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CA1175665A - Abrasive article - Google Patents

Abrasive article


Publication number
CA1175665A CA000391817A CA391817A CA1175665A CA 1175665 A CA1175665 A CA 1175665A CA 000391817 A CA000391817 A CA 000391817A CA 391817 A CA391817 A CA 391817A CA 1175665 A CA1175665 A CA 1175665A
Prior art keywords
support material
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Application number
Other languages
French (fr)
William F. Zimmer
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Saint-Gobain Abrasives Inc
Original Assignee
Saint-Gobain Abrasives Inc
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Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US23046981A priority Critical
Priority to US06/230,469 priority
Application filed by Saint-Gobain Abrasives Inc filed Critical Saint-Gobain Abrasives Inc
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CA1175665A publication Critical patent/CA1175665A/en
Application status is Expired legal-status Critical



    • B24D3/00Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents
    • B24D3/34Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents characterised by additives enhancing special physical properties, e.g. wear resistance, electric conductivity, self-cleaning properties
    • B24D3/342Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents characterised by additives enhancing special physical properties, e.g. wear resistance, electric conductivity, self-cleaning properties incorporated in the bonding agent
    • B24D3/344Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents characterised by additives enhancing special physical properties, e.g. wear resistance, electric conductivity, self-cleaning properties incorporated in the bonding agent the bonding agent being organic
    • B24D18/00Manufacture of grinding tools or other grinding devices, e.g. wheels, not otherwise provided for
    • B24D3/00Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents
    • B24D3/02Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents the constituent being used as bonding agent
    • B24D3/20Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents the constituent being used as bonding agent and being essentially organic
    • B24D3/28Resins or natural or synthetic macromolecular compounds
    • B24D3/32Resins or natural or synthetic macromolecular compounds for porous or cellular structure


An abrasive article is described that i.epsilon.
particularly suitable for use as a grinding wheel that is composed of a resin bond, abrasive grains and a support material, including a coupling agent to adhere the abrasive grains and support material tenaciously to the organic bonding material. The support material may include hollow bodies, such as microbubbles of glass or alumina or the like, and the support material is used in an amount that is carefully controlled to produce the desired porosity in the abrasive article. A process for producing grinding wheels is also described. A wide range of controlled porosity levels in the respective grinding wheels produced may be accomplished resulting in the production of wheels having superior wet strength and dimensional stability.


The invention relates to the production of resin bonded abrasive articles h~ving a controlled porosity. More particularly a grinding wheel is described having a resin bond for supporting an abrasive mix that includes microspheres to produce the desired degree of non-interconnecting porosity in the resulting article.
Prior Art Statement The following publications are representative of the most relevant prior art known to the applicant at the time of filing the application:

2,806,772 September 17, 1957 N. B. Robie

3,041,156 June 26, 1962 R. A. Rowse et al 3,329,488 July 4, 1967 L. L. Cofran 3,476,537 November 4, 1969 R. J. Markotan 3,502,453 March 24, 1970 E. L. Baratto 3,661,544 May 9, 1972 N. D. Whitaker 3,864,101 February 4, 1975 J. K. Charvat 3,925,034 December 9, 1975 L. A. Anna et al

4,226,602 October 7, 1980 H. Fukuda Various spherical and/or hollow types of fillers for abrasive articles have been suggested in the prior art.
U.S. 23806,772 to Robie suggest the use of balloons of clay;
U.S. 3,329,488 to Cofran and U.S. 3,476,537 to Markotan suggest the use of olivine, a porous mineral. Spherules filled with lubricant are taught in UOS. 3,502,453 to Baratto. Spacer material, including glass beads in a porous resin bond, is disclosed by U.S. 3,864,101 to Charvat and a bead which can melt or shrivel up is taught in U.S. 3,925,034 to Anna et al. Pore and hard form granules are utilized in ~ :~f~,,~

