WO2021143446A1 - 金属表面处理方法 - Google Patents

金属表面处理方法 Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2021143446A1
WO2021143446A1 PCT/CN2020/137171 CN2020137171W WO2021143446A1 WO 2021143446 A1 WO2021143446 A1 WO 2021143446A1 CN 2020137171 W CN2020137171 W CN 2020137171W WO 2021143446 A1 WO2021143446 A1 WO 2021143446A1
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Prior art keywords
metal
metal product
acid
aluminum film
purification
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PCT/CN2020/137171
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English (en)
French (fr)
Inventor
曾小杰
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深圳市益联塑胶有限公司
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Publication of WO2021143446A1 publication Critical patent/WO2021143446A1/zh

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Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23GCLEANING OR DE-GREASING OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY CHEMICAL METHODS OTHER THAN ELECTROLYSIS
    • C23G1/00Cleaning or pickling metallic material with solutions or molten salts
    • C23G1/02Cleaning or pickling metallic material with solutions or molten salts with acid solutions
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B24GRINDING; POLISHING
    • B24BMACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING; DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
    • B24B31/00Machines or devices designed for polishing or abrading surfaces on work by means of tumbling apparatus or other apparatus in which the work and/or the abrasive material is loose; Accessories therefor
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/06Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material characterised by the coating material
    • C23C14/14Metallic material, boron or silicon
    • C23C14/16Metallic material, boron or silicon on metallic substrates or on substrates of boron or silicon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C14/00Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material
    • C23C14/58After-treatment
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C16/00Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes
    • C23C16/06Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes characterised by the deposition of metallic material
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C16/00Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition [CVD] processes
    • C23C16/56After-treatment
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C2/00Hot-dipping or immersion processes for applying the coating material in the molten state without affecting the shape; Apparatus therefor
    • C23C2/04Hot-dipping or immersion processes for applying the coating material in the molten state without affecting the shape; Apparatus therefor characterised by the coating material
    • C23C2/12Aluminium or alloys based thereon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C2/00Hot-dipping or immersion processes for applying the coating material in the molten state without affecting the shape; Apparatus therefor
    • C23C2/26After-treatment
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25DPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PRODUCTION OF COATINGS; ELECTROFORMING; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25D11/00Electrolytic coating by surface reaction, i.e. forming conversion layers
    • C25D11/02Anodisation
    • C25D11/04Anodisation of aluminium or alloys based thereon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25DPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PRODUCTION OF COATINGS; ELECTROFORMING; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25D11/00Electrolytic coating by surface reaction, i.e. forming conversion layers
    • C25D11/02Anodisation
    • C25D11/04Anodisation of aluminium or alloys based thereon
    • C25D11/18After-treatment, e.g. pore-sealing
    • C25D11/24Chemical after-treatment
    • C25D11/246Chemical after-treatment for sealing layers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C25ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PROCESSES; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25DPROCESSES FOR THE ELECTROLYTIC OR ELECTROPHORETIC PRODUCTION OF COATINGS; ELECTROFORMING; APPARATUS THEREFOR
    • C25D3/00Electroplating: Baths therefor
    • C25D3/02Electroplating: Baths therefor from solutions
    • C25D3/42Electroplating: Baths therefor from solutions of light metals
    • C25D3/44Aluminium

Definitions

  • the invention relates to the technical field of metal surface treatment, in particular to a metal surface treatment method.
  • metal surface treatment and decoration technology is changing day by day, and the decorative effects of metal surface are rich and colorful.
  • the most commonly used metal surface treatment and decoration techniques in actual production and manufacturing include: plating decoration, coating decoration, phosphating treatment, anodizing and coloring treatment, etc.
  • the most commonly used metal surface treatment decoration technology generally has the following shortcomings: there are many pre-treatment processes and the treatment process requirements are harsh; the surface treatment and decoration process consumes acids and alkalis and other chemicals. Large, unfavorable to the environment and occupational health; after decoration, hidden molding defects such as air marks, flow marks, sand holes, etc. are exposed, resulting in a low pass rate of the final product. Therefore, the existing technology needs to be developed.
  • the main purpose of the present invention is to provide a metal surface treatment method, which aims to simplify the metal surface treatment process and improve the metal surface treatment effect.
