WO2021237912A1 - Subsidence-restricted stoping method for false mined-out layer support formed in combination with waste rock - Google Patents

Subsidence-restricted stoping method for false mined-out layer support formed in combination with waste rock Download PDF

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WO2021237912A1
WO2021237912A1 PCT/CN2020/104031 CN2020104031W WO2021237912A1 WO 2021237912 A1 WO2021237912 A1 WO 2021237912A1 CN 2020104031 W CN2020104031 W CN 2020104031W WO 2021237912 A1 WO2021237912 A1 WO 2021237912A1
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working face
mining
gangue
subsidence
pseudo
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PCT/CN2020/104031
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
胡善超
王俊
宁建国
茹文凯
郭勇
左靖
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山东科技大学
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Priority to CN202010458239.9 priority Critical
Priority to CN202010458239.9A priority patent/CN111594168B/en
Application filed by 山东科技大学 filed Critical 山东科技大学
Publication of WO2021237912A1 publication Critical patent/WO2021237912A1/en

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/18Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor for brown or hard coal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F1/00Ventilation of mines or tunnels; Distribution of ventilating currents
    • E21F1/006Ventilation at the working face of galleries or tunnels
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F15/00Methods or devices for placing filling-up materials in underground workings
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F15/00Methods or devices for placing filling-up materials in underground workings
    • E21F15/02Supporting means, e.g. shuttering, for filling-up materials
    • E21F15/04Stowing mats; Goaf wire netting; Partition walls

Abstract

A subsidence-restricted stoping method for a false mined-out layer (14) support formed in combination with the waste rock, relating to the technical field of prevention and control of mining engineering stoping and surface subsidence. The method comprises: matching a rock stratum and the waste rock by means of a reinforced a grout, providing an output pipe (6) on a partition in a waste rock layer (5) by using the stoping, footage, and caving time difference, the gravity downflow of the grout, and the spatial crack rules of the waste rock, injecting the grout into the rock stratum of a collapsed roof to form a stable support false layer arranged in sections, and matching an arranged airtight thin slurry wall (15) for ventilation, wherein a first working surface (701) adopts b-shaped mining, and the subsequent working surfaces adopt p-shaped mining; and after a reserved phased roadway is initially collapsed, using a reserved liquid supply pipe (21) to pour the suspended space of the roadway to form a complete false mined-out layer (14) for controlling the stratum subsidence and the water accumulation of a stope. The stoping method reduces the tunneling workload of the working surface, can effectively control the surface subsidence, and completes the mining of mineral resources under the conditions of low cost, high recovery rate, and environmental protection.

Description

一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法Settlement-limited stoping method for supporting and supporting of rock gangue coordinated formation of pseudo mined-out layer 技术领域Technical field
本发明涉及采矿工程回采和地表沉陷防治技术领域,尤其是一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护的避免沉陷的回采方法。The invention relates to the technical field of mining engineering stoping and ground subsidence prevention and control, in particular to a method for avoiding subsidence for supporting and supporting a pseudo-mined-out layer formed with rock gangue.
背景技术Background technique
随着经济的快速发展,对矿产资源的需求量日趋增大,尤其是煤炭资源的利用。但是地下资源的开采带来众多严重问题,比如地表被破坏,水资源、植被、建筑等受到严重威胁,耕地减少,这严重破坏了大自然与人类的和谐发展。另外在资源开采时受逐渐增大的地应力作用,原有的开采方式造成了较多的安全事故,如冲击地压、老空区积水突水等,造成人员伤亡。较低的回采率还造成了大量的资源浪费,进而可能面临资源枯竭的困境。现有的采煤方法中仍然存在采掘接续紧张、生产成本高的问题,这些严重制约着企业的发展。With the rapid economic development, the demand for mineral resources is increasing, especially the utilization of coal resources. However, the exploitation of underground resources has brought many serious problems, such as the destruction of the ground surface, serious threats to water resources, vegetation, buildings, etc., and the reduction of arable land, which seriously undermines the harmonious development of nature and mankind. In addition, due to the increasing in-situ stress during resource mining, the original mining method has caused more safety accidents, such as rock bursts, water inrush in the old goaf, etc., causing casualties. The low recovery rate also causes a lot of waste of resources, and may face the dilemma of resource exhaustion. Existing coal mining methods still have the problems of tight continuity of mining and high production costs, which severely restrict the development of enterprises.
采煤方法种类很多,目前常用采煤方法划分为壁式和柱式两大类。壁式采煤法的煤壁较长、工作面的两端巷道分别做入风和回风、运煤和运料用,采出的煤炭平行于煤壁方向运出工作面。柱式采煤法的煤壁短呈方柱形,同时开采的工作面数较多,采出的煤炭垂直于工作面方向运出。对于采空区的处理,一般根据顶板特征、煤层厚度和保护地表的特殊要求等条件进行处理,处理的方法主要有全部垮落法、充填法和煤柱支撑法。There are many types of coal mining methods. At present, the commonly used coal mining methods are divided into two categories: wall type and column type. The wall coal mining method has a long coal wall, and the roadways at both ends of the working face are used for air intake and return air, coal transportation and material transportation respectively, and the mined coal is transported out of the working face parallel to the direction of the coal wall. The coal wall of the pillar mining method is short and square-pillar. At the same time, there are more working faces, and the mined coal is transported out perpendicular to the working face. For the treatment of the goaf, the treatment is generally carried out according to the characteristics of the roof, the thickness of the coal seam and the special requirements for protecting the surface. The treatment methods mainly include the total collapse method, the filling method and the coal pillar support method.
