WO2024078627A1 - 一种结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法及装置 - Google Patents

一种结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法及装置 Download PDF

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WO2024078627A1
WO2024078627A1 PCT/CN2023/124587 CN2023124587W WO2024078627A1 WO 2024078627 A1 WO2024078627 A1 WO 2024078627A1 CN 2023124587 W CN2023124587 W CN 2023124587W WO 2024078627 A1 WO2024078627 A1 WO 2024078627A1
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electroplating
tank
copper
electrolytic
anode
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PCT/CN2023/124587
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English (en)
French (fr)
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叶涛
叶旖婷
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叶涛
叶旖婷
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Publication of WO2024078627A1 publication Critical patent/WO2024078627A1/zh

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25DPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PRODUCTION OF COATINGS; ELECTROFORMING; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25D21/00Processes for servicing or operating cells for electrolytic coating
    • C25D21/12Process control or regulation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25DPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PRODUCTION OF COATINGS; ELECTROFORMING; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25D21/00Processes for servicing or operating cells for electrolytic coating
    • C25D21/12Process control or regulation
    • C25D21/14Controlled addition of electrolyte components
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25DPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PRODUCTION OF COATINGS; ELECTROFORMING; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25D21/00Processes for servicing or operating cells for electrolytic coating
    • C25D21/16Regeneration of process solutions
    • C25D21/18Regeneration of process solutions of electrolytes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25DPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PRODUCTION OF COATINGS; ELECTROFORMING; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25D3/00Electroplating: Baths therefor
    • C25D3/02Electroplating: Baths therefor from solutions
    • C25D3/38Electroplating: Baths therefor from solutions of copper

Definitions

  • the invention relates to a process technology and equipment for electroplating copper with an insoluble anode, and in particular to a process optimization method and device for electrolytic copper dissolution of the insoluble anode copper.
  • the most common existing acid copper sulfate electroplating process uses an aqueous solution whose main components are copper sulfate and sulfuric acid as the electroplating solution, that is, an acid copper sulfate electroplating solution, which may also contain other electroplating aids.
  • the copper ions in the electroplating solution are electrolytically reduced to metallic copper on the cathode.
  • the concentration of copper ions in the electroplating solution becomes lower and lower, and the concentration of sulfuric acid becomes higher and higher. Therefore, the existing acid copper sulfate electroplating process is mainly divided into two processes: soluble anode and insoluble anode. Different methods are used to supplement the copper source during the electroplating process, and the dissolved copper source is used to stabilize the sulfuric acid in the electroplating solution.
  • the soluble anode copper plating process refers to a process type in which the anode gradually dissolves during the electrochemical reaction of electroplating.
  • the common soluble anode material is phosphor copper.
  • the copper metal at the anode dissolves into copper ions, thereby replenishing the copper ions in the electroplating solution.
  • phosphor copper anodes anode polarization and uneven current distribution are prone to occur, resulting in unstable coating quality.
  • phosphor copper is relatively expensive, and harmful phosphorus-containing wastewater will be generated during its production and use, which will cause great harm to organs such as the liver when entering the human body. In order to make the wastewater meet the discharge indicators, the treatment cost of electroplating wastewater needs to be increased.
  • the insoluble anode copper plating process refers to a copper plating process in which the anode does not dissolve or dissolves very little during the electroplating reaction.
  • Common insoluble anodes include titanium coated with precious metal oxides, conductive graphite, platinum and lead alloys.
  • copper oxide is generally used to supplement the plating solution of the acidic insoluble anode copper plating process. On the one hand, it reacts with sulfuric acid in the plating solution to replenish the copper ions lost in the plating solution, and on the other hand, it consumes an equivalent amount of sulfuric acid accordingly.
  • the industry prefers to use copper oxide to supplement the insoluble anode acid copper plating production line to obtain a uniform and smooth coating, no phosphorus compound pollution in the waste liquid, and reduce labor intensity.
  • the patent with application number 201980055803.8 proposes using an electrolytic cell to use acidic electrolysis to dissolve copper as an insoluble anode to supplement the plating solution of the copper electroplating process.
  • One preferred scheme is to form a controllable circulation flow system with the electrolytic cell and the solution in the electroplating tank on the electroplating production line, and use an acid-balanced electrolysis system to adjust the concentration of sulfuric acid in the plating solution to enable the copper electroplating operation to proceed smoothly.
  • an anion exchange membrane is used to separate the electrolytic cell into an electrolytic anode area and an electrolytic cathode area, and a metal containing copper elements is used as an electrolytic anode, and a conductor is used as an electrolytic cathode; at the same time, an acid-balanced cathode area is separated from the electrolytic anode area, and the acid-balanced cathode area faces the electrolytic cathode area.
  • the invention uses a diaphragm as a separator, an acid-balanced cathode is arranged in the acid-balanced cathode area, and an acid-balanced anode is arranged in the electrolysis cathode area; hydrogen is generated at the acid-balanced cathode during the electrolysis process, and oxygen and hydrogen ions are generated at the acid-balanced anode; sulfate ions in the electrolysis anode liquid are affected by the electric field attraction of the acid-balanced anode and pass through the anion exchange membrane into the electrolysis cathode area, and combine with hydrogen ions generated by water electrolysis to form sulfuric acid, thereby increasing the sulfate concentration of the electrolysis cathode liquid.
  • the barrier rate of the separator for specific ions or molecules is difficult to reach the ideal 100%, and the assembly structure of the electrolytic cell separator leads to the existence of gaps. Therefore, for the electrolytic cell or electroplating cell with ion-selective diaphragm or bipolar membrane or reverse osmosis membrane separator, a certain number of ions still occur between the cathode and anode tank areas. The phenomenon of mutual infiltration and migration between the two tank areas.
  • the anode of the electrolytic cell is metallic copper, and the electrolytic anode liquid is a mixed solution of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate;
  • the cathode of the electrolytic cell is stainless steel, and the electrolytic cathode liquid is sulfuric acid; in the electrolytic copper dissolving process, the sulfate anions in the cathode tank area can quickly migrate to the anode tank area solution through the anion exchange membrane under the action of the electric field force, and the cathode electrolyzes hydrogen, and the anode metal copper dissolves and combines with sulfate to form copper sulfate; although most of the copper ions in the process are trapped in the anode tank area, a small amount of copper ions will still leak into the cathode tank area solution of the electrolytic copper dissolving tank.
  • the copper ions in the solution of the cathode tank area of the copper electrolysis tank will be electrolyzed into metallic copper by the cathode. Since the copper ion concentration of the electrolytic cathode solution is relatively low, the electrolysis is carried out in the form of fine particles of metallic copper, which is called sponge copper in the industry. These sponge coppers will float in the solution and adhere to the anion exchange membrane, and the adhered sponge copper particles will act as secondary electrodes in the electric field, causing the particle shape to change and puncture the anion exchange membrane, thereby damaging the electrolysis equipment, increasing the replacement frequency of the anion exchange membrane, and increasing the production cost. Similarly, in addition to the anion exchange membrane, the above-mentioned problems will also occur when other diaphragms are used. However, there is no solution for copper ion leakage in the prior art.
  • the first object of the present invention is to provide a method for optimizing an insoluble anode copper plating process combined with electrolytic copper dissolution.
  • a chemical method is used to improve equipment damage caused by copper ion leakage, and the sulfuric acid concentration of the electrolyte and the electroplating solution in the system can be stabilized so that the electrolytic copper dissolution operation and the copper electroplating operation can proceed smoothly.
  • the second object of the present invention is to provide a method for optimizing the insoluble anode copper plating process combined with electrolytic copper dissolution. installation.
  • a method for optimizing an insoluble anode copper plating process combined with electrolytic copper dissolution includes an electrolytic copper dissolution process and an insoluble anode copper plating process, and is characterized in that it includes the following steps:
  • Step (1) using a copper dissolving electrolytic cell with an electrolytic cell separator and an insoluble anode electroplating cell to perform electrolysis and electroplating operations respectively;
  • the copper dissolving electrolytic cell is divided into an electrolytic anode cell area and an electrolytic cathode cell area by the electrolytic cell separator and contains electrolytic anode liquid and electrolytic cathode liquid respectively;
  • the insoluble anode electroplating tank is provided with an electroplating tank separator or without an electroplating tank separator.
  • the electroplating tank separator When the electroplating tank separator is provided, the electroplating tank is divided into an electroplating anode tank area and an electroplating cathode tank area and contains electroplating anode liquid and electroplating cathode liquid respectively.
  • the tank When the electroplating tank separator is not provided, the tank contains electroplating liquid.
  • the electrolytic anode metal copper of the copper dissolving electrolytic cell undergoes an electrochemical reaction of dissolving and converting into copper ions, while the cathode plated parts in the insoluble anode electroplating cell electrolyze copper, and the main components of the electrolytic anode liquid, electroplating liquid or electroplating cathode liquid are a mixed solution of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate;
  • Step (2) adding the electrolytic anolyte as a copper sulfate copper source supplement solution into the electroplating tank to supplement the copper ion concentration of the plating solution;
  • the electroplating tank When the electroplating tank is not provided with an electroplating tank divider, part or all of the electrolytic cathode liquid is taken out to react with the copper removal agent; when the electroplating tank is provided with an electroplating tank divider, part or all of the electrolytic cathode liquid and/or electroplating anode liquid is taken out to react with the copper removal agent, and then the reaction liquid is subjected to solid-liquid separation to obtain insoluble solid copper salt and a filtrate containing sulfuric acid, and the filtrate containing sulfuric acid is added to the electrolytic anode liquid and/or electrolytic cathode liquid and/or electroplating anode liquid, so that the electrolytic operation and electroplating operation can be carried out continuously.
  • the anode copper dissolving electrolytic cell in the present invention is a device for preparing copper sulfate and/or adjusting the concentration of copper sulfate solution;
  • the insoluble anode electroplating cell is an electroplating cell used in the acid copper sulfate electroplating process, and the plated parts are connected to the negative pole of the electroplating cell power supply and immersed in the electroplating solution of the electroplating cell or the cathode tank area plating solution.
  • the copper ion concentration in the electrolytic anode solution continues to rise, and after reaching the copper ion concentration set by the process control, it is added to the acid copper sulfate electroplating solution as a copper sulfate copper source supplementary solution.
  • the present invention combines the two processes of acid electrolytic copper dissolution and acid copper sulfate insoluble anode copper plating for production, adopts a copper remover to obtain a solution with a higher sulfuric acid concentration from part of the electrolytic cathode liquid and/or the electroplating anode liquid, and uses the solution to adjust the sulfuric acid concentration of the electrolyte and/or the solution in the electroplating tank, and improves the copper ion accumulation in the cathode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank caused by ion leakage during the operation, resulting in the electrolysis of sponge copper on the cathode of the electrolytic tank and damage to the electrolytic separator.
  • the problem of things The problem of things.
  • the purpose of the present invention can be achieved by using a mixed solution whose main components are sulfuric acid and copper sulfate, or a solution whose main component is sulfuric acid as the electrolytic anode liquid added initially.
  • the electroplating solution and the electroplating cathode liquid are acidic copper sulfate electroplating solutions.
  • the electrolytic cathode liquid and the electroplating anode liquid are aqueous solutions containing sulfuric acid.
  • the sulfuric acid in the electrolytic cathode liquid and the electroplating anode liquid is mainly used to provide ions for the solution to establish an electric field so that the electrolytic copper dissolving reaction and the electroplating reaction proceed smoothly.
  • the purpose of the present invention can be achieved when sulfuric acid is present, and the electrolysis and electroplating operations can be maintained more stably when the sulfuric acid concentration is not less than 0.1% by mass.
  • the electrolytic cathode of the copper dissolving electrolytic cell will electrolyze hydrogen
  • the insoluble anode of the electroplating cell will electrolyze oxygen.
  • the electrolytic cell separator of the present invention is selected from at least one of anion exchange membrane, bipolar membrane and reverse osmosis membrane, and the electroplating cell separator is selected from at least one of anion exchange membrane, bipolar membrane and reverse osmosis membrane.
  • the electrolytic cell separator when the insoluble anode electroplating tank does not have a plating tank separator, the electrolytic cell separator is selected as a bipolar membrane and/or a reverse osmosis membrane; when the insoluble anode electroplating tank is provided with an anion exchange membrane as a plating tank separator, the electrolytic cell separator is selected as an anion exchange membrane; when the insoluble anode electroplating tank is provided with a bipolar membrane and/or a reverse osmosis membrane as a plating tank separator, the electrolytic cell separator is selected as a bipolar membrane and/or a reverse osmosis membrane.
  • bipolar membranes and/or reverse osmosis membranes are used as electrolytic cell separators, copper ions and sulfate ions in the electrolytic anode region can be effectively prevented from entering the electrolytic cathode region except for a small amount of leakage, but the power consumption of the electrolytic operation is greater than when an anion exchange membrane is used as the electrolytic cell separator.
  • an anion exchange membrane is used as an electrolytic cell separator, a small amount of copper ions in the electrolytic anode area leak into the electrolytic cathode tank area, and the sulfate ions in the electrolytic cathode tank area can pass through the anion exchange membrane under the electric field attraction and enter the electrolytic anode tank area.
  • an anion exchange membrane is provided in the insoluble anode electroplating tank as an electroplating tank separator, which can make some sulfate ions in the electroplating cathode liquid pass through the anion exchange membrane under the electric field attraction and enter the electroplating anode tank area, thereby avoiding the continuous accumulation of sulfate ions in the electroplating cathode liquid.
  • the electrolytic cathode tank area With sulfate ions.
  • the above purpose can be achieved by supplementing the electrolytic cathode tank area with an aqueous solution containing sulfate, preferably adding the electroplating anode liquid to the electrolytic cathode liquid, or mixing the electroplating anode liquid and the electrolytic cathode liquid.
  • step (1) when the insoluble anode electroplating tank is provided with an electroplating tank partition and is divided into an electroplating anode tank area and an electroplating cathode tank area, such structural improvement has three major advantages: first, the electroplating tank adopts a diaphragm partition structure, which can reduce the loss of electroplating brightener in the electroplating cathode liquid; second, the oxygen electrolyzed by the anode of the electroplating tank can be collected and reused; third, the corrosion of the cathode by the oxidizing gas of the anode is reduced.
  • the electrolytic cell separator and the electroplating cell separator are both made of anion exchange membrane.
  • anion exchange membrane has the following advantages: first, the anion exchange membrane is moderately priced and durable to produce, and its electrolysis or electroplating cell pressure is lower than that of bipolar membrane or reverse osmosis membrane, saving energy; second, when the chloride ion concentration in the electroplating cathode liquid is too high, the anode of the insoluble anode electroplating tank can be used to transfer the excess chloride ions in the electroplating cathode liquid to the anode tank area during the electroplating operation, and electrolyze chlorine gas to be discharged out of the electroplating system, thereby reducing the excess chloride ions in the plating solution to avoid affecting the production quality.
  • the copper remover described in step (2) is oxalic acid. According to the process requirements, part or all of the electrolytic cathode liquid is extracted and mixed with oxalic acid, so that the copper sulfate therein reacts with oxalic acid to obtain copper salt precipitate copper oxalate and generate sulfuric acid.
  • a plating tank partition is provided in the insoluble anode electroplating tank, and a scheme of adding the electroplating anode liquid to the electrolytic cathode liquid or a scheme of mixing the electroplating anode liquid and the electrolytic cathode liquid is adopted, according to the process requirements, part or all of the electrolytic cathode liquid and/or the electroplating anode liquid are extracted and mixed with oxalic acid for reaction.
  • the chemical reaction principle of the copper remover oxalic acid and copper sulfate is as follows.
  • the copper ion accumulation rate of the electrolytic cathode liquid in the copper dissolving electrolytic cell is related to the performance of the copper dissolving electrolytic cell separator, the installation process level of the cell and the size of the current used for copper dissolving.
  • the number of copper ions leaked per unit time can be regarded as a constant, so the copper ion accumulation rate of the electrolytic cathode liquid is mainly determined by the power size of the copper dissolving. Therefore, the frequency and reaction amount of extracting the electrolytic cathode liquid for copper removal can be set according to specific process conditions and requirements.
  • the electrolytic cathode liquid is extracted for copper removal according to a pre-set time control.
  • the copper removal reaction liquid is subjected to solid-liquid separation to obtain insoluble solid copper salt and a filtrate containing sulfuric acid.
  • the sulfuric acid concentration of the filtrate containing sulfuric acid is increased compared with that before the reaction with the copper removal agent, hereinafter referred to as a filtrate rich in sulfuric acid, and the filtrate may also contain unreacted copper sulfate and/or residual oxalic acid and/or other chemicals originally contained in the solution.
  • the copper dissolving electrolytic cell adopts different electrolytic cell separators and the insoluble anode electroplating cell adopts different electroplating cell separators to produce a variety of different chemical reaction conditions.
