AU2021102055A4 - Metal Additive Manufacturing Method Based on Double High-energy Beams Technique - Google Patents

Metal Additive Manufacturing Method Based on Double High-energy Beams Technique Download PDF

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Publication number
AU2021102055A4
AU2021102055A4 AU2021102055A AU2021102055A AU2021102055A4 AU 2021102055 A4 AU2021102055 A4 AU 2021102055A4 AU 2021102055 A AU2021102055 A AU 2021102055A AU 2021102055 A AU2021102055 A AU 2021102055A AU 2021102055 A4 AU2021102055 A4 AU 2021102055A4
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Prior art keywords
additive
energy
double
laser
component
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Inventor
Bo He
Liang LAN
Min Lu
Yufei Pan
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Shanghai University of Engineering Science
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Shanghai University of Engineering Science
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F3/00Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering; Apparatus specially adapted therefor ; Presses and furnaces
    • B22F3/10Sintering only
    • B22F3/1017Multiple heating or additional steps
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F10/00Additive manufacturing of workpieces or articles from metallic powder
    • B22F10/20Direct sintering or melting
    • B22F10/28Powder bed fusion, e.g. selective laser melting [SLM] or electron beam melting [EBM]
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F2203/00Controlling
    • B22F2203/11Controlling temperature, temperature profile
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F2301/00Metallic composition of the powder or its coating
    • B22F2301/05Light metals
    • B22F2301/052Aluminium
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F2301/00Metallic composition of the powder or its coating
    • B22F2301/15Nickel or cobalt
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F2301/00Metallic composition of the powder or its coating
    • B22F2301/20Refractory metals
    • B22F2301/205Titanium, zirconium or hafnium
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22FWORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER
    • B22F2301/00Metallic composition of the powder or its coating
    • B22F2301/35Iron
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/02Positioning or observing the workpiece, e.g. with respect to the point of impact; Aligning, aiming or focusing the laser beam
    • B23K26/06Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing
    • B23K26/062Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing by direct control of the laser beam
    • B23K26/0622Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing by direct control of the laser beam by shaping pulses
    • B23K26/0624Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing by direct control of the laser beam by shaping pulses using ultrashort pulses, i.e. pulses of 1ns or less
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K26/00Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting or boring
    • B23K26/02Positioning or observing the workpiece, e.g. with respect to the point of impact; Aligning, aiming or focusing the laser beam
    • B23K26/06Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing
    • B23K26/064Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing by means of optical elements, e.g. lenses, mirrors or prisms
    • B23K26/0648Shaping the laser beam, e.g. by masks or multi-focusing by means of optical elements, e.g. lenses, mirrors or prisms comprising lenses
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y10/00Processes of additive manufacturing

Abstract

A metal additive manufacturing method based on double high-energy beams technique is disclosed in the invention, which includes the following steps of a) determining the three dimensional solid model and modelling of the component; b) additive manufacturing of the component. Slicing and layering the digital model in step a) to obtain two-dimensional profile information of each layer section and generate a processing path. The above information is introduced into the control system of additive manufacturing equipment, and then the additive manufacturing based on double high-energy beams technique is carried out with metal powder as the raw material and the predetermined processing path followed. The component prepared by the method avoids internal defects such as pores, incomplete fusion, cracks, etc., and meanwhile it has small systematic errors from the original design, high dimensional accuracy, small residual stress, low surface roughness and high comprehensive quality. Compared with the prior art, the provided invention has remarkable progress and industrial application value. 1/1 FIGURES 5 4 3 Figure I A schematic diagram of the additive manufacturing of a component in Embodiment I of the present invention.

