI ~enl C~r~rity (AC) 35 value which is within the range of about 3248. The rate of liquid uptake by the supe,dbsoibenl malenal is within the range of about 3-15 gtg (grams liquid per gram supe.abso,benl) at 30 seconds of abso,~enu~ under load, 6.5-21 9/9 at 5 minutes absorbency under load and 2~40 9/9 at 60 minutes absorbency under load.
5 A suitable ",eU,od for determining AUL is descnbed in detail in U.S. Patent No. 5 147 343 of S. K~"enberyer granted September 15 -1992 and enUtled ABSORBENT PRODUCTS CONTAINING HYDROGELS WITH ABILITY TO SWELL
AGAINST PRESSURE (Attomey Docket No. 8786.1); and also published November 2 1989 as E~pean PatentApp'-~tion No. EP 0 339 461 A1; the ~isr~osure of which is 10 hereby incGI~Jordted by ,~ference in a ",anner that is consislent with the pr-~sent spe~fi~lion.
An example of superabsorbent polymer suitable for use in the pr~senl invention is SANWET IM 3900 polymer available from l loechsl Celanese a business having offfices 15 in r~,ktnouth Virginia. Other suitable superabsG,66nts may include DOW DRYTECH
2035LD polymer obtained from Dow Cl ,e" .:~ -' Co., a business having offices in Midland, Michigan; or FAVOR SAB 870M poly."er available from Stoc~l,ausen, Inc., a business having offices in G~ensboru, North Carolina.
20 The matrix of hydrophilic fibers cGI"pnsing ~etention portion 48 may be a layer of cellulosic wood pulp fluff, and the pa,liclas of s~Jpe,absG,bent polymer can be distributed within the matrix of hydrophilic fibers. The hydrophilic fibers and high-ab-G,L,enc~
parUcles can be provided in a fiber-to-particle raUo which is not more than about 75:25, alte~"ati~/ely, is not more than about 70:30 and opUonally is not more than about 55:45 25 by weight. In further ~pes~ of the invention the fiber-to-particle raffo is not less than about 25:75, p-~fer~bly is not less than about 30:70 and more pr~ferably is not less than about 45:55, by weight. Such fiber-t~particle raUos can be parUcularly desirable in the target zone of the absG. bent structure. In particular embodiments of the invention, the fiber-to-particle weight ratio is not more than about 65:35 and is not less than about 30 50:50 to provide desired pe,fù.,.,ance.
The hydrophilic fibers and highabsG,benc~ particles can form an average cGIl~pGsite basis weight which is within the range of about 400-900 gsm. Again, such basis weight is particularly desirable in the target zone of the absorbent structure. In certain ~spe-ls of 35 t~he invention, the average coi"posit~ basis weight is within the range of about 50~800 gsm and pr~ferdbly is within the range of about 55~750 gsm to provide desired pe,roi"~ance.
To provide the desired thinness dil"ension to the various configurations of the absGibent 5 article of the invention retenlion portion 48 can be configured with a bulk thickness which is not more than about 0.6 cm. rreferably the bulk thickness is not more than about 0.53 cm and more preferdbly is not more than about 0.5 cm to provide improved benefllla. The bulk thickness is detemmined under a restraining pressure of 0.2 psi (1.38 kPa).
The density of r~lenlion portion 48 or other coi"ponent of the absoi l,enl article can be calculated from its basis weight and thickness. ~Ith respect to diapers for example the weight and thickness are-measured on newly unpar~ecl unr~ d and dry diapers at arestraining pressure of 0.2 psi (1.38 kPa). Conven~ional thickness measuring devioes lS may be employed to determine the thickness needed to calculate the density.
In the illustrated embodiments of the invention absG,l,ent ,~:tenlion portion 48 includes ~22 grams of wood pulp fluff preferably includes about ~18 grams of fluff and more preferdbly includes about 12-14 grams of fluff to provide desired benefits. The wood 20 pulp fluff generally provides shape and form to diaper 10 and carries and pcs;'icns the particles of supeiabso, l ent polymer or other high-absG. benoy ~"alerial. Retention portion 48 can contain about 7-12 grams of superdbsG.l,ent polymer and in the shown embodiment contains about 8 4rams of slJperabso,l.ent polymer. Suffident s~,perc.bsG.l,ent polymer is incG,~o,ated into ,~tenlion portion 48 to provide an adequate 25 total absG.benl capa ity of at least about 300 gm of synthetic urine. For e~am~le a medium ske diaper for an infant ~:oighing about 1~28 Ib (about 7-13 kg) can typically have a tobl ~tention capacity of about 400 grams of synthetic urine.
