AU2019427989B2 - Single-well drainage and production device and method for double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system - Google Patents

Single-well drainage and production device and method for double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system Download PDF

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AU2019427989B2
AU2019427989B2 AU2019427989A AU2019427989A AU2019427989B2 AU 2019427989 B2 AU2019427989 B2 AU 2019427989B2 AU 2019427989 A AU2019427989 A AU 2019427989A AU 2019427989 A AU2019427989 A AU 2019427989A AU 2019427989 B2 AU2019427989 B2 AU 2019427989B2
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cbm
bearing system
inner casing
double
extraction end
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AU2019427989A1 (en
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Xiaojie FANG
Jiang Han
Xiuming JIANG
Ningning Liu
Caifang WU
Erchao ZHANG
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China University of Mining and Technology CUMT
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China University of Mining and Technology CUMT
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B33/00Sealing or packing boreholes or wells
    • E21B33/10Sealing or packing boreholes or wells in the borehole
    • E21B33/13Methods or devices for cementing, for plugging holes, crevices, or the like
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/006Production of coal-bed methane
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/12Methods or apparatus for controlling the flow of the obtained fluid to or in wells
    • E21B43/121Lifting well fluids
    • E21B43/126Adaptations of down-hole pump systems powered by drives outside the borehole, e.g. by a rotary or oscillating drive
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B43/00Methods or apparatus for obtaining oil, gas, water, soluble or meltable materials or a slurry of minerals from wells
    • E21B43/14Obtaining from a multiple-zone well

Abstract

Disclosed in the present invention is a single-well drainage and production device and method for a double-layer superposed coalbed methane (CBM)-bearing system, wherein the device comprises an upper CBM-bearing system extraction end, a lower 5 CBM-bearing system extraction end, and a surface drive unit. An outer casing is provided in a CBM well, and the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end and the lower CBM-bearing system extraction end are both provided inside the outer casing. An inner casing is fitted along an inner wall of the outer casing at one side. A pump hanger system is disposed separately in the inner casing and in an annulus between 10 the inner casing and the outer casing, and the two pump hanger systems are both connected to the surface drive unit. The inner casing and its corresponding pump hanger system together form the lower CBM-bearing system extraction end, and the annulus between the inner casing and the outer casing and its corresponding pump hanger system together form the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end. The 15 present invention can form two independent drainage and production spaces in a single wellbore, avoiding inter-system interference during drainage and production, and further reducing the cost. [FIGURE 1

Description

SINGLE-WELL DRAINAGE AND PRODUCTION DEVICE AND METHOD FOR DOUBLE-LAYER SUPERPOSED CBM-BEARING SYSTEM TECHNICAL FIELD
The present invention relates to the field of coal mining technologies, and in particular, to a single-well drainage and production device and method for a double layer superposed coalbed methane (CBM)-bearing system.
BACKGROUND
The CBM reservoir in a multi-coalbed area shows different reservoir characteristics from that in a single-coalbed area. The extensive development of coalbed groups in the multi-coalbed area makes for double-layer or even multi-layer superposed independent CBM-bearing systems in a vertically upward direction, and these independent CBM-bearing systems are mutually independent and are internally unified. Inter-system co-layer drainage and production often lead to inter layer interference, resulting in a rather unsatisfactory effect and thus reducing a production capacity of the CBM. Existing CBM mining wells applicable to multi-layer superposed CBM reservoir areas are relatively limited in type, and severe inter-layer interference causes a low CBM well production in the multi-layer superposed CBM reservoir areas, failing to achieve commercial exploitation.
To improve the current situation in which mining wells applicable to the multi-layer superposed CBM reservoir areas are limited in type, patent No. CN104295292A and entitled "Method for Designing Mining Well of Multi-Layer Superposed CBM System" proposes that a vertical CBM well is drilled in each layer of a gas-bearing system on the same drilling platform. Such a mining method can effectively alleviate inter-layer interference, but greatly increases mining costs and is uneconomical because a single system in the multi-coalbed area generally contains thin coal and has limited CBM reserves. Moreover, this method requires to drill two or even more wells in a relatively small drilling platform. Therefore, when an upper CBM-bearing system is fractured, the stability of a CBM wellbore in a neighboring lower CBM-bearing system is affected during CBM drainage and production. This method has unneglectable shortcomings both in economy and feasibility.