Description

1/1
FIGURES
5 4
3
Figure I A schematic diagram of the additive manufacturing of a component in
Embodiment I of the present invention.
Metal Additive Manufacturing Method Based on Double High-energy Beams
Technique
TECHNICAL FIELD
The invention relates to a metal additive manufacturing method, and particularly describes
a metal additive manufacturing method based on double high-energy beams technique,
belonging to that technical field of metal additive manufacturing.
BACKGROUND
Additive manufacturing technology manufactures solid components based on the method
of material dispersion and gradual accumulation. Usually, it takes metal powder or wire as
raw materials, and then the near-net shaping of high-performance components is completed
directly from CAD model by pre-layering with CAD model and melting, stacking as well
as growing with high-energy beam. There are great differences in preparation mechanism
and material defect formation mechanism between additive manufacturing and traditional
subtractive manufacturing based on casting- forging- welding- heat treatment- cutting.
Compared with the traditional subtractive or equivalent manufacturing methods, additive
manufacturing technology obviously simplifies the process flow of component processing
and shows great advantages in shortening design cycle and reducing cost.
At present, the important development direction of additive manufacturing technology is
based on high-energy beams, using laser beams and electron beams as energy sources,
which has the advantages of rapid prototyping and high processing accuracy.
Consequently, it is widely used in the fields of high-temperature alloy shaping and
precision component manufacturing. Meanwhile, additive manufacturing technology also
provides new way and new idea for the manufacture of key components of high- temperature alloys and titanium alloys for aerospace. However, there are still internal defects such as pores, incomplete fusion, cracks, etc. in the components of additive manufacturing technology. In addition, the additive manufacturing has to go through a process of "point-by-point scanning- line-by-line overlap- layer-by-layer accumulation".
No matter how complex the components are, their manufacturing must be accumulated
from points into lines, from lines into faces, and from faces into bodies. In this rapid
melting-solidification process, the formation of each layer has a certain error from the
original design due to the extreme non-equilibrium solidification. This kind of error can
not be completely eliminated in the subsequent cycle but will be accumulated and
transmitted as the additive manufacturing process proceeds, which will eventually lead to
a non-negligible system error. That is to say, there are certain errors in the moulding
precision of the components and the net components, large residual stress, and rough
surface, which have seriously affected the application of additive manufacturing
technology.
SUMMARY
In view of the above problems existing in the prior art, the present invention provides a
metal additive manufacturing method based on double high-energy beams technique.
In order to achieve the purpose of the invention, the following technical scheme is adopted
by the invention.
A metal additive manufacturing method based on double high-energy beams technique
includes the following steps.
a) Determining the three-dimensional solid model and modelling of the component. The
digital-analogy type of the component of the invention is a digital model of the double high-energy beams shaping, which is defined as that the first high-energy beam is generated by a continuous laser or an electron gun, and the second high-energy beam is generated by a pulse laser; and the first high-energy beam has the same trajectory as the second high energy beam, with an interval of 20-50ms. Then, in the control system of additive manufacturing equipment, CAD three-dimensional software is used to establish the three dimensional digital model of the component.
b) Additive manufacturing of the component. Slicing and layering the digital model in step
a) to obtain two-dimensional profile information of each layer section and generate a
processing path. The above information is introduced into the control system of additive
manufacturing equipment, and then the additive manufacturing based on double high
energy beams technique is carried out with metal powder as the raw material and the
predetermined processing path followed. Firstly, preparing the first shaped sheet layer by
the additive manufacturing based on the first high-energy beam. The laser surface and the
profile of the first shaped sheet layer are then processed by the second high-energy beam.
Then using the first high-energy beam to perform additive manufacturing shaping on the
surface of the first shaped sheet to obtain the second shaped sheet layer, and the second
high-energy beam is used to carry out laser surface and profile treatment on the second
shaped sheet layer. Cycle the above operation and stack layer by layer until the required
components are obtained.
As a preferred scheme, in step b), when the first high-energy beam is generated by a
continuous laser, the power of the continuous laser is 100-1000W, the spot diameter is
-200 m, and the scanning speed is 50-2000mm/s.
As a further preferred scheme, the continuous laser is a carbon dioxide laser or a fibre laser.
As a preferred scheme, in step b), when the first high-energy beam is generated by the