技术问题technical problem
现有的开采方法中大多留设煤柱从而降低了资源的回采利用率,由于充填法成本较高采空区的处理通常选择全部垮落法,而采空区的垮落会造成地表沉陷等问题。留设煤柱支撑采空区的方法会造成煤炭资源浪费,并且伴随有冲击地压危险,煤柱对采空区的支撑效果有限,还存在老空区积水等问题。因此,为提高煤炭资源的利用率、提高企业回采效率、限制地表沉陷保护自然环境、保证高安全性的指标,需要对现有的开采方法和采空区处理方法做进一步的改进。Most of the existing mining methods leave coal pillars to reduce the utilization rate of resources. Due to the high cost of the filling method, the treatment of the goaf usually chooses the full collapse method, and the collapse of the goaf will cause surface subsidence, etc. problem. The method of leaving coal pillars to support the goaf will cause waste of coal resources, and is accompanied by the danger of rock pressure. The support effect of coal pillars on the goaf is limited, and there are also problems such as water accumulation in the old goaf. Therefore, in order to increase the utilization rate of coal resources, increase the efficiency of enterprise mining, limit surface subsidence, protect the natural environment, and ensure high safety indicators, it is necessary to further improve the existing mining methods and goaf treatment methods.
技术解决方案Technical solutions
为了减少了工作面的掘进工作量,并可以有效的控制地表沉降,在低成本、高回采率和绿色环保的条件下完成了对矿产资源的开采,防治大面积顶板垮落、冲击地压和老空区突水,本发明提供了一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法。In order to reduce the excavation workload of the working face and effectively control the surface settlement, the mining of mineral resources has been completed under the conditions of low cost, high recovery rate and environmental protection, and prevention of large-area roof collapse, rock burst and With water inrush in the old goaf, the present invention provides a subsidence-limited stoping method for supporting and supporting a pseudo mined-out layer formed by rock gangue.
该方法通过在垮落矸石层内设置输出管,在采空区分阶段的构筑多个拱形胶结矸石结构形成稳定的伪采空层限制沉陷,并且配合薄板形的浆体墙从而保证巷道通风,实现b形回采向p形回采的过渡,提高工作面开采效率。具体技术方案如下。This method sets up output pipes in the collapsed gangue layer, constructs multiple arched cemented gangue structures in the goaf separation stage to form a stable pseudo-goaf layer to limit subsidence, and cooperates with the thin-slab-shaped slurry wall to ensure the ventilation of the roadway. Realize the transition from the b-shaped stoping to the p-shaped stoping, and improve the mining efficiency of the working face. The specific technical scheme is as follows.
一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法,步骤包括:A method for supporting and limiting subsidence of a pseudo mined-out layer formed with rock gangue, and the steps include:
步骤一.根据采场的开采范围和煤层赋存情况,确定工作面参数,并计算薄形浆体墙和输出管的配置间距;Step 1. Determine the parameters of the working face according to the mining area of the stope and the occurrence of coal seams, and calculate the configuration distance between the thin slurry wall and the output pipe;
步骤二.布置轨道下山、运输下山、回风下山和联巷,沿下山的走向布置第一工作面,开切眼并构建b形工作面并完成工作面通风;Step 2. Arrange the track downhill, transportation downhill, return wind downhill and joint lanes, arrange the first working face along the downhill direction, open the cut and construct a b-shaped working face and complete the working face ventilation;
步骤三.工作面开采后方悬顶先利用临时支撑控制悬顶,沿走向在工作面巷道内逐个设置浆体墙模,并向浆体墙模内注浆,形成薄板形的浆体墙;Step 3. After the mining of the working face, the suspended roof first uses temporary supports to control the suspended roof, and sets the slurry wall molds one by one in the working face tunnel along the direction, and injects grouting into the slurry wall molds to form a thin plate-shaped slurry wall;
步骤四.工作面继续回采,在工作面后方强制放顶形成矸石层,钻孔贯穿矸石层安装输出管,输出管向矸石层内注浆,以输出管为顶轴形成拱形支撑段;Step 4. Continue mining at the working face, force the roof to form a gangue layer behind the working face, drill a hole through the gangue layer to install an output pipe, the output pipe is grouted into the gangue layer, and the output pipe is used as the jack shaft to form an arched support section;
步骤五.工作面回采结束,多个拱形支撑段和浆体墙组合形成支护伪层;Step 5. At the end of working face mining, multiple arched support sections and slurry walls are combined to form a supporting pseudo layer;
步骤六.保留工作面的运输顺槽,相邻工作面布置为p形开采工作面,重复步骤三至步骤五,并通过供液管向废弃的运输顺槽内注浆,胶结巷道内垮落的矸石形成巷内筑体;Step 6. Keep the transportation channel of the working face, the adjacent working face is arranged as a p-shaped mining face, repeat steps 3 to 5, and inject grouting into the abandoned transportation channel through the liquid supply pipe, and cement the roadway to collapse The gangue forms a building in the lane;
步骤七.在巷道内布置局部通风机向下一工作面鼓风,设置风门控制通风风量完成工作面通风;Step 7. Arrange a local ventilator in the tunnel to blow air to the next working face, and set a damper to control the ventilation air volume to complete the working face ventilation;
步骤八.重复步骤三至步骤七直至完成对开采范围内的回采,在采场采空区构筑包括支护伪层和巷内筑体的完整伪采空层。Step 8. Repeat steps three to seven until the stoping in the mining area is completed, and construct a complete pseudo-goaf layer including the supporting pseudo-layer and the structure in the lane in the goaf area of the stope.