  • the present invention provides a metal surface treatment method, which includes the following steps:
  • the surface of the purified metal product is coated with aluminum film
  • the biological abrasive includes at least one of rice husk, rapeseed husk, wood flour, rapeseed, walnut husk powder, and corn cob; the time for the dry polishing of the surface of the metal product by the biological abrasive It is 15 to 30 minutes.
  • the step of purifying the surface of the polished metal product includes:
  • the metal products washed with deionized water are dried at a constant temperature.
  • the step of chemically purifying the metal product includes:
  • the article is placed on the metal pool chemical purification soak for 10 to 30 seconds; the chemical purification tanks accommodating a first purified fluid; the first purified fluid comprises hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, oxalic acid, boric acid, hydrofluoric acid, acetic acid, ammonium bifluoride is at least one; and the concentration of the solution is first purified 2g / L ⁇ 20g / L, PH value of 2.5 to 6.0.
  • the step of mechanically and chemically purifying the chemically purified metal product includes:
  • the metal article is placed for 5 to 20 minutes the mechanical and chemical purification apparatus; accommodating purified fluid and a second steel balls or ceramic balls within the mechanical and chemical purification unit; the mechanical and chemical purification apparatus by rotation
  • the second purification liquid and the steel ball or ceramic ball are subjected to mechanical and chemical purification of the metal product by the collision force of the steel ball or the ceramic ball and the scouring force of the second purification liquid;
  • the second purification solution includes at least one of hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, oxalic acid, boric acid, hydrofluoric acid, glacial acetic acid, and ammonium bifluoride; the concentration of the first purification solution is 1g/L ⁇ 20g/L, and the pH value It is 2.5 ⁇ 5.0; the temperature is 50 ⁇ C ⁇ 100 ⁇ C.
  • the second purification solution further includes at least one of sulfamic acid, aluminum salt, sodium persulfate, and hexamethylenetetramine.
  • the step of drying the metal product cleaned with deionized water at a constant temperature includes:
  • drying temperature is 100 ⁇ C ⁇ 200 ⁇ C; drying time of 20 to 60 minutes.
  • the step of coating the surface of the purified metal product with an aluminum film includes:
  • An aluminum film is formed on the surface of the purified metal product by hot dip plating, electrolytic plating, solvent plating or vapor deposition.
  • the step of coloring the aluminum film includes:
  • a colored layer is formed on the surface of the aluminum film by anodizing, vapor deposition, electrochemical deposition, baking varnish, water transfer, thermal transfer or spray painting.
  • the step of performing sealing treatment on the aluminum film after the coloring treatment includes:
  • the sealing agent is attached to the surface of the colored layer by dipping, spraying or spraying to form a sealing layer;
  • the sealing agent includes an organic corrosion inhibitor, a surfactant, a curing agent, and a water-soluble polymer ;
  • the metal product on which the sealing layer is formed is placed in a room temperature environment for 4 to 8 hours to dry the sealing layer.
  • the technical scheme of the present invention polishes metal products by dry polishing, which effectively saves the pre-treatment process and reduces the discharge of waste water; purifies by dilute acid solution, which effectively reduces the consumption of acid and alkali chemicals and is beneficial to environmental protection; Color treatment can effectively beautify the appearance of metal products; through sealing treatment, the wear resistance and corrosion resistance of metal products can be improved; and the technical scheme of the present invention can effectively reduce the cost of technical surface treatment.
  • Fig. 1 is a flowchart of an embodiment of a metal surface treatment method of the present invention
  • FIG. 2 is a flowchart of the steps of purifying the surface of the polished metal product shown in FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 3 is a flowchart of an embodiment of the steps of performing sealing treatment on the aluminum film after the coloring process shown in FIG. 1;
  • FIG. 4 is a flowchart of another embodiment of the steps of performing the sealing treatment on the aluminum film after the coloring process shown in FIG. 1.
  • the present invention implements and proposes a metal surface treatment method.
  • FIG. 1 is a flowchart of an embodiment of a metal surface treatment method of the present invention.
  • Step S10 dry polishing the surface of the metal product by the biological abrasive.
  • the soft polishing refers to simple surface grinding and polishing of metal products.
  • the dry polishing treatment of the surface of the metal product by the bioabrasive specifically refers to: using one of rice husk, rapeseed husk, wood flour, rapeseed, walnut husk powder, and corn on the cob. Or a variety of biological abrasives perform dry polishing on the surface of the metal product, which is also called soft polishing.
  • the polishing time is 15 to 30 minutes.