The fluff and sl,per~LsG, L ent pa, ti~les can be selectively placed into desired zones of 30 (~tention portion 48. For example the fluff basis weight may vary across the width di"~ension of retention portion 48. Alternatively relatively larger amounts of fluff may be positiGned toward the front ~ s~-and end of the retention portion. For example see - U.S. Patent No. 4 585 448 issued April 29 1986 to K. Enloe. In the illustratedembodiment the majority of the superabsorbent material may be distributed down a35 medial region of ,.,tention portion 48 which extends along the length dimension of the 2t 66009 retention porUon and measures about 3.~4.5 inches tabout 8.9-11.4 cm) in width. In addiUon, the supe-abso,bent material may have a select.ed zoned pla~-"enl to reduce the amount of superabso~ bent material located proximate the side and end edges of the reten~ion porUon. The reduced amounts of superabsorbent material at the edges of the 5 ~tention portion can improve the contain",ent of the supe,dbso,bent pa,ticlas within the fibrous fluff matrix of, ~tention portion 48. The pulsed zoned place" ,e"l of the s~JperabrG, b6.-t matenal can, for example be ach.eved by the meU IGd and appa, dtus desc,ibed in U.S. Patent No. 5 028,224 to C. Pieper et al. enUtled METHOD AND
APPARATUS FOR INTERMITTENTLY DEPOSITING PARTICULATE MATERIAL IN A
10 SUBSTRATE and issued July 2 1991 (Attomey Docket No. 8761) the ~ os~re of which is hereby jnCGI ~Oi dted by refer~nce in a ,nanner that is consistenl herewith.
In a particular aspect of the invenUon absG,Lent structure 32 can be generally T-shaped with the laterally extending cross-bar of the T generally ~" -~spGnding to the front w~is~ nd porUon of the abso,bent article for improved pe,tul",ance especially for male infants. In the illustrated embodiments for example the ,etenlion portion across the ear section of the front v/aislLand region of the arUcle has a cross-dil- ~ bonal width of about 9.0 inches (about 22.9 cm), the na"u.vesl porUon of the crotch secUon has a width of about 3.5 inches (about 8.9 cm) and the back v._;~lL.and region has a width of about 20 4.5 inche~ (about 11.4 cm).
The entire abso,benl structure 32, or any individual porUon thereof, such as the ~tention porUon, can be oven~ pp..d in a hydrophilic high wet-sb-~r,gU~ envelope web, such as a high wet-sbenyU. Ussue or a syntheUc fibrous web. Such overw, _,cping web can also 25 in~asa the in-use intey,i~ of the absoi~ent structure. The web can be suibbly bonded such as with adhesive, to absG. L ent structure 32 and to other cG,"ponenls of the product construction.
Due to the high concent,dtions of superabso,l,ent particles, or other high ab~G~en~y 30 ",ate,ial, in ,. tention portion 48 there can be an inc, ~ased difficulb with regard to conbining the high-abso.benc~ pa, licles within the r~tenlion portion and r~3st,i- ting the movement or migration of the superabsoi bent onto the bodyside of the diaper. Toimprove the conbinment of the high-absorbency material abso, bent structure 32 can include an improved overwrap, such as a wrap sheet 70 placed i",l"ed;ately a~jacenl 3s and around r~tenlion portion 48. The wrap sheet is p,eferably a layer of abso,bent ",aterial which covers the major bodyside and outerside surfaces of the ,etention portion, and plefeldbly encloses subalanlially all of the peripheral edges of the ,ete.~Uon portion to fomm a sul,slanUally conlF'et envelope thereabout. Altematively the wrap sheet can provide an absolbent wrap which covers the major bodyside and outerside surfaces of 5 the retêntion portion and encloses subslantially only the lateral side edges of the ,etenlion portion. Accordingly both the linear and the inwardly curved po, lions of the latera! side edges of the wrap sheet would be closed about the retenUon portion. In such an a"d,~gemenl, however the end edges of the wrap sheet may not be completely closed around the end edges of the fetenlion portion at the wa;slband regions of the 10 article.
Absolbent wrap 70 may col"prise a multi ele."ent w,t,psheet which includes a sepa,ate bodyside wrap layer and a sepa,ale outerside wrap layer each of which extends past all or some of the peripherdl edges of retenlion portion 48, as, ep~ tssenlaU~ely shown in 15 Fig. 1. Such a configuration of the wrap sheet can, for example, facilitate the fon"ation of a substantially complete sealing and closure around the penphe,dl edges of retention portion 48. In the back wa;~UJand portion of the illustrated diaper, the absG,bent wrap may also be configured to extend an increased d;slance away from the penphery of the mèbntion portion to add opacity and sbengU, to the back ear sections of the diaper. In 20 the illustrated embodiment for example, the bodyside and outerside layers of absolbent wrap 70 extend at least about 112 inch (about 1.3 cm) beyond the peripheral edges of the netention portion to provide an outwardly protruding, flange-type bonding area over which the penphery of the bodyside portion of the abso, L ent wrap may be complebly orpartially conne- ted to the penphery of the outerside portion of the absG, ~en~ wrap.
The bo lyside and outerside layers of wrap sheet 70 may be eo",posed of sub~lantially the same ",ale,ial, or may be colllpo~ed of dirrerënt ",al-~rials. For example, the outerside layer of the wrap sheet may be co" ,posed of a relatively lower basis weight matenal having a ,~I.,t;iely high porosity such as a wet sbèn~JU, cellulosic tissue 30 colllposed of softwood pulp. The bodyside layer of the wrap sheet may cG",plise one of the previously des~ibed v"rap sheet ",a~erials which has a relatively low porosity. The low porosity bodyside layer can better prevent the migration of supeldbsGIbenl particles onto the wearer's skin, and the high porosity lower basis weight outerside layer can help reduce costs and facilitate the processibility of the absorbent pad.