U.S. 4,226,602 to Fukuda.
None of the above patents recognizes the desirability of precisely controlling pore volume of the ultimate abrasive artisle through the confined internal space provided by the interior of the support material by incorporation such porous materials along with the abrasive grains in a non-porous bond thereby eliminating the interconnecting ~r interchannel voids between particles.
U.S. 3,041,156 to Rowse et al teaches the use of hydrolyzed silane to treat the surface of the abrasive grains to be incorporated in a grinding wheel or the like, but no additional pore ~orming material is used in the abrasive product.
In U.S. 3,661,544 to Whitaker abrasive grains and friable particles such as glass microbubbles are formed into a premix by coating the particles with sufficient resin to form the bond for the abrasive article and the resin is then cured to a B stage. The pre-mix of coated particles, grain, and bond can be stored in this condition. Later the pre-mix may be compressed in a mold and heated to a thermosetting temperature range to cure the resin to a C stage.
The desirability of providing a simple mixture of an abrasive grain and a pore forming ingredient suitable for molding a wide range of products having related grinding characteristics that vary over a broad range has long been recognized in the abrasive art. However, the disparity in properties heretofore sought in many of the respective products has made it impossible to utilize one composition for an extensive range of abrasive content. For example, a mixture designed for a high abrasive content can not be molded with a bond designed for use to form a product having low abrasion content merely by allowing ~or a greater porosity volume in the mold because the resultant green product slumps during the curing step.
When an attempt is made to use a low abrasive content mixture suitable for molding soft grade high porosity products for the production of a dense closed pore product, swelling upon curing of the bond is likely to result with concomitant loss of volume and structure control.
Another aspect involved in the precise maintainance of the design porosity in a molded product is concerned with the production of a grinding wheel with the desired controlled porosit~ and one that has an improved wet strength for wet grinding operations.
Many products suitable for dry grinding operations deteriorate when cooled by water. On the other hand, if the grinding product is so dense and lacking porosity so as to prevent water penetration, it is also likely to be too hard acting and unsuitable for some wet grinding operations.
Prior art attempts to produce an abrasive mix that may be used to produce a variety of products that may be used interchangeably for producing wet or dry grinding abrasive products and having different porosity levels bonded with a single selected resin, have relied on the inclusion or exclusion of selected fillers such as lime, anhydrous calcium sulfate, activated alumina, molecular sieves, etc. ~lso, hollow spheres of clay, thermosplastic or glass beads have been employed.
However, it has not heretofore been recognized that one mix having a standard composition could be used to produce a variety of abrasive products with a specifically prescribed porosity by making use of the method and composition here taught.
The present invention provides an abrasive mix composition that may be adapted for the production of a wide variet~ of grades when bonded with a standaxd bond. The composition comprises abrasive grains, support material which ~7~

is hollow, such as microbubbles, and resin bond which evolves little or no volatile components during fluxing or cure. A
great variety of abrasive articles can be produced each having a different porosity grade by relying almost e~clusively on the selection of the proper size and quantity of the microbubble support material to provide the porosity desired.
By using the herein described procedures for treating both the abrasive grains and the support material, preferably glass microbubbles, with a coupling agent that is compatible with the resin bond to be used, inter-connected pores within the composition can be virtually eliminated.
The resin bond material with which the coupling agent is compatible and or even reactive, is cured to be essentially non-porous so that, unlike the prior art, the porosity of the final product is precisely determined by the selection of the quantity of microbubbles which produce the exact degree of internal pores desired.
In ~ollowing this invention, it is possible to produce the wide variety of dimensionally stable molded articles making use of the single compositional system having a specif ied porosity and which also has a great resistance to deterioration by water. Thus, grinding wheels prodllced in following this teaching are particularly well suited for wet as well as dry grinding operations.
Grinding wheels, according to the invention, can be processed by cold or hot press molding methods and can be cured further over a wide range of temperatures without slumping and while remaining free standing in the curing oven, with a remarkable degree of dimensional stability.
The abrasive grain material adapted for use in the composition of this invention may be selected from any of the conventional particulate abrasive materials including .., / .