  • the filtrate rich in sulfuric acid is added to the electrolytic anode liquid and/or the electrolytic cathode liquid and/or the electroplating anode liquid according to the sulfuric acid concentration requirements set by the actual process to stabilize the sulfuric acid concentration in each solution and ensure the smooth progress of the electrolytic reaction and the electroplating reaction.
  • the resulting filtrate rich in sulfuric acid contains unreacted oxalic acid; when the filtrate is returned to the copper-dissolving electrolytic cell and/or electroplating cell for use, the oxalic acid therein will chemically react with the copper ions in the solution in the cell to produce a solid product, copper oxalate, which causes clogging of the separation membrane of the electrolytic cell or electroplating cell, affecting the normal operation of the equipment. Therefore, it is preferred that the amount of copper removal agent oxalic acid added does not exceed the reaction molar amount required to remove copper ions in the reaction solution.
  • anode titanium is arranged in the electrolytic anode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic cell.
  • the basket and anode bag are used to hold metal copper blocks.
  • the anode titanium basket is connected to the positive pole of the copper dissolving electrolytic cell power supply, and the anode titanium basket is immersed in the electrolytic anode liquid.
  • the present invention can be improved as follows: a liquid circulation loop is added between the electrolytic anode tank area and an insoluble anode electroplating tank without an electroplating tank separator, or between the electrolytic anode tank area and an insoluble anode electroplating tank electroplating cathode tank area with an electroplating tank separator, so that the electrolytic anode liquid and the electroplating liquid (or the electroplating cathode liquid) are mixed by flowing, so that the electroplating liquid (or the electroplating cathode liquid) with a reduced copper ion concentration and an increased sulfuric acid concentration after the electroplating operation participates in the electrolytic copper dissolving reaction to produce copper sulfate copper source replenishing solution.
  • the present invention can be further improved as follows: a solution mixing exchange tank for electrolytic anode liquid and electroplating liquid (or electroplating cathode liquid) is added between the electrolytic anode tank area and the insoluble anode electroplating tank without electroplating tank separators, or between the electrolytic anode tank area and the electroplating cathode tank area of the insoluble anode electroplating tank with electroplating tank separators, so that the electrolytic anode liquid and the electroplating liquid (or electroplating cathode liquid) are mixed by flowing so that the copper ion concentrations thereof are adjusted.
  • the present invention can be further improved as follows: an electrolytic anode liquid circulation tank connected to the electrolytic anode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank is added, and the electroplating liquid (or electroplating cathode liquid) overflowing from the electroplating tank is drained into the electrolytic anode liquid circulation tank to participate in the anode copper dissolving electrochemical reaction of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank to produce copper sulfate copper source replenishing solution.
  • the present invention can be improved as follows: the electrolytic cathode liquid or the mixed solution of the electrolytic cathode liquid and the electroplating anode liquid is subjected to oxidation treatment to oxidize the metallic copper particles floating in the electrolytic cathode liquid to convert them into copper oxide, which then reacts with sulfuric acid to form copper sulfate, and the damage of the partition of the copper dissolving electrolytic cell can also be effectively reduced.
  • oxygen and/or ozone and/or hydrogen peroxide are used to oxidize the electrolytic cathode liquid or the mixed solution of the electrolytic cathode liquid and the electroplating anode liquid.
  • the electrolytic cathode liquid is oxidized by oxygen electrolyzed by the anode of the electroplating tank.
  • a gas-liquid mixing device is used to promote oxygen and/or ozone to oxidize the electrolytic cathode liquid or the mixture of the electrolytic cathode liquid and the electroplating anode liquid, so as to accelerate the conversion of metallic copper particles in the electrolytic cathode liquid into copper oxide and then react with sulfuric acid to form copper sulfate, thereby more effectively reducing the damage to the partition of the copper-dissolving electrolytic cell.
  • the gas-liquid mixing device is preferably a vacuum ejector and/or a spray tower.
  • the inventors discovered that when the electrolytic cathode liquid or the mixture of the electrolytic cathode liquid and the electroplating anode liquid is not subjected to an oxidation treatment, the electrolysis and electroplating operations can be continued better by keeping the copper ion concentration of the electrolytic cathode liquid at no more than 10 g/L.
  • the electrolysis and electroplating operations can still be continued better when the copper ion concentration of the electrolytic cathode liquid is higher.
  • the copper ion concentration of the electrolytic cathode liquid is maintained at no more than 10 g/L, and/or the electrolytic cathode liquid or the mixture of the electrolytic cathode liquid and the electroplating anode liquid is subjected to an oxidation treatment.
  • the mixed solution is subjected to oxidation treatment.
  • the present invention can be improved as follows: the insoluble anode electroplating tank is provided with an electroplating tank separator, and a liquid circulation loop is added between the electrolytic cathode tank area and the electroplating anode tank area, so that the above two solutions are mixed by flow to adjust the sulfuric acid concentration, and the oxygen electrolyzed in the electroplating anode tank area can be used to oxidize the electrolytic cathode liquid.
  • This preferred scheme also has the following advantages: (1) the oxygen electrolyzed in the electroplating anode tank area is brought into the electrolytic cathode liquid through the mixed exchange of the solution to oxidize the electrolytic cathode liquid; (2) the copper dissolving electrolytic tank realizes oxygen-containing electrolysis of the cathode liquid during operation, reducing the copper dissolving tank pressure and saving electricity; (3) the electroplating anode is used to oxidize and eliminate the residual oxalic acid from the filtrate rich in sulfuric acid, further avoiding the chemical reaction between oxalic acid and the copper ions in the solution in the tank to produce the solid product copper oxalate and cause the partition membrane of the electrolytic tank or electroplating tank to be blocked.
  • both the electrolytic cell separator and the electroplating cell separator are made of anion exchange membranes
  • the sulfate ions in the electroplating cathode liquid can migrate to the electroplating anode tank area during the electroplating process and then enter the electrolytic cathode liquid of the copper-dissolving electrolytic cell through the solution mixing exchange tank, so that the copper-dissolving electrolytic cell can be directly supplemented with sulfuric acid when it is working.
  • the present invention can be further improved as follows: the insoluble anode electroplating tank is provided with an electroplating tank separator, and a solution mixing exchange tank for the cathode liquid of the copper-dissolving electrolytic tank and the anode liquid of the electroplating tank is added between the electrolytic cathode tank area and the electroplating anode tank area, so that the above two solutions are mixed in the solution mixing exchange tank.
  • This scheme can better adjust the sulfuric acid concentration, and at the same time, the solution can be directly extracted from the solution mixing exchange tank for copper removal treatment, and the filtrate rich in sulfuric acid can be returned to the solution exchange mixing tank for recycling after the copper removal treatment.
  • the present invention can also be improved as follows: when a solution mixing exchange tank is provided between the electrolytic cathode tank area and the electroplating anode tank area, a solid-liquid separator is added to perform solid-liquid separation treatment on the solution refluxed from the solution exchange tank to the copper dissolving electrolytic tank and the electroplating tank, respectively, so as to reduce the amount of solid copper particles and copper oxalate entering the copper dissolving electrolytic tank and the electroplating tank.
  • the present invention can also be improved as follows: before adding copper sulfate copper source replenishing solution with a higher copper ion concentration into the electroplating cathode liquid to replenish the copper ion concentration, the copper sulfate copper source replenishing solution is subjected to solid-liquid separation treatment to remove solid impurities to ensure the electroplating quality.
  • the present invention can also be improved as follows: when the copper ion concentration of the electrolytic anolyte is difficult to reach the set concentration by the electrolytic copper dissolving reaction alone, copper oxide is added to the electrolytic anolyte and/or electroplating solution (or electroplating cathode solution) as an auxiliary copper source to accelerate the copper ion concentration in the electrolytic anolyte and/or electroplating solution (or electroplating cathode solution) to reach the process set value.
  • copper oxide powder is added to at least one of the insoluble anode electroplating tank or its electroplating cathode area, the electrolytic anode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank, the electrolytic anolyte circulation tank, and the solution mixing exchange tank of the electrolytic anolyte and electroplating solution (or electroplating cathode solution).
  • the present invention can also be improved as follows: when copper oxide containing more chloride ion impurities is used as an auxiliary copper source Or when chloride ion impurities are introduced from other channels, chlorine gas will be generated on the electrolytic anode and/or electroplating anode because the solution in the copper dissolving electrolytic tank and/or the insoluble anode electroplating tank contains more chloride ions, and chlorine gas will be precipitated together with the generated oxygen. Therefore, the gas containing both chlorine and oxygen generated in the system of the present invention is washed to remove the chlorine gas, and then discharged out of the system or the remaining oxygen is reused.
  • the present invention can also be improved as follows: the copper oxalate after the copper removal reaction is subjected to a heating treatment to obtain copper oxide, which is then recycled into the system as an auxiliary copper source. Therefore, the present invention uses oxalic acid to react with a solution containing copper sulfate to obtain sulfuric acid and copper oxalate, and the obtained copper oxalate is heated in an oxygen-containing environment to obtain copper oxide, and the reactants can all be recycled into the production system, and no new pollution source is generated in the process.
  • the second object of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions.
  • a device for optimizing an insoluble anode copper plating process combined with electrolytic copper dissolution comprises an insoluble anode electroplating tank, characterized in that a copper dissolving electrolytic tank, a chemical reaction tank and a solid-liquid separator are additionally provided; wherein:
  • the copper dissolving electrolytic cell is divided into an electrolytic anode cell area and an electrolytic cathode cell area by an electrolytic cell separator, and is used to contain electrolytic anode liquid and electrolytic cathode liquid respectively.
  • the electrolytic anode of the copper dissolving electrolytic cell is copper metal, and the copper sulfate copper source supplement solution required in the electroplating cell is prepared by an electrolytic copper dissolving method using the electrolytic anode liquid containing sulfuric acid;
  • the insoluble anode electroplating tank is used to hold electroplating solution, or is divided into an electroplating anode tank area and an electroplating cathode tank area by an electroplating tank separator, and is used to hold electroplating anode liquid and electroplating cathode liquid respectively, and the electroplating cathode tank area is used to electroplate the electrolytic cathode as the plated object to produce acid copper sulfate;
  • the insoluble anode electroplating tank without an electroplating tank separator, or the electroplating cathode tank area of the insoluble anode electroplating tank with an electroplating tank separator is connected to the electrolytic anode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank through a pipeline, so that the copper sulfate copper source replenishing solution prepared in the copper dissolving electrolytic tank is added to the insoluble anode electroplating tank;
  • the chemical reaction tank is connected to the copper dissolving electrolytic tank and/or the insoluble anode electroplating tank and the solid-liquid separator through pipelines, and the chemical reaction tank is used to react the electrolytic cathode liquid and/or the electroplating anode liquid with the copper removal agent oxalic acid to remove copper;
  • the solid-liquid separator is connected to the chemical reaction tank and the copper dissolving electrolytic tank and/or the insoluble anode electroplating tank respectively through pipelines, and is used for performing solid-liquid separation on the solid-liquid mixture generated by the reaction in the chemical reaction tank to obtain copper salt filter residue and filtrate containing sulfuric acid, and recycling the filtrate back to the copper dissolving electrolytic tank and/or the insoluble anode electroplating tank through pipelines.
  • the solid-liquid separator can be a centrifuge, filter press, filter or other equipment capable of achieving solid-liquid separation.
  • the present invention can be improved as follows: between the electrolytic anode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank and the insoluble anode electroplating tank without the electroplating tank partition, or between the electrolytic anode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank and the insoluble anode electroplating tank with the electroplating tank partition, At least two liquid flow communication channels are added between the cathode electroplating tank and the cathode electroplating tank area to realize a liquid flow mixing circulation loop.
  • the present invention can be improved as follows: at least two liquid flow communication channels are added between the electrolytic cathode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank and the electroplating anode tank area of the insoluble anode electroplating tank provided with an electroplating tank separator to realize a liquid flow mixing circulation loop.
  • a temporary storage tank is added for use in chemical reactions, solution circulation and exchange, and temporary storage of materials; including but not limited to being used for mixing more than one solution, for dissolving copper oxide in the solution for subsequent addition to the electrolytic anode liquid and/or the electroplating cathode liquid, for temporarily storing sulfuric acid-rich filtrate or other solutions from the solid-liquid separator, etc.;
  • the temporary storage tank is connected to the copper-dissolving electrolytic tank and/or the insoluble anode electroplating tank and/or the chemical reaction tank and/or the solid-liquid separator and/or other temporary storage tanks, or is arranged on a connecting pipe between at least two of the copper-dissolving electrolytic tank, the insoluble anode electroplating tank, and the chemical reaction tank.
  • the present invention can be further improved as follows: on the basis of a solid-liquid separator connected to the chemical reaction tank pipeline, an additional solid-liquid separator is provided and connected to the copper dissolving electrolytic tank and/or the insoluble anode electroplating tank and/or the temporary storage tank and/or other solid-liquid separators through a pipeline, so as to perform solid-liquid separation and impurity removal treatment on the solid matter in the solution.
  • the present invention can be further improved as follows: a gas-liquid mixing device is added to the temporary storage tank to better oxidize the electrolytic cathode liquid or the mixture of the electrolytic cathode liquid and the electroplating anode liquid.
  • the gas-liquid mixing device is preferably a vacuum ejector and/or a spray tower.
  • the present invention can also be improved as follows: an additional anode electrolysis gas washing tank is provided for the electroplating tank, and the excess chloride ions contained in the electroplating cathode liquid are reduced by washing and removing the chlorine in the electrolyzed gas, so as to avoid affecting production.
  • the present invention can also be improved as follows: an overflow buffer tank is added to connect the above tanks to solve the process problem of solution flow between the tanks.
  • the present invention can also be improved as follows: a hydrogen safety treatment device is added to the copper dissolving electrolytic cell, the purpose of which is to safely treat the hydrogen electrolyzed by the copper dissolving electrolytic cell.
  • the hydrogen safety treatment device can be a high-altitude discharge pipe and/or a hydrogen remover.
  • the present invention can also be improved as follows: an exhaust gas processor is added to connect the above-mentioned tanks to perform environmentally friendly treatment on the acidic exhaust gas produced by each tank.
  • the present invention can also be improved as follows: sensors are added to the copper dissolving electrolytic cell and/or the insoluble anode electroplating cell and/or the chemical reaction cell and/or the temporary storage cell and/or the hydrogen safety treatment equipment, as well as an automatic detection and feeding controller, so as to realize automated safe production in the production process.
  • the sensors are one or more of a pH meter, an acidity meter, an electro-optical colorimeter, a redox potentiometer, a thermometer, a liquid level meter, a hydrometer, a flow meter, and a hydrogen detector.
  • the present invention has the following beneficial effects.
  • the present invention adopts oxalic acid to react with acidic copper sulfate solution to obtain a filtrate rich in sulfuric acid and recycles it, thereby solving the process problem caused by mutual leakage of the positive and negative electrolytes in the copper dissolving electrolytic tank and the electroplating tank between the tanks.
  • the amount of copper ions and sulfuric acid in the electrolysis system and the electroplating system is balanced, so that the production operation can continue for a long time.
  • the present invention uses oxalic acid as a copper removal agent to react with an acidic copper sulfate solution to produce sulfuric acid for recycling. Therefore, compared with the technology of patent application number 201980055803.8, the present invention only needs to set up common chemical reaction tanks and pipelines, which can avoid the need to add an acid balance electrolysis system to separate the sulfuric acid component in the plating solution, thereby saving investment funds for some equipment in the project, reducing capital occupancy rate, improving economic benefits, and avoiding the generation of additional hydrogen hazard sources.
  • the present invention uses oxalic acid as a copper removal agent to react with a copper sulfate solution to produce sulfuric acid for recycling, thereby avoiding the high energy consumption process of adding an acid balance electrolysis system to separate the sulfuric acid component in the plating solution, thereby achieving the purpose of energy saving and emission reduction.
  • the present invention adopts a copper dissolving method using metallic copper as an electrolytic anode, which is lower in cost than the traditional copper plating process using phosphorus copper and has no phosphorus pollution, thereby reducing the cost of environmental protection treatment.
  • the present invention can effectively avoid equipment damage caused by copper ion leakage by controlling the copper ion concentration of the electrolytic cathode liquid to be maintained at no more than 10 g/L and/or combining the oxidation treatment of the mixed solution of the electrolytic cathode liquid and the electroplating anode liquid, and can stabilize the sulfuric acid concentration of the electrolyte and the electroplating solution in the system so that the electrolytic copper dissolving operation and the electroplating copper operation can proceed smoothly.
  • FIG1 is a schematic diagram of a device used in Example 1 of the present invention.
  • FIG2 is a schematic diagram of a device used in Example 2 of the present invention.
  • FIG3 is a schematic diagram of a device used in Example 3 of the present invention.