-To provide the bonding betv.~ecn the bodyside and outerside po,lions of absG,bent wrap 70, an adhesive, such as NATIONAL STARCH 72-3723 adhesive, can be printed onto the ~ inted bonding areas of the absorbent wrap with, for example, a rotog,dvure-type system. With al(e,ndti~e a"ange",enls having an absorbentwrap 5 ~"~posed of a nonwoven meltblown fibrous web the peripheral sealing of the bodyside and outerside wrap layers may be accom~ shed by en,~ ~y;ng hot calendering to provide a sealed strip region around the penphery of the r~lention portion.
Due to the thinness of retenlion portion 48 and the high super~bso,l,ent concent,dlions 10 within bhe ~tenlion portion the liquid uptake rates of the ,etention portion by itself may be too low or may not be ade~uately susta;ned over multiple insults of liquid into the abso, bent sb-ucture. The addition of a porous liquid-permeable layer of surge ",anage",e,ll mdleridl however, can advan1Ageously improve the overall upbke rate of the composite abso,l,el~t structure. Surge l"anage",ent portion 46 is typically less 15 hydrophilic than r~tenbon portion 48 and has an operable level of density and basis weight to quickly collect and tel"pGrdrily hold liquid surges, to lldl~SpGI l bhe liquid from its inibal enbance point and to subsldntially completely release the liquid to obher parts of the absG,L,ent structure 32, particularly fetenLon porUon 48. This configuraffon can help prevent the liquid from pooling and collecting on the porUon of the absG.bent ga"nent 20 posiUoned against the wearers skin thereby reducing the feeling of vr~ess by the wearer.
Various woven and non/~ven fabrics can be used to construct surge ",anage,.,en~
portion 46. For example, the surge l"anage",ent porUon may be a layer co",posed of a 25 meltblown or spunbonded web of polyolefin fibers. The surge ,nanagen~ent layer may also be a bondad-carded-web or an airlaid web composed of natural and synthetic fibers.
The t~nded~carded-web may, for eAdl, ~le be a powder-bonded-carded web an inf,~.~d bondad carded web or a throughair-bonded-carded web. The irlh~l~d and throughair bonded carded webs can optionally include a mixture of different fibers and 30 the fiber lengths within a sele-~t~ fabric web may be within the range of about 1.0-3.0 inch. The surge ",anage."ent portion may be co",posed of a subsbntially hyd~ophot c l"atanal, and the hyd~phob-.c ",ate,ial may optionally be treated with a su,rdctant or oU,erl~ise pr~cessed to impart a desired level of wettability and hydrophilicity.
The ,eprc sentdti~e diaper 10 can include a surge management porUon 46 which is alldnged in a direct contacling liquid commu"icalion with an adjacenl abso,bent (etention portion 48. As representatively shown surge ",anagel"ent portion 46 may be configured for place",ent a.Jjacent an outwardly facing outerside of topsheet 28.
s OpUonally the surge ,nanagement portion can be placed adjacent an inwardly facing, bodyside surface of topsheet layer 28. The shown configuration of the surge "~anage",ent portion is ope,ably connected to the topsheet layerwith a conventional pattem of adhesive such as a swirl adhesive pattem. In addiUon the surge ",anage",ent portion can be operably connected to the bodyside layer of v.~dpsheet 70 10 with a convenlional pattem of adhesive. The amount of dJl,esive add-on should be sumcient to provide the desired levels of bonding, but should be low enough to avoid eA~ssively r~sb i. ling the movement of liquid from the topsheet layer through the surge ",anage",ent porUon and through the w,apsheet layer.
15 The rdtenUon portion 48 is positioned in liquid communicaUon with surge ",ana~e",ent porUon 46 to receive liquids r l~ased from the surge ",anagelnent porUon and to hold and store the liquid. In the shov~n embodiments, surge ",anag6l"ent portion 46 compnses a separdte layer which is posiLioned over anoU ,er sapa,dte layer c~l"pnsing the ,etention porUon, thereby forming a dual-layer a"ange",ent. The surge ",anage",ent 20 portion serves to quicl<ly collect and temporarily hold Jiscl~arged liquids to banspo" such liquids from the point of iniUal conbct and spread the liquid to other parts of the surge ,nanage."ent porUon, and then to substanUally completely release such liquids into the layer or layers comprising ,~tention porUon 48.
25 The r~p,_sentdti~/ely shown configuraUon of the surge ",anage",ant portion issu~slantially free of absG,~en~ gelling ",aterial. Surge ",anage,nen~ portion 46 may however, contain a very small amount of particulate gelling ",aterial to help acquire an initial liquid surge, but the amount should not be excessiva. When ~.cessive amounts of particulate absG,Lent gelling l"ater,al are maintained in the target zone, ho.vever, the 30 partides can cause the structure to retain and hold un~ccept~'~ly high amounts of the liquid. In adJition the b~nspG, I of liquids away from the target zone to other se~ tiGns of absG,L,ent structure 32, particularly ,~tention portion 48 can be undesirably impaired.