alumina, silicon carbide, æirconia-alumina, corundum, garnet, diamond, and the like. The grit size may vary between 4 to at least 400 grit. The preferred range i5 from about 12 grit to about 220 grit. Whenever the terms grit size or mesh size is used, it xefers to the U.S. ~tandard Sieve Series. For ease in mixing and handling it is preferred to have the same sizes for the abrasive grains and the support medium described below. The amount of abrasive grain may vary between from 60% to as little as l volume %.
The preferred composition of this invention includes abrasive grain, a crushable support medium, a coupling agent coated on the grain and support medium, a wetting agent, and a powdered polymeric bonding agent which fuses and coalesces or cures and/or cross links with little or no formation of gaseous or volatile by-products.
Support material for providing the designed degree o~ porosity is selected to be crushable within the range o~
pressures normally used for molding the abrasive article, but it must have sufficient mechanical strength to allow survival during normal mixing and handling procedures. Materials such as glass or phenolic resin microbubbles, granules of pumice, friable open or closed cell polymeric foamsr such as urethane, phenolic, and multi-celled glass bubbles are suitable. Generally the desired characteristics demand the use of a material which is composed of a single or multiple celled material that is friable, compressible, and crushable.
~lass bubbles are preierred.
The size of the material is preferably the same as, or coarser than, that of the abxasive grains with which it is mixed, but it may vary in size from 45 microns to l/4" in diameter. Preferably the size range is from 12 mesh to 325 mesh and ideally between 12 to 80 mesh. For ease in handling and visually determining uniformity, it is desirable that the abrasive grains and the support material have generally the same size.

~' 6~

Finer hollo~l beads mixed with the abrasive grains tend to produce drier mixes which are somewhat more difficult to press. The support material is preferably added to the abxasive grains, followed by the coupling agent and then the wetting agent to which is then added the powdered bond.
However, if it is added to the mix after the abrasive grains, bond powder and wetting agent have been blended, less crushing and shearing of the support material occurs.
The amount of support medium added can vary greatly and the volume % may range between 90~ down to 1%. Typical abrasive articles have 25 to 50 volume % of the support media.
Multicelled glass bubbles are available from Pittsburgh-Corning Corporation in a size -20/-~40 mesh.
Similar glass bubbles are available from Norton Company, generally in a size of through 20 mesh and on 40 mesh but this product is produced in a range down to an 80 mesh size.
Single celled glass bubbles are manufactured by 3M Company that are smaller than a 150 mesh size.
Conventional coupling agents known for treating abrasive grains and glass are certain silanes and titanates.
Silane treatment of abrasive grain is taught in U.S. 3,041,156 and those teachings are incorporated herein.
Many silanes are known t~ be suitable for this purpose and are available commercially. Two preferred silanes are amino propyl triethoxy silane ana glycidoxypropyl trimethoxy silane. These are available from Union Carbide Corporation.
Another class o~ coupling agents are alkyl titanates such as tetra but~1 titanate. Other titanate estersl both simple and complex, are also satisfactory and these titanates are commercially available.
The amount used should be sufficient to form at least a monomolecular lay~r over the surface of the material being coated.
The coupling agent can be applied in a conventional form or it may be dissolved in a compatible solvent or reactive liquid ingredient in order to insure a more rapid and thorough distribution of this agent over the abrasive and support material. Either liquid phenol-formadehyde resol or epoxy resin may be used as such a liquid or carrier for example. This coupling agent may also be dissolved in other wetting agents in the proportion of about 0.25 wt % of the selected silane based on the quantity of liquid wetting agent.
After a thorough blending, for example, of 25 vol %
of A-187, a commercially available silane, in 75 vol % of Araldite 6004, a liquid epoxy resin, the abrasive mix is made in the usual way by adding the solution to a mixing pan containing abrasive grains and glass beads followed by the addition of more Ardalite 6004 as desired and then by addition of the dry bonding materials.
It is essential that the resin bond material for incorporation in the mix of this invention be a liquid or powdered polymeric bonding agent which forms a strong bond by fusion and coalescence and/or which cures and/or cross-links by a mechanism which yields little or no gaseous or yolatile by-products. Examples of the fusion type resins are polyvinylchloride, polycarbonate and ABS polymer. Examples of the cross-linking type resins are selected phenolic resins~ epoxy resins, unsaturated polyester resins, and urethane polymersO It is preferable that a wetting agent be used with the abrasive mix, support material, and powdered bond; the bonding resin and wetting agent must be compatible with each other. The resin bond material can be present in the resulting abrasive products mix in as little as 5 vol. %
and up to 90 volume %.

