AU2010358999B2 - LED switching circuit for varying input voltage source - Google Patents

LED switching circuit for varying input voltage source Download PDF

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Publication number
AU2010358999B2
AU2010358999B2 AU2010358999A AU2010358999A AU2010358999B2 AU 2010358999 B2 AU2010358999 B2 AU 2010358999B2 AU 2010358999 A AU2010358999 A AU 2010358999A AU 2010358999 A AU2010358999 A AU 2010358999A AU 2010358999 B2 AU2010358999 B2 AU 2010358999B2
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Australia
Prior art keywords
led
constant current
voltage
current sources
plurality
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AU2010358999A
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AU2010358999A1 (en
Inventor
Wa Hing Leung
Johnny Siu
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Huizhou Light Engine Ltd
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Huizhou Light Engine Ltd
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Priority to US61/373,058 priority
Application filed by Huizhou Light Engine Ltd filed Critical Huizhou Light Engine Ltd
Priority to PCT/CN2010/078683 priority patent/WO2012019389A1/en
Publication of AU2010358999A1 publication Critical patent/AU2010358999A1/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B33/00Electroluminescent light sources
    • H05B33/02Details
    • H05B33/08Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application
    • H05B33/0803Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application for light emitting diodes [LEDs] comprising only inorganic semiconductor materials
    • H05B33/0806Structural details of the circuit
    • H05B33/0809Structural details of the circuit in the conversion stage
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05BELECTRIC HEATING; ELECTRIC LIGHTING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05B33/00Electroluminescent light sources
    • H05B33/02Details
    • H05B33/08Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application
    • H05B33/0803Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application for light emitting diodes [LEDs] comprising only inorganic semiconductor materials
    • H05B33/0806Structural details of the circuit
    • H05B33/0821Structural details of the circuit in the load stage
    • H05B33/0824Structural details of the circuit in the load stage with an active control inside the LED load configuration
    • H05B33/083Structural details of the circuit in the load stage with an active control inside the LED load configuration organized essentially in string configuration with shunting switches

Abstract

An LED array switching apparatus comprises: a plurality of LED segments D1 to Dn connected in series, each LED segment having a forward voltage; a voltage supply coupled to the plurality of LED segments; and a plurality of constant current sources G1 to Gn coupled to outputs of the LED segments D1 to Dn respectively. Each of the constant current sources is switchable between a current regulating state and an open state so that as the voltage of the voltage supply increases, the LED segments are switched on and lit to form a higher forward voltage LED string, and as the voltage of the voltage supply decreases, the LED segments are switched off and removed from the LED string starting with the most recently lit segment.