As ",entioned previously! surge layer 46 can be a sepa,~tely formed layer, which lies a~jacenl the outwardly facing surface of topsheet 28 between the r~tent;on portion and 35 top3h6et. Thus, sur~e "~ana~e",ent portion 46 need not ~",prisa the entire thickness of absG.bent structure 32. The retention portion can optionally include a recess area which wholly or partially surrounds surge management portion 46 or the, etention portion can be entirely posilioned below the surge management portion. The a.,dngeinent which includes the recess in ,etention portion 48 can advantageously increase the area of s contact and liquid communicdlion between the retenlion portion and surge manage",enl portion 48. It should be understood however that surge management portion 46 could optionally be constructed to extend through the entire thickness of absorbent structure 32 so that the capillary flow of liquid into retention portion 48 occurs pri",arily in a generally sideways (X-Y) direction.
The surge ",anage",ent portion can be of any desired shape consistent with the absorbency requirements of absorbent structure 32. Suitable shapes include for example circular rectangular triangular t,apez~ d-l oblong dog-boned, hourglass-shaped, or oval. r,af~"ed shapes of the surge ",anage"~ent portion are those that 15 increase the contacling, liquid communicating surface area between surge ",anagel"enl portion 46 and retention portion 48 so that the relative capillarity difference between the pGI tiGns can be fully utilized. In certain embodiments for example the surge ",anagel"ent portion can be generally rectangular-shaped.
20 In the various configurations of the invention, surge ",anagement portion 46 may extend over the complete length of rclention portion 48, or may extend over only a part of the mëtcntion portion length. Where the surge l"anagel"ent portion e~tends only partially along the length of the retention portion the surge ",anagel"en~ portion may be selectively positioned any~here along absol bent structure 32. For example, surge 25 I,,anagel,,ent portion 46 may function more emciently when it is offset toward the front w~is1l-znd of the ga...,enl and transversely cent6red within a front section of absGIbent structure 32. Thus, surge ,nanagel"enl portion 46 can be appru.~i-,,ately center~,d about the longitudinal center line of absol~,ent structure 32 and positioned pn..,a.ily in a central region of a front section of the absorbent structure 32.
In other a~pec-~s of the invention, the end edges of the surge ",anagel.,enl portion can be spaced longitudinally inboard from the end edges of the ,etcntion portion 48. Inparticular configurations of the invention the co"esponding relaUvely adJacent front end edge of surge manage",ent portion 46 can be spaced a predetermined dis_.ete dijlance 35 from a front v.a;stband end edge of the retention portion 48.
It has been found that an effective fabric for constructing the surge ",anagement portion can be cl;slir,~ ely cha,a..len~ed by particular pard",eters. Such pa,a",eter~ include, for example, basis weight, permeability, porosity, surface area per void volume (SANV), 5 cG",pression resiliency and saturation capa~Ly. Further parameters can include a bonding matrix which will help stabilize the pore size structure, and hydrophilicity. The -bond-matrix and the blend of fiber deniers can advantageously provide for and s~,bslanlially maintain a desired pore size structure.
10 Adclit;onal details regarding the surge malenals and suitable techr. ~ues for determining the above-described parameters are set forth in U.S. Patent Arp' ~tion Serial No. 206,986 of C. Ellis and D. Bishop, entitled, FIBROUS NONWOVEN WEB SURGE
LAYER FOR PERSONAL CARE ABSORBENT ARTICLES AND THE LIKE, and filed March 4, 1994 (attomey docket No. 11,256); and U.S. Patent A~p'-c~tion Serial 15 No. 206,069 of C. Ellis and R. Everett, entiUed, IMPROVED SURGE MANAGEMENT
FIBROUS NONWOVEN WEB FOR PERSONAL CARE ABSORBENT ARTICLES AND
THE LIKE, and filed March 4, 1994 (Attorney docket No. 11,387); the disclQsures of which are hereby incG",orJted by refer~nce in a "~anner that is consislant herewiU..
20 In desired configuraUons of the invention, the surge ,.,alenal can include natural fibers, synthetic fibers, such as synthetic polymer fibers, and combinations thereof. The fabric can, for eAarr"~'e, be composed of polyolefin fibers, and in parUcular configuraUons the fibers can include bico",ponent fibers. For example, polypropylene/polyethylene bic Dmponent fibers may be employed to form the b ~ ~mpon.,nt fiber portion of any of the 25 desc.,ibed fabrics. In addiUon, the b.co."ponent fibers may be flat c(i"~ped or helically cri",pe~J.