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Conventional novolaks, with hexamethylenetetramine, can be operable in this invention. If such powders are initially low in water content very little volatile material such as water or ammonia is generated during a low temperature cure such as 160C. Such materials can be used, even without lime as a scavenger, with liquid epoxy, liquid anhydride, furfural, or even low water content liquid resins as wetting agents. After the molded abrasive product geometry is well fixed with a partial cure, even higher bake temperatures can be used without encountering any deleterious slumping or swelling as the product cures.
The epoxy resin system is favored in higher bond content compositions because there is little risk of swelling.
Wetting agents for powdered resins in abrasive compositions are well known. While their use is not essential in the practice of this invention, they may be and preferably are employedO Preferably they are present in an amount of from 5 to 30 volume ~ of the total volume of the bonding resin used.
With powdered epoxy and phenoxy resins the following wetting agents are suggested: liquid epoxies, liquid anhydrides, furane resins, furfuryl alcohol, creosote oil, highly aromatic processing oils, low water content resoles, dioctyl phthalate, liquid novolak resins. rrhese agents will also work for the PVC powder and the powdered phenolic novolaks with or without hexa. Furfural is also suitable for novolaks. For unsaturated alkyds (polyester resin powders), styrene and styrenated resin syrups are applicable wetting agents.
Other conventionally used additives for an abrasive mix, such as active and inactive fillers, may also be used in the formulation of the wheels of this invention.


g Typical grinding wheels are made as here taught by introducing the abrasive grain and suppor-t material into a suitable container such as a vertical spindle mixer, Hobart, or similar type high shear mixer. The coupling agent may then be added and the batch mixed until the coupling agent is thoroughly coated onto the surfaces of the grains and particles of the support material. Alternatively the coupling agent may be dissolved in a wetting agent and the solution can be added to the batch for mixing with the grain and support material.
Subsequently the powdered resin bond is added. If desired, a dampening agent is added to the coated material in the mixer and after thorough blending of all the ingredients the composition is pressed to shape in a suitable mold. The amount of abrasive mix material used in filling the mold is such that the planned porosity of the pressed shape exclusive of the porous support material is less than 14% and generally 0 to 5~. It is prefQrred that the planned porosity for some products be made to approach zero ~, but zero porosity may not be preferred for very high bond content compositions because of spring back that is inherent in the use cf finely powdered resin bond materials. Higher porosity levels are known to produce less spring back.
The pressing molding of the wheel shape can be either cold or hot. ~or the cold pressing operation sufficient pressure to achieve the targeted 0-14% porosity is up to about 12 tons/in2 and preferably below about 5 tons/in2. For hot pressing, the pressure is up to about 2.5 tons/in2.
The hot pressing temperatures are on the order o~
160-165C and hot pressed articles may be post baked, as is conventional, at temperatures up to about 210C. Cold pressed wheels can be cured in the usual manner at a temperature of approximately 175C and after cure are trued 1~

-to the desired size to insure proper geometry.
The invention is further illustrated by the following examples in which all parts and percentages are by weight unless otherwise indicated. The non-limiting examples are illustrative of certain embodiments designed to teach those skilled in the art how to practice the invention and represent the best mode contemplated for practicing the invention.
Coupling agents and resin bond products used in the examples below, are:
A-187, a silane from Union Carbide (gamma-glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane)i Araldite 6004, 6010, liguid epoxy resins sold by Ciba-Geigy, a bis phenol-A epoxy;
A~1100 and A-1102 silane, gamma-amino propyl triethoxy silanes sold by ~nion Carbide;
EMI 24, a 2-ethyl-4-methyl imidazole catalyst sold by Fike Chemical Company;
37-624, a liquid anhydride sold by the Reichold Chemicals, Inc.;
Varcum 6404, and Varcum 6407, solid epoxy resins.
Example 1 The following amounts of the ingredients listed below were used for the abrasive wheel mix.
ITEM NAME AMOUNT (in lbs.) A 57 Alundum, 60 grit aluminum oxide abrasive 13.23 B Multicellular glass nodules 20-40 mesh (Norton Company) 1.24 C A-187 silane 25% vol. dissolved in 75% vol. Araldite 60040.08 D Solution of 0.65 lbs. Araldite 5004 and 0.03 lbs~ EMI-240.68 35 E Varcum 6404 powdered epoxy resin planned porosity 0~ 2.84 .