  • dry polishing is used to achieve the polishing treatment of the metal product table, which not only effectively simplifies the polishing process, but also does not Waste water is produced, which effectively reduces water consumption while benefiting environmental protection.
  • the soft polishing of environmentally friendly biological abrasives will only reduce the surface roughness of metal products, improve the surface gloss, and will not damage the edges and corners of the appearance of the metal products, thereby effectively ensuring the polishing effect.
  • Step S20 Purify the surface of the polished metal product.
  • the purification refers to removing impurities on the surface of metal products and improving the purity of the metal structure on the surface of metal products.
  • the surface of zinc alloy and aluminum alloy die-casting metal products will be contaminated with grease impurities during the die-casting process.
  • some non-metallic impurities of zinc alloy and aluminum alloy materials themselves will be exposed on the surface of metal products after high temperature and high pressure injection.
  • FIG. 2 is a flowchart of the steps of purifying the surface of the polished metal product shown in FIG. 1.
  • the step of purifying the surface of the polished metal product includes:
  • Step S21 chemically purify the metal product.
  • the step of chemically purifying the metal product includes:
  • the article is placed on the metal pool chemical purification soak for 10 to 30 seconds; the chemical purification tanks accommodating a first purified fluid; the first purified fluid comprises hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, oxalic acid, boric acid, hydrofluoric acid, acetic acid, ammonium bifluoride is at least one; and the concentration of the solution is first purified 2g / L ⁇ 20g / L, PH value of 2.5 to 6.0.
  • the first purification solution is a dilute acid solution, which effectively reduces the consumption of acid and alkali chemicals.
  • Step S22 performing mechanical and chemical purification on the metal product after chemical purification.
  • the step of mechanically and chemically purifying the chemically purified metal product includes:
  • the metal article is placed for 5 to 20 minutes the mechanical and chemical purification apparatus; accommodating purified fluid and a second steel balls or ceramic balls within the mechanical and chemical purification unit; the mechanical and chemical purification apparatus by rotation
  • the second purification liquid and the steel ball or ceramic ball are subjected to mechanical and chemical purification of the metal product by the collision force of the steel ball or the ceramic ball and the scouring force of the second purification liquid;
  • the second purification solution includes at least one of hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, oxalic acid, boric acid, hydrofluoric acid, glacial acetic acid, and ammonium bifluoride; the concentration of the first purification solution is 1g/L ⁇ 20g/L, and the pH value It is 2.5 ⁇ 5.0; the temperature is 50 ⁇ C ⁇ 100 ⁇ C.
  • the second purification liquid is a dilute acid liquid, which also effectively reduces the consumption of acid and alkali chemicals.
  • the second purification solution further includes at least one of sulfamic acid, aluminum salt, sodium persulfate, and hexamethylenetetramine.
  • Step S23 cleaning the metal product after mechanical and chemical purification with deionized water.
  • the metal product is transferred to a cleaning tank and cleaned with deionized water, and the cleaning times are 2 to 3 times.
  • Step S24 drying the metal product cleaned with deionized water at a constant temperature.
  • the step of performing constant temperature drying of the metal product after cleaning with deionized water includes: placing the metal product after cleaning with deionized water in a constant temperature oven for drying; and the drying temperature is 100 ⁇ C ⁇ 200 ⁇ C; drying time is 20 ⁇ 60 minutes.
  • step S30 the surface of the purified metal product is coated with an aluminum film.
  • the covered aluminum film refers to: covering a layer of pure aluminum film on the surface of a metal product. After the metal product is coated, the metal surface of the metal product is made of pure aluminum with high activity, which is beneficial for the subsequent metal surface decoration and coloring process.
  • the pure aluminum film is a microscopically porous film that conceals the flaws on the surface of metal products, which is beneficial to improve the pass rate of metal surface decoration. After the surface metal of the metal product is purified, the surface metal activity will increase, and a microscopic porous oxide layer will be formed on the surface, which is conducive to the adsorption and combination of the surface of the metal product and the coated pure aluminum film, and improves the adhesion.
  • the step of coating the surface of the purified metal product with an aluminum film includes: performing hot dip plating, electrolytic plating, solvent plating, or vapor deposition on the purified metal product.
  • An aluminum film is formed on the surface of the metal layer. The details can be determined according to the metal material of the metal product.
  • Step S40 performing coloring processing on the aluminum film.
  • the coloring refers to: decorating colors on the surface of metal products.