  • FIG4 is a schematic diagram of a device used in Example 4 of the present invention.
  • FIG5 is a schematic diagram of a device used in Example 5 of the present invention.
  • FIG6 is a schematic diagram of a device used in Example 6 of the present invention.
  • FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of a device used in a comparative example of the present invention.
  • Figure numerals 1-copper dissolving electrolytic cell, 2-anode titanium basket, 3-electrolytic cathode, 4-metal copper anode, 5-electrolytic cell separator, 6-insoluble anode electroplating cell, 7-insoluble anode, 8-cathode plating, 9-electroplating cell separator, 10-electrolytic cell or electroplating cell sealing cover, 11-electrolytic cell power supply, 12-electroplating line power supply, 13-solution mixing exchange tank, 14-liquid flow buffer tank, 15-temporary storage tank, 16-solid-liquid separator, 17-impeller agitator, 18-liquid flow agitator, 19-vacuum ejector, 20-spray tower, 21-exhaust gas processor, 22-hydrogen removal device, 23-chemical reaction tank, 24-solid feeder, 25-cold and hot temperature exchanger, 26-automatic detection and feeding controller, 27-sensor, 28-electrically controlled or pneumatically controlled valve, 29-valve,
  • the electrolytic cell, electroplating cell, chemical reaction cell, temporary storage cell, hydrogen remover and automatic detection and feeding controller used are products manufactured by Foshan Yegao Environmental Protection Equipment Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Guangdongzhou, China.
  • the solid-liquid separator, sensor, electrolytic cell separator, chemical raw materials, pump and valve used are all commercially available products.
  • those skilled in the art can also select other products with similar performance to the above-mentioned products listed in the present invention according to conventional selection, and all of them can achieve the purpose of the present invention.
  • FIG1 it is a basic embodiment of the device for optimizing the process of insoluble anode copper plating combined with electrolytic copper dissolution of the present invention, which includes a copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1, an anode titanium basket 2, an electrolytic cathode 3, a metal copper anode 4, an electrolytic cell separator 5, an insoluble anode electroplating cell 6, an insoluble anode 7, a cathode plating part 8, an electrolytic power supply 11, an electroplating power supply 12, a solid-liquid separator 16, a liquid flow buffer tank 14, a chemical reaction tank 23, sulfuric acid 31, oxalic acid 35, valves and pumps.
  • a copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1 an anode titanium basket 2, an electrolytic cathode 3, a metal copper anode 4, an electrolytic cell separator 5, an insoluble anode electroplating cell 6, an insoluble anode 7, a cathode plating part 8, an electrolytic power supply 11, an electroplating power supply 12, a solid-liquid separator 16, a liquid flow buffer
  • the copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1 is divided into an electrolytic anode cell area and an electrolytic cathode cell area by an electrolytic cell separator 5, and is provided with an anode titanium basket 2 (containing a metal copper anode 4) and an electrolytic cathode 3, respectively, and is connected to an electrolytic power source 11; wherein the electrolytic cell separator 5 is a bipolar membrane.
  • the insoluble anode electroplating cell 6 is not provided with an electroplating cell separator, and is provided with an insoluble anode 7 and a cathode plating piece 8, and is connected to an electroplating power source 12.
  • This basic embodiment uses a metal copper anode 4 to electrolyze and dissolve copper in an electrolyte containing sulfuric acid to prepare copper sulfate as a cathode plating solution copper source replenisher for an insoluble anode electroplating tank.
  • the initially added electrolytic anode solution and electrolytic cathode solution are sulfuric acid solutions, and the initially added electroplating solution is an acidic copper sulfate electroplating solution.
  • the electrolytic anode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank 1 is connected to the insoluble anode electroplating tank 6, and the pump 30-1 pours the high-concentration copper sulfate solution into the electroplating tank, and the overflow of the plating solution is returned to the electrolytic anode tank area through the liquid flow buffer tank 14 and the pump 30-4.
  • the electrolytic cathode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1 is cyclically connected with the chemical reaction tank 23 and the solid-liquid separator 16, and the pump 30-2 is intermittently used to pump all the copper-containing electrolytic cathode liquid to the chemical reaction tank 23, and oxalic acid is used to remove copper from it by a chemical method; the solid-liquid mixture after the copper removal treatment is separated into solid and liquid, and the filtrate rich in sulfuric acid is all returned to the electrolytic cathode tank area, and then the electrolytic power supply is turned on again to carry out copper dissolving production.
  • the molar amount of the copper removal agent oxalic acid added in this embodiment is the molar amount of copper ions in the solution in the reaction tank before the reaction.
  • the device of the present invention is used for optimizing the process of insoluble anode copper plating combined with electrolytic copper dissolution, which includes a copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1, an anode titanium basket 2, an electrolytic cathode 3, a metal copper anode 4, an electrolytic cell separator 5, an insoluble anode electroplating cell 6, an insoluble anode 7, a cathode plating part 8, an electroplating cell separator 9, an electrolytic power supply 11, an electroplating power supply 12, a solid-liquid separator 16, a chemical reaction cell 23, a liquid flow buffer cell 14, sulfuric acid 31, oxalic acid 35, valves and pumps.
  • the copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1 is divided into an electrolytic anode cell area and an electrolytic cathode cell area by an electrolytic cell separator 5, and is respectively provided with an anode titanium basket 2 (containing a metal copper anode 4) and an electrolytic cathode 3, which are connected to an electrolytic power supply 11;
  • the insoluble anode electroplating cell 6 is divided into an electroplating anode cell area and an electroplating cathode cell area by an electroplating cell separator 9, and is respectively provided with an insoluble anode 7 and a cathode plating piece 8, which are connected to an electroplating power supply 12;
  • the electrolytic cell separator 5 is a bipolar membrane, and the electroplating cell separator 9 is also a bipolar membrane.
  • a metal copper block 4 is used to electrolyze and dissolve copper in an electrolyte containing sulfuric acid to prepare copper sulfate as a cathode plating solution copper source replenisher for an insoluble anode electroplating tank.
  • the initially added electrolytic anode solution is a mixed solution of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate
  • the initially added electrolytic cathode solution and electroplating anode solution are sulfuric acid solutions
  • the initially added electroplating cathode solution is an acidic copper sulfate electroplating solution.
  • the electrolytic anode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank 1 is connected to the electroplating cathode tank area of the insoluble anode electroplating tank 6, and the pump 30-1 pours the high-concentration copper sulfate solution into the electroplating cathode tank area, and the overflow of the plating solution is returned to the electrolytic tank through the liquid flow buffer tank 14 and the pump 30-5.
  • the electrolytic cathode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank 1 and the electroplating anode tank area of the insoluble anode electroplating tank 6 are connected to the chemical reaction tank 23, and the copper-containing electrolytic cathode liquid and the copper-containing electroplating anode liquid are pumped to the chemical reaction tank 23 by pumps 30-2 and 30-4 respectively, and copper is removed from them by chemical methods using oxalic acid; the solid-liquid mixture after the copper removal treatment is separated into solid and liquid, and the filtrate rich in sulfuric acid is respectively returned to the electrolytic cathode tank area solution and the electroplating anode tank area solution.
  • the molar amount of the copper removal agent oxalic acid added in this embodiment is the molar amount of copper ions in the solution in the reaction tank before the reaction.
  • the device of the present invention is a method for optimizing the insoluble anode copper plating process combined with electrolytic copper dissolution, which includes a copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1, an anode titanium basket 2, an electrolytic cathode 3, a metal copper anode 4, an electrolytic cell separator 5, an insoluble anode electroplating cell 6, an insoluble anode 7, a cathode plating part 8, an electroplating cell separator 9, a solution mixing exchange cell 13, a solid-liquid separator 16, a chemical reaction cell 23, a liquid flow buffer cell 14, sulfuric acid 31, oxalic acid 35, copper oxalate 41, valves and pumps.
  • the copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1 is divided into an electrolytic anode cell area and an electrolytic cathode cell area by an electrolytic cell separator 5, and is provided with an anode titanium basket 2 (containing a metal copper anode 4) and an electrolytic cathode 3, respectively, and is connected to an electrolytic power source 11; the electrolytic cell
  • the separator 5 is an anion exchange membrane.
  • the insoluble anode electroplating tank 6 is divided into an electroplating anode tank area and an electroplating cathode tank area by the electroplating tank separator 9, and is respectively provided with an insoluble anode 7 and a cathode plating member 8, and connected to an electroplating power source 12; the electroplating tank separator 9 is an anion exchange membrane.
  • the solution mixing exchange tank 13 is connected to the electrolytic cathode tank area and the electroplating anode tank area respectively, and is a mixed circulation exchange tank for the electrolytic cathode liquid and the electroplating anode liquid, so that the electrolytic cathode liquid of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank is dissolved with oxygen to become an oxygen-containing electrolytic cathode liquid, so as to reduce the electrolytic cell pressure in the copper dissolving electrolytic cell and oxidize the metal copper powder electrolyzed by the cathode, so that part of the sponge copper powder is oxidized and dissolved in sulfuric acid.
  • the solution mixing exchange tank 13 is also cyclically connected to the chemical reaction tank 23 through a pump and a solid-liquid separator 16.
  • the soluble anode of the metal copper block 4 is used to electrolyze and dissolve copper in an electrolyte containing sulfuric acid to prepare copper sulfate as a copper source supplement for the cathode plating solution of the insoluble anode electroplating tank.
  • the electrolytic anode solution initially added is a mixed solution of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate
  • the electrolytic cathode solution and the electroplating anode solution initially added are mixed solutions of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate containing 1g/L copper ions
  • the electroplating cathode solution initially added is an acidic copper sulfate electroplating solution.
  • the electrolytic anode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank 1 is connected to the electroplating cathode tank area of the insoluble anode electroplating tank 6.
  • the pump 30-1 adds a high-concentration copper sulfate solution into the electroplating cathode tank area as a copper source supplement according to the process requirements, and the overflow of the plating solution is returned to the electrolytic anode tank area through the liquid flow buffer tank 14 and the pump 30-6.
  • the solution mixing exchange tank 13 is used for mixing and circulating the cathode liquid of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank and the anode plating liquid of the electroplating tank, so that the cathode liquid in the copper dissolving electrolytic tank contains oxygen.
  • the copper ion concentration of the solution in the solution mixing exchange tank 13 continues to increase.
  • a part of the solution is extracted by pump 30-4 to the chemical reaction tank 23 for copper removal treatment, specifically, oxalic acid 35 is added to the chemical reaction tank 23 and the impeller stirrer 17 is started for copper removal chemical reaction.
  • the solution is sent to the solid-liquid separator 16 for solid-liquid separation, and the obtained filtrate rich in sulfuric acid is returned to the solution mixing exchange tank 13, and then transported to the electrolytic cathode tank area and the electroplating anode tank area for reuse.
  • the molar amount of the copper removal agent oxalic acid added is 85% of the molar amount of copper ions in the solution in the reaction tank before the reaction.
  • the trace copper particles in the electrolytic cathode liquid in the copper dissolving electrolytic cell were not removed, and sponge copper particles adhered to the diaphragm, but the copper dissolving electrolysis and electroplating production could be continued by removing copper and recycling sulfuric acid.
  • the process data are listed in Table 1.
  • the device of the present invention is used for optimizing the insoluble anode copper plating process combined with electrolytic copper dissolution, which includes a copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1, an anode titanium basket 2, a metal copper anode 4, an electrolytic cathode 3, an electrolytic cell separator 5, an insoluble anode electroplating cell 6, an insoluble anode 7, a cathode plating piece 8, an electroplating cell separator 9, an electrolytic power supply 11, an electroplating power supply 12, Two solution mixing exchange tanks 13, a plurality of liquid flow buffer tanks 14, two temporary storage tanks 15, a solid-liquid separator 16, a chemical reaction tank 23, a plurality of sensors 27, sulfuric acid 31, copper sulfate 32, copper oxide 34, oxalic acid 35, copper oxalate 41, a plurality of valves and pumps.
  • electrolytic copper dissolution which includes a copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1, an anode titanium basket 2, a metal copper anode 4, an electrolytic cathode 3, an electrolytic cell separator 5, an
  • the copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1 is divided into an electrolytic anode cell area and an electrolytic cathode cell area by an electrolytic cell separator 5, and is respectively provided with an anode titanium basket 2 (in which a metal copper anode 4 is installed) and an electrolytic cathode 3, which are connected to an electrolytic power supply 11;
  • the insoluble anode electroplating cell 6 is divided into an electroplating anode cell area and an electroplating cathode cell area by an electroplating cell separator 9, and is respectively provided with an insoluble anode 7 and a cathode plating piece 8, which are connected to an electroplating power supply 12; wherein, the electrolytic cell separator 5 and the electroplating cell separator 9 both adopt reverse osmosis membranes.
  • the solid-liquid separator 16 - 1 is a filter press, and the solid-liquid separators 16 - 2 , 16 - 3 , and 16 - 4 are filters.
  • the solution mixing exchange tank 13-2 is used for the reaction of copper oxide powder and sulfuric acid solution at the same time, and is circulatedly connected to the electrolytic anode tank area through the liquid flow buffer tank 14-1, and the solution mixing exchange tank 13-2 is also circulatedly connected to the electroplating cathode tank area.
  • the solution mixing exchange tank 13-1 is used for mixing and exchanging the electrolytic cathode liquid of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank with the electrolytic anode liquid of the electroplating tank, and is connected to the electrolytic cathode tank area and the electroplating anode tank area respectively, and is also circulatedly connected to the chemical reaction tank 23 through the solid-liquid separator and the temporary storage tank.
  • the copper oxide powder 34 is prepared from copper oxalate through a chemical reaction.
  • the sensor 27-1 in the device of this embodiment is a photoelectric colorimeter
  • 27-2 is a acidity meter
  • 27-3 is a density meter
  • 27-4 is a photoelectric colorimeter
  • 27-5 and 27-6 are radar level gauges
  • 27-7 is a density meter
  • 27-8 is a flow meter.
  • the characteristic of this embodiment 4 is that the solution mixing exchange tank 13-2 used is used for the circulation flow of the electrolytic anode liquid of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank and the reflux collection of the overflow liquid of the cathode plating liquid of the electroplating tank.
  • the photoelectric colorimetric sensor 27-1 in the solution mixing exchange tank 13-2 is used to detect the copper ion concentration in the solution to control the working current of the electrolytic power supply 11 or shut it down; and the sensor 27-2 in the solution mixing exchange tank 13-2 is an acidity meter to control the addition of copper oxide powder 34.
  • the solution mixing exchange tank 13-1 is used for mixing and exchanging the electrolytic cathode liquid of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank with the electroplating anode liquid of the electroplating tank.
  • the valve 29-2 is opened and the pump 30-9 is started to discharge part of the solution in the solution mixing exchange tank 13-1 into the chemical reaction tank 23 for copper removal treatment;
  • the sulfuric acid-rich filtrate obtained after the copper removal treatment and the treatment by the solid-liquid separators 16-1 and 16-2 that is, the sulfuric acid and copper sulfate mixture, is put into the tank 15-2 for temporary storage, and then returned to the solution mixing exchange tank 13-1 according to the process requirements, and then transported to the electrolytic cathode tank area and the electroplating anode tank area for reuse.
  • the molar amount of oxalic acid, a copper removal agent, added is 60% of the molar amount of copper ions in the solution before the reaction in the reaction tank.
  • the electrolytic anolyte added initially is a mixed solution of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate
  • the electrolytic cathode liquid and the electroplating anolyte added initially are mixed solutions of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate containing 5 g/L copper ions
  • the electroplating cathode liquid added is an acidic sulfuric acid solution.
  • Acid copper plating solution is a mixed solution of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate
  • the electroplating cathode liquid added is an acidic sulfuric acid solution.
  • Acid copper plating solution is a mixed solution of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate.
  • the copper oxalate 41 separated by the filter press 16-1 is treated to obtain copper oxide powder.