Items A and B were placedin a vertical spindle mixer to which Item C was added. The materials were thoroughly mixed in order to coat the particles A and ~ with the silane solution C. Next the wetting agent D and EMI~24 were added and thoroughly blended for uniform coating of the particles. Finally Item E, the epoxy bond resin, was added and mixed until the mixture appeared to have a uniform distribution. The final mixture was screened through a 10 mesh screen to remove any coarse particles. A second quantity of wheel mix was prepared in the same way and the two mixed for a total of about 36 pounds. An 8-3/16" O.D.
mold with a 1" arbor was loaded with 3.87 lbs. of the above abrasive mixture. The mix was leveled with a straight edge after which it was cold pressed to a thickness of 1-1/8". Thirty tons of pressing pressure was required on the mold. Subsequently the green wheel was stripped from the mold. The procedure was repeated to form seven more wheels to give a total of eight wheels. Each wheel was prepared for bake by wrapping the periphery of the wheel with a strip of paper held in place with a piece of pressure sensitive tape. The wheel was placed on an oven batt and the center hole of each wheel was filled with quartz granules.
All the wheels were placed in an electrically heated convection oven. The oven temperature was made to rise gradually to a temperature of 175C and the wheels were baked at this temperature for 15 hours. Then the oven containing the wheels was allowed to cool to room temperature gradually. The fired wheels were found to have an average thickness of only 1.2% thinner than before the bake, showing ~he remarkable ability of this compositional system to retain molded dimensions during cure.
Target sp gr 1.83 Actual sp gr 1.87 The wheels were trued and tested as follows:
Three of the wheels were speed tested to destruction dry and three were centrifugally burst after a 10 day immersion in water.
The average dry burst strength was 23,921 sfpm and the average wet burst strength was 22,214 sfpm.
sfpm = surface feet per minute These data show the remarkable wet strength retention of the inventive wheels.
Example 2 For comparative purposes, this example which is not illustrative of the invention shows that conventional high "planned in" porosity outside of the limited porosity range of the invention, with similar composition and curing steps reduces the desired properties of the wheels. The designed porosity of these wheels was 30%.
The following amounts of the ingredients listed below were employed:
ITEM NAME AMOUN_ (in lbs.) 20 A 38 Alundum 80 grit aluminum oxide abrasive 9-47 B Multicellular glass modules0.18 C A-1102 silane and phenolformaldehyde resole, l,000CP, 9~
H2O .04 D .0311 lb. EMI 24 in 0.22 lb Araldite 6004 .23 E V 6411 resin (a 50/50 blend of an epoxy and a one step solid phenolic resole) 2.12 The procedure of Example 1 was followed for preparation of the total mount of mix needed and for the molding of these wheels.
To the same mold as in Example 1, 3.58 lbs. of the above mix was added and pressed to a thickness of 1-1/8".
The bakiny procedure of Example 1 was followed.

~ ~L75~Ç~

The baked wheel had a thickness of about 5% less than the molded green wheel. This indicates that there is insufficient structural support for this composition with a 3Q% planned in porosity.
Target sp gr 1.70 Actual sp gr 1.85 Three wheels were burst centrifugally dry and three wheels were centrifugally burst after a 10 day soak in water.
Average dry burst 20,385 sfpm Average wet burst 14,102 sfpm The following i.s another example of the invention:
ITEM NAME AMOUNT (in lbs.) A 32 Alundum 50 grit aluminum oxide abrasive 18.38 B 60 mesh multicellular glass nodules (Norton Company~ 1.72 C 25 vol. % of A-187 silane and 75 vol.
% Araldite 6004 liquid epoxy resin .08 D 0.92 lbs. Araldite 6004 and 0.03 lb.
EMI 24 catalyst .95 E Powdered Varcum 6404 resin 3.95 The procedure of Example 1 was followed in preparing the mix. An amount of 18.44 lbs. of the above mixture was loaded into a 24-5/16" mold containing an 11-7/8" arbor and compressed to a thickness of 0.852". The wheel was prepared and baked~as in Example 1. On cooling the thickness of the fired wheel was found to be 0.849", or 0.3~ thinner than the green wheel. The wheel was designed to have a target sp gr of 1.83 and the fired, or actual, sp gr was 1.84.
The elastic modulus of the fired wheel was found to be 9.2 and SBP (Sandblast Penetration~ (2/25) was 1.26 -1O29.