  • the surface of metal products is covered with aluminum film, and the surface metal property is pure aluminum.
  • pure aluminum is one of the most mature and easy metal materials in metal surface treatment and decoration technology.
  • the color of the aluminum metal bottom is silvery white, and the surface is beautiful and dazzling after coloring.
  • Aluminum metal has high activity, and the metal surface has good adhesion to the pigment after coloring.
  • non-aluminum metal such as zinc alloy die-cast metal products can be anodized to achieve very beautiful colors.
  • the step of coloring the aluminum film includes: applying anodizing, vapor deposition, electrochemical deposition, baking varnish, water transfer, thermal transfer, or inkjet printing to the aluminum film.
  • a colored layer is formed on the surface of the aluminum film. The details can be determined according to the design requirements of metal products.
  • Step S50 performing a sealing process on the aluminum film after the coloring process.
  • the sealing refers to: the colored surface of the metal product is covered and sealed with a sealing agent to improve the weather resistance, high hardness and abrasion resistance, high gloss and high adhesion of the metal product surface.
  • the principle of the sealing treatment is that the sealing agent penetrates, blocks the pores in the colored coating, and isolates and seals the coating migration.
  • FIG. 3 is a flowchart of an embodiment of the steps of performing the sealing process on the aluminum film after the coloring process shown in FIG. 1.
  • the step of performing a sealing process on the aluminum film after the coloring process includes:
  • Step S51 attaching the sealing agent to the surface of the colored layer by dipping, spraying or spraying, to form a sealing layer.
  • the sealing agent includes an organic corrosion inhibitor, a surfactant, a curing agent, and a water-soluble polymer;
  • Step S52 Place the metal product on which the sealing layer is formed in a constant temperature oven for drying treatment, so that the sealing layer is dry and solid.
  • the constant temperature oven drying temperature of 60 ⁇ 80 ⁇ C, the drying time is 15 to 30 minutes.
  • FIG. 4 is a flowchart of another embodiment of the steps of performing the sealing process on the aluminum film after the coloring process shown in FIG. 1.
  • the step of performing a sealing process on the aluminum film after the coloring process includes:
  • Step S53 Attach the sealing agent to the surface of the colored layer by dipping, spraying or spraying to form a sealing layer.
  • the sealing agent includes an organic corrosion inhibitor, a surfactant, a curing agent, and a water-soluble polymer;
  • Step S54 Place the metal product on which the sealing layer is formed in a room temperature environment for 4 to 8 hours to dry the sealing layer.
  • the technical solution of this embodiment uses dry polishing to polish metal products, which effectively saves pre-treatment procedures and reduces waste water discharge; purifies with dilute acid solution, which effectively reduces the consumption of acid and alkali chemicals, which is beneficial to environmental protection; Coloring treatment can effectively beautify the appearance of metal products; through sealing treatment, the wear resistance and corrosion resistance of metal products can be improved; and the technical solution of this embodiment can effectively reduce the cost of technical surface treatment.
  • the technical scheme of the present invention polishes metal products by dry polishing, which effectively saves the pre-treatment process and reduces the discharge of waste water; purifies by dilute acid solution, which effectively reduces the consumption of acid and alkali chemicals and is beneficial to environmental protection; Color treatment can effectively beautify the appearance of metal products; through sealing treatment, the wear resistance and corrosion resistance of metal products can be improved; and the technical scheme of the present invention can effectively reduce the cost of technical surface treatment. Therefore, it has industrial applicability.