Description

LED SWITCHING CIRCUIT FOR VARYING INPUT VOLTAGE SOURCE CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS 100011 This application claims benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/373,058, filed August 12, 2010, the entirety of which is incorporated by reference herein. TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION 100021 The present disclosure relates to switching circuitry used in driving LED light sources. In particular, circuitry in which LEDs are driven by a regulated current source. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 100031 Conventionally, LEDs may be driven by a current source that regulates the current flowing through the LEDs and hence maintains the light output of the LEDs. FIG. I shows a typical circuit for driving an LED circuit in which V is an input voltage source, D is representative of a string of LEDs and G is a current source. In such a circuit, in order for current to flow through D, the source input voltage of V must be higher than the forward voltage of the LEDs D. [00041 However, if voltage of input voltage source V is much higher than the forward voltage of D, a large voltage drop is present in current source G. Such an occurrence may cause a significant power loss in current source G, particularly if current source G is a linear current source. SUMMARY [00051 In accordance with a first aspect of the present disclosure, an LED array switching apparatus, comprises: a plurality of LED segments Dl to Dn connected in series, each LED segment having a forward voltage; a voltage supply coupled to the plurality of LED segments; and a plurality of constant current sources Gl to Gn, coupled to outputs of LED segments DI to Dn, respectively, each of the constant current sources being switchable between a current regulating state and an open state such that as the voltage of the voltage supply increases, LED segments are switched on and lit to form a higher forward voltage 7716630 1 LED string, and as the voltage of the voltage supply decreases, segments are switched off and removed from the LED string starting with the most recently lit segment wherein the voltage supply includes a triac dimmer having an RC timing circuit, and the LED array switching circuit further comprises: a bleeder circuit coupled to the voltage supply and the constant current sources, the bleeder circuit including a bypass resistor, the bleeder circuit being operable to connect the bypass resistor across the input voltage, to allow sufficient charging current to be supplied to the RC timing circuit, when the rectified input voltage is low enough to indicate that the triac is off, and to disconnect the bypass resistor when the input voltage is high enough to indicate that the triac is on. 100061 In another aspect, the LED array switching apparatus may further comprise: a toggle switcher that has an output that toggles between a first output and a second output complementary to the first output; a first switch coupled to the first output of the toggle switcher; a second switch coupled to the second output of the toggle switcher and to the plurality of constant current sources; and a plurality of second constant current sources GTI to GTn coupled to outputs of LED segments Dn to Dl , respectively, and to the first switch, wherein when the first output of the toggle switcher is active, the first switch becomes closed and the second constant current sources are disabled and the constant current sources are active, and when the second output of the toggle switcher is active, the second switch is closed and the constant current sources are disabled and the second constant current sources are active. [00071 In another aspect, when the second output of the toggle switcher is active, the LED segments are switched on and lit in an opposite order from when the first output of the toggle switcher is active. 100081 In another aspect, the toggle switcher toggles at a frequency of greater than 20Hz. 100091 In another aspect, successive ones of the plurality of constant current sources are switched on and off such that only one of the plurality of constant current sources supplies current to the LED segments forming the LED string at any given time. [00101 In another aspect, each of the plurality of constant current sources includes circuitry that detects a current flowing through the LED string and enables or disables that constant current source based on the detected current. 7716630 2 100111 In another aspect, the voltage supplied by the voltage supply is a rectified AC voltage signal. [00121 In another aspect, the voltage supply includes a triac dimmer having an RC timing circuit, and the LED array switching circuit further comprises: a bleeder circuit coupled to the voltage supply and the constant current sources, the bleeder circuit including a bypass resistor, the bleeder circuit being operable to connect the bypass resistor across the input voltage, to allow sufficient charging current to be supplied to the RC timing circuit, when the rectified input voltage is low enough to indicate that the triac is off, and to disconnect the bypass resistor when the input voltage is high enough to indicate that the triac is on. [00131 In accordance with another aspect of the present disclosure, there is provided a method of driving an LED array that includes a plurality of LED segments Dl to Dn connected in series, each LED segment having a forward voltage, a voltage supply coupled to the plurality of LED segments, and a plurality of constant current sources GI to Gn, coupled to outputs of LED segments Dl to Dn, respectively wherein the voltage supply includes a triac dimmer having an RC timing circuit, and the LED array