SUMMARY
To overcome the foregoing shortcomings in the prior art, the present invention provides a single-well drainage and production device and method for a double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system.
The present invention adopts the following technical solutions: A single-well drainage and production device for a double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system includes: an upper CBM-bearing system extraction end, a lower CBM-bearing system extraction end, and a surface drive unit, where an outer casing is provided in a CBM well, and the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end and the lower CBM-bearing system extraction end are both provided inside the outer casing; an inner casing is fitted along an inner wall of the outer casing at one side, an outer wall of the inner casing does not coincide with the inner wall of the outer casing, and the diameter of the inner casing is equal to the radius of the outer casing; the lower-half space of an annulus between the inner casing and the outer casing is filled with a consolidated slurry mass; and an artificial well bottom is provided separately on the bottom of the inner casing and the top of the consolidated slurry mass; a pump hanger system is disposed separately in the inner casing and in the annulus between the inner casing and the outer casing; and the two pump hanger systems are both connected to the surface drive unit; and the inner casing and its corresponding pump hanger system together form the lower CBM-bearing system extraction end, and the annulus between the inner casing and the outer casing and its corresponding pump hanger system together form the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end.
Further, each pump hanger system includes an oil pipe, a sucker rod is provided inside the oil pipe, a screw pump is mounted on a lower portion of the oil pipe, and the sucker rod is connected to the surface drive unit on the top.
Further, the screw pump is provided with a screen pipe on the bottom, and the screen pipe is provided with a screwed plug on the bottom.
Further, the surface drive unit includes a power steering assembly and a belt transmission assembly which are connected, the belt transmission assembly is connected to an engine, and the power steering assembly is composed of a longitudinal bevel gear, transverse bevel gear sets, and a threaded rod.
Further, the longitudinal bevel gear of the power steering assembly is horizontally movable on the threaded rod, so as to fit the transverse bevel gear sets of different sizes; and the transverse bevel gear sets of different sizes enable the double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system to implement gas recovery by water drainage at different rates.
Further, the drainage and production device further includes a centralizer for fixing the relative position of the oil pipes in the inner casing and in the upper CBM bearing system extraction end, and a cable passage is provided at the center of the centralizer.
Further, the inner casing is provided with a manometer cable on both an inner wall and the outer wall; a bottom end of each manometer cable is connected to a manometer, and a top end of the manometer cable passes through the cable passage and is then connected to a surface instrument; and the manometers are fixedly mounted on the bottom portions of the inner and outer walls of the inner casing respectively.
A single-well drainage and production method for a double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system includes the following steps:
step 1: on the basis of systematic analysis of coupling between structures, deposition, and hydrology of coal-bearing strata in a working area, finding a region having a double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system suitable for stratified drainage and production, and dividing the double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system into an upper CBM-bearing system extraction end and a lower CBM-bearing system extraction end;
step 2: determining the lengths of an inner casing, an outer casing, an oil pipe, and a sucker rod according to burial depths of coalbeds where the double superposed CBM-bearing system extraction ends are in; selecting a screw pump having an appropriate size, delivery, and lift; determining a height of consolidation grouting according to a burial depth of a bottom margin of the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end; after drilling and cementation and before fracture, lowering the inner casing down from any side along an inner wall of the outer casing, and reserving an annulus as large as possible between the outer casing and the inner casing at the other side; injecting cement slurry inside the inner casing, where the cement slurry accumulates in the annulus between the inner and outer casings, reaches the bottom margin of the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end, and consolidates; and arranging an artificial well bottom separately on the bottom of the inner casing and the top of a consolidated slurry mass;
step 3: mounting a manometer separately on the bottom portion of an inner wall of the inner casing, and on an outer wall thereof near the bottom margin of the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end; connecting manometer cables to the two manometers respectively along the inner wall and the outer wall of the inner casing; and sealing each manometer and a joint between the manometer and its corresponding manometer cable;
step 4: mounting a screw pump stator on the bottom portion of an inner wall of the oil pipe, connecting a screw pump rotor to the bottom of the sucker rod, and lowering a screwed plug, a screen pipe, the screw pump, the oil pipe, and the sucker rod down to a designated depth, where water inlets of the screw pumps of the upper and lower CBM-bearing system extraction ends are respectively located at direct tops of uppermost coalbeds respectively corresponding to the upper and lower CBM bearing system extraction ends, so as to guarantee that coalbeds in the system are not exposed during drainage and production;