  • the device of the present invention for optimizing the insoluble anode copper plating process combined with electrolytic copper dissolution comprises a copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1, an anode titanium basket 2, an electrolytic cathode 3, a metal copper anode 4, an insoluble anode electroplating cell 6, an insoluble anode 7, a cathode plating piece 8, an electrolytic cell separator 5, an electroplating cell separator 9, an electrolytic cell sealing cover 10-1, an electroplating cell sealing cover 10-2, an electrolytic power supply 11, an electroplating power supply 12, two solution mixing exchange cells 13, and a plurality of liquid flow Buffer tank 14, multiple temporary storage tanks 15, multiple solid-liquid separators 16, impeller agitator 17, two vacuum ejectors 19, spray tower 20, tail gas processor 21, dehydrogenator 22, two solid feeders 24, hot and cold temperature exchanger 25, automatic detection feed controller 26, multiple sensors 27, multiple valves and pumps, sulfuric acid 31, copper sulfate 32, copper oxide 34, oxalic acid 35, oxygen 36, hydrogen 37, chlorine
  • the copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1 is divided into an electrolytic anode cell area and an electrolytic cathode cell area by an electrolytic cell separator 5, and is respectively provided with an anode titanium basket 2 (in which a metal copper anode 4 is installed) and an electrolytic cathode 3, which are connected to an electrolytic power supply 11;
  • the insoluble anode electroplating cell 6 is divided into an electroplating anode cell area and an electroplating cathode cell area by an electroplating cell separator 9, and is respectively provided with an insoluble anode 7 and a cathode plating piece 8, which are connected to an electroplating power supply 12;
  • the electrolytic cell separator 5 is an anion exchange membrane, and the electroplating cell separator 9 adopts an anion exchange membrane.
  • the solid-liquid separator 16 - 2 is a centrifuge, and the solid-liquid separators 16 - 1 , 16 - 3 , 16 - 4 , and 16 - 5 are filters.
  • the sensor 27-1 in the device of this embodiment is a photoelectric colorimeter
  • the sensor 27-2 is a density meter
  • the sensor 27-3 is a thermometer
  • the sensor 27-4 is a liquid level meter
  • the sensor 27-5 is a liquid level meter
  • the sensor 27-6 is an acidity meter
  • the sensor 27-9 is a thermometer
  • the sensor 27-10 is a photoelectric colorimeter
  • the sensor 27-11 is a liquid level meter
  • the sensor 27-12 is an ORP meter
  • the sensors 27-7, 27-8, 27-13, 27-14 are all flow sensors
  • the sensor 27-14 is a photoelectric colorimeter
  • the sensors 27-15 and 27-16 are liquid level meters
  • the sensor 27-17 is a density meter
  • the sensor 27-18 is a photoelectric colorimeter
  • the sensor 27-19 is a photoelectric colorimeter.
  • This embodiment adopts the process of electrolytic copper dissolution and adding external copper oxide powder as the copper source for plating solution.
  • a hydrogen remover 22 and an acid tail gas processor 21 are added to treat hydrogen and acid tail gas safely and environmentally friendly.
  • an electroplating tank anode electrolysis gas washing tank 45 is added, which is connected to the electroplating tank sealing cover 10-2 to wash the chloride ions that migrate from the plating solution to the electroplating anode tank area and are electrolyzed into chlorine gas. The excess chloride ions in the plating solution are removed.
  • the temporary storage tank 15-1 is specially used for dissolving copper oxide.
  • a vacuum ejector 19-1 is installed on the solution mixing exchange tank 13-1, and all the oxygen obtained after washing and dechlorination of the gas escaping from the electroplating anode tank area is drained into the mixed exchange solution, and supplemented with ozone and hydrogen peroxide, the sponge metal copper powder from the electrolytic cathode liquid is oxidized to generate copper oxide and then react with sulfuric acid to generate copper sulfate, and then the filtered solution is sent to the electrolytic cathode tank area and the electroplating anode tank area, thereby reducing the damage of the sponge metal copper to the equipment.
  • the device of this embodiment is equipped with an automatic detection and feeding controller 26 and a plurality of sensors, so that the whole device can realize automatic control of the whole copper dissolving and electroplating production process under a pre-programmed control system.
  • Step 1 Add an electroplating solution mainly composed of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate to the electrolytic anode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1, put a metal copper block 4 into the anode titanium basket 2, and add a sulfuric acid solution to the electrolytic cathode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic cell; the anode titanium basket 2 is immersed in the electrolyte in the electrolytic anode tank area and connected to the positive electrode of the electrolytic power supply, and the stainless steel cathode serving as the electrolytic cathode 3 is immersed in the electrolyte in the electrolytic cathode tank area and connected to the negative electrode of the electrolytic power supply; and the electrolytic anode solution of the copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1 is added to the solution mixing exchange tank 13-2 and the temporary storage tank 15-1.
  • Step 2 Add sulfuric acid to the anode tank area of the insoluble anode electroplating tank 6, add a plating solution mainly composed of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate to its cathode tank area, immerse the titanium-based coated insoluble anode in the plating anode solution and connect it to the positive pole of the electroplating power supply, immerse the cathode plated part 8 in the plating solution in the cathode tank area and connect it to the negative pole of the electroplating power supply; and add the plating anode solution of the plating tank to the solution mixing exchange tank 13-1.
  • Step 3 Turn on pumps 30-1, 30-2, 30-5, 30-6, 30-7, 30-8, 30-10, and 30-11 to allow the cathode and anode solutions of the copper-dissolving electrolytic cell and the cathode and anode solutions of the insoluble anode electroplating cell to continuously circulate and mix, and filter the solutions flowing into the electrolytic cathode tank area and the electroplating anode tank area to reduce the amount of solid matter entering the electrolytic cell and the electroplating cell;
  • the electrolytic power supply is turned on to carry out the electrolytic copper dissolving operation.
  • the working state of the electrolytic power supply is detected by the sensor 27-1 in the solution mixing exchange tank 13-2, and the data is transmitted to the automatic detection and feeding controller 26 for processing, and the working state of the electrolytic power supply 11 is controlled.
  • the copper block in the anode titanium basket is continuously dissolved, and hydrogen is electrolyzed at the electrolytic cathode;
  • the electroplating power supply is turned on to perform the electroplating operation.
  • the insoluble anode of the electroplating tank electrolyzes oxygen, and the cathode electrolyzes copper on the surface of the plated piece 8.
  • the electroplating power supply is turned off and the plated piece is taken out according to the time requirement of the electroplating process.
  • Step 4 As the electrolysis of copper and electroplating proceeds, the sensor 27-9 in the solution mixing exchange tank 13-1 detects that the solution temperature is too high and controls the hot and cold temperature exchanger 25-2 to cool down.
  • the sensor 27-12 is an ORP meter that detects the oxidizing property of the solution and indirectly detects the treatment of fine copper particles.
  • the sensor 27-10 detects the concentration of copper sulfate in the solution. When the concentration of the sensor 27-10 reaches the set value, the pump 30-13 is turned on to pump part of the solution in the mixing exchange tank 13-1 to the chemical reaction tank 23 to react with oxalic acid to remove copper.
  • Step 5 The reaction product in the chemical reaction tank 23 is separated into solid and liquid by a centrifuge 16-2 to obtain a mixed filtrate of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate, which is then filtered by a filter 16-3 and pumped to a temporary storage tank 15-3 for temporary storage; in this process, a small portion of water and sulfuric acid is lost and replenished in the temporary storage tank 15-3 by external addition, while the filter residue copper oxalate is stored in the temporary storage tank 15-2.
  • Step 6 Add the solution in the temporary storage tank 15-3 to the solution mixing exchange tank 13-1 for recycling according to process control; heat the filter residue copper oxalate to generate copper oxide and mix it with the external copper oxide powder for recycling.
  • Step 7 During the electroplating process, the sensor 27-19 in the electroplating cathode tank area controls the pump 30-1 to add the replenishing liquid;
  • the automatic detection feeding controller 26 controls the start of the pump 30-3 and the solid feeder 24-1, and adds part of the solution and copper oxide 204 in the solution mixing exchange tank 13-2 to the temporary storage tank 15-1, and starts the agitator to dissolve the copper oxide; when the measured value of the solution in the temporary storage tank 15-1 drops below the set value of the sensor 27-6, the solid feeder 24-1 is stopped, indicating that the excessive sulfuric acid concentration in the solution has been consumed.
  • Step 8 The electrolyzed hydrogen is introduced into the inlet of the hydrogen remover to react with air, oxygen and ozone to achieve the purpose of hydrogen removal; and the tail gas escaping from each tank is introduced into the tail gas processor 21 for environmental protection treatment.
  • the molar amount of the copper removal agent oxalic acid added is 57% of the molar amount of copper ions in the solution in the reaction tank before the reaction.
  • the copper particles produced on the cathode of the copper-dissolving tank are completely oxidized and dissolved in the electrolyte, thereby achieving a process method for optimizing the insoluble anode copper plating process combined with electrolytic copper dissolution, ensuring that the electroplating operation and the electrolysis operation are carried out continuously according to the process, and no sponge metal copper adheres to the diaphragm of the copper-dissolving electrolytic tank and the electroplating tank during the process.
  • the device of the present invention for optimizing the insoluble anode copper plating process combined with electrolytic copper dissolution includes a copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1, an anode titanium basket 2, an electrolytic cathode 3, a metal copper anode 4, two insoluble anode electroplating cells 6, a cathode plating part 8, an electrolytic cell sealed cover 10-1, electroplating cell sealed covers 10-2 and 10-3, an electrolytic power supply 11, two electroplating power supplies 12, two solution mixing exchange cells 13, a plurality of liquid flow buffer cells 14, a plurality of temporary storage cells 15, a plurality of solid-liquid separators 16, two impeller agitators 17, a vacuum ejector 19, a spray tower 20, a solid feeder 24, and an automatic detection feeder. 26, multiple sensors 27, sulfuric acid 31, copper sulfate 32, copper oxide 34, oxalic acid 35, oxygen 36, hydrogen 37, copper oxalate 41, hydrogen high altitude discharge pipe 44, multiple valves and pumps.
  • the copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1 is divided into an electrolytic anode cell area and an electrolytic cathode cell area by an electrolytic cell separator 5, and is respectively provided with an anode titanium basket 2 (which contains a metal copper anode 4) and an electrolytic cathode 3, which are connected to an electrolytic power supply 11;
  • the insoluble anode electroplating cells are divided into an electroplating anode cell area and an electroplating cathode cell area by an electroplating cell separator, and are respectively provided with insoluble anode and cathode plating parts, which are connected to an electroplating power supply; wherein the electrolytic cell separator 5 and the electroplating cell separators 9-1 and 9-2 are all anion exchange membranes.
  • the solid-liquid separators are all filters.
  • Sensors 27-1 and 27-2 in the device of this embodiment are photoelectric colorimeters
  • sensor 27-3 is a densimeter
  • sensors 27-4, 27-5, and 27-6 are liquid level gauges
  • sensor 27-7 is a photoelectric colorimeter
  • sensor 27-8 is a liquid level gauge
  • sensor 27-9 is an ORP meter
  • sensors 27-10 and 27-11 are liquid level gauges
  • sensor 27-12 is a photoelectric colorimeter
  • sensor 27-13 is a liquid level gauge
  • sensor 27-14 is a photoelectric colorimeter
  • sensor 27-15 is a liquid level gauge
  • sensor 27-16 is a photoelectric colorimeter
  • sensors 27-17 and 27-18 are liquid level gauges
  • sensor 27-19 is a densimeter
  • sensors 27-20 and 27-21 are liquid level gauges.
  • This embodiment is an equipment system using a copper dissolving electrolytic cell and two insoluble anode electroplating cells, using a hydrogen high-altitude discharge pipe 44 as a safe hydrogen treatment device, adding a temporary storage tank 15-2 for externally supplementing sulfuric acid solution; in order to improve the quality of electroplating, a temporary storage tank 15-1 is used to dissolve copper oxide.
  • a vacuum ejector 19 and a spray tower 20 are installed on the solution mixing exchange tank 13-1, and all the oxygen escaping from the two electroplating anode tank areas is introduced into the solution of the solution mixing exchange tank 13-1 for oxidizing sponge copper, so that the copper particles are oxidized to copper oxide and then react with sulfuric acid to generate copper sulfate, and then the filtered solution is sent to the electrolytic cathode tank area and the electroplating anode tank area to reduce the damage of fine copper particles to the equipment.
  • the copper oxalate prepared in the chemical reaction tank 23 is heat-treated to generate copper oxide powder.
  • the equipment of this embodiment is equipped with an automatic detection and feeding controller 26 and multiple sensors, and two solid feeders 24-1 and 24-2. After inputting a pre-programmed program into the automatic detection and feeding controller 26, the entire set of copper dissolving and electroplating equipment can be automatically controlled.
  • Step 1 Add a mixed solution mainly composed of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate to the electrolytic anode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1, put a metal copper block 4 into the anode titanium basket 2, add a sulfuric acid solution to the electrolytic cathode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1, place the anode titanium basket 2 in the electrolyte of the electrolytic anode tank area and connect it to the positive electrode of the electrolytic power supply, place a stainless steel cathode as the electrolytic cathode 3 in the electrolyte of the electrolytic cathode tank area and connect it to the negative electrode of the electrolytic power supply; and add a mixed solution of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate to the solution mixing exchange tank 13-2 and the temporary The electrolytic anode liquid of the copper electrolytic cell 1 is added to the storage tank 15-1.
  • Step 2 Add sulfuric acid to the anode tank area of the insoluble anode electroplating tank, add a plating solution mainly composed of a mixture of sulfuric acid and copper sulfate to its cathode tank area, immerse the titanium-based coating insoluble anode into the anode plating solution and connect it to the positive pole of the electroplating power supply, immerse the cathode plated part into the plating solution in the cathode tank area and connect it to the negative pole of the electroplating power supply; and add the plating anode solution of the electroplating tank to the solution mixing exchange tank 13-1.
  • Step 3 Turn on pumps 30-3, 30-7, 30-8, 30-9, and 30-10 to circulate the electrolytic anode solution of the copper-dissolving electrolytic cell 1, and circulate the electroplating anode solution of the insoluble anode electroplating cells 6-1 and 6-2 and the electrolytic cathode solution of the copper-dissolving electrolytic cell 1 back to the circulatory state;
  • the electrolytic power supply 11 is turned on to perform the electrolytic copper dissolving operation.
  • the working state of the electrolytic power supply is detected by the sensor 27-1 in the solution mixing exchange tank 13-2, and the data is transmitted to the automatic detection and feeding controller 26 for processing, and the electrolytic power supply is controlled.
  • the copper block 4 in the anode titanium basket is continuously dissolved, the copper ion concentration of the electrolytic anode liquid is continuously increased, and hydrogen is electrolyzed at the electrolytic cathode.
  • Two electroplating power supplies 12-1 and 12-2 are connected to perform electroplating operations.
  • the insoluble anodes of the two electroplating tanks both electrolyze oxygen, and copper is electroplated on the surfaces of the two plated parts 8-1 and 8-2.
  • the sensor 27-14 of the electroplating tank 6-1 controls the pump 30-2 and the sensor 27-16 of the electroplating tank 6-2 controls the pump 30-1 to add copper source replenishing liquid to each electroplating cathode liquid.
  • the respective electroplating power supplies are turned off and the two plated parts are taken out separately.
  • Step 4 As the electrolytic copper dissolution and electroplating proceed, when the solution mixing exchange tank 13-2 is full of liquid, the sensor 27-4 controls the pump 30-17 to pump part of the solution in the tank to the temporary storage tank 15-3 for temporary storage, and pumps it to the chemical reaction tank 23 through the pump 30-18 for copper removal according to the process; the sensor 27-11 in the solution mixing exchange tank 13-1 is a liquid level meter to control the normal operation of the spray tower 20 and the vacuum ejector 19 matched therewith; the sensor 27-12 is a photoelectric colorimeter, which is used to detect the copper sulfate concentration of the solution in the solution mixing exchange tank 13-1. When the photoelectric colorimeter 27-12 reaches the set value, the pump 30-23 is turned on to pump part of the solution in the solution mixing exchange tank 13-1 to the chemical reaction tank 23 and perform a copper removal reaction with an accurately measured amount of oxalic acid reaction.
  • Step 5 The reaction product of the chemical reaction tank 23 is selectively separated into solid and liquid through filters 16-2, 16-3, 16-4, and 16-5, and the filtrate is pumped to the temporary storage tank 15-4 through the liquid flow buffer tank 14-8 for temporary storage and preparation for recycling, while the filter residue copper oxalate is retained in each filter.
  • Step 6 The solution in the temporary storage tank 15-4 is added to the solution mixing exchange tanks 13-1 and 13-2 for recycling according to process control; the filter residue copper oxalate is heated to generate copper oxide for recycling.
  • Step 7 During the electroplating process, when the sensor 27-1 in the solution mixing exchange tank 13-2 reaches the set value, that is, the copper sulfate concentration of the solution meets the process requirements, the electrolytic power supply 11 is turned off, and the sensor 27-2 is used as an opening device for the electrolytic power supply. Full interlock; when the density meter of sensor 27-3 exceeds the set value, it means that the sulfuric acid content of the solution in the solution mixing exchange tank 13-2 is too high. According to the on-site detection data of sensor 27-4, it is sent to the automatic detection and feeding controller 26 for processing, and the pump 30-4 is controlled to pump part of the solution in the solution mixing exchange tank 13-2 to the temporary storage tank 15-1 for processing.