In the shown configuration of the arUcle, the side panel members ~6 are sepa~tely provided me"lbe.~ which are operably connected and atlacl)ed to laterally opposed end 30 sections of the back wai~l6and portion of backsheet 30. In particular, each side panel is affixed to extend away from a cG"esponding terminal edge of the baoksheet layer. The side panels can be cG."posed of a substantially non-elaslo-"e,ic "~alelial, such as polymer films, woven fabrics, nonwoven fabrics or the like, as well as cG",binations thereof. In particular aspecls of the invention, the side panels are co",posed of an 35 elasti~ ed ,.,aterial, such as a stretch-bonded-laminate (SBL) ",ate,ial, a neck-bonded-laminate (NBL) ",alerial, an elastomeric film, an elaslo",enc foam material, or the like.For example, suitable meltblown elaslu,,,eric fibrous webs are des-,, ibed in U.S.
Patent 4,663,220 issued May 5, 1987 to T. Wisneski et al., the ~isr~osu~e of which is hereby incGI~Jordled by lefe~nce. Ex~",~'es of co"~posite fabrics co"~prising at least s one layer of nonwoven textile fabric secured to a fibrous elastic layer are des~ibed in Eu,upean Patent Ar~ tion No. EP 0 110 010 published on April 8,1987 as EP 0 217 032 A2 with the inventors listed as J. Taylor et al., the disclosure of which is hereby incG,~oraled by leferënce. Examples of NBL ",atenals are des~ibed in U.S.Patent No. 5,226,992 issued July 13,1993 to M. Mormon, the ~isclos~l~e of which is 10 hereby incG.porated by r~ference.
Exs",F'es of articles which include el~sli~;~ed side panels and selectively configured faslener tabs are des~ibed in U.S. Patent A~p''.~tion Serial No. 168,615 ot T. Roessler et al., entitled DYNAMIC FITTING DIAPER, and filed December 16, 1993 15 (Attomey docket No. 10,961). Various techn ~ues for forming the desired fastening systems are described in U.S. Patent No. 5,399,219 of T. Roessler et al., entitled METHOD FOR MAKING A FASTENING SYSTEM FOR A DYNAMIC FITTING DIAPER
and issued March 21,1995 (Attomey docket No.11,186); in U.S. Patent ~pp'-c~tion Serial No. 286,086 of D. Fries, entitled A PROCESS FOR ASSEMBLING ELASTICIZED
20 EAR PORTIONS and filed August 3,1994 (Attomey docket No. 11,169); in U.S. Patent Arp'-~tion Serial No. 08/415,383 of D. Fries, entitled AN ASSEMBLY PROCESS FOR ALAMINATED TAPE and filed April 3,1995 (attomey docket No. 11,950), and in U.S.
Patent Application Serial No. 08/415,382 of D. Fries, entitled AN ABSORBENT ARTICLE
WITH A LAMINATED TAPE and filed April 3,1995 (attomey docket No. 11,990). The 25 enlir~es of the ~ischs~es of the above-des~ibed documents are incGI~Grdted herein by r~fer~ in a ...anner that is consislent (not in conflict) her~v.;U ,.
The fastener system can include a seps,~tely provided rei.)fo-ce"~enl strip 88 which is co---poscd of a s~n~thening and/or sUffening ",alerial, and is laminated to an z, "~,nled 30 first surface of each of the side panel members 56 at the outboard region of the side panel. The shown ,_.n~o,~emenl strip extends along sul~slantially the enUre length of the outboard end portion of the panel ",e",ber 56. In adcli~on, the ._infor~..,enl strip has a length which is greater than the length dil"ension of the securing means 44 on the user-bond portion 38 of the faslener tab 36. The reinfGree..,enl strip 88 can, for example, be 35 eGr"posed of a release tape, and the release tape can include a substrate ~",posed of a .- -- 36 --21 6~009 -polymer film such as a polypropylene film. Suitable release tape materials are available from Avery Corp. a business having offices located in Painesville Ohio.
The release tape conflguration of the ,einforce",ent strip 88 can have an ~ p~,nted 5 release surface and an oppositely located aUacl,l"ent surface. A suitable release material which has a llmited low level adhesion to convenlional pressure-sensitive adhesives is posilioned and distributed over the release surface and a suibble allachment ",echan;s,n such as a layer of construcUon adhesive is distributed over the allac~""ent surface. The construction adhesive is employed to affix the r~;nror~",ent 10 strip 88 onto an a~pD.nted section of the final article. In parUcular, the strip of release bpe can be oper~bly bonded and laminated to the outboard region of the panel member 56 along the first surface of the panel member. The shown strip of r~leas~ bpe can be configured with its terminal outboard edge posilior,ed subsl~ntially coterminous and subsbntially coextensive with the outboard edge of the panel ",e,nber 5~. In addiUon 15 the width of the release tape along the aoss-direcUon 24 is desi-~bly equal to or greater than the width of the securing means 44 provided on the user-bond region 38 of the fastener bb 36.
The illustrated fastening system includes a complPmentary oppos~d pairof faslener 20 tabs 3~, which provide a ",achanis"~ for holding the artide on the wearer. Each of the faitener bbs includes a bb substrate 8~, which may be ~l~posed of various substrab mala,;als. For example the shown embodiment of the bb substrate can be ~."posed of a polymer film, such as a polypropylene film. Suibble film ",aterials are available from Avery Corp., a business having offices located in Painesville Ohio. Albrnatively the 25 secu,~",enl web may include a woven or nonwoven fabric, such as spunbond non/loven fabric.