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  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Chemical Kinetics & Catalysis (AREA)
  • Materials Engineering (AREA)
  • Metallurgy (AREA)
  • Organic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • General Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Electrochemistry (AREA)
  • Chemical Treatment Of Metals (AREA)
  • Other Surface Treatments For Metallic Materials (AREA)

Abstract

一种金属表面处理方法,包括如下步骤:通过生物磨料对金属制品的表面进行干抛光处理;对抛光处理后的金属制品的表面进行提纯处理;在提纯处理后的金属制品的表面被覆铝膜;对所述铝膜进行上色处理;对上色处理后的铝膜进行封闭处理。通过干抛光的方式对金属制品进行抛光,有效节省前处理工序,减少废水的排放;通过稀酸液进行提纯,有效降低酸碱类化学品消耗,有利于环保;通过上色处理,可以有效美化金属制品的外观;通过封闭处理,提高金属制品的耐磨与耐腐蚀性;且可以有效降低技术表面处理的成本。

Description

金属表面处理方法 技术领域
本发明涉及金属表面处理技术领域,特别涉及一种金属表面处理方法。
背景技术
随着消费者审美标准的提高及现代金属制造技术的快速发展,金属表面处理装饰技术日新月异,金属表面的装饰效果丰富多彩。
目前现实生产制造中最常用的金属表面处理装饰技术有:镀层装饰、涂层装饰、磷化处理、阳极氧化及着色处理等。但针对锌合金和铝合金压铸成型类金属制品而言,采用最常用的金属表面处理装饰技术普遍存在以下缺点:前处理工序繁多,处理工艺要求苛刻;表面处理装饰过程对酸碱等化学品消耗大,对环境及职业健康不利;装饰后隐藏的成型缺陷气痕、流痕、沙孔等表露,造成最终产品合格率低。因此现有技术有待发展。
技术问题
本发明的主要目的是提供一种金属表面处理方法,旨在简化金属表面处理工序,提高金属表面处理效果。
技术解决方案
为实现上述目的,本发明提出一种金属表面处理方法,包括如下步骤:
通过生物磨料对金属制品的表面进行干抛光处理;
对抛光处理后的金属制品的表面进行提纯处理;
在提纯处理后的金属制品的表面被覆铝膜;
对所述铝膜进行上色处理;
对上色处理后的铝膜进行封闭处理。
可选的,所述生物磨料包括稻壳、菜籽壳、木粉、菜籽、核桃壳粉、玉米棒中的至少一种;所述通过生物磨料对金属制品的表面进行干抛光处理的时间为15 ~30分钟。
可选的,所述对抛光处理后的金属制品的表面进行提纯处理的步骤包括:
将所述金属制品进行化学提纯;
将化学提纯后的所述金属制品进行机械与化学提纯;
将机械与化学提纯后的所述金属制品进行去离子水清洗;
将去离子水清洗后的所述金属制品进行恒温烘干。
可选的,所述将所述金属制品进行化学提纯的步骤包括:
将所述金属制品放置于化学提纯池内浸泡10 ~30秒;所述化学提纯池内盛放有第一提纯液;所述第一提纯液包括盐酸、硝酸、硫酸、磷酸、草酸、硼酸、氢氟酸、冰醋酸、氟化氢铵中的至少一种;所述第一提纯液的浓度为2g/L ~20g/L,PH值为2.5 ~6.0。
可选的,所述将化学提纯后的所述金属制品进行机械与化学提纯的步骤包括:
将所述金属制品放置于机械与化学提纯装置内处理5 ~20分钟;所述机械与化学提纯装置内盛放有第二提纯液与钢球或陶瓷球;所述机械与化学提纯装置通过旋转所述第二提纯液与所述钢球或陶瓷球,通过所述钢球或陶瓷球的碰撞力与所述第二提纯液的冲刷力对所述金属制品进行机械与化学提纯;所述第二提纯液包括盐酸、硝酸、硫酸、磷酸、草酸、硼酸、氢氟酸、冰醋酸、氟化氢铵中的至少一种;所述第一提纯液的浓度为1g/L ~20g/L,PH值为2.5 ~5.0;温度为50˚C ~100˚C。
可选的,所述第二提纯液还包括氨基磺酸、铝盐、过硫酸钠、六次甲基四胺中的至少一种。
可选的,所述将去离子水清洗后的所述金属制品进行恒温烘干的步骤包括:
