WO2022029085A1 - Method and timing recovery circuit for recovering a sampling clock from a serial data stream encoded using pam - Google Patents

Method and timing recovery circuit for recovering a sampling clock from a serial data stream encoded using pam Download PDF

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WO2022029085A1
WO2022029085A1 PCT/EP2021/071581 EP2021071581W WO2022029085A1 WO 2022029085 A1 WO2022029085 A1 WO 2022029085A1 EP 2021071581 W EP2021071581 W EP 2021071581W WO 2022029085 A1 WO2022029085 A1 WO 2022029085A1
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sampling
note
timing recovery
phase error
data stream
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PCT/EP2021/071581
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French (fr)
Inventor
Thomas Hocker
Sebastian Hoeppner
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Siliconally Gmbh
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L7/00Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter
    • H04L7/0004Initialisation of the receiver
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L7/00Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter
    • H04L7/0054Detection of the synchronisation error by features other than the received signal transition
    • H04L7/0062Detection of the synchronisation error by features other than the received signal transition detection of error based on data decision error, e.g. Mueller type detection

Abstract

The invention relates to a method and timing recovery circuit for recovering a sampling clock from a serial data stream encoded using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation, comprising: applying a filter pattern decoder to detected symbol sequence at more than two adjacent data symbols, particularly to the detected symbol patterns of four adjacent samples ŷ(k— 2),ŷ(k— 1),ŷ(k),ŷ(k+ 1), and calculating an estimated phase error e(k).

Description

METHOD AND TIMING RECOVERY CIRCUIT FOR RECOVERING A SAMPLING CLOCK FROM A SERIAL DATA STREAM ENCODED USING PAM
The present invention relates to a method for recovering a sampling clock from a serial data stream encoded us ing Pulse-Amplitude-Modulat ion scheme with two or three levels per data Unit-Interval . The invention further relates to a timing recovery circuit for recovering a sampling clock from a serial data stream encoded using Pulse-Amplitude- Modulation scheme with two or three levels per data Unit- Interval .
The aim of a timing recovery circuit or method is to recover the sampling clock, also known as recovered clock, from serial data stream to optimally sample the receiving data with respect to time . This is neces sary because only the data signal is transmitted, but not the transmitter clock signal ( e . g . Ethernet examples : l O OBase-Tl , l O O OBase-Tl ) .
The receiving data streams are encoded using Pulse- Amplitude-Modulat ion (PAM) scheme with 3 (PAM 3 ) or two (PAM 2 ) levels .
The Task is to sample the data at the receiver input close to an ideal sampling point , which corresponds to the ideal data position in time within the data Unit-Interval (UI ) and quantize the receiving data signal to a multi-bit digital signal , e . g . by means of an Analogue-Digital-Converter (ADC ) . Therefore, the task is to detect the timing from a series of received data symbols and to extract the ideal sampling point information. This is done with a timing recovery circuit or method. A sampling clock signal is generated by a clock generation device which can adjust the sampling clock signal in phase and frequency by a closed control loop. A data sample is taken with this sampling clock signal by a sampling device. The timing error detector (TED) estimates the phase offset of the sample (taken with this sampling clock signal) from the ideal sampling point in receiver circuits. The TED provides the timing recovery loop control with an unambiguous control signal to recover phase and frequency of the sampling clock signal in the receiver. The timing error detector (TED) can be implemented in different ways: 1) Mueller-Müller TED (US 7,489,749 B2 and US 8,693,596 B1) The receiving data signal is sampled once per UI by a multi- bit ADC and is then quantized with a slicer. The phase error ^^^^is calculated from the ADC output values ^^^^ and the detected symbols ^^^^^ from the slicer by applying the following equation: ^^^^ = ^^^^ − 1^ ∗ ^^^^ − ^^^^^ ∗ ^^^ − 1^. 2) Early-Late Detector (US 2017/0171002 A2) The receiving data signal is sampled twice per UI with a distance of 0.5 UI by a 1-bit ADC. One sample is supposed to be in the center of the data bit, the other one is supposed to sample the data signal on the transition between two adjacent data bits. By comparing these two samples, it can be determined whether the phase of the sampling clock must be shifted to one direction or the other. 3) Gardner TED (US 2015/0222419 A1) The receiving data signal is sampled twice per UI with a distance of 0.5 UI by a multi-bit ADC. The phase error ^^^^is calculated from the ADC output values ^^^^ by applying the following equation:
Figure imgf000004_0001