  • the solid feeder 24-1 is controlled by the controller 26 to add copper oxide 34 to the temporary storage tank 15-1, and the agitator is started to dissolve the copper oxide; when the detection value of the solution in the temporary storage tank 15-1 increases to the set value of sensor 27-7, the solid feeder 24-1 is stopped and the pump 30-5 is turned on to pump the treated solution in the temporary storage tank 15-1 back to the tank 15-1 to adjust the sulfuric acid concentration of the solution in the tank 15-1. In this way, copper oxide is added to adjust the composition of the electroplating cathode liquid of the electroplating tank.
  • Step 8 Lead the electrolyzed hydrogen into the hydrogen high-altitude discharge pipe for high-altitude safe discharge treatment.
  • Step 9 The sulfuric acid lost in the process is added to the electrolytic cathode tank area of the copper dissolving electrolytic cell for replenishment.
  • the molar amount of the copper removal agent oxalic acid added is 70% of the molar amount of copper ions in the solution in the reaction tank before the reaction.
  • the copper particles produced by the cathode of the copper dissolving tank can be oxidized by fully utilizing the oxygen electrolyzed from the anode of the electroplating tank and dissolved in the electrolyte, realizing the process method of optimizing the insoluble anode copper plating process combined with electrolytic copper dissolving, ensuring that the electroplating and electrolytic operations are carried out continuously according to the process. No copper particles were found to adhere to the diaphragms of the copper dissolving electrolytic tank and the electroplating tank during the process.
  • an insoluble anode copper plating process optimization device combined with electrolytic copper dissolution, which includes a copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1, an anode titanium basket 2, an electrolytic cathode 3, a metal copper anode 4, an insoluble anode electroplating cell 6, an insoluble anode 7, a cathode plating member 8, an electrolytic power supply 11, an electroplating power supply 12, a copper sulfate plating solution 31+32, a valve and a pump.
  • the copper dissolving electrolytic cell 1 is divided into an electrolytic anode cell area and an electrolytic cathode cell area by an electrolytic cell separator 5, and is provided with an anode titanium basket 2 (containing a metal copper anode 4) and an electrolytic cathode 3, respectively, and is connected to an electrolytic power source 11; the electrolytic cell separator 5 is a reverse osmosis membrane.
  • the insoluble anode electroplating cell 6 is not provided with an electroplating cell separator, and is provided with an insoluble anode 7 and a cathode plating piece 8, and is connected to an electroplating power source 12.
  • the electrolysis power supply 11 and the electroplating power supply 12 are turned on to start the operation.
  • the metal copper anode 4 in the copper dissolving electrolytic tank is continuously dissolved, and the electrolytic cathode electrolyzes hydrogen and sponge copper.
  • the insoluble anode in the electroplating tank electrolyzes oxygen, and the cathode electrolyzes metal copper.
  • the electrolytic cathode in the copper dissolving electrolytic cell continuously produces sponge copper and floats in the electrolytic cathode liquid.
  • a large amount of sponge copper adheres to the separator of the copper dissolving cell, affecting production. Therefore, this copper dissolving and electroplating process structure system cannot be continuously produced.

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Abstract

本发明公开了一种结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法及装置,该方法采用酸性电解溶铜和酸性硫酸铜的不溶性阳极电镀铜两个工艺作生产结合,采取除铜剂从部分电解阴极液和/或电镀阳极液中得到硫酸浓度更高的溶液,并且将其用于调整电解液和/或电镀槽中溶液的硫酸浓度,和改善作业过程中因离子渗漏而造成所述的溶铜电解槽阴极槽区中的铜离子积累导致电解槽阴极上电析出海绵铜而损坏电解分隔物的问题。

Description

一种结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法及装置 技术领域
本发明涉及一种不溶性阳极电镀铜的工艺技术及其设备,尤其涉及一种结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法及装置。
背景技术
现有的酸性硫酸铜电镀铜工艺最常见采用主成分为硫酸铜和硫酸的水溶液作为电镀液,即酸性硫酸铜电镀液,其中还可能含有其他电镀助剂。电镀过程中,电镀液中的铜离子在阴极上被电析还原成金属铜。随着铜的电镀,电镀液中的铜离子浓度越来越低、硫酸浓度越来越高。因此现有的酸性硫酸铜电镀铜工艺主要分为可溶性阳极和不溶性阳极两种工艺,采用不同的方法在电镀的过程中补充铜源,利用溶入的铜源使电镀液中硫酸得到稳定。
可溶性阳极电镀铜工艺是指阳极在电镀电化学反应过程中会逐渐溶解的工艺类型。常见的可溶性阳极材料为磷铜,电镀过程中阳极的铜金属溶解成为铜离子,从而对电镀液的铜离子进行补充。然而采用磷铜阳极时,容易出现阳极极化、电流分布不均等情况导致镀层质量不稳定。而且磷铜价格较高,其制作和使用过程中会产生有害的含磷废水、进入人体对肝脏等器官危害极大,为使废水达到排放指标还需要增加电镀废液的处理成本。
不溶性阳极电镀铜工艺是指在电镀反应过程中阳极不发生或发生极少量溶解的电镀铜工艺,常见的不溶性阳极有涂覆贵金属氧化物的钛、导电石墨、铂金和铅合金。在现有的电镀铜工艺技术中,向酸性不溶性阳极电镀铜工艺的镀液补充铜源一般采用氧化铜,一方面其与电镀液中的硫酸反应以补充电镀液中失去的铜离子,另一方面相应地消耗当量的硫酸。尤其在线路板生产过程,业界偏好使用氧化铜补充到不溶性阳极酸性镀铜生产线中,以得到镀层均匀平整、废液没有磷化合物污染和减轻劳动强度的好效果。
申请号201980055803.8的专利提出了采用电解槽通过酸性电解溶铜为不溶性阳极电镀铜工艺的镀液作铜源补充。其中的一种优选方案为,将所述电解槽与电镀生产线上电镀槽中溶液形成可控的循环流动系统,并采用酸平衡电解系统来调整镀液中的硫酸浓度来使电镀铜作业顺利进行。具体是,使用阴离子交换膜将电解槽分隔为电解阳极区和电解阴极区,并以含有铜元素的金属作为电解阳极,以导电体作为电解阴极;同时在所述的电解阳极区中分隔出一个酸度平衡阴极区,所述酸度平衡阴极区面向电解阴极区的方 向使用隔膜作为分隔,在所述的酸度平衡阴极区中设置酸度平衡阴极,在所述的电解阴极区中设置酸度平衡阳极;电解过程中在所述酸度平衡阴极处生成氢气,而在所述的酸度平衡阳极处生成氧气和氢离子;所述电解阳极液中的硫酸根离子受酸度平衡阳极的电场引力影响会穿过阴离子交换膜进入所述电解阴极区,与水电解生成的氢离子结合成为硫酸,从而提高电解阴极液的硫酸根浓度。然而,采用酸平衡电解系统需要额外增加酸平衡电极、酸平衡电源和分隔物,大大增加了设备成本。加上酸平衡电解阴极上析出额外的氢气,由于氢气具有高度的易燃性和易爆性,需对氢气危险源作安全处理。所以,该专利的工艺技术中存在设备投资大、电耗高和有产生大量氢气危险源的缺点。
另外在实际使用中,分隔物对特定离子或者分子的阻隔率难以达到理想的100%,并且电解槽分隔物的装配结构导致有缝隙存在,因此对于带有离子选择性的隔膜或双极膜或反渗透膜分隔物的电解槽或电镀槽,其阴、阳两极槽区之间仍发生着一定数量的离子在两槽区间互渗迁移的现象。例如:当采用阴离子交换膜作为电解溶铜槽的分隔物时,电解槽的阳极为金属铜,电解阳极液为硫酸与硫酸铜的混合液;另电解槽的阴极为不锈钢,电解阴极液为硫酸;在电解溶铜过程中,阴极槽区的硫酸根阴离子会在电场力作用下能迅速通过阴离子交换膜迁移到阳极槽区溶液中,阴极电析出氢气,另阳极金属铜溶解与硫酸根结合生成硫酸铜;过程中的铜离子虽然大部分被截留在阳极槽区,但仍有少量铜离子会渗漏进入到电解溶铜槽的阴极槽区溶液中。随着电解溶铜的进行和渗移到阴极槽区中的铜离子积累,会使电解溶铜槽阴极槽区溶液的铜离子被阴极电析出金属铜。由于电解阴极液的铜离子浓度比较低,电析出为微细颗粒形态金属铜,行业上称之为海绵铜。这些海绵铜会在溶液中漂浮并粘附到阴离子交换膜上,而所粘附的海绵铜颗粒处在电场中起到二次电极作用使颗粒形状发生变化会将阴离子交换膜刺破,从而损坏电解设备,令阴离子交换膜的更换频率变高从而增加生产成本。同样,除了阴离子交换膜以外,采用其它隔膜也会出现上述问题。然而,现有技术中暂未有针对铜离子渗漏的解决方案。
发明内容
本发明的第一个目的是提供一种结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法,在通过酸性电解溶铜为酸性不溶性阳极电镀铜工艺中的酸性镀液补充铜离子时,使用化学方法改善因铜离子渗漏而造成的设备损坏,并能稳定系统中电解液和电镀液的硫酸浓度使电解溶铜作业和电镀铜作业顺利进行。
本发明的第二个目的是提供一种用于结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法 的装置。
本发明为达到第一个目的采用的技术方案是:
一种结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法,包括电解溶铜工艺和不溶性阳极电镀铜工艺,其特征在于,包括以下步骤:
步骤(1):采用带有电解槽分隔物的溶铜电解槽和不溶性阳极电镀槽分别进行电解和电镀作业;
所述的溶铜电解槽被所述电解槽分隔物分隔成电解阳极槽区和电解阴极槽区并分别盛装有电解阳极液和电解阴极液;
所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中设有电镀槽分隔物或者不设电镀槽分隔物,当设有电镀槽分隔物时其被分隔成电镀阳极槽区和电镀阴极槽区并分别盛装有电镀阳极液和电镀阴极液,当不设电镀槽分隔物时其槽内盛装有电镀液;
生产作业时,所述的溶铜电解槽的电解阳极金属铜发生溶解变为铜离子的电化学反应,而所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中的阴极镀件电析出铜,所述的电解阳极液、电镀液或电镀阴极液的主成分为硫酸和硫酸铜的混合溶液;
步骤(2):将所述的电解阳极液作为硫酸铜铜源补充液加入到电镀槽中对镀液进行铜离子浓度补充;而且,
当电镀槽不设电镀槽分隔物时,另取出部分或者全部所述的电解阴极液与除铜剂反应;当电镀槽设有电镀槽分隔物时,则另取出部分或者全部所述的电解阴极液和/或电镀阳极液与除铜剂反应,然后对反应液作固液分离得到难溶的固体铜盐和含硫酸的滤液,将所述的含硫酸的滤液加投到所述的电解阳极液和/或电解阴极液和/或电镀阳极液中,以便使电解作业和电镀作业持续进行。
本发明中的阳极溶铜电解槽是制备硫酸铜和/或调配硫酸铜溶液浓度的设备;不溶性阳极电镀槽是用于酸性硫酸铜电镀工艺的电镀槽,其镀件与电镀槽电源的负极连接并沉浸于电镀槽的电镀液或者阴极槽区镀液中。随着溶铜电解槽中电解溶铜反应的进行,电解阳极液中的铜离子浓度不断上升,达到工艺控制设定的铜离子浓度后作为硫酸铜铜源补充液加入酸性硫酸铜电镀液中。
本发明采用酸性电解溶铜和酸性硫酸铜的不溶性阳极电镀铜两个工艺作生产结合,采取除铜剂从部分电解阴极液和/或电镀阳极液中得到硫酸浓度更高的溶液,并且将其用于调整电解液和/或电镀槽中溶液的硫酸浓度,和改善作业过程中因离子渗漏而造成所述的溶铜电解槽阴极槽区中的铜离子积累导致电解槽阴极上电析出海绵铜而损坏电解分隔 物的问题。