The ,~p~3s~nt~t;~ f shown bb substrate 86 includes an a~o.nted seaJrlj,.,ent surface and an oppo6~d user surface, and includes a sele~ted securing means which is 30 position-d onto the secl r~.,ent surface of the tab substrate. The securing means may be provided by an adhesive, a cohesive material a coopar~ting ~n,ponent of a i"ter~ngaging""ec har. c-' tastener, snaps pins or buckles and the like as well as comb:nations thereof. For example the securing means may include a hook (e.g. mushr~G",-head) cG",ponent or a loop cG",ponent of a hook-and-loop fastener. In 35 the shown configuration, the securing means is provided by a layer of primary adhesive distributed over the appo.nled securing surface, and the fastening system provides an adhesive fastener tab. The fastener tabs can be constructed to ~leasAhly adhere to an appo;nled landing zone patch 92 which is attached to the front w~i~lband section of the diaper to provide a ,efaslenable adhesive fastening system.
With the adhesive securing means, the layer of primary adhesive can be elllrl~yed to operably laminab and affix the aFpoinled factory-bond region 39 of the f~slener tab 36 to the outboard region of the panel member 56 along an arpD.nled second surface of the panel ",e."ber. Other types of connêcting means, such as U ,e""al bonds, sonic bonds, 10 mecl1an -~' stitching, stapling and the like, as well as comb nations thereof, may alh,.,dti~/ely be employed to pe""anently attach the fastenertab to the panel member.
For example, ul(~ason ~ bonds may be employed to provide a selected supplemenbl bonding.
15 With reference to Fig. 1, the fastener tab 36 includes a factory-bond section 39 which overlaps the outboard edge of the panel ",ember 56, and e~tënds beyond the panel,.,e..,ber to provide the user-bond region of the faslener tab. In particular a..dngel"e"ts of the invention, the faslener tab can have a relatively wide user-bond section in combination with a .~lat;~ly nd..o~r intel..,ediata section. The i--te.",ediate section is 20 pGsi~ioned between the user-bond and factory-bond sections of the faslenar tab. In a further aspect of Ule invenUon, the faslener tab 36 may optionally include a finger tab region. The finger bb can be subslanlially non-securing, and can provide an area Ulat can be readily gr~sped by Ule user without contaminating or oU~ar/, ise adversely affe~.ti,~ Ule securing means.
Various types and anangements of interengaging mecl~anic~' securing means can beemployed to provide an operable fastening system for the various configurations of Uhe invention. Rep.~s~nta~,Ao examples of sl~ t--'a ",echan r~~ fas(ener configurations are des~i~ad in U.S. Patent App' ~ ~tion Serial No. 366,080 by G. Zehner et al., filed 30 Dec~"lber 28, 1994 and entiUed HIGH-PEEL TAB FASTENER (dttOIlldy docket No. 11,571), and in U.S. PatentApp~ ~,Uon Serial No. 421,640 by P. VanGompel et al., entitled MULTI-ATTACHMENT FASTENING SYSTEM and filed April 13, 1995 (atto" ,ey docket No. 11,430), Ule entire disclos~ ~es of which are hereby incGI ~rdted by refe.ence in a ,~,anner Uhat is consialent herewith.
The f~ ;.,g Examples are presented to provide a more detailed unde,alanding of the invention. The Examples are intended to be representative and are not intended to specifically limit the scope of the invention.
5 Exa",rles Example 1: Each sample was ~",posed of a 1.0 mil (0.0254 mm) thick polyu,~tl,anefilm grade MP 1882 P available from JPS Elasto,nencs Corp. a business having offfices in NoJ lha",pton, MA. The elaslomeric film exhibited inadequat~ low stifh ,ess values 10 which were lower than the testing scale of the test instrument.
Example 2: The samples were taken from PAMPERS Stretch diapers which were distributed by the rr~cler 8 Gamble Co. a business having offfices in Cin~nnati Ohio.
The diapers included a waist flap, and test sa",~les of the waist flaps were bken for 15 testing. The size of each waist flap was too small to test as an individual piece of mdlerial. As a result each test sample included the waist flap ",aterial dldched to connected seclions of the diaper liner sheet and the diaper back sheet. The dlla~ l)",enl of the added layers of the liner and backsheet ",d~enals is be -.eved to have increased the overall sliffl ,ess of each test sample. As a result it is bel ~ved that the observed stiffness 2 o values were higher than the values that would have been measured if the tests had been conducted on sam~'es co"~posed of the waist flap ",alenal alone. The waist flap in each of the samples in this Example 2 was co",posed of an elasto",enc, throc laycr laminate.
The laminab was cGI"posed of one layer of film (polyethylene:polyv;nyl acetate copolymer with TiO2 filler) san~ iched between two layers of polypropylene nonwoven 2 5 and was thermally bonded togeU ,er. The samples exhibited slifr"ess values that were ~ssively low.