switching circuit further comprises: a bleeder circuit coupled to the voltage supply and the constant current sources, the bleeder circuit including a bypass resistor, the bleeder circuit being operable to connect the bypass resistor across the input voltage, to allow sufficient charging current to be supplied to the RC timing circuit, when the rectified input voltage is low enough to indicate that the triac is off, and to disconnect the bypass resistor when the input voltage is high enough to indicate that the triac is on. The method comprises: (a) when the voltage of the voltage supply is increasing: switching on successive ones of the constant current sources, so as to form a higher forward voltage LED string of the LED segments and disabling others of the constant current sources, such that only one of the plurality of constant current sources supplies current to the LED segments forming the LED string at any given time; and (b) when the voltage of the voltage supply is decreasing, switching on successive ones of the constant current sources, in reverse order from the switching on performed in step (a), so as to form a lower forward voltage string of the LED segments and disabling others of the constant current sources, such that only one of the plurality of 7716630 3 WO 2012/019389 PCT/CN2010/078683 constant current sources supplies current to the LED segments forming the LED string at any given time. [0014] In another aspect, when the voltage supply is increasing, the LED segments are successively added to the string of the LED segments. [0015] In another aspect, when the voltage supply is decreasing, the LED segments are successively removed from the string of the LED segments. [0016] In another aspect, circuitry in the plurality of constant current sources senses current flowing through LED segments and the switching on and disabling of respective ones of the constant current sources is performed on the basis of the sensed current. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [0017] The figures are for illustration purposes only and are not necessarily drawn to scale. The invention itself, however, may best be understood by reference to the detailed description which follows when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which: [0018] FIG. 1 is a circuit diagram of a conventional LED driving circuit that utilizes a current source; [0019] FIG. 2 is functional block diagram of a circuit for LED array switching in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention; [0020] FIGS. 3A-3F are diagrams illustrating current paths taken through the circuit of FIG. 2 at different voltages levels of the source voltage, in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention; [0021] FIG. 4 is a functional block diagram of the circuit of FIG. 2 with an optional set of current sources for averaging of the usage among the LEDs, in accordance with an aspect of the present invention; [0022] FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram showing a practical implementation of the circuit shown in FIG. 2; 4 WO 2012/019389 PCT/CN2010/078683 [0023] FIG. 6 is a diagram of the voltage waveform across nodes A and B in FIG. 5; [0024] FIG. 7 is a diagram of the current through element M1 in FIG. 5; [0025] FIG. 8 is a diagram of the current through element M2 in FIG. 5; [0026] FIG. 9 is a diagram of the current through element M3 in FIG. 5; [0027] FIG. 10 is a diagram of the current through element DX1 in FIG. 5; [0028] FIG. 11 is a diagram of the current through element DX3 in FIG. 5; [0029] FIG. 12 is a diagram of the current through element DX4 in FIG. 5; [0030] FIG. 13 is a diagram showing the input waveform at the AC main source in FIG. 5; [0031] FIG. 14 is a circuit of a bleeder circuit that can be used with the circuit of FIG. 5. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION [0032] FIGS. 2-14 illustrate aspects of preferred embodiments of LED array switching apparatus. For an LED lighting device to work using a varying input voltage source, such as a rectified AC source, the switching apparatus in accordance with the present invention divides the LED string into a series of multiple segments. When the input voltage is low, only the first LED segment is lit up. As the input voltage increases, subsequent LED segments are switched in series to form a higher forward voltage string. Contrarily, if the input voltage decreases, the sequence is reversed and segments are removed from the string starting with the last light-up segment. [0033] FIG. 2 shows the functional blocks of the proposed circuitry. It is assumed that the LED string is divided into n LED segments D1 to Dn, where n>1. Each LED segment may consist of one or more LEDs. GI to Gn are constant current sources which can be disabled, that is, changed to an open circuit condition, by current sense signals from successive current sources. 