electron gun, the probe current of the electron gun is 10-50mA, the scanning speed is
-2000mm/s, and the spot diameter is 50-200 m.
As a further preferred scheme, in step b), the second high-energy beam is generated by a
high-frequency short-pulse laser.
More preferably, the second high-energy beam is generated by a nanosecond pulse laser or
a femtosecond pulse laser.
Furthermore, when the second high-energy beam is produced by nanosecond pulse laser,
the pulse width of nanosecond pulse laser is 18-25ns, the pulse energy is 12-60J, and the
spot diameter is 0.5-5mm.
And when the second high-energy beam is produced by femtosecond pulse laser, the pulse
width of femtosecond pulse laser is 20-150fs, and the pulse energy is 0.5-mJ.
As a preferred scheme, in step b), the metal powder is at least one selected from titanium
alloy powder, nickel-based alloy powder, cobalt-based alloy powder, stainless steel
powder, aluminium alloy powder and titanium-based composite material powder.
Moreover, the particle size of the metal powder is 20-50[m, and the metal powder is used
as raw material after drying at 100-200°C.
As a preferred scheme, the additive manufacturing equipment is one of SLM (Selective
Laser Melting) additive manufacturing equipment, EBM (Electron Beam Melting) additive
manufacturing equipment and LENS (Laser Engineered Net Shaping) additive
manufacturing equipment.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following remarkable beneficial effects.
1. The provided invention prepares the first shaped sheet layer by the additive
manufacturing of the first high-energy beam. The laser surface and the profile of the first
shaped sheet layer are then processed by the second high-energy beam. Finally, the
required components are obtained by stacking layer by layer. Due to the action of double
high-energy beams, the non-fusion powder particles are re-melted again in the additive
manufacturing process, which avoids the defects such as pores, incomplete fusion and
cracks in the additive manufacturing process and improves the quality of the components.
2. During additive manufacturing, the grains of each shaped sheet are refined by the double
high-energy beams and the effects are cumulative layer by layer, which improves the
surface morphology of the final shaped part, reduces the systematic error between the
component and the original design, and increases the dimensional accuracy of the
component. Especially, it ensures the surface smoothness and accuracy of difficult-to
machine parts in the component such as the tiny inner pore channel and the double-wall
turbine blades of aircraft engines.
3. Because the second high-energy beam is generated by the high-frequency short-pulse
laser, the residual compressive stress is reserved on the surface of the component under the
action of the high-frequency short-pulse high-energy laser beam, which improves the
hardness and thermal fatigue resistance of the component.
4. Through the auxiliary coupling effect of double high-energy beams, the temperature
gradient and solidification speed of molten pool can be controlled in the shaping process
of additive manufacturing, and then the solidification structure and microstructure of
shaped materials can be controlled, such as microstructure morphology and grain size, etc.
To sum up, the metal additive manufacturing method based on double high-energy beams
technique has the advantages of simple operation and high production efficiency. The
component prepared by the method has less internal defects such as pores, incomplete
fusion, cracks, etc. Besides, it has small systematic errors from the original design, high
dimensional accuracy, small residual stress and low surface roughness. Compared with the
prior art, the disclosed invention has remarkable progress and industrial application value.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the additive manufacturing of a component in
Embodiment 1 of the present invention.
In figures, 1- base material; 2- molten pool; 3- pyrometer; 4- the first high-energy beam;
- the second high-energy beam; 6- objective lens; 7- cladding layer.
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
In the following, the technical scheme of the present invention will be further explained in
detail and completely with specific embodiments and comparative embodiments.
Embodiment 1
a) Determining the three-dimensional solid model and modelling of the component. The
digital-analogy type of the component of the invention was a digital model of the double
high-energy beams shaping, which was defined as that the first high-energy beam was
generated by a continuous fibre laser, and the second high-energy beam was generated by
a nanosecond pulse laser; and the first high-energy beam had the same trajectory as the
second high-energy beam, with an interval of 20ms. Then, in the control system of SLM
additive manufacturing equipment, CAD three-dimensional software was used to establish
the three-dimensional digital model of the component.
b) Additive manufacturing of the component. Slicing and layering the digital model in step
a) to obtain two-dimensional profile information of each layer section and generate a
processing path. The above information was introduced into the control system of SLM
additive manufacturing equipment. The titanium alloy powder with particle size of 50Im
was put in the drying oven and dried at 150°C for 2h. was Used as the raw material, the