step 5: selecting transverse bevel gear sets of different sizes according to a variation in water-richness of the coalbeds in the double-layer superposed CBM bearing system, where a transverse bevel gear set of a relatively large diameter is selected for a gas-bearing system formed by weakly water-bearing coalbeds, while a transverse bevel gear set of a relatively small diameter is selected for a gas-bearing system formed by highly water-bearing coalbeds; step 6: mounting a centralizer near the wellhead over the annulus between the outer casing, the inner casing, and the oil pipe, where the manometer cables pass through a cable passage on the centralizer and are connected to a surface instrument; top ends of the two sucker rods are connected to the two transverse bevel gear sets of the surface drive unit respectively, and each transverse bevel gear set is engaged with two longitudinal bevel gears; and two engines separately supply power to a power steering assembly through a belt transmission assembly; starting the surface drive unit to initiate drainage and production of CBM resources from the double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system; step 7: based on a "continuous, slow, stable, and long-term" drainage and production principle during drainage and production, adjusting the power of each engine for supplying power to the corresponding CBM-bearing system extraction end, and adjusting the radii of working gears of the transverse bevel gear sets according to requirements, thus achieving an effective control over an extraction speed of the screw pump; and step 8: in the later period of extraction, if one of the CBM-bearing system extraction ends is depressurized with the drainage and production to a depletion pressure of a coal reservoir layer of the system, turning off an engine for supplying power to this CBM-bearing system extraction end, and making the other of the CBM bearing system extraction ends continue drainage and production until it is also depressurized with the drainage and production to a depletion pressure of a corresponding coal reservoir layer; after the extraction ends of the double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system are both depressurized to their respective depletion pressures, closing the well, taking out components other than the inner and outer casings successively from the well in a sequence opposite to a component lowering sequence, and then shutting the well.
The present invention achieves the following advantageous effects compared to the prior art:
1. Combined with a large-diameter drilling technology, the device of the present invention can form two independent drainage and production spaces in a single wellbore, avoiding resource waste and an increase in cost caused by repeated drilling, and further preventing inconvenience and hidden danger brought by facture and operations of two or more wells at a close distance.
2. Working fluid levels of a lower CBM-bearing system and an upper CBM bearing system are formed respectively inside the inner casing and an annulus between the inner and outer casings. By appropriately adjusting the power of the engines and selecting transverse bevel gear sets of appropriate working radii, water drainage rates of the upper and lower CBM-bearing system extraction ends can be precisely controlled, thus promoting CBM desorption and releasing the production capacity of reservoir layers.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a single-well drainage and production device for a double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system;
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional diagram along A-A in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of a surface drive unit in the present invention.
1. Surface drive unit, 2. Manometer cable, 3. Screw pump, 4. Screen pipe, 5. Screwed plug, 6. Consolidated slurry mass, 7. Manometer, 8. Artificial well bottom, 9. Inner casing, 10. Outer casing, 11. Sucker rod, 12. Oil pipe, 13. Centralizer, 14. Cable passage, 15. Power steering assembly, 16. Belt transmission assembly, 17. Longitudinal bevel gear, 18. Transverse bevel gear set, 19. Threaded rod, 20. Upper CBM-bearing system extraction end, 21. Lower CBM-bearing system extraction end, 22. Pump hanger system
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
In order to deepen the understanding of the present invention, the present invention is further described below with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments. The embodiments are merely for explaining the present invention and not intended to limit the scope of protection of the present invention.
As shown in FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, a single-well drainage and production device for a double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system includes an upper CBM-bearing system extraction end 20, a lower CBM-bearing system extraction end 21, and a surface drive unit 1. An outer casing 10 is provided in a CBM well, and the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end 20 and the lower CBM-bearing system extraction end 21 are both provided inside the outer casing 10. An inner casing 9 is fitted along an inner wall of the outer casing 10 at one side, an outer wall of the inner casing 9 does not coincide with the inner wall of the outer casing 10, and the diameter of the inner casing 9 is equal to the radius of the outer casing 10. The lower-half space of an annulus between the inner casing 9 and the outer casing 10 is filled with a consolidated slurry mass 6. An artificial well bottom 8 is provided separately on the bottom of the inner casing 9 and the top of the consolidated slurry mass 6.