5 WO 2012/019389 PCT/CN2010/078683 [0034] The operation of the circuit of FIG. 2 is next described making reference to FIGS. 3A-3F, for the case in which the voltage of VI is ramping up from zero. When the voltage of VI is just above the forward voltage of LED segment DI, current begins to flow through LED segment DI and current source GI, as shown in FIG. 3A. Current source GI regulates the current through LED segment DI as voltage of VI is further increased. LED segment D2 begins to conduct when VI reaches the sum of the forward voltages of LED segment DI and LED segment D2, as shown in FIG. 3B. As the current through LED segment D2 is increasing to a threshold value, which is preferably set lower than the regulating value of current source G2, current source GI is disabled, becoming an open circuit. The current through LED segment DI and LED segment D2 is then regulated by current source G2, as shown in Fig 3C. [0035] FIG. 3D shows the current path in the circuit when VI has been increased to the point at which current source Gn- 1 regulates the current through LED segments DI to Dn-1. Further increasing VI causes LED segment Dn to conduct, as shown in FIG. 3E. FIG. 3F shows the current path when the current through LED segment Dn is increased to trigger current sources GI to Gn-I to be in the open condition. [0036] As would be understood by one of ordinary skill in the art, the switching sequence shown in FIGS. 3A-3F would be reversed if the voltage of VI is declining. In particular, the situation in which the voltage of VI is high enough to pass a regulated current through LED segments D 1 to Dn and current source Gn is shown in FIG. 3F. As VI is decreased, the current through Gn starts to decrease and to a point below the threshold value, current source Gn-i is enabled and current begins to flow through current source Gn-i as shown in FIG. 3E. When VI decreases to a value below the sum of forward voltage sum of LED segments DI to Dn, current through LED segment Dn is stopped, as shown in FIG. 3D. 6 WO 2012/019389 PCT/CN2010/078683 [0037] As can be seen from the foregoing description, in the circuit of FIG. 2, LED segment D1 conducts if any one of the constant current sources is conducting. On the other hand, LED segment Dn only conducts if current source Gn is conducting. Thus, in operation, LED segment D1 would be used more often than LED segment Dn. FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a circuit that averages the usage among LED segments D1 to Dn. The circuit includes a set of additional current sources GT 1 GTn and a current source set toggle switcher TS 1 added to the circuit of FIG. 2. [0038] As can be seen in FIG. 4, the current source set toggle switcher TS1 has two complementary signal outputs Q and Q. Preferably, the toggle switcher TS1 is configured such that these outputs are toggling at frequency above 20Hz, to avoid the perception of flicker. When Q of the toggle switcher TS1 is active, the switch STl connected to this output becomes closed, current sources GT1 to GTn are disabled, and switch SI is opened. In this condition, the circuit of FIG. 4 is essentially identical to the circuit shown in FIG. 2, and operates as described above upon occurrence of ramping up or down of input voltage VI. [0039] When Q becomes active, and Q becomes non-active, switch Si becomes closed, current sources GI to Gn are disabled, switch STI is opened, and current sources GT1 to GTn are operational. In this situation, if VI is ramping up from zero voltage, unlike in the circuit of FIG. 1, Dn will be the first conducting segment followed by Dn-1, just the opposite of what occurs in the circuit of FIG. 2. Thus, over time, the usage of the LEDs will average out. [0040] FIG. 5 shows a practical detailed implementation of the proposed circuit shown in FIG 2 with n = 3. In the figure, the AC 220V main voltage source is a rectified signal. The voltage waveform across node A and B is shown in FIG. 6. The LED string, consists of four LEDs DXi-DX4, with forward voltage of 50V each, and is divided into 3 segments. The first segment has 2 LEDs (DXi and DX2) while the second and third segments, each have a single LED (DX3 and DX4, respectively). 7 WO 2012/019389 PCT/CN2010/078683 [0041] As can be seen in the figure, transistor M1, resistors RI and RI 1, transistor QI and diode D1 form a constant current source that drives LEDs DX1 and DX2. Transistor Q 11 turns off transistor M1 when the current through transistor M2 reaches threshold value. [0042] FIG. 7 shows the current waveform of transistor Ml. Waveforms corresponding to the current in transistors M2 and M3 are shown in Figs. 8 and 9, respectively. Figs. 10, 11 and 12 show the current waveforms of LEDs DXl, DX3 and DX4 respectively. The current of LED DX1 is the current sum of transistors Ml, M2 and M3, while the current of LED DX3 is the current sum of transistors M2 and M3. [0043] FIG. 13 shows the input current waveform from AC main power source. Throughout most of the half line cycle, the current is continuous, which makes the circuit suitable to work with an optional triac dimmer, shown in FIG. 5. An optional bleeder circuit can be added to provide a current path for the triac dimmer's RC timing circuit when the triac is off. FIG. 14 shows a form of bleeder circuit which connects to node A and B of FIG. 5. The bleeder circuit acts like a resistive load for the dimmer when the triac is not conducting. A bypass resistor 110 is switched on by transistor 2N60 to connect across the rectified input voltage when the rectified input voltage is low (which indicates the triac is off). With the bypass resistor completing the circuit, sufficient charging current can be supplied to the internal RC timing circuit of the triac dimmer to ensure proper operation. When the rectified input voltage is high (which indicates the triac is on), the bypass resistor is disconnected by transistor 2N60 to minimize wasteful power dissipation. [0044] Although specific embodiments have been illustrated and described herein, it will be appreciated by those of ordinary skill in the art that a variety of alternate and/or equivalent implementations may be substituted for the specific embodiments shown and described without departing from the scope of the present invention. This provisional application is intended to cover any adaptations or 8 WO 2012/019389 PCT/CN2010/078683 variations of the specific embodiments discussed herein. Therefore, it is intended that this invention be limited only by the claims and the equivalents thereof. 9