~75~5 A smaller wheel, 4" x 0.77" x 7/&" was cut out from this large wheel. The small wheel was tested in grinding AISI 52100 steel with a Rockwell C scale hardness of 60 on an experimental grinding machine. In comparision with other wheels, including vitrified bonded wheels, the wheel of this invention was shown to grind more durably with slower wetting and less wheel wear, but without any burn in comparison with the vitrified wheel.
Example 4 A 57 Alundum 80 grit aluminum oxide abrasive 14.57 lbs.
B 36 grit multicellular glass bubbles (Pittsburgh-Corning) 0.97 lbs.
15 C A-187 silane, 25 vol. ~ and 75~
Araldite 6004 37.5 cc D Araldite 6004 0.28 lbs.
E Varcum 6404 1018 lbs.
The wheels to be made were designed to have a volume of 48% abrasive grits, 16% volume of bond, and 36%
volume of glass beads.
The mix was prepared and eight wheels were pressed both as described in Example 1. All wheels were individually molded in an 8-3/16" mold with a 1" arbor to a targeted thickness of 1.28" with a paper disc on top and bottom of each wheel. The molded wheels were stacked four high and the holes filled with quartz. Each stack was then given a double paper wrap which was fixed with pressure sensitive tape.
The wheel stacks were baked as described in Example 1.
Each wheel was found to weigh 5.33 lbs. and after firing showed a 0.39 increase in thickness. A typical wheel from this batch was selected for analysis of certain data.
The 5p gr before firing was 2.21 and after being cured was found to be 2.19, the SBP (2/25) was 2.57 and the elastic modulus was 14.

~ .

'7~5 -The dry burst speed of 3 wheels averaged 23,426 surface feet per minute and the average wet burst strength for 3 other wheels was 21,180 surface feet per minute.
Examples 5-7 Items A-E are as defined in Ex~mple 4, but were mixed in the following proportions. Several mixes were made to produce the needed total.

10 A 13.47 lbs. 13.23 lbs. 11.90 lbs.
B 0.93 lbs. 0.96 lbs. 0.94 lbs.
C 35.3 cc 35.4 cc 33.0 cc D 0.31 lbs. 0.35 lbs. 0.41 lbs.
E 1.28 lbs. 1.28 lbs. 1.73 15 TOTAL 16 lbs. 16 lbs. 16 lbs.
VOL. ~ A 46 44 40 VOL. % B 36 36 36 VOL. % E 18 20 24 Planned 0 0 0 Porosity The wheels were molded and cured as described above in Example 4 and the following data were recorded.
Wt. of change sp gr sp gr Example each wheel after firing Target actual

5.19 ~0.14 2.16 ~.14

6 5.06 +0.00 2.10 2.08

7 4.79 -0.98 1.99 1.99 The pysical data from the selected typical wheels were:
SBP Elastic Centrifugal ~ burst speed SFPM
30 Exam~e ~ modules dry wet 2.64 13 23~156 21,180 6 2.34 13 23,420 21,886 7 2.00 12 23,509 21,858 .~