dried titanium alloy powder was placed in the powder cylinder of 3D printer. According to
the predetermined processing path, the additive manufacturing based on double high
energy beams was carried out. The specific operation steps are described below.
As shown in Fig. 1, the base material (1) was put into the processing room, and the
titanium alloy powder was injected into the molten pool (2) for melting. The molten pool
(2) was equipped with a pyrometer (3) to measure the temperature distribution of the
molten pool. The first high-energy beam (4) was generated by the continuous fibre laser,
and the second high-energy beam (5) was generated by the high-frequency short-pulse
laser. Objective lens (6) were set the near continuous fibre laser and nanosecond pulse
laser. Firstly, preparing the first shaped sheet layer (that is, cladding layer 7) by the SLM
additive manufacturing of the first high-energy beam. The laser surface and the profile of
the first cladding shaped sheet layer were then processed by the second high-energy beam.
Then using the first high-energy beam to perform additive manufacturing shaping on the
surface of the first shaped sheet to obtain the second shaped sheet layer (that is, a new
cladding layer 7), and the second high-energy beam was used to carry out laser surface and
profile treatment on the second shaped sheet layer. Wherein, the laser power of the
continuous fibre laser was 180W, the spot diameter was 100m, the scanning speed was
150mm/s, the pulse width of nanosecond pulse laser was 20ns, the pulse energy was 18J and the spot diameter was 0.5 mm. Cycle the above operation and stack layer by layer until the required components were obtained.
After testing, the components prepared by this embodiment has no internal defects such as
pores, incomplete fusion and cracks, and have higher dimensional accuracy as well as low
surface roughness.
Besides, the temperature gradient and solidification speed of molten pool (2) was
controlled in the shaping process of additive manufacturing, thereby the solidification
structure and microstructure of shaped materials can be controlled.
In addition, the following changes can be made in this embodiment.
In step a), the interval time between the first high-energy beam and the second high-energy
beam is selected within 20-50ms, and other conditions are unchanged.
In step b), the particle size of titanium alloy powder is selected within 20-50[m, and other
conditions are unchanged.
In step b), the drying temperature of titanium alloy powder is selected within 100-200°C,
the drying time is selected within 1-3 hours, and other conditions are unchanged.
In step b), the metal powder can also be nickel-based alloy powder, cobalt-based alloy
powder, stainless steel powder, aluminium alloy powder and titanium-based composite
material powder, and other conditions remain unchanged.
Embodiment 2
The difference between this Embodiment and Embodiment 1 is that the additive
manufacturing equipment used was LENS additive manufacturing equipment. In the
additive manufacturing process based on the first high-energy beam, LENS shaping process was used to obtain the formed sheet. Other conditions were the same as those in the Embodiment 1.
After testing, the components prepared by this embodiment has no internal defects such as
pores, incomplete fusion and cracks, and have higher dimensional accuracy as well as low
surface roughness.
Embodiment 3
The difference between this Embodiment and Embodiment 1 is that the first high-energy
beam was generated by an electronic gun and the additive manufacturing equipment used
was EBM additive manufacturing equipment. In the additive manufacturing process based
on the first high-energy beam, EBM process was used to obtain the formed sheet, wherein
the probe current of the electron gun was 15mA, the scanning speed was 500mm/s, and the
beam spot diameter was 80[m. Other conditions were the same as those in the Embodiment
1.
After testing, the components prepared by this embodiment has no internal defects such as
pores, incomplete fusion and cracks, and have higher dimensional accuracy as well as low
surface roughness.
Embodiment 4
The difference between this Embodiment and Embodiment 1 is that the second high-energy
beam was generated by a femtosecond pulse laser, wherein the pulse width was 80fs and
the pulse energy was 0.7mJ during the additive manufacturing. Other conditions were the
same as those in the Embodiment 1.
After testing, the components prepared by this embodiment has no internal defects such as
pores, incomplete fusion and cracks, and have higher dimensional accuracy as well as low
surface roughness.
In conclusion, the component prepared by the invention avoids internal defects such as
pores, incomplete fusion, cracks, etc., and meanwhile it has small systematic errors from
the original design, high dimensional accuracy, small residual stress, low surface roughness
and high comprehensive quality. Compared with the prior art, the provided invention has
remarkable progress and industrial application value.
Finally, it should be pointed out here that the above are only some preferred embodiments
of the present invention, which cannot be understood as limiting the protection scope of
the present invention. Some non-essential improvements and adjustments made by
technicians in the field according to the above contents of the present invention belong to
the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