4) Oversampling TED (US 7,149,265 B2) The receiving data signal is sampled several times per UI with the oversampling ratio (OSR). By applying a dedicated algorithm, the optimal sampling point in time can be distinguished from these several sampling clocks. Drawbacks of the existing solutions: 1) Mueller-Müller TED - conventional MM-TED is working for PAM-2 signals, but todays ethernet standards use PAM-3 for example, - only current symbol and the last detected symbol are used to determine the phase offset, this increases the probability of wrong phase adjustment decisions. 2) Early-Late Detector - two samples per UI are needed (center and on transition), - second transition sampler consumes power and area. 3) Gardner TED - two samples per UI are needed, - second sampler consumes power and area. 4) Oversampling - oversamples UI with certain OSR, - small resolution with respect to the possible sample points within one UI, - multiple samplers consume power and area. It is an object of the present invention to overcome the disadvantages of the prior art and to provide the timing recovery control loop with an unambiguous control signal to recover phase and frequency of the sampling clock signal in the receiver for PAM-2 and PAM-3 serial data stream and to detect a phase offset from the ideal sampling point while operating only with a single data sample. According to the invention the object is solved by a method for recovering a sampling clock from a serial data stream encoded using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation scheme, comprising the steps of: sampling received data signals from the serial data stream by an analog-to-digital converter once per unit-interval using a sampling clock signal provided by a clock generating device providing a timing recovery loop control, quantizing the incoming data samples with a slicer as corresponding detected symbols, storing adjacent incoming data samples and the corresponding detected symbols to preserve data for phase error estimation, applying a digital filter pattern decoder to the current and last detected symbols to determine if this symbol sequence can be used to estimate a phase offset of the sampling clock signal from the ideal sampling point and calculating the estimated phase error depending on the detected symbol pattern of four adjacent samples adjusting the phase of the sampling clock signal within the timing recovery loop control using the calculated estimated phase error. Pursuant to a variant of the invention the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation scheme with three levels and the estimated phase error is calculated using an equation according to the following table:
Figure imgf000006_0001
Figure imgf000007_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0). According to an alternative variant of the invention the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse-Amplitude- Modulation scheme with two levels and the estimated phase error is calculated using an equation according to the following table:
Figure imgf000008_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0). In an advantageous variant of the invention the method comprises the further step of multiplying the estimated phase error with a weight factor to obtain an error signal. Pursuant to a variant of the invention the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation scheme with three levels and the weight factor is defined in the following table for early and late phase adjustment: note 2 3 1,3 1,2 3 2 1,3
Figure imgf000009_0001
Figure imgf000010_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0). According to an alternative variant of the invention the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse-Amplitude- Modulation scheme with two levels and the weight factor is defined in the following table for early and late phase adjustment:
Figure imgf000010_0002
Figure imgf000011_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0). In a variant of the invention the method further comprises the step of filtering the data samples before the step of quantizing the data samples. Pursuant to a variant of the invention the filtering is performed by a Feed-Forward Equalizer and/or a Decision Feedback Equalizer. The filtering improves the signal to noise ration or compensates for channel characteristics, e. g. inter symbol interference. According to a variant of the invention the method comprises the step of adjusting the weights for different states during the initialization procedure of the timing recovery. For example, the weights can be decreased, when the timing recovery is locked. In an advantageous variant of the invention the method comprises the step of applying the error signal to a bang- bang-detector with adjustable threshold and 3-point control output to quantize the calculated estimated phase error and adjust it to the bit width of the control signal. Pursuant to a variant of the invention the calculated estimated phase error is quantized by n-Bit. The object is furthermore solved by a timing recovery circuit for recovering a sampling clock from a serial data