The centrifugal burst speed data recorded above, for both dry and wet wheels, is the average of three wheels.
From an inspection of the description and examples set forth above, it is seen that a composition is provided that has universal applicability to the fabrication of abrasive articles with a more exact control of porosity. sy making use of the porous support medium together with abrasive grains in a substantially porous resin bond, a very precise designed degree of porosity can be built into the cured product. The ability to control the degree of porosity in the final product makes possible the production of gxinding wheels, for example, having improved grinding characteristics related to the structure of the specified wheel. The improved grinding ability of such wheels flows in part from the use of the non-porous bond which for wet grinding operations provides a wheel having an increased resistance to bursting forces where the wheel is rapidly rotated.
The moIding procedures applied to the composition described having porous support material makes the production of articles with a very exact degree of porosity possible.
When a crushable porous support mater:ial is mixed with the abrasive grain, the ~olume quantities of the grain and support material, together with the bond r~sin, can be selected to produce a desired porosity in the cured non-porous resin bonded product. Since the pores are built into the article as it is ~eing fabricated, precise control of the volume or degree of porosity is possible. In one aspect of the in~ention the porous support material can be supplied in the mix in a slight excess, and when the green wheel shape, for example, is being pressed in a mold, the slight excess of support material can be crushed to provide a wheel that fills the mold to 100~ of its designed volume with an exact volume of pores resuIting from the inclusion of the ~;1 remaining uncrushed porous support material in the mixture.
It will be noted that while a porous abrasive article can be made with the disclosed composition and method, it should be observed that the only pores in the mass of the wheel are closed pores as distinguished from open and interconnected pores that usually result upon the curing of the conventional type of resin bonded abrasive products. It is the elimination ofthe interconnecting channels within the body of the product that is, in part, responsible for the improved wet strength of the herein described product. Also it is believed that the coupling agent that is applied over the surfaces of the grains and particles of the support . material, provides for optimum bonding between these surfaces and the non-porous bonding mass whereby a stronger cured porous product is made.
~ lth~ugh the preferred form of the invention has been described in the specifications above and illustrated in several examples in considerable detail with reference to certain embodiments thereof, it will be understood that variations and modifications may occ~lr to those s~illed in the art that will fall within the spirit and scope of the invention as described above and as defined in the appended claims.

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Claims (15)

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:
1. An abrasive article including abrasive grains, a porous support material and a resin bond comprising a coupling agent for coating said abrasive grains and said support material, said grains, and support material, being bonded with a resin bond cured with the production of little or no volatiles, said bond resin being adhered to the grains and support material with the aid of said coupling agent, the coupling agent being compatible with the resin bond, said resin bond being cured under conditions to limit production of said volatiles so as to maintain amount of inter-channel porosity to less than 14% of the total volume of the abrasive article whereby the article has a controlled porosity by reason of the introduction of said support material and the article has dimensional stability during cure and superior resistance to impregnation with water after being cured.
2. An article of claim 1 wherein the coupling agent is a silane.
3. An article of claim 1 wherein the support material is glass bubbles of 12 to 325 mesh.
4. An article of claim 1 wherein the interchannel-porosity volume is less than 5%.
5. An article of claim 1 further including a wetting agent for introducing the coupling agent into the wheel composition.
6. An abrasive article of claim 1 wherein the resin bond is selected from the group consisting of phenolic resins, epoxy resins, and phenoxy resins.
7. A bonded abrasive article comprising abrasive grains, a resin bond for said grains, said resin being selected from the group consisting of phenolic resins, epoxy resins and phenoxy resins, a silane coupling agent for coating said grains that is compatible with said bond, said article including glass microbubbles serving as a supporting material in said article, said microbubbles also being treated with said silane, and said resin being cured so that the interchannel porosity is less than 14% of the total volume of the abrasive article.
8. A process for producing cured resin bonded abrasive articles filled with a measure of abrasive grains and a selected measure of grains of porous support material, said cured article having a low interchannel porosity that excludes the porosity of the support material comprising the steps of:
I. admixing abrasive grains and particles of a cellular support material with a coupling agent to coat the support material and grains for strong adherence to a resin bond;
II. mixing liquid wetting agent with coated grains;
III. mixing powdered resin bond with the coated grains and support material to complete the mixture;
IV. filling a mold and pressing the complete mix in said mold, in an amount calculated to produce an interchannel porosity of less than V. removing the molded abrasive article from the mold and VI. curing the abrasive article under conditions to produce a cured product having an interchannel porosity of less than 14% whereby the cured molded article compares in size substantially the same as the green molded size.
9. A process of claim 8 wherein the planned interchannel porosity is less than 5%.
10. A process of claim 8 wherein a wetting agent is admixed with the mixture to uniformly disperse the resin through the mixture.
11. A process of claim 8 wherein the support material is glass microbubbles.
12. A process of claim 8 wherein the coupling agent is a silane.
13. A process of claim 12 wherein the silane is spread in at least a monomolecular layer on said grain and glass microbubbles.
14. A process as in claim 8 wherein the mold is filled with a volume of the mixture that is larger than the designed size of the abrasive article to be produced and pressing the mixture in the mold to compress it to the designed size of the abrasive article.
15. A process as in claim 13 wherein certain particles of said porous support material are crushed during said pressing step.
CA000391817A 1981-02-02 1981-12-09 Abrasive article Expired CA1175665A (en)