优选的是,b形工作面通风路径为:轨道下山-b形工作面-运输顺槽-联巷-回风下山。Preferably, the ventilation path of the b-shaped working face is: track downhill-b-shaped working face-transport along the road-linked lanes-return wind downhill.
优选的是,p形工作面通风路径为:轨道下山-新联巷-p形工作面-新运输顺槽-运输顺槽-联巷-回风下山。Preferably, the ventilation path of the p-shaped working face is: track downhill-xinlian lane-p-shaped working face-new transportation along the way-transport along the way-linked lane-return wind downhill.
还优选的是,临时支撑包括支柱和挡风板,支柱支撑在顶板下方,挡风板长度与工作面相等并沿着平行于工作面的方向布置相对布置。It is also preferable that the temporary support includes a pillar and a wind deflector, the pillar is supported below the top plate, and the wind deflector has the same length as the working surface and is arranged oppositely in a direction parallel to the working surface.
还优选的是,运输顺槽内布置的浆体墙模的厚度为0.4-0.5m,高度等于工作面开采采高,每个浆体墙模的长度为1-2m;所述轨道下山内布置的浆体墙模的厚度为0.8-1m,高度等于工作面开采采高,每个浆体墙模的长度为1-2m。It is also preferred that the thickness of the slurry wall molds arranged in the transportation chute is 0.4-0.5m, and the height is equal to the mining height of the working face, and the length of each slurry wall mold is 1-2m; the track is arranged in the mountain The thickness of the slurry wall mold is 0.8-1m, the height is equal to the mining height of the working face, and the length of each slurry wall mold is 1-2m.
还优选的是,轨道下山和运输顺槽内均布置有供液管,供液系统通过供液管送浆,各个输出管分别与供液管相连。It is also preferred that liquid supply pipes are arranged in both the track downhill and the transportation trough, the liquid supply system sends slurry through the liquid supply pipe, and each output pipe is respectively connected with the liquid supply pipe.
进一步优选的是,输出管上沿两个相对的侧面均匀设置有多个输液孔,输出管埋设在稳定岩体下方的矸石层内。It is further preferred that a plurality of liquid infusion holes are evenly arranged on the output pipe along two opposite sides, and the output pipe is buried in the gangue layer under the stable rock mass.
进一步优选的是,输出管水平放置,输液孔沿输出管轴线在同一水平高度对称放置;工作面沿开采方向均匀的划分为多个分段,每个分段内在分段中部设置输出管,浆液沿输液孔流出后形成对称的拱形胶结矸石块体。It is further preferred that the output pipe is placed horizontally, and the infusion holes are placed symmetrically at the same level along the axis of the output pipe; the working surface is evenly divided into a plurality of sections along the mining direction, and each section is provided with an output pipe in the middle of the section. After flowing out along the infusion hole, a symmetrical arched cemented gangue block is formed.
进一步优选的是,局部通风机连接有通风软管,通风软管随工作面推进延伸。It is further preferred that a ventilation hose is connected to the local ventilator, and the ventilation hose extends along with the working surface.
有益效果Beneficial effect
(1)该回采方法利用了采空区初步垮落后矸石的分布特征,通过输出管贯通矸石层在重力和管道压力作用下使注浆的浆液呈拱桥形向矸石缝隙扩散,在达到稳固顶板岩层目的的同时还降低了注浆成本,并且各个拱形胶结矸石结构还与浆体墙胶结在一起,保证了其结构的稳定性,还更好的发挥了封堵作用。(1) The stoping method takes advantage of the distribution characteristics of the gangue after the goaf has initially collapsed, and the gangue layer is penetrated through the output pipe. Under the action of gravity and pipeline pressure, the grouting slurry spreads to the gangue gap in the shape of an arch bridge to reach a stable roof rock layer. The purpose is to reduce the cost of grouting at the same time, and each arched cemented gangue structure is also cemented with the slurry wall to ensure the stability of the structure and better play the blocking effect.
(2)该方法中通过浆体墙和锚杆锚索等支护结构联合作用,保证工作面巷道围岩稳定,并保持通风,浆体墙和拱形胶结矸石结构的支撑能力增强,采场内形成的支护伪层结构可以防止采空区沉降并避免采空区积水。(2) In this method, through the combined action of support structures such as slurry walls and bolts and cables to ensure the stability of the surrounding rock of the working face and maintain ventilation, the support capacity of the slurry wall and arched cemented gangue structure is enhanced, and the stope The supporting pseudo-layer structure formed inside can prevent the settlement of the goaf and avoid water accumulation in the goaf.
(3)该方法实现了b形开采向p形开采的过渡,并完善了开采过程中的通风路径,减少了安全煤柱的留设,同时还能保证开采安全,降低顶板控制成本,更方便实现机械化采煤。(3) This method realizes the transition from b-shaped mining to p-shaped mining, improves the ventilation path during mining, reduces the retention of safe coal pillars, and at the same time ensures mining safety, reduces roof control costs, and is more convenient Realize mechanized coal mining.