Example 3: The samples were taken from diapers distributed by Molnlycke A.G. a business having offices in Gotebor~ Sweden. The diapers included an inner body-30 conta~ ting layer having a relatively large elongate central opening or aperturethel~UIruugh. Longitudinally extending elastics were attached to gatherthe edge regions of the inner layer which were acljacent the side edges of the aperture. The ",ate. ial of the inner layer located adjacenl the longitudinally opposed end edges of the aperture were observed to provide structures which resembled a pair of waist flaps. The 35 Molnlycke diapers provided sufficient matenal to remove individual samples lar~e enough 2 ~ 66009 for sLirh~ess testing. The samples could be taken as if they were removed from raw material stock and measured 1 inch (2.54 cm) in length by 1/2 inch (1. 27 cm) in width.
Each sample was a nonwoven fabric composed of a polypropylene bonded-carded web.The samples eAI ,ibiled stiffness values that were excessively low.
Example 4: Each sample was a laminate ~",posed of a 0.00035 inch (about --0.0089 mm) thick polyethylene film code SF20 available from Consolid?ted Thellllopl~slics Co., a business having offices in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin. The laminate had 12 strands of LYCRA 470 dtex (decitex) elaslo",ar applied sl,~hl,ed at 10 app~xi,nately a 260% elongation with 5 strands within the pocket section 84 and 7 strands within the flange section 82. The film and elasUc strands were assembled and atlached to a t ~c . "ponent polypropylene/polyethylene fiber spunbond web having 0.6 osy (about 20.4 g/m2) basis weight with 6.5 g/m2 of FINDLEY H2096 a~l ,esi~eemploying a ",ellspra~ applicator available from J. & M. LabGrdtolies Inc., a business 15 having Omces in D3wso.-ville GA. The sa" ,~!es were rep,usenta~ive of waist pocket elllbel~ suitable for the present invention.
Example 5: Each sample was a laminate ~",posed of a 0.00035 inch (about 0.0089 mm) thick polyethylene film, code SF20 available from Conso --iated 20 The~ op!~stics Co. The laminate had 12 strands of LYCRA 470 dtex el3sto",er applied at approA.."ately 260% elongation with 7 strands within the pocket section and with 5 strands within the flange section. The film and elastic strands were glued to a bicol.,ponent polyprupylene/,~,olyathylene fiber spunbond fabric having a 0.6 osy (about 20.4 g/m2) basis weight, with 6.5 g/m2 of FINDLEY H2096 adl,es;~0 using a Illeltapldy 25 aFp -~~'or available from J. & M. Labo~tones Inc. The samples were repr~senlati~c of waist p\ocket ~--el-lb~r~ suitable for the present invention.
Example B: Each sample was a laminate co"lpose~d of a 0.0006 inch (about 0.015 mm) thick polyeU~Jlena film, code XEM400.1 available from Conso d1t~d The..--Gpl7stics Co.
30 The laminate had 6 strands of GLOSPAN S7 360 denier with 2 strands within the pocket secbon applied at appr~xi~,ately 175% elongation and with 4 strands within the flange section applied at app~Ai",ately 150% elongation. The film and elastic strands were glued to a bicol"ponenl poly, .~pylene/polyethylene fiber spunbond fabric web having 0.6 osy (about 20.4 g/m2) basis weight with 5 g/m2 of FINDLEY H9214 adhesive using a -swirl ar r ~ ~tor. The sar"ples were representative of waist pocket me",bera suitable for the present invention.
Example 7: Each sample was a laminate composed of a 0.0006 inch (about 0.015 mm)5 thick polyethylene film code XEM400.1 available from Conso ~ted The""Gplaslics Co.
The laminate had 6 strands of GLOSPAN S7 360 denier with 2 strands within the pocket section applied at approximately 175% elongalion and with 4 strands within the flange section applied at approxi",ately 150% elongation. The film and elastic strands were glued to a polypropylene spunbond fabric web having 0.6 osy (about 20.4 g/m2) basis 10 weight with 5 g/m2 of FINDLEY H9214 adhesive using a swirl arFli~tor. The sa",ples were (epresenlalive of waist pocket members suitable for the presenl invention.
Example 8: Each sample was a laminate co,nposed of a 0.00035 inch (about 0.0089 mm) thick polypropylene film code XSF184 available from Conso .d~ted 15 Thei")Gpl!~Sli~,S CO. The laminate had 6 strands of GLOSPAN S7 490 denier with 2 strands within the pocket section applied at appr~AillldtGly 200% elongation and with 4 strands within the flange section applied at 150% elongalion. The film and elastic strands were glued to a bicomponent polypropylene/polyethylene fiber spunbond fibrous web having 0.6 osy (about 20.4 g/m2) basis weight with FINDLEY H2096 adhesive using 20 a strand-coating technique. The samples were represenbtive of waist pocket ",e",bera suitable for the present invention.
The Gurley slifrness values for Exa",ples 1-8 are s~""",ari~ed in the f~ ing TABLE 1.