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US06/230,469 1981-02-02

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AU (1) AU528580B2 (en)
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ES (1) ES509218A0 (en)
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US5738697A (en) * 1996-07-26 1998-04-14 Norton Company High permeability grinding wheels
US5738696A (en) * 1996-07-26 1998-04-14 Norton Company Method for making high permeability grinding wheels

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JPS61230871A (en) * 1985-04-05 1986-10-15 Noritake Co Ltd Grinder element using flexible resin
AU1115588A (en) * 1987-02-26 1988-09-01 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Erodable agglomerates and abrasive products containing the same
DE3708866A1 (en) * 1987-03-18 1988-09-29 Josef Sebald A method for making an abrasive
DE3724704A1 (en) * 1987-07-25 1989-02-02 Metallgesellschaft Ag A method of separating workpieces and bearbeitungskoerpern
US4871376A (en) * 1987-12-14 1989-10-03 Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company Resin systems for coated products; and method
JPH02232171A (en) * 1989-03-06 1990-09-14 Gun Ei Chem Ind Co Ltd Resinoid grindstone
AT394964B (en) * 1990-07-23 1992-08-10 Swarovski Tyrolit Schleif Schleifkoerper
JPH0631637A (en) * 1992-06-19 1994-02-08 Shiyouken Kogyo Kk Porous rubber abrasive for buff
US5713968A (en) * 1996-05-16 1998-02-03 Speedfam Corporation Abrasive foam grinding composition
US6440185B2 (en) 1997-11-28 2002-08-27 Noritake Co., Ltd. Resinoid grinding wheel

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US2806772A (en) * 1954-09-15 1957-09-17 Electro Refractories & Abrasiv Abrasive bodies
US2986455A (en) * 1958-02-21 1961-05-30 Carborundum Co Bonded abrasive articles
US3041156A (en) * 1959-07-22 1962-06-26 Norton Co Phenolic resin bonded grinding wheels
US3098730A (en) * 1959-07-22 1963-07-23 Norton Co Grinding wheels having unsaturated organic polymeric bonds and the like
US3074211A (en) * 1960-08-24 1963-01-22 Norton Co Grinding wheel
US3208836A (en) * 1960-09-09 1965-09-28 Borden Co Cold press method of making abrasive articles
US3329488A (en) * 1964-07-24 1967-07-04 Carborundum Co Resin bonded abrasive articles containing olivine
BE759502A (en) * 1969-11-28 1971-05-27 Bmi Lab abrasive tool, in particular grinding wheel, AND METHOD war-making
CA985916A (en) * 1970-09-28 1976-03-23 Norton Company High strength resin bonded grinding wheels
US3925034A (en) * 1973-05-14 1975-12-09 Res Abrasive Products Inc Resin bonded grinding wheel containing gas-filled thermoplastic resin beads and method of making it
GB1474569A (en) * 1975-10-10 1977-05-25 Universal Grinding Wheel Co Lt Abrasive product

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5738697A (en) * 1996-07-26 1998-04-14 Norton Company High permeability grinding wheels
US5738696A (en) * 1996-07-26 1998-04-14 Norton Company Method for making high permeability grinding wheels

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BR8200533A (en) 1982-12-07
ZA8200339B (en) 1982-12-29
IN157350B (en) 1986-03-08
AU528580B2 (en) 1983-05-05
AU7986882A (en) 1982-11-04
CA1175665A1 (en)
EP0057392A2 (en) 1982-08-11
ES509218A0 (en) 1982-12-16
EP0057392A3 (en) 1985-01-09
ES8302048A1 (en) 1982-12-16
JPS57184659A (en) 1982-11-13
ES509218D0 (en)

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