In the foregoing embodiment, a pump hanger system 22 is disposed separately in the inner casing and in the annulus between the inner casing 9 and the outer casing 10. The two pump hanger systems 22 are both connected to the surface drive unit 1. The inner casing 9 and its corresponding pump hanger system 22 together form the lower CBM-bearing system extraction end 21, and the annulus between the inner casing 9 and the outer casing 10 and its corresponding pump hanger system 22 together form the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end 20.
In the foregoing embodiment, each pump hanger system 22 includes an oil pipe 12, a sucker rod 11 is provided inside the oil pipe 12, and a screw pump 3 is mounted on a lower portion of the oil pipe 12. The sucker rod 11 is connected to the surface drive unit 1 on the top. The screw pump 3 is provided with a screen pipe 4 on the bottom, and the screen pipe 4 is provided with a screwed plug 5 on the bottom.
As shown in FIG. 3, the surface drive unit 1 includes a power steering assembly 15 and a belt transmission assembly 16 which are connected. The belt transmission assembly 16 is connected to an engine, and the power steering assembly 15 is composed of a longitudinal bevel gear 17, transverse bevel gear sets 18, and a threaded rod 19. The longitudinal bevel gear 17 of the power steering assembly 15 can move horizontally on the threaded rod 19, so as to fit the transverse bevel gear sets 18 of different sizes. The transverse bevel gear sets 18 of different sizes enable the double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system to implement gas recovery by water drainage at different rates.
In the foregoing embodiment, the drainage and production device further includes a centralizer 13 for fixing the relative position of the oil pipes 12 in the inner casing 9 and in the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end 20. A cable passage 14 is provided at the center of the centralizer 13. The inner casing 9 is provided with a manometer cable 2 on both an inner wall and the outer wall. A bottom end of each manometer cable 2 is connected to a manometer 7, and a top end of the manometer cable passes through the cable passage 14 and is then connected to a surface instrument. The manometers 7 are fixedly mounted on the bottom portions of the inner and outer walls of the inner casing 9 respectively.
In the foregoing embodiment, a single-well drainage and production method for a double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system includes the following steps:
Step 1: On the basis of systematic analysis of coupling between structures, deposition, and hydrology of coal-bearing strata in a working area, a region having a double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system suitable for stratified drainage and production is found, and the double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system is divided into an upper CBM-bearing system extraction end and a lower CBM-bearing system extraction end.
Step 2: The lengths of an inner casing, an outer casing, an oil pipe, and a sucker rod are determined according to burial depths of coalbeds where the double superposed CBM-bearing system extraction ends are in. A screw pump having an appropriate size, delivery, and lift is selected; and a height of consolidation grouting is determined according to a burial depth of a bottom margin of the upper CBM bearing system extraction end. After drilling and cementation and before fracture, the inner casing is lowered down from any side along an inner wall of the outer casing, and an annulus is reserved as large as possible between the outer casing and the inner casing at the other side. Cement slurry is injected inside the inner casing, accumulates in the annulus between the inner and outer casings, and reaches the bottom margin of the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end; and finally consolidates. An artificial well bottom is arranged separately on the bottom of the inner casing and the top of the consolidated slurry mass.
Step 3: A manometer is mounted separately on the bottom portion of an inner wall of the inner casing, and on an outer wall thereof near the bottom margin of the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end. Manometer cables are connected to the two manometers respectively along the inner wall and the outer wall of the inner casing, and each manometer and a joint between the manometer and its corresponding manometer cable are sealed.
Step 4: A screw pump stator is mounted on the bottom portion of an inner wall of the oil pipe, and a screw pump rotor is connected to the bottom of the sucker rod. A screwed plug, a screen pipe, the screw pump, the oil pipe, and the sucker rod are lowered down to a designated depth. Water inlets of the screw pumps of the upper and lower CBM-bearing system extraction ends are respectively located at direct tops of uppermost coalbeds respectively corresponding to the upper and lower CBM bearing system extraction ends, so as to guarantee that coalbeds in the system are not exposed during drainage and production.
Step 5: Transverse bevel gear sets of different sizes are selected according to a variation in water-richness of the coalbeds in the double-layer superposed CBM bearing system. A transverse bevel gear set of a relatively large diameter is selected for a gas-bearing system formed by weakly water-bearing coalbeds, while a transverse bevel gear set of a relatively small diameter is selected for a gas-bearing system formed by highly water-bearing coalbeds.