(4)临时支撑保证了工作面在开切眼及开采初期的通风条件,浆体墙的设置降低了构筑巷旁支护结构的成本,还可以保证巷道较长的服务期限,分段设置可以方便施工;局部通风设备可以随工作面推进延伸,满足通风需要。(4) Temporary supports ensure the ventilation conditions of the working face during the cut and the initial stage of mining. The installation of the slurry wall reduces the cost of constructing the roadside support structure, and can also ensure a long service period for the roadway, and the segmented setting can be convenient Construction; local ventilation equipment can be extended along with the working face to meet the ventilation needs.
另外该方法构造了完整伪采空层,其强有力的整体支撑性,既能保证单一工作面的回采安全,又能限制采场的整体沉陷,还可以避免采场的积水现象,操作简单易实施,工程适用性较强,实现了工作面的安全高效回采,控制采空区沉陷的成本低。In addition, this method constructs a complete pseudo mined-out layer, and its strong overall supportability can not only ensure the safety of a single working face, but also limit the overall subsidence of the stope, and it can also avoid water accumulation in the stope. The operation is simple. Easy to implement, strong engineering applicability, safe and efficient mining of the working face is realized, and the cost of controlling the subsidence of the goaf is low.
附图说明Description of the drawings
图1是岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法的施工步骤示意图;Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the construction steps of the method of limited settlement of the pseudo-goaf supported by rock gangue formation;
图2是图1中的A-A截面示意图;Fig. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of A-A in Fig. 1;
图3是输出管的结构示意图;Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the structure of the output tube;
图4是浆体墙模结构示意图;Figure 4 is a schematic diagram of the structure of the slurry wall mold;
图中:1-回风下山, 2-运输下山, 3-轨道下山; 4-运输顺槽,401-新运输顺槽;5-矸石层,6-输出管;701第一工作面,702第二工作面,703第三工作面,704-第四工作面;8-联巷, 9-新鲜风,10-污风,11-采场,12-风门,13-新联巷,14-伪采空层;15-浆体墙,151浆体墙模,152输入孔;16-巷内筑体,17-拱形支撑段,18-局部通风机,19-输液孔,20 临时支撑,21供液管。In the picture: 1-return wind downhill, 2-transportation downhill, 3-track downhill; 4-transportation trough, 401-new transportation trough; 5-gangue layer, 6-outlet pipe; 701 first working face, 702th Second working face, 703 third working face, 704- fourth working face; 8-lianxiang, 9-fresh air, 10-soil wind, 11-stope, 12-air gate, 13-xinlianxiang, 14-false Goaf; 15-slurry wall, 151 slurry wall form, 152 input hole; 16-lane building, 17-arch support section, 18-local fan, 19-infusion hole, 20 temporary support, 21 Liquid supply pipe.
本发明的实施方式Embodiments of the present invention
结合图1至图4所示,对本发明提供的一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法具体实施方式进行说明。With reference to Figures 1 to 4, the specific implementation of the method for supporting and limiting subsidence of a pseudo-goaf supported by rock gangue forming in accordance with the present invention will be described.
一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法,该方法通过在垮落矸石层内设置输出管,在采空区分阶段的构筑多个拱形胶结矸石结构形成稳定的伪采空层限制沉陷,并且配合薄板形的浆体墙从而保证巷道通风,实现b形回采向p形回采的过渡,提高工作面开采效率。A rock gangue coordinated formation of a pseudo mined-out layer support limited settlement recovery method. The method sets up an output pipe in the collapsed gangue layer and constructs a plurality of arched cemented gangue structures to form a stable pseudo mining at the stage of the mined-out separation stage The empty layer limits the subsidence, and cooperates with the thin-plate-shaped slurry wall to ensure the ventilation of the roadway, realize the transition from the b-shaped stoping to the p-shaped stoping, and improve the mining efficiency of the working face.
具体的步骤包括:The specific steps include:
步骤一.根据采场的开采范围和煤层赋存情况,确定工作面参数,并计算薄形浆体墙和输出管的配置间距。Step 1. According to the mining area of the stope and the occurrence of coal seams, determine the parameters of the working face, and calculate the configuration distance between the thin slurry wall and the output pipe.
其中需要考虑采场的储量、水文地质、工程地质和已施工井巷工程等,开采范围的划分根据煤田实际情况确定,煤层赋存情况包括煤层倾角、厚度等。工作面参数包括采高、回采方向、工作面长度和回采方式等。薄形浆体墙根据埋深和巷道设计使用年限确定厚度,输出管则根据拱形胶结矸石的跨度确定间距。Among them, it is necessary to consider the reserves, hydrogeology, engineering geology and construction of the mine roadway engineering, etc. The division of the mining area is determined according to the actual conditions of the coal field, and the occurrence of coal seams includes the inclination and thickness of the coal seams. Working face parameters include mining height, mining direction, working face length and mining method. The thickness of the thin slurry wall is determined according to the buried depth and the design service life of the roadway, and the spacing of the output pipe is determined according to the span of the arched cemented gangue.