Claims (11)

1. An LED array switching apparatus, comprising: a plurality of LED segments Dl to Dn connected in series, each LED segment having a forward voltage; a voltage supply coupled to the plurality of LED segments; and a plurality of constant current sources Gl to Gn, coupled to outputs of LED segments Dl to Dn, respectively, each of the constant current sources being switchable between a current regulating state and an open state such that as the voltage of the voltage supply increases, LED segments are switched on and lit to form a higher forward voltage LED string, and as the voltage of the voltage supply decreases, segments are switched off and removed from the LED string starting with the most recently lit segment, wherein the voltage supply includes a triac dimmer having an RC timing circuit, and the LED array switching circuit further comprises: a bleeder circuit coupled to the voltage supply and the constant current sources, the bleeder circuit including a bypass resistor, the bleeder circuit being operable to connect the bypass resistor across the input voltage, to allow sufficient charging current to be supplied to the RC timing circuit, when the rectified input voltage is low enough to indicate that the triac is off, and to disconnect the bypass resistor when the input voltage is high enough to indicate that the triac is on.
2. The LED array switching apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising: a toggle switcher that has an output that toggles between a first output and a second output complementary to the first output; a first switch coupled to the first output of the toggle switcher; a second switch coupled to the second output of the toggle switcher and to the plurality of constant current sources; and a plurality of second constant current sources GTl to GTn coupled to outputs of LED segments Dn to Dl, respectively, and to the first switch, wherein when the first output of the toggle switcher is active, the first switch becomes closed and the second constant current sources are disabled and the constant current sources are active, and 7716299 10 when the second output of the toggle switcher is active, the second switch is closed and the constant current sources are disabled and the second constant current sources are active.
3. The LED array switching apparatus according to claim 2, wherein when the second output of the toggle switcher is active, the LED segments are switched on and lit in an opposite order from when the first output of the toggle switcher is active.
4. The LED array switching apparatus according to claim 3, wherein the toggle switcher toggles at a frequency of greater than 20Hz.
5. The LED array switching apparatus according to claim 1, wherein successive ones of the plurality of constant current sources are switched on and off such that only one of the plurality of constant current sources supplies current to the LED segments forming the LED string at any given time.
6. The LED array switching apparatus according to claim 1, wherein each of the plurality of constant current sources includes circuitry that detects a current flowing through the LED string and enables or disables that constant current source based on the detected current.
7. The LED array switching apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the voltage supplied by the voltage supply is a rectified AC voltage signal.
8. A method of driving an LED array that includes a plurality of LED segments Dl to Dn connected in series, each LED segment having a forward voltage, a voltage supply coupled to the plurality of LED segments, and a plurality of constant current sources Gl to Gn, coupled to outputs of LED segments Dl to Dn, respectively, wherein the voltage supply includes a triac dimmer having an RC timing circuit, and the LED array switching circuit further comprises: a bleeder circuit coupled to the voltage supply and the constant current sources, the bleeder circuit including a bypass resistor, the bleeder circuit being operable to connect the bypass resistor across the input voltage, to allow sufficient charging current to be supplied to 7716299 II the RC timing circuit, when the rectified input voltage is low enough to indicate that the triac is off, and to disconnect the bypass resistor when the input voltage is high enough to indicate that the triac is on, the method comprising: (a) when the voltage of the voltage supply is increasing: switching on successive ones of the constant current sources, so as to form a higher forward voltage LED string of the LED segments and disabling others of the constant current sources, such that only one of the plurality of constant current sources supplies current to the LED segments forming the LED string at any given time; and (b) when the voltage of the voltage supply is decreasing, switching on successive ones of the constant current sources, in reverse order from the switching on performed in step (a), so as to form a lower forward voltage string of the LED segments and disabling others of the constant current sources, such that only one of the plurality of constant current sources supplies current to the LED segments forming the LED string at any given time.
9. The method of driving an LED array according to claim 8, wherein when the voltage supply is increasing, the LED segments are successively added to the string of the LED segments.
10. The method of driving an LED array according to claim 8, wherein when the voltage supply is decreasing, the LED segments are successively removed from the string of the LED segments.
11. The method of driving an LED array according to claim 8, wherein circuitry in the plurality of constant current sources senses current flowing through LED segments and the switching on and disabling of respective ones of the constant current sources is performed on the basis of the sensed current. Huizhou Light Engine Limited Patent Attorneys for the Applicant/Nominated Person SPRUSON & FERGUSON 7716299 12
AU2010358999A 2010-08-12 2010-11-12 LED switching circuit for varying input voltage source Ceased AU2010358999B2 (en)

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US37305810P true 2010-08-12 2010-08-12
US61/373,058 2010-08-12
PCT/CN2010/078683 WO2012019389A1 (en) 2010-08-12 2010-11-12 Led switching circuit for varying input voltage source

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AU2010358999B2 true AU2010358999B2 (en) 2013-09-12

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JP (1) JP5579933B2 (en)
KR (1) KR20130036327A (en)
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HK (1) HK1164030A1 (en)
SG (1) SG187810A1 (en)
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TW201208467A (en) 2012-02-16
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HK1164030A1 (en) 2014-10-17
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US8508140B2 (en) 2013-08-13
CN102378443B (en) 2014-04-09

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