stream encoded using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation scheme, comprising: an analog-to-digital converter for sampling received data signals from the serial data stream once per unit-interval using a sampling clock signal provided by a clock generating device providing a timing recovery loop control, a slicer for quantizing the incoming data samples as corresponding detected symbols, a register for storing adjacent incoming data samples and the corresponding detected symbols to preserve data for phase error estimation, a digital timing error detector for applying a digital filter pattern decoder to the current and last detected symbols to determine if this symbol sequence can be used to estimate a phase offset of the sampling clock signal from the ideal sampling point and for calculating the estimated phase error depending on the detected symbol pattern of four adjacent samples adjusting the phase of the sampling clock signal within the timing recovery loop control using the calculated estimated 30 phase error. Pursuant to a variant of the invention the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation scheme with three levels and the estimated phase error is calculated using an equation according to the following table:
Figure imgf000013_0001
Figure imgf000014_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0). According to an alternative variant of the invention the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse-Amplitude- Modulation scheme with two levels and the estimated phase error is calculated using an equation according to the following table:
Figure imgf000014_0002
Figure imgf000015_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0). In an advantageous variant of the invention the timing recovery circuit multiplies calculated the estimated phase error with a weight factor to obtain an error signal. Pursuant to a variant of the invention the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation scheme with three levels and the weight factor is defined in the following table for early and late phase adjustment: ote
Figure imgf000015_0002
3 1,3 1,2 3 2 1,3 1,2
Figure imgf000016_0001
Figure imgf000017_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0). According to an alternative variant of the invention the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse-Amplitude- Modulation scheme with two levels and the weight factor is defined in the following table for early and late phase adjustment: te 3 2
Figure imgf000017_0002
Figure imgf000018_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0). In a variant of the invention the timing recovery circuit further comprises a digital filter for filtering the data samples before the step of quantizing the data samples. Pursuant to a variant of the invention the digital filter is a Feed-Forward Equalizer and/or a Decision Feedback Equalizer. The filtering improves the signal to noise ration or compensates for channel characteristics, e. g. inter symbol interference. According to a variant of the invention the timing recovery circuits adjusts the weights of the digital timing error detector for different states during the initialization procedure of the timing recovery. In an advantageous variant of the invention the timing recovery circuit comprises a bang-bang-detector with adjustable threshold and 3-point control output to quantize the calculated estimated phase error and adjust it to the bit width of the control signal. According to a variant of the invention the calculated estimated phase error is quantized by n-Bit. In the following the invention will be further explained with reference to the embodiments shown in the figures. It shows: Fig. 1 a block diagram of a timing recovery circuit according to the state of the art, Fig. 2 a PAM-3 signal with ideal sampling points, Fig. 3 a PAM-2 signal with ideal sampling points, Fig. 4 a PAM-3 signal with early sampling and corresponding detected symbols, Fig. 5 a block diagram of a timing recovery circuit according to the invention, Fig. 6 a block diagram of an embodiment of a timing error detector with quantizer, and Fig. 7 a block diagram of another embodiment of a timing error detector. Fig. 1 shows a block diagram of a timing recovery circuit according to the state of the art. According to Fig. 1 a sampling clock signal 109 is generated by a clock generation device 104 which can adjust the sampling clock signal 109 in phase and frequency by a closed control loop. A data sample 106 is taken with this sampling clock signal 109 by a sampling device 101. The timing error detector (TED) 102 estimates the phase offset of the sample 106 (taken with this sampling clock signal 109) from the ideal sampling point in receiver circuits. The TED 102 provides the timing recovery loop control 103 with an unambiguous control signal 107 to recover phase and frequency of the sampling clock signal 109 in the receiver. The TED can be implemented in different ways using the above-mentioned Mueller-Müller TED, Early-Late Detector, Gardner TED or Oversampling TED. Fig. 2 shows a PAM-3 signal with ideal sampling points, Fig. 3 a PAM-2 signal with ideal sampling points and Fig. 4 a PAM-3 signal with early sampling and corresponding detected symbols ^^^^^. Fig. 5 shows a block diagram of a timing recovery circuit according to the invention. The block diagram of Fig. 5 presents the part of the receiver front-end which is responsible for sampling of the receiving data signal and the adjustment of the sampling point. The TED is depicted in detail in Fig. 6. A series of adjacent incoming data samples (ADC output values y(k) 509,606) and the corresponding detected symbol are stored in registers to preserve data for