步骤二.布置轨道下山、运输下山、回风下山和联巷,沿下山的走向布置第一工作面,开切眼并构建b形工作面并完成工作面通风。Step 2. Arrange the track downhill, transportation downhill, return wind downhill and joint lanes, arrange the first working face along the downhill direction, open the cut and construct the b-shaped working face and complete the working face ventilation.
其中b形工作面平行于轨道下山开采,其轨道下山和工作面采空区组合的形状类似b形,从下往上开采,该工作面采用上山开采的方式。原设计巷道的轨道下山用于进风,b形工作面通风路径为:新鲜风从轨道下山进入b形工作面,污风先经过运输顺槽,后通过联巷进入回风下山,完成b形工作面的通风。Among them, the B-shaped working face is parallel to the track for mining downhill, and the shape of the combination of the track downhill and the goaf of the working face is similar to the B-shaped, which is mined from the bottom up, and the working face adopts the uphill mining method. The track of the originally designed roadway is used for air intake. The ventilation path of the b-shaped working face is: fresh wind enters the b-shaped working face from the track, and the polluted air first passes through the transportation channel, and then enters the return wind down the mountain through the lane to complete the b-shaped Ventilation of the working surface.
步骤三.工作面开采后方悬顶先利用临时支撑控制悬顶,沿走向在工作面巷道内逐个设置浆体墙模至工作面的安全距离处,并向浆体墙模内注浆,形成薄板形的浆体墙。Step 3. After mining the working face, the suspended roof first uses temporary supports to control the suspended roof, and sets the slurry wall molds one by one in the working face roadway along the direction to a safe distance from the working face, and grouting into the slurry wall molds to form a thin slab Shaped slurry wall.
本步骤中工作面包括第一工作面和后续开采的工作面,例如第二工作面、第三工作面和第四工作面等,后续开采的工作面为p形工作面。In this step, the working face includes the first working face and the working face for subsequent mining, such as the second working face, the third working face, and the fourth working face. The working face for subsequent mining is a p-shaped working face.
其中临时支撑包括支柱和挡风板,支柱支撑在顶板下方,用于控制顶板,挡风板长度与工作面相等并沿着平行于工作面的方向布置相对布置,挡风板能够形成屏障防止串风、漏风保证工作面开切眼初期形成完整的通风回路。Temporary supports include pillars and windshields. The pillars are supported under the roof to control the roof. The length of the windshield is equal to the working surface and is arranged in a direction parallel to the working surface. The windshield can form a barrier to prevent strings. Wind and air leakage ensure that a complete ventilation loop is formed at the initial stage of cutting the working face.
另外,运输顺槽内布置的浆体墙模的厚度为0.4-0.5m,高度等于工作面开采采高,每个浆体墙模的长度为1-2m,通常在运输顺槽内使用1m的浆体墙模。轨道下山内布置的浆体墙模的厚度为0.8-1m,高度等于工作面开采采高,每个浆体墙模的长度为1-2m,一般使用2m的浆体墙模。浆体墙模可以采用中空的木质矩形壳体制作而成,在新运输顺槽内使用相同的浆体墙模。In addition, the thickness of the slurry wall molds arranged in the transportation chute is 0.4-0.5m, and the height is equal to the mining height of the working face. The length of each slurry wall mold is 1-2m, and 1m is usually used in the transportation chute. Paste wall mold. The thickness of the slurry wall molds arranged in the mountain under the track is 0.8-1m, and the height is equal to the mining height of the working face. The length of each slurry wall mold is 1-2m, and the slurry wall mold of 2m is generally used. The slurry wall mold can be made of a hollow wooden rectangular shell, and the same slurry wall mold is used in the new transportation chute.
步骤四.工作面继续回采,在工作面后方强制放顶形成矸石层,钻孔贯穿矸石层安装输出管,输出管向矸石层内注浆,以输出管为顶轴形成拱形支撑段。Step 4. Continue mining at the working face, and force the roof to form a gangue layer behind the working face. Drill holes to penetrate the gangue layer to install an output pipe. The output pipe is grouted into the gangue layer, and the output pipe is used as the jack shaft to form an arched support section.
其中输出管上沿两个相对的侧面均匀设置有多个输液孔,输出管埋设在稳定岩体下方的矸石层内。输出管可以是壁厚为2mm的铁质材料,在矸石层内可以起到一定的支撑作用,其外侧留有均匀分布的输液孔,其内孔径为40mm,输液孔的孔径为10mm。输出管水平放置,输液孔沿输出管轴线在同一水平高度对称放置;另外输液孔处还可以设置半拱形的导流槽,使浆液从输出管喷出后沿导流槽留下,确保形成拱形胶结矸石结构。工作面沿开采方向均匀的划分为多个分段,各个分段相邻布置,每个分段内在分段中部设置输出管,浆液沿输液孔流出后在自重力和输出压力的影响下形成对称的拱形胶结矸石块体,如图2所示。A plurality of liquid infusion holes are evenly arranged on the output pipe along two opposite sides, and the output pipe is buried in the gangue layer under the stable rock mass. The output tube can be an iron material with a wall thickness of 2mm, which can play a certain supporting role in the gangue layer. There are evenly distributed infusion holes on the outside of it, and its inner diameter is 40mm, and the diameter of the infusion hole is 10mm. The output tube is placed horizontally, and the infusion holes are placed symmetrically at the same level along the axis of the output tube; in addition, a semi-arched diversion groove can be set at the infusion hole, so that the slurry is sprayed from the output tube and stays along the diversion groove to ensure formation Arched cemented gangue structure. The working face is evenly divided into multiple sections along the mining direction. Each section is arranged adjacently. An output pipe is set in the middle of each section. After the slurry flows out along the infusion hole, it forms a symmetrical arch under the influence of gravity and output pressure. Shaped cemented gangue block, as shown in Figure 2.