Step 6: A centralizer is mounted near the wellhead over the annulus between the outer casing, the inner casing, and the oil pipe. The manometer cables pass through a cable passage on the centralizer and are connected to a surface instrument. Top ends of the two sucker rods are connected to the two transverse bevel gear sets of the surface drive unit respectively, and each transverse bevel gear set is engaged with two longitudinal bevel gears. Two engines separately supply power to a power steering assembly through a belt transmission assembly. The surface drive unit is started to initiate drainage and production of CBM resources from the double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system.
Step 7: Based on a "continuous, slow, stable, and long-term" drainage and production principle during drainage and production, the power of each engine for supplying power to the corresponding CBM-bearing system extraction end is adjusted, and the radii of working gears of the transverse bevel gear sets are adjusted according to requirements, thus achieving an effective control over an extraction speed of the screw pump.
Step 8: In the later period of extraction, if one of the CBM-bearing system extraction ends is depressurized with the drainage and production to a depletion pressure of a coal reservoir layer of the system, an engine for supplying power to this CBM-bearing system extraction end may be turned off, and the other of the CBM bearing system extraction ends may continue drainage and production until this extraction end is also depressurized with the drainage and production to a depletion pressure of a corresponding coal reservoir layer. After the extraction ends of the double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system are both depressurized to their respective depletion pressures, the well is closed, components other than the inner and outer casings are taken out successively from the well in a sequence opposite to a component lowering sequence, and then the well is shut.
The above merely discloses preferred embodiments of the present invention, but the present invention is not limited thereto. Those of ordinary skill in the art can easily make different extensions and variations according to the foregoing embodiments after comprehending the spirit of the present invention. All these extensions and variations fall within the scope of protection of the present invention without departing the spirit of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. A single-well drainage and production device for a double-layer superposed coalbed methane (CBM)-bearing system, comprising: an upper CBM-bearing system extraction end, a lower CBM-bearing system extraction end, and a surface drive unit, wherein an outer casing is provided in a CBM well, and the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end and the lower CBM-bearing system extraction end are both provided inside the outer casing; an inner casing is arranged inside the outer casing, and one side of an inner wall of the outer casing is adjacent to and does not coincide with one side of an outer wall of the inner casing; and the diameter of the inner casing is equal to the radius of the outer casing; the lower-half space of an annulus between the inner casing and the outer casing is filled with a consolidated slurry mass; and an artificial well bottom is provided separately on the bottom of the inner casing and the top of the consolidated slurry mass; a pump hanger system is disposed separately in the inner casing and in the annulus between the inner casing and the outer casing; and the two pump hanger systems are both connected to the surface drive unit; and the inner casing and its corresponding pump hanger system together form the lower CBM-bearing system extraction end, and the annulus between the inner casing and the outer casing and its corresponding pump hanger system together form the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end; and the surface drive unit comprises a power steering assembly and a belt transmission assembly which are connected, the belt transmission assembly is connected to an engine, and the power steering assembly is composed of a longitudinal bevel gear, transverse bevel gear sets, and a threaded rod.
2. The single-well drainage and production device for a double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system according to claim 1, wherein each pump hanger system comprises an oil pipe, a sucker rod is provided inside the oil pipe, a screw pump is mounted on a lower portion of the oil pipe, and the upper end of the sucker rod is connected to the surface drive unit.
3. The single-well drainage and production device for a double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system according to claim 2, wherein a screen pipe is mounted on a lower portion of the screw pump, and a screwed plug is mounted on a lower portion of the screen pipe.
4. The single-well drainage and production device for a double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system according to claim 1, wherein the longitudinal bevel gear of the power steering assembly is horizontally movable on the threaded rod, so as to fit the transverse bevel gear sets, wherein the transverse bevel gear sets are of different sizes; and wherein the transverse bevel gear sets of different sizes enable the double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system to implement gas recovery by water drainage at different rates.
5. The single-well drainage and production device for a double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system according to claim 1, wherein the drainage and production device further comprises a centralizer for fixing the relative position of the oil pipes in the inner casing and in the upper CBM-bearing system extraction end, and a cable passage is provided at the center of the centralizer.
6. The single-well drainage and production device for a double-layer superposed CBM-bearing system according to claim 1, wherein the inner casing is provided with a manometer cable on both an inner wall and the outer wall; a bottom end of each manometer cable is connected to a manometer, and a top end of the manometer cable passes through the cable passage and is then connected to a surface instrument; and the manometers are fixedly mounted on a lowermost portion of an inner wall and the outer wall of the inner casing respectively.
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