在本发明的方案中,采用主成分为硫酸和硫酸铜的混合溶液,或者主成分为硫酸的溶液来作为初始加投的电解阳极液都可以实现本发明的目的。所述的电镀液和电镀阴极液为酸性硫酸铜电镀液。所述的电解阴极液和电镀阳极液为含有硫酸的水溶液。所述电解阴极液和电镀阳极液中的硫酸主要用于为溶液提供离子建立电场,以令电解溶铜反应和电镀反应顺利进行,其中有硫酸存在时均能实现本发明的目的,硫酸浓度按质量百分比为不低于0.1%时则能更稳定地维持电解和电镀作业。通常而言,作业过程中所述的溶铜电解槽的电解阴极会电析出氢气,而电镀槽的不溶性阳极会电析出氧气。
本发明所述的电解槽分隔物选为阴离子交换膜、双极膜、反渗透膜片中的至少一种,所述的电镀槽分隔物选为阴离子交换膜、双极膜、反渗透膜片中的至少一种。
作为本发明一种优选的实施方式:当所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中不设电镀槽分隔物时,所述的电解槽分隔物选为双极膜和/或反渗透膜片;当所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中设有阴离子交换膜作为电镀槽分隔物时,所述的电解槽分隔物选为阴离子交换膜;当所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中设有双极膜和/或反渗透膜片作为电镀槽分隔物时,所述的电解槽分隔物选为双极膜和/或反渗透膜片。
采用双极膜和/或反渗透膜片作为电解槽分隔物时,除了少量渗漏以外,电解阳极区中的铜离子和硫酸根离子能被有效阻止进入电解阴极区,但其电解作业耗电量比采用阴离子交换膜作为电解槽分隔物时更大。
采用阴离子交换膜作为电解槽分隔物时,电解阳极区中的铜离子少量渗漏进入电解阴极槽区,电解阴极槽区的硫酸根离子会受电场引力穿过阴离子交换膜进入电解阳极槽区中。此时在所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中设有阴离子交换膜作为电镀槽分隔物,能令电镀阴极液中的部分硫酸根离子受电场引力穿过阴离子交换膜进入电镀阳极槽区中,从而避免硫酸根离子在电镀阴极液中不断累积。长时间进行电解作业时,为了维持电解阴极液中的电解质含量使电解作业顺利进行,需要向电解阴极槽区补充硫酸根离子。向电解阴极槽区补充加投含有硫酸根的水溶液均可实现上述目的,优选将电镀阳极液加入电解阴极液中,或者将电镀阳极液和电解阴极液作混和。
步骤(1)中,当所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中设有电镀槽分隔物并将其分为电镀阳极槽区和电镀阴极槽区时,这样的结构改进有三大优点:第一,电镀槽采用隔膜分隔结构,能减少电镀阴极液中的电镀光亮剂损耗;第二,能对电镀槽阳极所电析的氧气集中收取作再利用;第三,减少阳极氧化性气体对阴极腐蚀。
优选地,所述的电解槽分隔物和电镀槽分隔物均选用阴离子交换膜。选用阴离子交换膜有如下优点:第一点,阴离子交换膜价格适中和生产耐用,并且其电解或电镀的槽压与双极膜或反渗透膜相比较其槽压较低节省电能;第二点,电镀阴极液中氯离子浓度过高时,可以利用所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽的阳极在电镀作业时将电镀阴极液中多余的氯离子引迁到阳极槽区中,并电析出氯气排除出电镀系统外,减少镀液中多余的氯离子避免影响生产质量。
步骤(2)中所述的除铜剂为草酸。按工艺要求抽取部分或全部所述电解阴极液与草酸混合,使其中的硫酸铜与草酸反应得到铜盐沉淀物草酸铜并生成硫酸。或者在所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中设有电镀槽分隔物,且采用将电镀阳极液加入电解阴极液中的方案或者采用将电镀阳极液和电解阴极液作混和的方案时,按工艺要求抽取部分或全部所述电解阴极液和/或电镀阳极液与草酸混合进行反应。所述除铜剂草酸与硫酸铜的化学反应原理如下所示。
草酸与硫酸铜的反应:CuSO4+H2C2O4→H2SO4+CuC2O4↓。
溶铜电解槽中电解阴极液的铜离子累积速度与溶铜电解槽分隔物的性能、槽的安装工艺水平和溶铜使用电流的大小有关。一般在正常的生产状况下可将单位时间内渗漏的铜离子数量视为一常数,因此电解阴极液的铜离子积累速度主要决定于溶铜的功率大小。所以,抽取电解阴极液作除铜处理的频率和反应量可按具体工艺情况和要求进行设定。优选地,根据实际工艺情况和要求,按预先设定的时间控制抽取电解阴极液作除铜处理。
将除铜反应液作固液分离得到难溶的固体铜盐和含硫酸的滤液。所述含硫酸的滤液其硫酸浓度较与除铜剂反应前得到提升,下文称富含硫酸滤液,所述滤液还可能含有未反应的硫酸铜和/或残余草酸和/或溶液中原来含有的其他化学品。所述的溶铜电解槽采用不同的电解槽分隔物和所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽采用不同的电镀槽分隔物而产生出多种不同的化学反应条件下,将所述的富含硫酸的滤液根据实际工艺设定的硫酸浓度要求补入电解阳极液和/或电解阴极液和/或电镀阳极液中,以稳定各溶液中的硫酸浓度,确保电解反应和电镀反应的顺利进行。
当向反应液中投入过量的草酸时,所得富含硫酸的滤液含有未反应的草酸;将该滤液投回到溶铜电解槽和/或电镀槽中使用时,其中的草酸会与槽中溶液的铜离子进行化学反应产出其中固体产物草酸铜,造成电解槽或电镀槽的分隔膜堵塞,影响设备的正常运行。因此,优选除铜剂草酸的加投量不超过反应溶液中所需去除铜离子的反应摩尔数量。
作为本发明一种优选的实施方式,所述的溶铜电解槽的电解阳极槽区中设置阳极钛 篮及阳极袋,用于盛装金属铜块,将阳极钛篮与溶铜电解槽电源正极连接,并将阳极钛篮浸置在电解阳极液中。
本发明可以作以下改进:在电解阳极槽区和不设电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽之间,或者在电解阳极槽区和设有电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽电镀阴极槽区之间,增设液流循环回路,使电解阳极液和电镀液(或者电镀阴极液)通过流动进行混合,使经过电镀作业后铜离子浓度降低且硫酸浓度升高的电镀液(或者电镀阴极液)参与到电解溶铜反应中来制造硫酸铜铜源补充液。
本发明可以进一步作以下改进:在电解阳极槽区和不设电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽之间,或者在电解阳极槽区和设有电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽电镀阴极槽区之间,增设电解阳极液和电镀液(或者电镀阴极液)的溶液混合交换槽,使电解阳极液和电镀液(或者电镀阴极液)通过流动进行混合令其铜离子浓度得到调整。
本发明可以进一步作以下改进:增设连接溶铜电解槽电解阳极槽区的电解阳极液循环槽,并将从电镀槽溢出的电镀液(或者电镀阴极液)引流到电解阳极液循环槽中参与溶铜电解槽的阳极溶铜电化学反应,来制造硫酸铜铜源补充液。
本发明可以作以下改进:对所述电解阴极液或者对所述电解阴极液与电镀阳极液的混合液作氧化处理,以氧化正漂浮于电解阴极液中的金属铜微粒使其变为氧化铜后与硫酸反应生成硫酸铜,也能有效地减少溶铜电解槽分隔物的损坏。
优选地,采用氧气和/或臭氧和/或双氧水对所述电解阴极液或者对所述电解阴极液与电镀阳极液的混合液作氧化处理。
更优选地,采用电镀槽阳极所电析的氧气对所述电解阴极液作氧化处理。
更优选地,采用气液混合装置促进氧气和/或臭氧对所述电解阴极液或者对所述电解阴极液与电镀阳极液的混合液作氧化处理,以加速电解阴极液中的金属铜微粒变为氧化铜随后与硫酸反应生成硫酸铜,更有效地减少溶铜电解槽分隔物的损坏。所述的气液混合装置优选为真空射流器和/或喷淋塔。
本发明人研发时发现,当没有对所述电解阴极液或者对所述电解阴极液和电镀阳极液的混合液作氧化处理时,令所述电解阴极液的铜离子浓度保持不超过10g/L能较好地使电解和电镀作业持续进行。而当对所述电解阴极液或者对所述电解阴极液和电镀阳极液的混合液作氧化处理时,则所述电解阴极液的铜离子浓度更高的情况下仍能较好地持续进行电解和电镀作业。因此,作为本发明一种优选的实施方式,保持所述电解阴极液的铜离子浓度不超过10g/L,和/或对所述电解阴极液或者对所述电解阴极液和电镀阳极液 的混合液作氧化处理。
本发明可以作以下改进:所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中设有电镀槽分隔物,且在电解阴极槽区和电镀阳极槽区之间增设液流循环回路,使上述两种溶液通过流动进行混合令其硫酸浓度得到调整,并使电镀阳极槽区电析的氧气得以对电解阴极液作氧化处理。此优选方案还具备以下优点:(1)将电镀阳极槽区所电析的氧气通过溶液的混合交换带进到电解阴极液中,以对电解阴极液作氧化;(2)使溶铜电解槽在工作中实现含氧电解阴极液,降低溶铜槽压节省电能;(3)利用电镀阳极对来自于富含硫酸的滤液的残余草酸作氧化消除,进一步避免草酸与槽中溶液的铜离子进行化学反应产出其中固体产物草酸铜并造成电解槽或电镀槽的分隔膜堵塞。当所述的电解槽分隔物和电镀槽分隔物均选用阴离子交换膜时,还能令电镀阴极液的硫酸根在电镀过程中迁移到电镀阳极槽区中再通过溶液混合交换槽进入到溶铜电解槽的电解阴极液中,使溶铜电解槽工作时直接得到硫酸补充。
本发明可以进一步作以下改进:所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中设有电镀槽分隔物,且在电解阴极槽区和电镀阳极槽区之间增设溶铜电解槽阴极液和电镀槽阳极液的溶液混合交换槽,使上述两种溶液在溶液混合交换槽中进行混合。此方案能更好地令其硫酸浓度得到调整,同时得以直接从溶液混合交换槽抽取溶液作除铜处理,并能在除铜处理后将所述的富含硫酸的滤液回投到溶液交换混合槽中作循环回用。
本发明还可以作以下改进:在电解阴极槽区和电镀阳极槽区之间设有溶液混合交换槽的情况下,增设固液分离器分别对从溶液交换槽回流到溶铜电解槽和电镀槽的溶液作固液分离处理,以减少固体铜粒和草酸铜进入溶铜电解槽和电镀槽中。
本发明还可以作以下改进:将铜离子浓度较高的硫酸铜铜源补充液加投到所述的电镀阴极液中对铜离子浓度作补充前,对硫酸铜铜源补充液进行固液分离处理去除固体杂质,以确保电镀质量。
本发明还可以作以下改进:当电解阳极液的铜离子浓度在仅靠电解溶铜反应难以达到设定浓度的情况下,向电解阳极液和/或电镀液(或者电镀阴极液)加投氧化铜作为辅助补充铜源,加速提升电解阳极液和/或电镀液(或者电镀阴极液)中的铜离子浓度,使其达到工艺设定值。优选地,向所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽或者其电镀阴极区、溶铜电解槽的电解阳极槽区、电解阳极液循环槽、电解阳极液和电镀液(或者电镀阴极液)的溶液混合交换槽中的至少一处加投氧化铜粉。
本发明还可以作以下改进:当采用含有较多氯离子杂质的氧化铜作为辅助补充铜源 或者由其他渠道带入氯离子杂质时,会因溶铜电解槽和/或不溶性阳极电镀槽中溶液含有较多氯离子而导致电解阳极和/或电镀阳极上有氯气生成,并和生成的氧气一同析出。因此,对本发明的系统中生成的同时含有氯气和氧气的气体作洗涤去除氯气后,再引排出系统外或者将余下的氧气作再利用。
本发明还可以作以下改进:将除铜反应后的草酸铜进行加热处理制得氧化铜,回用到系统中作为辅助补充铜源。因此,本发明采用草酸从含有硫酸铜的溶液中反应制得硫酸及草酸铜,通过令所得草酸铜在含氧环境下加热制得氧化铜,其反应物能全部回用到生产系统中,过程没有新的污染源产生。
本发明的第二个目的通过以下技术方案实现。
一种用于结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法的装置,包括不溶性阳极电镀槽,其特征在于,增设溶铜电解槽、化学反应槽和固液分离器;其中:
所述的溶铜电解槽被电解槽分隔物分隔为电解阳极槽区和电解阴极槽区,并用于分别盛装有电解阳极液和电解阴极液,所述的溶铜电解槽的电解阳极为铜金属,利用含有硫酸的电解阳极液通过电解溶铜方法来制作电镀槽中需要的硫酸铜铜源补充液;
所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽用于装电镀液,或者被电镀槽分隔物分隔为电镀阳极槽区和电镀阴极槽区,并用于分别盛装有电镀阳极液和电镀阴极液,使用所述电镀阴极槽区对作为镀件的电解阴极进行酸性硫酸铜的电镀生产;所述不设电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽,或者设有电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽的电镀阴极槽区通过管道与所述的溶铜电解槽电解阳极槽区连接,以便将溶铜电解槽中制得的硫酸铜铜源补充液加投补充至不溶性阳极电镀槽中;
所述的化学反应槽通过管道分别与所述的溶铜电解槽和/或不溶性阳极电镀槽及固液分离器连通,所述的化学反应槽用于将所述的电解阴极液和/或电镀阳极液与除铜剂草酸作除铜反应;
所述的固液分离器通过管道分别与所述的化学反应槽和溶铜电解槽和/或不溶性阳极电镀槽连接,其用于将在所述化学反应槽中反应生成的固液混合物进行固液分离以得到铜盐滤渣和含硫酸的滤液,并通过管道将所述滤液循环回用到溶铜电解槽和/或不溶性阳极电镀槽中。
所述的固液分离器可以是离心机、压滤机、过滤机等能够实现固液分离的设备。
本发明可以作以下改进:在溶铜电解槽的电解阳极槽区和不设电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽之间,或者在溶铜电解槽的电解阳极槽区和设有电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳 极电镀槽电镀阴极槽区之间,增设至少两条液流连通通道,实现液流混合循环回路。
本发明可以作以下改进:在溶铜电解槽的电解阴极槽区和设有电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽电镀阳极槽区之间,增设至少两条液流连通通道,实现液流混合循环回路。
本发明可以作以下改进:增设暂存槽,用于化学反应使用、溶液循环交换使用、暂储物料使用;包括但不限于,用于对一种以上的溶液进行混合,用于溶解氧化铜于溶液中以备后续加入所述电解阳极液和/或电镀阴极液中,用于暂存来自于固液分离器的富含硫酸的滤液或者其他溶液等等;所述暂存槽与溶铜电解槽和/或不溶性阳极电镀槽和/或化学反应槽和/或固液分离器和/或其他暂存槽连通,或者设置在所述溶铜电解槽、不溶性阳极电镀槽、化学反应槽至少两者之间的连接管道上。
本发明可以进一步作以下改进:在设有与所述的化学反应槽管道连接的固液分离器的基础上,增设固液分离器并通过管道与溶铜电解槽和/或不溶性阳极电镀槽和/或暂存槽和/或其他固液分离器连接,以用于对溶液中的固体物质作固液分离除杂处理。
本发明可以进一步作以下改进:在所述的暂存槽增设气液混合装置,用于使所述电解阴极液或者所述电解阴极液与电镀阳极液的混合液更好地作氧化处理。所述的气液混合装置优选为真空射流器和/或喷淋塔。
本发明还可以作以下改进:增设电镀槽阳极电析气体洗涤槽,通过对所电析气体中的氯气进行洗涤去除来减少电镀阴极液中所含多余的氯离子,避免影响生产。
本发明还可以作以下改进:增设溢流缓冲槽,连接上述各槽,用于解决各槽之间溶液流动的工艺问题。
本发明还可以作以下改进:对溶铜电解槽增设氢气安全处理设备,目的是对溶铜电解槽所电析的氢气作安全处理。所述的氢气安全处理设备可以是高空排放管和/或消氢器。
本发明还可以作以下改进:增设尾气处理器,连通上述各槽,对各槽产出的酸性尾气作环保处理。
本发明还可以作以下改进:对包括溶铜电解槽和/或不溶性阳极电镀槽和/或化学反应槽和/或暂存槽和/或氢气安全处理设备增设传感器,以及自动检测投料控制器,使生产过程中实现自动化的安全生产。所述传感器分别是pH计、酸度计、电光比色计、氧化还原电位计、温度计、液位计、比重计、流量计、氢气检测计一种或多种。
与现有技术对比,本发明具有以下有益效果。
1、本发明采用草酸从酸性硫酸铜溶液中反应制得富含硫酸的滤液并作循环回用,解决了溶铜电解槽和电镀槽的阴阳两极电解液在槽区间相互渗漏而引起的工艺问题,而且 在生产作业过程中平衡了电解系统和电镀系统中铜离子和硫酸的量,使生产作业能持续长时间进行。
2、本发明采用草酸作除铜剂从酸性硫酸铜溶液中反应制得硫酸并作循环回用,所以与申请号201980055803.8专利的技术比较,本发明只需设置常见的化学反应槽和管道,就能避免增设酸平衡电解系统去分离镀液中硫酸组分,从而节省项目中部分设备的投资资金,减少资金占用率,提高经济效益,并避免额外的氢气危险源的产生。
3、本发明采用草酸作除铜剂从硫酸铜溶液中反应制得硫酸并作循环回用,避免增设酸平衡电解系统分离镀液中硫酸组分的高耗能工艺,达到节能减排的目的。
4、本发明采用了金属铜作为电解阳极的溶铜方法,较使用磷铜传统镀铜工艺成本低并且没有磷污染,降低了环保处理成本。