采空区垮落后矸石从初步垮落至压实的过程具有一定的时间差,对初步垮落的矸石层注入浆液形成胶结矸石结构,该支护结构可以很好的控制采空区沉陷。After the goaf collapses, there is a certain time difference between the initial collapse and compaction of the gangue. The grout is injected into the initially collapsed gangue layer to form a cemented gangue structure, which can well control the subsidence of the goaf.
步骤五.工作面回采结束,多个拱形支撑段和浆体墙组合形成支护伪层。Step 5. At the end of working face mining, multiple arched supporting sections and slurry walls are combined to form a supporting pseudo layer.
随着每个工作面的回采,按照设定的间距布置输出管,从而依次形成均匀排列的多个拱形支撑段,拱形支撑段在形成的过程中依次和浆体墙胶合在一起,从而组合形成稳定的支护伪层,能够有效的控制采空区沉陷。With the mining of each working face, the output pipes are arranged according to the set spacing, so as to form a number of evenly arranged arched support sections in sequence. The arched support sections are sequentially glued with the slurry wall during the formation process, thereby The combination forms a stable supporting pseudo layer, which can effectively control the subsidence of the goaf.
步骤六.保留工作面的运输顺槽,相邻工作面布置为p形开采工作面,重复步骤三至步骤五,并通过供液管向废弃的运输顺槽内注浆,胶结巷道内垮落的矸石形成巷内筑体。Step 6. Keep the transportation channel of the working face, the adjacent working face is arranged as a p-shaped mining face, repeat steps 3 to 5, and inject grouting into the abandoned transportation channel through the liquid supply pipe, and cement the roadway to collapse The gangue forms a building in the lane.
具体的是,保留本工作面的运输顺槽,该运输顺槽包括和轨道下山平行的运输顺槽,以及后续开采的工作面的新运输顺槽。后续开采的工作面例如第二工作面、第三工作面和第四工作面等,均采用p形开采。从b形开采到p形开采,工作面搬家方便,保证了工作面的接续。重复步骤三至步骤五,具体是重复浆体墙和拱形支撑段的制作过程,自第二工作面开始开采后工作面推进的长度范围内原有的运输顺槽废弃,巷道内矸石垮落,垮落的矸石通过供液管注浆形成巷内筑体。步骤三至步骤五可以重复一次至第二工作面开采结束;还可以执行步骤六直至开采结束。Specifically, the transportation route of the current working face is retained, which includes a transportation route parallel to the downhill of the track, and a new transportation route for the subsequent mining face. The subsequent mining working faces, such as the second working face, the third working face and the fourth working face, all adopt p-shaped mining. From b-shaped mining to p-shaped mining, the working face is easy to move, which ensures the continuity of the working face. Repeat step three to step five, specifically repeat the manufacturing process of the slurry wall and arched support section. After the second working face is mined, the original transportation within the length of the working face advancement is abandoned, and the gangue in the roadway collapses. The collapsed gangue is grouted through the liquid supply pipe to form a building in the lane. Steps three to five can be repeated once until the mining of the second working face is completed; step six can also be performed until the mining is completed.
轨道下山和运输顺槽内均布置有供液管,供液系统通过供液管送浆,各个输出管分别与供液管相连。供液管中的浆液可以是水泥材料,其输入依靠矿井的供液系统连接下山、顺槽的供液管,供液管可以向浆体墙模内灌入浆液。该供液管和输出管的布置方式操作简便,还可以方便施工。Liquid supply pipes are arranged in the track downhill and transportation along the trough. The liquid supply system delivers slurry through the liquid supply pipe, and each output pipe is respectively connected with the liquid supply pipe. The slurry in the liquid supply pipe can be cement material, and its input depends on the liquid supply system of the mine to connect the liquid supply pipe downhill and down the trough, and the liquid supply pipe can be poured into the slurry wall mold. The arrangement of the liquid supply pipe and the output pipe is easy to operate and convenient for construction.
其中各个p形工作面通风路径为:新鲜风流从轨道下山至新联巷,再经过p形工作面后,污风从新运输顺槽至运输顺槽,再经过联巷回到回风下山。其中新运输顺槽为当前开采工作面的运输顺槽,并且和轨道下山相平行;联巷为连通各个工作面下端头的巷道,新联巷为连通轨道下山和各个工作面的上端头的巷道,联巷和新联巷可以相互平行。The ventilation path of each p-shaped working face is as follows: fresh air flows down the track from the track to the new joint alley, and after passing through the p-shaped working face, the polluted air is transported from the new channel to the transportation channel, and then back to the return air down the mountain through the joint alley. The new transportation lane is the transportation lane of the current mining face and is parallel to the track downhill; the laneway is the roadway connecting the lower end of each working face, and the new laneway is the laneway connecting the track downhill and the upper end of each working face , Lianxiang and Xinlianxiang can be parallel to each other.
步骤七.在巷道内布置局部通风机向下一工作面鼓风,设置风门控制通风风量完成工作面通风。Step 7. Arrange a local fan in the tunnel to blow air to the next working face, and set a damper to control the ventilation air volume to complete the working face ventilation.