TABLE 1: GURLEY STIFFNESS VALUES
Gurley Stiffness Values (St-nd&--~ Gurley Units -- milli~rams force) Example1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Film P&G Molnlycke 12 Strand 12 Strand 6 Strand 6 Strand 6 Strand Polyurethane (waist dam) (waist dam)5 Strands in7 Strands in2 Strands in 2 Strands in 2 Strands in pocket sectionpocket sectionpocket sectionpocket sectionpocket section Sample Ave. 0.00 _. 0 . ~ 58.00 _. 35.94 r~
o Ave. = Average ~o Units of measur~,.,enl. St~ndard Gurley Units which are equivalent to milli~rams of force (mf~
During testing the room was at standard conditions of 73 ~F (about 23 ~C) and 50%
relative humidity. A suibble device for taking the measurements is a Gurley Digibl Stirrness tester Model 4171-D available from Teledyne Gurley a business having offices in Troy New York; or an equivalent device. The testing procedure was in a~or~lance with 5 TAPPI T543 om-94. E~ta",F'es 1 and 4 through 8 had the Gurley sUrr"ess values obtained from samples taken from raw material s~ ~p es of the described films or laminas.
Having described the invention in rather full detail, it will be readily appa, ~nl that various changes and ",odificaUons can be made without depa,ting from the spirit of the invention.
10 All of such changes and ",odifications are conte",plated as being within the scope of the invention, as defined by the subjoined claims.
a backsheet layer;
a liquid permeable topsheet layer connected in superposed relation to said backsheet layer;
an absorbent body sandwiched between said topsheet layer and said backsheet layer; and an elasticized, waist pocket member connected to at least one of said backsheetand topsheet layers along at least one end margin of said article, said waist pocket member including an extending flange section and an extending pocket section;
said pocket section of said waist pocket member including a substantially fixed edge portion secured to said article, an elasticized, gathered movable edge portion, a substantially liquid impermeable pocket barrier layer;
a pocket fabric layer connected in facing relation with said pocket barrier layer, and a plurality of separate, laterally extending pocket elastic members sandwiched between said pocket barrier layer and said pocket fabric layer to provide an elasticized waist pocket composite which is substantially laterally gathered.
a flange fabric layer connected in facing relation with said flange barrier layer; and a plurality of separate, laterally extending flange elastic members sandwiched between said flange barrier layer and said flange fabric layer to provide an elasticized flange composite which is substantially laterally gathered by said flange elastic members
said pocket barrier layer integrally formed with said flange barrier layer to provide a flange-pocket barrier layer; and said fabric pocket layer integrally formed with said fabric flange layer to provide a flange-pocket fabric layer.
Priority Applications (4)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|US08/560,524 US5827259A (en)||1995-10-25||1995-12-18||Absorbent article with waist elastic and containment system|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|CA2166009A1 true CA2166009A1 (en)||1997-04-26|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|CA 2166009 Abandoned CA2166009A1 (en)||1995-10-25||1995-12-22||Absorbent article with improved waist elastic and containment system|
Country Status (1)
|CA (1)||CA2166009A1 (en)|
- 1995-12-22 CA CA 2166009 patent/CA2166009A1/en not_active Abandoned
|US5843267A (en)||Sanitary napkin with soft, pliable sides and relatively stiff ends|
|US5807367A (en)||Absorbent article having lateral barriers|
|US4657539A (en)||Waste containment garment having elasticized barrier wall leg flaps|
|US5425725A (en)||Absorbent article which includes superabsorbent material and hydrophilic fibers located in discrete pockets|
|US5558658A (en)||Disposable diaper having a humidity transfer area|
|US6682512B2 (en)||Continuous biaxially stretchable absorbent with low tension|
|US6989006B2 (en)||Disposable absorbent articles having multiple absorbent core components including replaceable components|
|US5785696A (en)||Disposable diaper|
|US6290686B1 (en)||Absorbent article having imbricated superabsorbent tiles on a substrate|
|US5192606A (en)||Absorbent article having a liner which exhibits improved softness and dryness, and provides for rapid uptake of liquid|
|US5624423A (en)||Absorbent article having barrier means and medial bulge|
|US5843056A (en)||Absorbent article having a composite breathable backsheet|
|US5938652A (en)||Absorbent article having a selectively elasticized waist flap|
|US5853403A (en)||Absorbent article with body contacting liquid control member|
|US4425130A (en)||Compound sanitary napkin|
|US5609588A (en)||Article having a non-absorbent resilient layer|
|US4988345A (en)||Absorbent articles with rapid acquiring absorbent cores|
|US6010586A (en)||Method of making a disposable absorbent article having a garment-like appearance|
|US20040024379A1 (en)||Disposable absorbent articles having multiple absorbent core components including replaceable components|
|US5913851A (en)||Method of making an absorbent article including liquid containment beams|
|US6011195A (en)||Wet resilient absorbent article|
|US6276032B1 (en)||Mechanical fastening system having a plurality of engagement members which include stalk members|
|US5782819A (en)||Article with stay-in-place feature|
|US5134007A (en)||Multiple layer absorbent cores for absorbent articles|
|US6022338A (en)||Absorbent article having a multilayered containment barrier|
Effective date: 20021223