5、本发明当控制所述电解阴极液的铜离子浓度保持不超过10g/L和/或结合对所述电解阴极液与电镀阳极液的混合液作氧化处理,能有效避免因铜离子渗漏而造成的设备损坏,并能稳定系统中电解液和电镀液的硫酸浓度使电解溶铜作业和电镀铜作业顺利进行。
附图说明
图1为本发明实施例1所采用装置的示意图;
图2为本发明实施例2所采用装置的示意图;
图3为本发明实施例3所采用装置的示意图;
图4为本发明实施例4所采用装置的示意图;
图5为本发明实施例5所采用装置的示意图;
图6为本发明实施例6所采用装置的示意图;
图7为本发明比较例所采用装置的示意图。
附图标记:1-溶铜电解槽、2-阳极钛篮、3-电解阴极、4-金属铜阳极、5-电解槽分隔物、6-不溶性阳极电镀槽、7-不溶性阳极、8-阴极镀件、9-电镀槽分隔物、10-电解槽或电镀槽密闭盖、11-电解槽电源、12-电镀线电源、13-溶液混合交换槽、14-液流缓冲槽、15-暂存槽、16-固液分离器、17-叶轮搅拌器、18-液流搅拌器、19-真空射流器、20-喷淋塔、21-尾气处理器、22-消氢器、23-化学反应槽、24-固体投料机、25-冷热温度交换器、26-自动检测投料控制器、27-传感器、28-电控或气控阀门、29-阀门、30-泵浦、31-硫酸、32硫酸铜、33-金属海绵铜、34-氧化铜、35-草酸、36-氧气、37-氢气、38-空气、39-臭氧、40-清水、41-草酸铜、42-电镀槽阴极镀液、43-溢流口、44-氢气高空排放管、45-电镀槽阳极电析气体洗涤槽、46-氯气。
具体实施方式
以下通过具体的实施例对本发明作进一步的说明。在下述实施例中,所使用的电解槽、电镀槽、化学反应槽、暂存槽、消氢器和自动检测投料控制器为中国广东省佛山市业高环保设备制造有限公司所制造的产品。所使用的固液分离器、传感器、电解槽分隔物、化工原料、泵浦和阀门均为市售商品。除上述列决的之外,本领域技术人员根据常规选择,也可以选择其他具有与本发明列举的上述产品具有相似性能的产品,均可以实现本发明的目的。
实施例1
如图1所示,为本发明用于结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法的装置的基础实施例,其包括溶铜电解槽1、阳极钛篮2、电解阴极3、金属铜阳极4、电解槽分隔物5、不溶性阳极电镀槽6、不溶性阳极7、阴极镀件8、电解电源11、电镀电源12、固液分离器16、液流缓冲槽14、化学反应槽23、硫酸31、草酸35、阀门和泵浦。
溶铜电解槽1中被电解槽分隔物5分隔成电解阳极槽区和电解阴极槽区并分别设有阳极钛篮2(其中装有金属铜阳极4)和电解阴极3,与电解电源11连接;其中,所述的电解槽分隔物5为双极膜。不溶性阳极电镀槽6不设电镀槽分隔物,其内设有不溶性阳极7、阴极镀件8,连通电镀电源12。
本基础实施例是采用金属铜阳极4在含硫酸的电解液中电解溶铜制取硫酸铜作为不溶性阳极电镀槽的阴极镀液铜源补充液。初始加投的电解阳极液和电解阴极液为硫酸溶液,初始加投的电镀液为酸性硫酸铜电镀液。
作业过程中,溶铜电解槽1的电解阳极槽区与不溶性阳极电镀槽6连接,泵浦30-1将高浓度硫酸铜溶液投到电镀槽中,其镀液溢出液经液流缓冲槽14通过泵浦30-4投回到电解阳极槽区中。
作业过程中,溶铜电解槽1的电解阴极槽区与化学反应槽23、固液分离器16循环连接,间歇式利用泵浦30-2抽送全部含铜的电解阴极液至化学反应槽23,并采用草酸通过化学方法对其作除铜处理;对除铜处理后的固液混合物作固液分离并将富含硫酸的滤液全部投回到电解阴极槽区,然后重新合上电解电源进行溶铜生产。
本实施例中加投的除铜剂草酸的摩尔量为反应槽反应前溶液中铜离子的摩尔量。
本实施例作业过程中,虽溶铜电解槽的分隔膜上仍粘附有固体海绵铜粒,但能使电解和电镀作业持续进行。其工艺数据列于表1中。
实施例2
如图2所示,为本发明用于结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法的装置,其包括溶铜电解槽1、阳极钛篮2、电解阴极3、金属铜阳极4、电解槽分隔物5、不溶性阳极电镀槽6、不溶性阳极7、阴极镀件8、电镀槽分隔物9、电解电源11、电镀电源12、固液分离器16、化学反应槽23、液流缓冲槽14、硫酸31、草酸35、阀门和泵浦。
溶铜电解槽1中被电解槽分隔物5分隔成电解阳极槽区和电解阴极槽区并分别设有阳极钛篮2(其中装有金属铜阳极4)和电解阴极3,与电解电源11连接;不溶性阳极电镀槽6被电镀槽分隔物9分隔成电镀阳极槽区和电镀阴极槽区,并分别设有不溶性阳极7、阴极镀件8,连通电镀电源12;其中,所述的电解槽分隔物5为双极膜,电镀槽分隔物9也为双极膜。
本实施例2是采用金属铜块4在含硫酸的电解液中电解溶铜制取硫酸铜作为不溶性阳极电镀槽的阴极镀液铜源补充液。初始加投的电解阳极液为硫酸和硫酸铜的混合溶液,初始加投的电解阴极液和电镀阳极液为硫酸溶液,初始加投的电镀阴极液为酸性硫酸铜电镀液。
作业过程中,溶铜电解槽1的电解阳极槽区与不溶性阳极电镀槽6的电镀阴极槽区连接,泵浦30-1将高浓度硫酸铜溶液投到电镀阴极槽区中,其镀液溢出液经液流缓冲槽14通过泵浦30-5投回到电解槽中。
溶铜电解槽1的电解阴极槽区和不溶性阳极电镀槽6的电镀阳极槽区与化学反应槽23连接,分别利用泵浦30-2和泵浦30-4抽送含铜的电解阴极液和含铜电镀阳极液至化学反应槽23,采用草酸通过化学方法对其作除铜处理;对除铜处理后的固液混合物作固液分离并将富含硫酸的滤液分别投回到电解阴极槽区溶液中和电镀阳极槽区溶液中。
本实施例中加投的除铜剂草酸的摩尔量为反应槽反应前溶液中铜离子的摩尔量。
本实施例中虽溶铜电解槽的电解阴极液仍存有少量铜粒,隔膜上粘附有少许固体铜碎粒,但能使电解和电镀作业持续进行。其工艺数据列于表1中。
实施例3
如图3所示,为本发明用于结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法的装置,其包括溶铜电解槽1、阳极钛篮2、电解阴极3、金属铜阳极4、电解槽分隔物5、不溶性阳极电镀槽6、不溶性阳极7、阴极镀件8、电镀槽分隔物9、溶液混合交换槽13、固液分离器16、化学反应槽23、液流缓冲槽14、硫酸31、草酸35、草酸铜41、阀门和泵浦。
溶铜电解槽1中被电解槽分隔物5分隔成电解阳极槽区和电解阴极槽区并分别设有阳极钛篮2(其中装有金属铜阳极4)和电解阴极3,与电解电源11连接;所述的电解槽 分隔物5为阴离子交换膜。不溶性阳极电镀槽6被电镀槽分隔物9分隔成电镀阳极槽区和电镀阴极槽区,并分别设有不溶性阳极7、阴极镀件8,连通电镀电源12;所述的电镀槽分隔物9为阴离子交换膜。
所述的溶液混合交换槽13分别连通电解阴极槽区和电镀阳极槽区,为电解阴极液与电镀阳极液的混合循环交换槽,使溶铜电解槽的电解阴极液溶有氧气成为含氧电解阴极液,以降低溶铜电解槽内的电解槽压和氧化阴极所电析的金属铜粉,使部分海绵铜粉氧化反应溶于硫酸中。溶液混合交换槽13还与化学反应槽23通过泵浦和固液分离器16作循环连接。
本实施例3是采用金属铜块4的可溶性阳极在含硫酸的电解液中电解溶铜制取硫酸铜作为不溶性阳极电镀槽的阴极镀液的铜源补充液。初始加投的电解阳极液为硫酸和硫酸铜的混合溶液,初始加投的电解阴极液和电镀阳极液为含有1g/L铜离子的硫酸和硫酸铜的混合溶液,初始加投的电镀阴极液为酸性硫酸铜电镀液。
作业过程中,溶铜电解槽1的电解阳极槽区与不溶性阳极电镀槽6的电镀阴极槽区连接,泵浦30-1将高浓度硫酸铜溶液按工艺要求加投到电镀阴极槽区中作铜源补充,其镀液溢出液经液流缓冲槽14通过泵浦30-6投回到电解阳极槽区中。
溶液混合交换槽13用于溶铜电解槽电解阴极液与电镀槽的阳极电镀液作混合循环交换,使溶铜电解槽中的电解阴极液含有氧气。随着溶铜电解和电镀生产的进行,溶液混合交换槽13中的溶液铜离子浓度不断升高,按工艺要求通过泵浦30-4抽取其中的部分溶液到化学反应槽23中作除铜处理,具体为向化学反应槽23投入草酸35并启动叶轮搅拌器17作除铜化学反应。反应完成后溶液送往固液分离器16作固液分离,将得到的富含硫酸的滤液投回到溶液混合交换槽13中,再输送至电解阴极槽区和电镀阳极槽区作回用。
本实施例中加投的除铜剂草酸的摩尔量为反应槽反应前溶液中铜离子的摩尔量的85%。
本实施例溶铜电解槽中的电解阴极液中的微量铜碎粒未被排除,隔膜上粘附有海绵铜碎颗粒,但通过除铜回用硫酸使溶铜电解和电镀生产能持续进行。其工艺数据列于表1中。
实施例4
如图4所示,为本发明用于结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法的装置,其包括溶铜电解槽1、阳极钛篮2、金属铜阳极4、电解阴极3、电解槽分隔物5、不溶性阳极电镀槽6、不溶性阳极7、阴极镀件8、电镀槽分隔物9、电解电源11、电镀电源12、 两个溶液混合交换槽13、多个液流缓冲槽14、两个暂存槽15、固液分离器16、化学反应槽23、多个传感器27、硫酸31、硫酸铜32、氧化铜34、草酸35、草酸铜41、多个阀门和泵浦。
溶铜电解槽1中被电解槽分隔物5分隔成电解阳极槽区和电解阴极槽区并分别设有阳极钛篮2(其中装有金属铜阳极4)和电解阴极3,与电解电源11连接;不溶性阳极电镀槽6被电镀槽分隔物9分隔成电镀阳极槽区和电镀阴极槽区,并分别设有不溶性阳极7、阴极镀件8,连通电镀电源12;其中,电解槽分隔物5和电镀槽分隔物9均采用反渗透膜。
固液分离器16-1为压滤机、固液分离器16-2、16-3、16-4为过滤机。
所述的溶液混合交换槽13-2同时用于氧化铜粉与硫酸溶液反应,经液流缓冲槽14-1与电解阳极槽区循环连接,溶液混合交换槽13-2还与电镀阴极槽区循环连接。溶液混合交换槽13-1用于溶铜电解槽电解阴极液与电镀槽的电解阳极液混合交换使用,分别连通电解阴极槽区和电镀阳极槽区,还与化学反应槽23通过固液分离器和暂存槽作循环连接。
所述的氧化铜粉34来自于草酸铜通过化学反应制取。
本实施例装置内的传感器27-1为光电比色计、27-2为酸度计、27-3为比重计、27-4为光电比色计、27-5和27-6为雷达液位计、27-7为比重计、27-8为流量计。
本实施例4的特点是所使用的溶液混合交换槽13-2用于溶铜电解槽电解阳极液的循环流动和电镀槽阴极镀液的溢出液的回流收集。
利用溶液混合交换槽13-2内的光电比色传感器27-1检测其溶液中的铜离子浓度,以控制电解电源11的工作电流大小或关停;以及溶液混合交换槽13-2中传感器27-2为酸度计以控制氧化铜粉34的加投。
溶液混合交换槽13-1用于溶铜电解槽的电解阴极液与电镀槽电镀阳极液的混合交换,并当混合液达到其中传感器27-3设定的含铜离子浓度数值后,则打开阀门29-2和启动泵浦30-9将溶液混合交换槽13-1中的部分溶液引排到化学反应槽23中作除铜处理;将作除铜处理后,经固液分离器16-1和16-2处理得到的富含硫酸的滤液,即硫酸与硫酸铜混合液,投入到槽15-2中暂存,后按工艺要求回投到溶液混合交换槽13-1中,再输送至电解阴极槽区和电镀阳极槽区作回用。
本实施例中加投的除铜剂草酸的摩尔量为反应槽反应前溶液中铜离子的摩尔量的60%。初始加投的电解阳极液为硫酸和硫酸铜的混合溶液,初始加投的电解阴极液和电镀阳极液为含有5g/L铜离子的硫酸和硫酸铜的混合溶液,初始加投的电镀阴极液为酸性硫 酸铜电镀液。
本实施例中溶铜电解槽的隔膜上仍粘附有微量海绵铜碎粒,但通过以上操作实现了电解溶铜和不溶性阳极电镀槽能连续正常作业。
此外,作业过程中将压滤机16-1所分离得到的草酸铜41作处理后制得氧化铜粉。
其工艺参数列于表1中。
实施例5
如图5所示,为本发明用于结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法的装置,其包括有溶铜电解槽1、阳极钛篮2、电解阴极3、金属铜阳极4、不溶性阳极电镀槽6、不溶性阳极7、阴极镀件8、电解槽分隔物5、电镀槽分隔物9、电解槽密闭盖10-1、电镀槽密闭盖10-2、电解电源11、电镀电源12、两个溶液混合交换槽13、多个液流缓冲槽14、多个暂存槽15、多个固液分离器16、叶轮搅拌器17、两个真空射流器19、喷淋塔20、尾气处理器21、消氢器22、两个固体投料机24、冷热温度交换器25、自动检测投料控制器26、多个传感器27、多个阀门和泵浦,硫酸31、硫酸铜32、氧化铜34、草酸35、氧气36、氢气37、氯气46、清水40、草酸铜41。
溶铜电解槽1中被电解槽分隔物5分隔成电解阳极槽区和电解阴极槽区并分别设有阳极钛篮2(其中装有金属铜阳极4)和电解阴极3,与电解电源11连接;不溶性阳极电镀槽6被电镀槽分隔物9分隔成电镀阳极槽区和电镀阴极槽区,并分别设有不溶性阳极7、阴极镀件8,连通电镀电源12;其中,电解槽分隔物5为阴离子交换膜,电镀槽分隔物9采用阴离子交换膜。
固液分离器16-2为离心机,固液分离器16-1、16-3、16-4、16-5为过滤机。
本实施例装置内的传感器27-1光电比色计,传感器27-2是比重计,传感器27-3是温度计,传感器27-4是液位计,传感器27-5是液位计,传感器27-6是酸度计,传感器27-9是温度计,传感器27-10是光电比色计,传感器27-11是液位计,传感器27-12为ORP计,传感器27-7、27-8、27-13、27-14均是流量感应器,传感器27-14是光电比色计,传感器27-15、27-16是液位计,传感器27-17为比重计,传感器27-18是光电比色计,传感器27-19为光电比色计。
本实施例是采用了电解溶铜和投入外来氧化铜粉作镀液补充铜源的工艺,同时增设消氢机22和酸性尾气处理器21,分别对氢气和酸性尾气作安全和环保处理。为解决使用外来氧化铜粉中所带来的氯离子杂质污染,增设电镀槽阳极电析气体洗涤槽45,与电镀槽密闭盖10-2连通,对从镀液迁移到电镀阳极槽区中的氯离子被电析为氯气后作洗涤外 排以除去镀液中的多余氯离子。同时,专门使用暂存槽15-1作为溶解氧化铜使用。另外为克服所述电解阴极槽区所电析出来的海绵铜33刺坏电解槽分隔物的工艺难题,在溶液混合交换槽13-1上安装真空射流器19-1,将电镀阳极槽区逸出的气体经过洗涤除氯后得到的全部氧气引流到混合交换溶液中,并辅以臭氧和双氧水,对来自电解阴极液中的海绵金属铜粉作氧化反应,生成氧化铜后与硫酸反应生成硫酸铜,再将过滤后的溶液送往电解阴极槽区和电镀阳极槽区,从而减少海绵金属铜对设备的破坏。
本实施例的装置配上自动检测投料控制器26和多个传感器,使整套装置能在预编程序的控制系统下实现整套溶铜和电镀的生产过程自动化控制。
本实施例5的操作步骤如下。
步骤1:向溶铜电解槽1的电解阳极槽区加入以硫酸与硫酸铜为主的电镀液,向阳极钛篮2中投入金属铜块4,向溶铜电解槽的电解阴极槽区加入硫酸溶液;阳极钛篮2浸置入电解阳极槽区的电解液中并与电解电源的正极连接,作为电解阴极3的不锈钢阴极浸置入电解阴极槽区的电解液中并与电解电源的负极连接;另向溶液混合交换槽13-2和暂存槽15-1中加投溶铜电解槽1的电解阳极液。
步骤2:向不溶性阳极电镀槽6的电镀阳极槽区加投硫酸,向其电镀阴极槽区加投以硫酸与硫酸铜为主的电镀液,将钛基涂层不溶性阳极浸置入电镀阳极液中并与电镀电源的正极连接,将阴极镀件8浸置入电镀阴极槽区的电镀液中并与电镀电源负极连接;另向溶液混合交换槽13-1中加投电镀槽的电镀阳极液。
步骤3:开启泵浦30-1、30-2、30-5、30-6、30-7、30-8、30-10、30-11,使溶铜电解槽的阴、电解阳极液和不溶性阳极电镀槽的阴、阳极电镀液不断地作循环混合流动,并且对流入电解阴极槽区和电镀阳极槽区的溶液进行过滤,以减少固体物质进入电解槽和电镀槽中;
接通电解电源进行电解溶铜作业,其电解电源的工作状态通过溶液混合交换槽13-2内的传感器27-1检测,并将数据传送自动检测投料控制器26处理,以及控制电解电源11的工作状态;作业过程中,阳极钛篮中的铜块不断溶解,电解阴极电析出氢气;
另接通电镀电源作电镀作业,电镀槽不溶性阳极电析出氧气,阴极镀件8表面电析上铜,并按电镀工艺的时间要求将电镀电源关停取出镀件。
步骤4:随着电解溶铜和电镀的进行,溶液混合交换槽13-1中的传感器27-9温度计检测溶液温度过高而控制冷热温度交换器25-2作降温工作,传感器27-12为ORP计是检测溶液的氧化性,间接检测对微细铜粒处理情况,传感器27-10是检测溶液硫酸铜的浓度, 当传感器27-10达到浓度设定值时开启泵浦30-13将混合交换槽13-1中的部份溶液抽送到化学反应槽23中与草酸进行除铜反应。
步骤5:将化学反应槽23内的反应后产物通过离心机16-2作固液分离,得到硫酸与硫酸铜的混合滤液再经过滤机16-3过滤后被泵送到暂存槽15-3中暂储;此过程中因损失了小部分水和硫酸在暂存槽15-3中作外部加投补回,而滤渣草酸铜存放在暂存槽15-2中。
步骤6:将暂存槽15-3中溶液按工艺控制加投到溶液混合交换槽13-1中作循环使用;滤渣草酸铜作加热处理生成氧化铜与外来氧化铜粉混合一起作回用。