当工作面距离轨道下山超过100m时执行步骤七,或者在步骤六的第二工作面开采完成后开始步骤七,其中局部通风机连接有通风软管,通风软管随工作面推进延伸,满足通风需求。本步骤主要是为了保证p形工作面开采的良好通风效果,改善工作面开采环境,并降低生产成本。When the working surface is more than 100m from the track downhill, perform step seven, or start step seven after the second working surface mining in step six is completed, where the local ventilator is connected with a ventilation hose, and the ventilation hose extends along with the working surface to meet the ventilation requirements. need. This step is mainly to ensure the good ventilation effect of the mining of the p-shaped working face, improve the mining environment of the working face, and reduce the production cost.
步骤八.重复步骤三至步骤七直至完成对开采范围内的回采,在采场采空区构筑包括支护伪层和巷内筑体的完整伪采空层,伪采空层可以有效地限制地层沉陷和采场积水。Step 8. Repeat steps 3 to 7 until the stoping in the mining area is completed, construct a complete pseudo-goaf layer including supporting pseudo-layers and buildings in the lane in the goaf area, and the pseudo-goaf layer can effectively restrict Stratum subsidence and stope water accumulation.
在步骤八中,在重复步骤三至步骤七时,步骤六中重复步骤三至步骤五的部分可以不再执行,直接重复步骤三至步骤七。通过步骤七可以满足各个工作面的通风需求,从而改善通风环境。In step eight, when repeating steps three to seven, the part repeating steps three to five in step six can no longer be executed, and steps three to seven are directly repeated. Through step seven, the ventilation requirements of each working surface can be met, thereby improving the ventilation environment.
为保证采场工作面的安全回采,在上述方法实施过程中,均有锚索、锚杆等对下山和顺槽进行支护,从而可以降低风险。开采时通过布置距离较短的工作面走向,使得每个工作面的运输顺槽的服务年限较短,也给开采提供可有利条件。In order to ensure the safe mining of the working face of the stope, during the implementation of the above method, anchor cables, bolts, etc. are used to support the downhill and trough, so as to reduce the risk. When mining, by arranging the direction of the working face with a shorter distance, the service life of each working face's transportation along the channel is shorter, and it also provides favorable conditions for mining.
本方法减少了工作面掘进量,能够在低成本、高回采率、高效率、绿色环保的条件下,实现对矿产资源的安全开采,有利于防沉陷采矿方法的发展与革新。The method reduces the amount of excavation in the working face, can realize the safe mining of mineral resources under the conditions of low cost, high recovery rate, high efficiency, and environmental protection, and is beneficial to the development and innovation of anti-sagging mining methods.
当然,上述说明并非是对本发明的限制,本发明也并不仅限于上述举例,本技术领域的技术人员在本发明的实质范围内所做出的变化、改型、添加或替换,也应属于本发明的保护范围。Of course, the above description is not a limitation to the present invention, and the present invention is not limited to the above examples. Changes, modifications, additions or substitutions made by those skilled in the art within the essential scope of the present invention shall also belong to the present invention. The scope of protection of the invention.

Claims (9)

  1. 一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法,其特征在于,步骤包括:A method for supporting and limiting subsidence of a pseudo-goaf formed by rock gangue, which is characterized in that the steps include:
    步骤一.根据采场的开采范围和煤层赋存情况,确定工作面参数,并计算薄形浆体墙和输出管的配置间距;Step 1. Determine the parameters of the working face according to the mining area of the stope and the occurrence of coal seams, and calculate the configuration distance between the thin slurry wall and the output pipe;
    步骤二.布置轨道下山、运输下山、回风下山和联巷,沿下山的走向布置第一工作面,开切眼并构建b形工作面并完成工作面通风;Step 2. Arrange the track downhill, transportation downhill, return wind downhill and joint lanes, arrange the first working face along the downhill direction, open the cut and construct a b-shaped working face and complete the working face ventilation;
    步骤三.工作面开采后方悬顶先利用临时支撑控制悬顶,沿走向在工作面巷道内逐个设置浆体墙模,并向浆体墙模内注浆,形成薄板形的浆体墙;Step 3. After the mining of the working face, the suspended roof first uses temporary supports to control the suspended roof, and sets the slurry wall molds one by one in the working face tunnel along the direction, and injects grouting into the slurry wall molds to form a thin plate-shaped slurry wall;
    步骤四.工作面继续回采,在工作面后方强制放顶形成矸石层,钻孔贯穿矸石层安装输出管,输出管向矸石层内注浆,以输出管为顶轴形成拱形支撑段;Step 4. Continue mining at the working face, force the roof to form a gangue layer behind the working face, drill a hole through the gangue layer to install an output pipe, the output pipe is grouted into the gangue layer, and the output pipe is used as the jack shaft to form an arched support section;
    步骤五.工作面回采结束,多个拱形支撑段和浆体墙组合形成支护伪层;Step 5. At the end of working face mining, multiple arched support sections and slurry walls are combined to form a supporting pseudo layer;
    步骤六.保留工作面的运输顺槽,相邻工作面布置为p形开采工作面,重复步骤三至步骤五,并通过供液管向废弃的运输顺槽内注浆,胶结巷道内垮落的矸石形成巷内筑体;Step 6. Keep the transportation channel of the working face, the adjacent working face is arranged as a p-shaped mining face, repeat steps 3 to 5, and inject grouting into the abandoned transportation channel through the liquid supply pipe, and cement the roadway to collapse The gangue forms a building in the lane;
    步骤七.在巷道内布置局部通风机向下一工作面鼓风,设置风门控制通风风量完成工作面通风;Step 7. Arrange a local ventilator in the tunnel to blow air to the next working face, and set a damper to control the ventilation air volume to complete the working face ventilation;
    步骤八.重复步骤三至步骤七直至完成对开采范围内的回采,在采场采空区构筑包括支护伪层和巷内筑体的完整伪采空层。Step 8. Repeat steps three to seven until the stoping in the mining area is completed, and construct a complete pseudo-goaf layer including the supporting pseudo-layer and the structure in the lane in the goaf area of the stope.