THE CLAIMS DEFINING THE INVENTION ARE AS FOLLOWS:
1. A metal additive manufacturing method based on double high-energy beams technique,
characterized by comprising the following steps.
a) Determining the three-dimensional solid model and modelling of the component. The
digital-analogy type of the component of the invention is a digital model of the double
high-energy beams shaping, which is defined as that the first high-energy beam is generated
by a continuous laser or an electron gun, and the second high-energy beam is generated by
a pulse laser; and the first high-energy beam has the same trajectory as the second high
energy beam, with an interval of 20-50ms. Then, in the control system of additive
manufacturing equipment, CAD three-dimensional software is used to establish the three
dimensional digital model of the component.
b) Additive manufacturing of the component. Slicing and layering the digital model in step
a) to obtain two-dimensional profile information of each layer section and generate a
processing path. The above information is introduced into the control system of additive
manufacturing equipment, and then the additive manufacturing based on double high
energy beams technique is carried out with metal powder as the raw material and the
predetermined processing path followed. Firstly, preparing the first shaped sheet layer by
the additive manufacturing of the first high-energy beam. The laser surface and the profile
of the first shaped sheet layer are then processed by the second high-energy beam. Then
using the first high-energy beam to perform additive manufacturing shaping on the surface
of the first shaped sheet to obtain the second shaped sheet layer, and the second high-energy
beam is used to carry out laser surface and profile treatment on the second shaped sheet layer. Cycle the above operation and stack layer by layer until the required components are obtained.
2. The metal additive manufacturing method based on double high-energy beams technique
as stated in Claim 1, characterized in that in step b), when the first high-energy beam is
generated by a continuous laser, the power of the continuous laser is 100-1000W, the spot
diameter is 50-200 m, and the scanning speed is 50-2000mm/s.
3. The metal additive manufacturing method based on double high-energy beams technique
as stated in Claim 2, characterized in that the continuous laser is a carbon dioxide laser or
a fibre laser.
4. The metal additive manufacturing method based on double high-energy beams technique
as stated in Claim 1, characterized in that in step b), when the first high-energy beam is
generated by the electron gun, the probe current of the electron gun is 10-50mA, the
scanning speed is 50-2000mm/s, and the spot diameter is 50-200 m.
5. The metal additive manufacturing method based on double high-energy beams technique
as stated in Claim 1, characterized in that in step b), the second high-energy beam is
generated by a high-frequency short-pulse laser.
6. The metal additive manufacturing method based on double high-energy beams technique
as stated in Claim 1, characterized in that in step b), the metal powder is at least one selected
from titanium alloy powder, nickel-based alloy powder, cobalt-based alloy powder,
stainless steel powder, aluminium alloy powder and titanium-based composite material
powder.
7. The metal additive manufacturing method based on double high-energy beams technique
as stated in Claim 1, characterized in that the additive manufacturing equipment is one of
SLM additive manufacturing equipment, EBM additive manufacturing equipment and
LENS additive manufacturing equipment.
AU2021102055A 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 Metal Additive Manufacturing Method Based on Double High-energy Beams Technique Active AU2021102055A4 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AU2021102055A AU2021102055A4 (en) 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 Metal Additive Manufacturing Method Based on Double High-energy Beams Technique

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AU2021102055A AU2021102055A4 (en) 2021-04-20 2021-04-20 Metal Additive Manufacturing Method Based on Double High-energy Beams Technique

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
AU2021102055A4 true AU2021102055A4 (en) 2021-06-24

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