步骤7:在电镀过程中,通过电镀阴极槽区中的传感器27-19控制泵浦30-1的补充液加投;
另当溶液混合交换槽13-2中的传感器27-1达到设定值后,即溶液的硫酸铜浓度满足工艺要求后,而传感器27-2比重计已超设定值,则说明溶液混合交换槽13-2中的溶液硫酸含量过高,此时自动检测投料控制器26控制开启泵浦30-3和固体投料机24-1,向暂存槽15-1中加投溶液混合交换槽13-2中的部分溶液和氧化铜204,并启动搅拌器将氧化铜作溶解处理;当暂存槽15-1溶液的被测数值降低到其中传感器27-6的设定值以下时,停止固体投料机24-1的加投工作,说明已消耗溶液中过高的硫酸浓度。
步骤8:将所电析的氢气引至到消氢器的入口中与空气、氧气和臭氧反应达到消氢目的;另将各槽逸出的尾气引至到尾气处理器21中作环保处理。
本实施例中加投的除铜剂草酸的摩尔量为反应槽反应前溶液中铜离子的摩尔量的57%。
通过以上多个步骤操作并采用自动化控制系统,并且充分利用电镀槽所电析的氧气,辅以臭氧和双氧水,使溶铜槽阴极上产出的铜碎粒被完全氧化溶解于电解液中,实现了结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化的工艺方法,确保电镀作业和电解作业按工艺持续进行,过程中没有海绵金属铜粘附在溶铜电解槽和电镀槽的隔膜上。
其工艺数据列于表1中。
实施例6
如图6所示,为本发明用于结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法的装置,其包括溶铜电解槽1、阳极钛篮2、电解阴极3、金属铜阳极4、两个不溶性阳极电镀槽6、阴极镀件8、电解槽密闭盖10-1、电镀槽密闭盖10-2、10-3、电解电源11、两个电镀电源12、两个溶液混合交换槽13、多个液流缓冲槽14、多个暂存槽15、多个固液分离器16、两个叶轮搅拌器17、真空射流器19、喷淋塔20、固体投料机24、自动检测投料机 26、多个传感器27、硫酸31、硫酸铜32、氧化铜34、草酸35、氧气36、氢气37、草酸铜41、氢气高空排放管44、多个阀门和泵浦。
溶铜电解槽1中被电解槽分隔物5分隔成电解阳极槽区和电解阴极槽区并分别设有阳极钛篮2(其中装有金属铜阳极4)和电解阴极3,与电解电源11连接;不溶性阳极电镀槽均被电镀槽分隔物分隔成电镀阳极槽区和电镀阴极槽区,并分别设有不溶性阳极、阴极镀件,连通电镀电源;其中,电解槽分隔物5和电镀槽分隔物9-1和9-2均为阴离子交换膜。
所述的固液分离器均为过滤机。
本实施例装置内的传感器27-1和27-2是光电比色计,传感器27-3是比重计,传感器27-4、27-5、27-6是液位计,传感器27-7是光电比色计,传感器27-8是液位计,传感器27-9是ORP计,传感器27-10和27-11是液位计,传感器27-12是光电比色计,传感器27-13是液位计,传感器27-14是光电比色计,传感器27-15是液位计,传感器27-16是光电比色计,传感器27-17和27-18是液位计,传感器27-19是比重计,传感器27-20和27-21是液位计。
本实施例是采用一个溶铜电解槽和两个不溶性阳极电镀槽的设备系统,使用了氢气高空排放管44作氢气的安全处理设备,增加了外来补充硫酸溶液的暂存槽15-2;另为了提高电镀质量,专门使用暂存槽15-1作为溶解氧化铜使用。为解决所述溶铜电解槽阴极槽区所电析出来的海绵铜粒刺坏电解槽分隔物的工艺难题,在溶液混合交换槽13-1上安装真空射流器19和喷淋塔20,将两个电镀阳极槽区逸出的氧气全部引入到溶液混合交换槽13-1的溶液中作氧化海绵铜使用,使铜粒氧化为氧化铜后与硫酸反应生成硫酸铜,再将过滤后的溶液送往电解阴极槽区和电镀阳极槽区,减少微细铜粒对设备的破坏。另将在化学反应槽23中制得的草酸铜作热处理生成氧化铜粉。
本实施例的设备配上自动检测投料控制器26和多个传感器,固体投料机24-1和24-2两台,对自动检测投料控制器26输入预编程序后能实现整套溶铜和电镀设备作自动化过程控制。
本实施例6的操作步骤如下。
步骤1:向溶铜电解槽1的电解阳极槽区加入以硫酸和硫酸铜为主的混合液,向阳极钛篮2中投入金属铜块4,向溶铜电解槽1的电解阴极槽区加入硫酸溶液,阳极钛篮2置入电解阳极槽区的电解液中并与电解电源的正极连接,将作为电解阴极3的不锈钢阴极置入电解阴极槽区的电解液中并与电解电源的负极连接;另向溶液混合交换槽13-2和暂 存槽15-1中加投溶铜电解槽1的电解阳极液。
步骤2:向不溶性阳极电镀槽的电镀阳极槽区加投硫酸,向其电镀阴极槽区加投以硫酸与硫酸铜的混合液为主的镀液,将钛基涂层不溶性阳极浸置入电镀阳极电镀液中并与电镀电源的正极连接,将阴极镀件浸置入电镀阴极槽区的镀液中并与电镀电源负极连接;另向溶液混合交换槽13-1中加投电镀槽的电镀阳极液。
步骤3:开启泵浦30-3、30-7、30-8、30-9、30-10,使溶铜电解槽1的电解阳极液作循环流动,不溶性阳极电镀槽6-1和6-2的电镀阳极液与溶铜电解槽1的电解阴极液循环流动回送;
接通电解电源11进行电解溶铜作业,其电解电源的工作状态通过溶液混合交换槽13-2内的传感器27-1检测,将数据传送到自动检测投料控制器26中处理,并对电解电源作控制;作业过程中,阳极钛篮中的铜块4不断溶解,电解阳极液的铜离子浓度不断升高,电解阴极电析出氢气;
接通两个电镀电源12-1和12-2作电镀作业,两个电镀槽不溶性阳极均电析出氧气,两个镀件8-1和8-2的表面均电析上铜;作业过程中电镀槽6-1的传感器27-14控制泵浦30-2和电镀槽6-2的传感器27-16控制泵浦30-1加投铜源补充液到各电镀阴极液中;按电镀工艺的时间要求在完成后将各自的电镀电源关停并分别取出两个镀件。
步骤4:随着电解溶铜和电镀的进行,溶液混合交换槽13-2满液时,其中传感器27-4控制泵浦30-17将其槽中部分溶液抽送到暂存槽15-3中暂存,并通过泵浦30-18泵送到化学反应槽23按工艺作除铜处理;溶液混合交换槽13-1中的传感器27-11是液位计,以控制与其配套的喷淋塔20和真空射流器19的正常工作;传感器27-12是光电比色计,用于检测溶液混合交换槽13-1中溶液的硫酸铜浓度,当27-12光电比色计达到设定值时开启泵浦30-23将溶液混合交换槽13-1中的部份溶液抽送到化学反应槽23中并与计量准确的草酸反应量进行除铜反应。
步骤5:将化学反应槽23的反应后产物通过过滤机16-2、16-3、16-4、16-5选择性地作固液分离,滤液经过液流缓冲槽14-8泵送到暂存槽15-4中暂储并准备循环再用,而滤渣草酸铜被截留在各个过滤机中。
步骤6:将暂存槽15-4中溶液按工艺控制分别加投到溶液混合交换槽13-1和13-2中作循环使用;滤渣草酸铜作加热处理生成氧化铜作回用。
步骤7:电镀过程中当溶液混合交换槽13-2中的传感器27-1达到设定值后,即溶液的硫酸铜浓度满足工艺要求,则关停电解电源11,而传感器27-2作为电解电源开启的安 全联锁;当传感器27-3比重计已超设定值,则说明溶液混合交换槽13-2中的溶液硫酸含量过高,按传感器27-4现场检测数据送自动检测投料控制器26处理,并控制泵浦30-4将溶液混合交换槽13-2中部分溶液抽送到暂存槽15-1中处理,通过暂存槽15-1中传感器27-7光电比色计检测数据通过控制器26控制固体投料机24-1向暂存槽15-1中加投氧化铜34,启动搅拌器将氧化铜溶解;当暂存槽15-1溶液的检测数值升高到传感器27-7的设定值时,即停止固体投料机24-1工作并开启泵浦30-5将暂存槽15-1中已处理的溶液抽送回槽15-1中来调整槽15-1溶液的硫酸浓度,以这种投氧化铜的方式来调整电镀槽的电镀阴极液成分。
步骤8:将所电析的氢气引到氢气高空排放管中作高空安全排放处理。
步骤9:过程中损失的硫酸加投到溶铜电解槽的电解阴极槽区中作补充。
本实施例中加投的除铜剂草酸的摩尔量为反应槽反应前溶液中铜离子的摩尔量的70%。
通过以上多个步骤操作并采用自动化控制系统,并且能因充分利用了电镀槽阳极电析出的氧气作氧化溶铜槽阴极所产出的铜碎粒并使其溶于电解液,实现了结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化的工艺方法,确保电镀作业和电解作业按工艺持续进行。过程中未发现溶铜电解槽和电镀槽的隔膜上粘附有铜粒。
其工艺数据列于表1中。
比较例
如图7所示,为结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化装置,其包括有溶铜电解槽1、阳极钛篮2、电解阴极3、金属铜阳极4、不溶性阳极电镀槽6、不溶性阳极7、阴极镀件8、电解电源11、电镀电源12、硫酸铜镀液31+32、阀门和泵浦。
溶铜电解槽1中被电解槽分隔物5分隔成电解阳极槽区和电解阴极槽区并分别设有阳极钛篮2(其中装有金属铜阳极4)和电解阴极3,与电解电源11连接;所述的电解槽分隔物5为反渗透膜。不溶性阳极电镀槽6不设电镀槽分隔物,其内设有不溶性阳极7、阴极镀件8,连通电镀电源12。
接通电解电源11和电镀电源12开始作业。溶铜电解槽内的金属铜阳极4不断溶解,电解阴极电析出氢气和海绵铜。电镀槽内的不溶性阳极电析氧气,阴极镀件电析金属铜。
作业过程中溶铜电解槽内的电解阴极不断产出海绵铜并漂浮于电解阴极液中,同时发生大量海绵铜粘附到溶铜槽的分隔膜上影响生产。所以,这溶铜与电镀的工艺结构系统是不能进行持续生产。
其工艺数据列于表1中。
除铜处理工艺数据表1

Claims (15)

  1. 一种结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法,包括电解溶铜工艺和不溶性阳极电镀铜工艺,其特征在于,包括以下步骤:
    步骤(1):采用带有电解槽分隔物的溶铜电解槽和不溶性阳极电镀槽分别进行电解和电镀作业;
    所述的溶铜电解槽被所述电解槽分隔物分隔成电解阳极槽区和电解阴极槽区并分别盛装有电解阳极液和电解阴极液;
    所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中设有电镀槽分隔物或者不设电镀槽分隔物,当设有电镀槽分隔物时其被分隔成电镀阳极槽区和电镀阴极槽区并分别盛装有电镀阳极液和电镀阴极液,当不设电镀槽分隔物时其槽内盛装有电镀液;
    生产作业时,所述的溶铜电解槽的电解阳极金属铜发生溶解变为铜离子的电化学反应,而所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中的阴极镀件电析出铜,所述的电解阳极液、电镀液或电镀阴极液的主成分为硫酸和硫酸铜的混合溶液;
    步骤(2):将所述的电解阳极液作为硫酸铜铜源补充液加入到电镀槽中对镀液进行铜离子浓度补充;而且,
    当电镀槽不设电镀槽分隔物时,另取出部分或者全部所述的电解阴极液与除铜剂反应;当电镀槽设有电镀槽分隔物时,则另取出部分或者全部所述的电解阴极液和/或电镀阳极液与除铜剂反应,然后对反应液作固液分离得到难溶的固体铜盐和含硫酸的滤液,将所述的含硫酸的滤液加投到所述的电解阳极液和/或电解阴极液和/或电镀阳极液中,以便使电解作业和电镀作业持续进行。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,所述的电解槽分隔物选自阴离子交换膜、双极膜、反渗透膜中的至少一种,所述的电镀槽分隔物选自阴离子交换膜、双极膜、反渗透膜中的至少一种,所述的除铜剂为草酸。
  3. 根据权利要求2所述的方法,其特征在于,当所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中不设电镀槽分隔物时,所述的电解槽分隔物选为双极膜和/或反渗透膜片;当所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中设有阴离子交换膜作为电镀槽分隔物时,所述的电解槽分隔物选为阴离子交换膜;当所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中设有双极膜和/或反渗透膜片作为电镀槽分隔物时,所述的电解槽分隔物选为双极膜和/或反渗透膜片。
  4. 根据权利要求3所述的方法,其特征在于,在电解阳极槽区和不设电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽之间,或者在电解阳极槽区和设有电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽电镀阴极槽区之间,增设液流循环回路,使电解阳极液与电镀液或电镀阴极液通过流 动进行混合,使经过电镀作业后铜离子浓度降低且硫酸浓度升高的电镀液或电镀阴极液参与到电解溶铜反应中来制造硫酸铜铜源补充液。
  5. 根据权利要求4所述的方法,其特征在于,增设连接溶铜电解槽电解阳极槽区的电解阳极液循环槽,并将从电镀槽溢出的电镀液或电镀阴极液引流到电解阳极液循环槽中参与溶铜电解槽的阳极溶铜电化学反应,来制造硫酸铜铜源补充液。
  6. 根据权利要求5所述的方法,其特征在于,保持所述电解阴极液的铜离子浓度不超过10g/L,和/或对所述电解阴极液或者对所述电解阴极液与电镀阳极液的混合液作氧化处理。
  7. 根据权利要求6所述的方法,其特征在于,采用气液混合装置促进氧气和/或臭氧对所述电解阴极液或者对所述电解阴极液与电镀阳极液的混合液作氧化处理。
  8. 根据权利要求7所述的方法,其特征在于,所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽中设有电镀槽分隔物,且在电解阴极槽区和电镀阳极槽区之间增设液流循环回路,使上述两种溶液通过流动进行混合令其硫酸浓度得到调整,并使电镀阳极槽区电析的氧气得以对电解阴极液作氧化处理。
  9. 根据权利要求8所述的方法,其特征在于,将除铜反应后的草酸铜进行加热处理制得氧化铜,回用到系统中作为辅助补充铜源。
  10. 一种用于结合电解溶铜的不溶性阳极镀铜工艺优化方法的装置,包括不溶性阳极电镀槽,其特征在于,增设溶铜电解槽、化学反应槽和固液分离器;其中:
    所述的溶铜电解槽被电解槽分隔物分隔为电解阳极槽区和电解阴极槽区,并用于分别盛装有电解阳极液和电解阴极液,所述的溶铜电解槽的电解阳极为铜金属,利用含有硫酸的电解阳极液通过电解溶铜方法来制作电镀槽中需要的硫酸铜铜源补充液;
    所述的不溶性阳极电镀槽用于装电镀液,或者被电镀槽分隔物分隔为电镀阳极槽区和电镀阴极槽区,并用于分别盛装有电镀阳极液和电镀阴极液,使用所述电镀阴极槽区对作为镀件的电解阴极进行酸性硫酸铜的电镀生产;所述不设电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽,或者设有电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽的电镀阴极槽区通过管道与所述的溶铜电解槽电解阳极槽区连接,以便将溶铜电解槽中制得的硫酸铜铜源补充液加投补充至不溶性阳极电镀槽中;
    所述的化学反应槽通过管道分别与所述的溶铜电解槽和/或不溶性阳极电镀槽及固液分离器连通,所述的化学反应槽用于将所述的电解阴极液和/或电镀阳极液与除铜剂草酸作除铜反应;
    所述的固液分离器通过管道分别与所述的化学反应槽和溶铜电解槽和/或不溶性阳极电镀槽连接,其用于将在所述化学反应槽中反应生成的固液混合物进行固液分离以得到铜盐滤渣和含硫酸的滤液,并通过管道将所述滤液循环回用到溶铜电解槽和/或不溶性阳极电镀槽中。
  11. 根据权利要求10所述的装置,其特征在于,在溶铜电解槽的电解阳极槽区和不设电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽之间,或者在溶铜电解槽的电解阳极槽区和设有电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽电镀阴极槽区之间,增设至少两条液流连通通道,实现液流混合循环回路。
  12. 根据权利要求11所述的装置,其特征在于,在溶铜电解槽的电解阴极槽区和设有电镀槽分隔物的不溶性阳极电镀槽电镀阳极槽区之间,增设至少两条液流连通通道,实现液流混合循环回路。
  13. 根据权利要求12所述的装置,其特征在于,增设暂存槽,用于化学反应使用、溶液循环交换使用、暂储物料使用;所述暂存槽与溶铜电解槽和/或不溶性阳极电镀槽和/或化学反应槽和/或固液分离器和/或其他暂存槽连通,或者设置在所述溶铜电解槽、不溶性阳极电镀槽、化学反应槽至少两者之间的连接管道上。
  14. 根据权利要求13所述的装置,其特征在于,在所述的暂存槽增设气液混合装置,所述的气液混合装置为真空射流器和/或喷淋塔。
  15. 根据权利要求14所述的装置,其特征在于,对溶铜电解槽增设氢气安全处理设备。
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