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法,其特征在于,所述b形工作面通风路径为:轨道下山-b形工作面-运输顺槽-联巷-回风下山。According to claim 1, a method for supporting and limiting subsidence of a pseudo-goaf with rock gangue coordinated formation, wherein the b-shaped working face ventilation path is: track downhill-b-shaped working face-transportation trough -Lianxiang-Return wind down the mountain.
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法,其特征在于,所述p形工作面通风路径为:轨道下山-新联巷-p形工作面-新运输顺槽-运输顺槽-联巷-回风下山。According to claim 1, the method for supporting and limiting subsidence of the pseudo mined-out layer supported by rock gangue is characterized in that the ventilation path of the p-shaped working face is: track downhill-xinlian lane-p-shaped working face -New transportation along the way-transportation along the way-joint lanes-return wind down the mountain.
  4. 根据权利要求1所述的一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法,其特征在于,所述临时支撑包括支柱和挡风板,支柱支撑在顶板下方,挡风板长度与工作面相等并沿着平行于工作面的方向布置相对布置。According to claim 1, a method for supporting and limiting subsidence of the pseudo mined-out strata formed by rock gangue, wherein the temporary support comprises a pillar and a wind deflector, the pillar is supported below the top plate, and the length of the wind deflector is It is equal to the working surface and arranged oppositely along the direction parallel to the working surface.
  5. 根据权利要求1所述的一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法,其特征在于,所述运输顺槽内布置的浆体墙模的厚度为0.4-0.5m,高度等于工作面开采采高,每个浆体墙模的长度为1-2m;所述轨道下山内布置的浆体墙模的厚度为0.8-1m,高度等于工作面开采采高,每个浆体墙模的长度为1-2m。According to claim 1, a method for supporting and limiting subsidence of a pseudo-goaf formed by rock gangue, characterized in that the thickness of the slurry wall mold arranged in the transportation trough is 0.4-0.5m, and the height is 0.4-0.5m. It is equal to the mining height of the working face, and the length of each slurry wall mold is 1-2m; the thickness of the slurry wall mold arranged in the mountain under the track is 0.8-1m, and the height is equal to the mining height of the working face. The length of the wall mould is 1-2m.
  6. 根据权利要求1所述的一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法,其特征在于,所述轨道下山和运输顺槽内均布置有供液管,供液系统通过供液管送浆,各个输出管分别与供液管相连。According to claim 1, a rock gangue coordinated formation of a pseudo mined-out layer support limited settlement recovery method, characterized in that, the track downhill and transportation along the trough are arranged with liquid supply pipes, the liquid supply system through the supply The liquid pipe delivers slurry, and each output pipe is respectively connected with the liquid supply pipe.
  7. 根据权利要求6所述的一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法,其特征在于,所述输出管上沿两个相对的侧面均匀设置有多个输液孔,输出管埋设在稳定岩体下方的矸石层内。According to claim 6, a method for supporting and limiting subsidence of a pseudo mined-out layer with rock gangue coordinated formation, wherein the output pipe is evenly provided with a plurality of infusion holes along two opposite sides, and the output pipe Buried in the gangue layer under the stable rock mass.
  8. 根据权利要求7所述的一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法,其特征在于,所述输出管水平放置,输液孔沿输出管轴线在同一水平高度对称放置;工作面沿开采方向均匀的划分为多个分段,每个分段内在分段中部设置输出管,浆液沿输液孔流出后形成对称的拱形胶结矸石块体。The method for supporting and limiting subsidence of pseudo mined-out strata with rock gangue coordinated formation according to claim 7, wherein the output pipe is placed horizontally, and the liquid infusion holes are placed symmetrically at the same level along the axis of the output pipe; The surface is evenly divided into a number of sections along the mining direction, each section is provided with an output pipe in the middle of the section, and the slurry flows out along the infusion hole to form a symmetrical arch-shaped cemented gangue block.
  9. 根据权利要求1所述的一种岩矸配合成形的伪采空层支护限沉回采方法,其特征在于,所述局部通风机连接有通风软管,通风软管随工作面推进延伸。According to claim 1, the method for supporting and limiting subsidence of the pseudo-goaf formed by rock gangue is characterized in that a ventilation hose is connected to the local ventilator, and the ventilation hose extends along with the working surface.
PCT/CN2020/104031 2020-05-26 2020-07-24 Subsidence-restricted stoping method for false mined-out layer support formed in combination with waste rock WO2021237912A1 (en)

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