Figure imgf000020_0001
phase error estimation. The ADC output values y(k) 509 can be optionally processed by a digital filter (like a Feed-Forward Equalizer FFE and/or a Decision Feedback Equalizer DFE) to improve the signal to noise ration or to compensate for channel characteristics 510, e. g. inter symbol interference. In each time step k, a digital filter pattern decoder is applied to the current and last symbols to determine if this symbol sequence can be used to estimate the phase offset of the sampling clock signal from the ideal sampling point. Depending on to the detected symbol pattern of four adjacent samples 608, the estimated phase error is calculated using an equation, implemented in a digital timing error detector TED, as summarized in Table 1 below. An example of incorrect sampling is represented in Figure 4. The equation in Table 1 is a modified version of the Mueller-Müller (MM) algorithm 602. Mueller-Müller only considers two adjacent symbols to estimate the phase error, this invention considers more than two. When applying Mueller-Müller, wrong decisions can be made. At symbol sequences, that cannot be used to derive an unambiguous control signal, no phase correction decision is made in this invention. When applied to PAM-3 signals this method takes advantage of double zero symbols y^^k − 1^ = y^^k^ = 0. That means in total 32 out of 81 symbol sequences can be utilized to estimate the phase error value. Without any frequency offset, 8 more symbol sequences can be utilized for the phase error estimation of a PAM-2 or PAM-3 serial data stream. If the proposed scheme from Table 1 is not applied, only 54 out of 81 symbol sequences can be used, since 17 sequences contain double zero symbols, whereas 2 of 54 give zero as result and another 28 of 54 could give a faulty error value e(k). This error signal e(k) 609 is multiplied with a weight factor w depending on the symbol sequence to obtain the error signal 610 ^^^^ = ^ ∗ ^^^^. The pattern dependent weights w are shown in Table 1. There are different weights w for early and late phase adjustment. This has the benefit to increase/decrease the sensitivity to certain data symbol sequences. The pattern dependent weights w can be optionally adjusted for different states during the initialization procedure of the timing recovery. The timing recovery contains a Finite- State-Machine (FSM) that controls the timing recovery control loop during the initialization procedure. The two main states are lock-in and locked. The FSM is also capable of changing the pattern dependent weights w according to the current state of the lock-in procedure, e. g. the weights can be increased, when the timing recovery is in the lock-in state, or the weights can be decreased, when the timing recovery is locked. The phase error
Figure imgf000022_0001
610 is used to adjust the phase of the sampling clock signal within the timing recovery control loop. The phase error is optionally applied to a bang-bang-
Figure imgf000022_0002
detector with adjustable threshold and 3-point control output 604 to quantize the error signal and therefore adjust it to the bit width of the control signal 611. The phase error is optionally quantized by n-Bit.
Figure imgf000022_0003
Fig. 7 shows a block diagram of another embodiment of a timing error detector. The TED shown in Fig. 6 comprises an optional quantizer, while the TED in Fig. 7 is shown without a quantizer The method according to the invention is applicable to PAM-2 signals. In this case 8 symbol sequences out of 16 can be used to estimate the error signal ^^^^ (Table 2). Without any frequency offset, 4 more symbol sequences can be utilized for the phase error estimation. If the proposed scheme from Table 2 is not applied, then 16 out of 16 symbol sequences would be used for phase error estimation, but 2 of 16 give zero as result and another 6 of 16 could result in a faulty error value ^^^^. The invention mainly refers to: Apply a filter pattern decoder to detected symbol sequence at more than two adjacent data symbols. Especially to the detected symbol patterns of four adjacent samples
Figure imgf000023_0002
, utilize the formula in Table 1 to estimate the
Figure imgf000023_0001
phase error e(k); This error signal e(k) is multiplied with a weight factor depending on the symbol sequence to obtain the weighted error signal
Figure imgf000023_0003
The weighted error signal
Figure imgf000023_0004
is quantized and used to adjust the phase of the sampling clock signal within the timing recovery control loop.
Table 1: Error estimation of PAM-3 input signal (y^k^: received multi-bit value; y^^k^: detected symbol of signal value y^k^; all other 4-bit sequences result in e^k^ = 0)
Figure imgf000024_0001
Figure imgf000025_0001
Note: 1 only applicable if no frequency offset exists can only detect late sampling; ^^^^ < 0 3 can only detect early sampling; ^^^^ > 0 Table 2: Error estimation of PAM-2 input signal (^^^^: received multi-bit value; ^^^^^: detected symbol of signal value ^^^^; all other 4-bit sequences result in ^^^^ = 0)
Figure imgf000026_0001
Figure imgf000027_0001
note 1 only applicable if no frequency offset exists 2 can only detect late sampling; ^^^^ < 0 3 can only detect early sampling; ^^^^ > 0
List of reference numerals 101 Sampler, e.g. analog-to-digital converter (ADC) 102 Timing Error Detector (TED) 103 Timing Recovery Loop control 104 Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) 105 Received analog data signal 106 Sampled data signal 107 Error signal 108 VCO control signal 109 Sampling control signal 501 Analog to Digital Converter (sampler) 502 Equalizer 503 Slicer 504 Timing Error Detector 505 Timing recovery loop control 506 Phase Interpolator 507 All-Digital Phase Lock Loop 508 Receiving data signal 509 Sampled and quantized data signal 510 Equalized data signal y(k) 511 Detected data symbol y^^k^ 512 Quantized Error signal 513 PI control signals 514 DCO clock 515 Sampling clock 601 Filter Pattern Decoder (FPD) 602 Modified Mueller-Müller algorithm 603 Error weighting 604 Optional: Quantizer, e.g. 3-point (or more) bang-bang- detector 605 Detected data symbol y^^k^ (slicer output) 606 Received data signal y(k) (optionally filtered by equalizer) 607 Current and registered data signals y(k), y(k-1), which correspond to data symbols y^^k^ and y^^k − 1^, respectively 608 Detected data symbols: y^^k − 2^, y^^k − 1^, y^^k^, y^^k + 1^, which satisfy pattern in 609 Error signal e(k) 610 Weighted error signal: e*(k) 611 Optional: Quantized error signal: e.g. up/down) 701 Filter Pattern Decoder (FPD) 702 Modified Mueller-Müller algorithm 703 Error weighting 704 Detected data symbol y^^k^ (slicer output) 705 Received data signal y(k) (optionally filtered by equalizer) 706 Current and registered data signals y(k), y(k-1), which correspond to data symbols y^^k^ and y^^k − 1^, respectively 707 Detected data symbols: y^^k − 2^, y^^k − 1^, y^^k^, y^^k + 1^, which satisfy pattern in 708 Error signal e(k) 709 Weighted error signal: e*(k)

Claims

Claims 1. Method for recovering a sampling clock from a serial data stream encoded using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation scheme, comprising the steps of: sampling received data signals from the serial data stream by an analog-to-digital converter once per unit- interval using a sampling clock signal provided by a clock generating device providing a timing recovery loop control, quantizing the incoming data samples with a slicer as corresponding detected symbols, storing adjacent incoming data samples and the corresponding detected symbols to preserve data for phase error estimation, applying a digital filter pattern decoder to the current and last detected symbols to determine if this symbol sequence can be used to estimate a phase offset of the sampling clock signal from the ideal sampling point and calculating the estimated phase error depending on the detected symbol pattern of four adjacent samples, adjusting the phase of the sampling clock signal within the timing recovery loop control using the calculated estimated phase error.
2. Method according to claim 1, wherein the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation scheme with three levels and the estimated phase error is calculated using an equation according to the following table:
Figure imgf000032_0001
Figure imgf000033_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0).
3. Method according to claim 1, wherein the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation scheme with two levels and the estimated phase error is calculated using an equation according to the following table:
Figure imgf000033_0002
Figure imgf000034_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0).
4. Method according to any of claims 1 to 3, comprising the further step of multiplying the estimated phase error with a weight factor to obtain an error signal.
5. Method according to claim 4, wherein the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation scheme with three levels and the weight factor is defined in the following table for early and late phase adjustment: ote
Figure imgf000034_0002
,3 ,2 ,3 ,2
Figure imgf000035_0001
Figure imgf000036_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0).
6. Method according to claim 4, wherein the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse-Amplitude-Modulation scheme with two levels and the weight factor is defined in the following table for early and late phase adjustment:
Figure imgf000036_0002
Figure imgf000037_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0).
7. Method according to any of claims 1 to 6, further comprising the step of filtering the data samples before the step of quantizing the data samples.
8. Method according to claim 7, wherein filtering is performed by a Feed-Forward Equalizer and/or a Decision Feedback Equalizer.
9. Method according to claim 5 or claim 6, comprising the step of adjusting the weights for different states during the initialization procedure of the timing recovery.
10. Method according to any of claims 1 to 9, comprising the step applying the error signal to a bang-bang- detector with adjustable threshold and 3-point control output to quantize the calculated estimated phase error and adjust it to the bit width of a control signal.
11. Method according to claim 10, wherein the calculated estimated phase error is quantized by n-Bit.
12. Timing recovery circuit for recovering a sampling clock from a serial data stream encoded using Pulse- Amplitude-Modulation scheme, comprising: an analog-to-digital converter for sampling received data signals from the serial data stream once per unit- interval using a sampling clock signal provided by a clock generating device providing a timing recovery loop control, a slicer for quantizing the incoming data samples as corresponding detected symbols, a register for storing adjacent incoming data samples and the corresponding detected symbols to preserve data for phase error estimation, a digital timing error detector for applying a digital filter pattern decoder to the current and last detected symbols to determine if this symbol sequence can be used to estimate a phase offset of the sampling clock signal from the ideal sampling point and for calculating the estimated phase error depending on the detected symbol pattern of four adjacent samples adjusting the phase of the sampling clock signal within the timing recovery loop control using the calculated estimated phase error.
13. Timing recovery circuit according to claim 12, wherein the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse- Amplitude-Modulation scheme with three levels and the estimated phase error is calculated using an equation 30 according to the following table:
Figure imgf000039_0001
Figure imgf000040_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0).
14. Timing recovery circuit according to claim 12, wherein the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse- Amplitude-Modulation scheme with two levels and the estimated phase error is calculated using an equation according to the following table:
Figure imgf000040_0002
Figure imgf000041_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0).
15. Timing recovery circuit according to any of claims 12 to 14, wherein the calculated estimated phase error is multiplied with a weight factor to obtain an error signal.
16. Timing recovery circuit according to claim 15, wherein the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse- Amplitude-Modulation scheme with three levels and the weight factor is defined in the following table for early and late phase adjustment: ote
Figure imgf000041_0002
3 1,3 1,2 3 2
Figure imgf000042_0001
,3 ,2
Figure imgf000043_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0).
17. Timing recovery circuit according to claim 15, wherein the serial data stream is encoded using Pulse- Amplitude-Modulation scheme with two levels and the weight factor is defined in the following table for early and late phase adjustment:
Figure imgf000044_0001
wherein note 1 is only applicable if no frequency offset exists, note 2 can only detect late sampling (e(k) < 0) and note 3 can only detect early sampling (e(k) > 0).
18. Timing recovery circuit according to any of claims 12 to 17, further comprising a digital filter for filtering the data samples before the step of quantizing the data samples.
19. Timing recovery circuit according to claim 18, wherein the digital filter is a Feed-Forward Equalizer and/or a Decision Feedback Equalizer.
20. Timing recovery circuit according to any of claims 16 or 17, wherein the timing recovery circuit adjusts the weights of the digital timing error detector for different states during the initialization procedure of the timing recovery.
21. Timing recovery circuit according to any of claims 12 to 20, comprising a bang-bang-detector with adjustable threshold and 3-point control output to quantize the calculated estimated phase error and adjust it to the bit width of the control signal.
22. Timing recovery circuit according to claim 21, wherein the calculated estimated phase error is quantized by n- Bit.
PCT/EP2021/071581 2020-08-06 2021-08-02 Method and timing recovery circuit for recovering a sampling clock from a serial data stream encoded using pam WO2022029085A1 (en)

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