将去离子水清洗后的所述金属制品放置于恒温烘箱内进行烘干;烘干温度为100˚C ~200˚C;烘干时间为20 ~60分钟。
可选的,所述在提纯处理后的金属制品的表面被覆铝膜的步骤包括:
通过热浸镀、电解电镀、溶剂电镀或气相沉积的方式在提纯处理后的金属制品的表面形成铝膜。
可选的,所述对所述铝膜进行上色处理的步骤包括:
通过阳极氧化、气相沉积、电化沉积、烤漆、水转印、热转印或喷绘的方式在所述铝膜的表面形成上色层。
可选的,所述对上色处理后的铝膜进行封闭处理的步骤包括:
将封闭剂通过浸渍、喷涂或喷淋的方式附着于所述上色层的表面,以形成封闭层;所述封闭剂包括有机缓蚀剂、表面活性剂、固化剂、水溶性高分子聚合物;
将形成有所述封闭层的所述金属制品放置于恒温烘箱进行烘干处理,以使得所述封闭层干固,烘干温度为60 ~80˚C,烘干时间为15 ~30分钟;或将形成有所述封闭层的所述金属制品置于常温环境中4 ~8小时,以使得所述封闭层干固。
有益效果
本发明技术方案具有的有益效果:
    本发明的技术方案,通过干抛光的方式对金属制品进行抛光,有效节省前处理工序,减少废水的排放;通过稀酸液进行提纯,有效降低酸碱类化学品消耗,有利于环保;通过上色处理,可以有效美化金属制品的外观;通过封闭处理,提高金属制品的耐磨与耐腐蚀性;且本发明的技术方案,可以有效降低技术表面处理的成本。
附图说明
为了更清楚地说明本发明实施例或现有技术中的技术方案,下面将对实施例或现有技术描述中所需要使用的附图作简单地介绍,显而易见地,下面描述中的附图仅仅是本发明的一些实施例,对于本领域普通技术人员来讲,在不付出创造性劳动的前提下,还可以根据这些附图示出的结构获得其他的附图。
图1为本发明金属表面处理方法一实施例的流程图;
图2为图1所示的对抛光处理后的金属制品的表面进行提纯处理的步骤的流程图;
图3为图1所示的对上色处理后的铝膜进行封闭处理的步骤的一实施例的流程图;
图4为图1所示的对上色处理后的铝膜进行封闭处理的步骤的另一实施例的流程图。
    本发明目的的实现、功能特点及优点将结合实施例,参照附图做进一步说明。
本发明的实施方式
下面将结合本发明实施例中的附图,对本发明实施例中的技术方案进行清楚、完整地描述,显然,所描述的实施例仅仅是本发明的一部分实施例,而不是全部的实施例。基于本发明中的实施例,本领域普通技术人员在没有作出创造性劳动前提下所获得的所有其他实施例,都属于本发明保护的范围。
本发明实施了提出一种金属表面处理方法。
如图1所示,图1为本发明金属表面处理方法一实施例的流程图。
本实施例的金属表面处理方法,包括如下步骤:
步骤S10、通过生物磨料对金属制品的表面进行干抛光处理。
所述柔抛是指:将金属制品进行简单的表面研磨抛光。
具体的,在本实施例中,所述通过生物磨料对金属制品的表面进行干抛光处理具体指:通过稻壳、菜籽壳、木粉、菜籽、核桃壳粉、玉米棒中的一种或多种生物磨料对所述金属制品的表面进行干抛光,也称为柔抛。抛光处理的时间为15 ~30分钟。
相比现有的手抛、粗抛、精抛、水震等多道抛光工序,本实施例中采用干抛光的方式实现对金属制品表的抛光处理,不但有效简化了抛光工序,还不会产生废水,有效减小了水消耗的同时利于环境保护。且环保生物磨料柔抛,只会降低金属制品表面粗糙度,提高表面光泽度,不会损伤金属制品外观形状棱角,进而有效保证了抛光效果。
步骤S20、对抛光处理后的金属制品的表面进行提纯处理。
所述提纯是指:消除金属制品表面杂质,提高金属制品表面金属组织纯度。锌合金、铝合金压铸成型类金属制品,在压铸成型过程中表面会沾污油脂类杂质,同时锌合金、铝合金材料本身一些非金属类杂质经高温、高压注射后会显露于金属制品表面。
具体的,如图2所示,图2为图1所示的对抛光处理后的金属制品的表面进行提纯处理的步骤的流程图。在本实施例中,所述对抛光处理后的金属制品的表面进行提纯处理的步骤包括:
步骤S21、将所述金属制品进行化学提纯。
具体的,所述将所述金属制品进行化学提纯的步骤包括:
将所述金属制品放置于化学提纯池内浸泡10 ~30秒;所述化学提纯池内盛放有第一提纯液;所述第一提纯液包括盐酸、硝酸、硫酸、磷酸、草酸、硼酸、氢氟酸、冰醋酸、氟化氢铵中的至少一种;所述第一提纯液的浓度为2g/L ~20g/L,PH值为2.5 ~6.0。在本实施例中,所述第一提纯液为稀酸液,有效降低了酸碱类化学品消耗。
步骤S22、将化学提纯后的所述金属制品进行机械与化学提纯。
具体的,所述将化学提纯后的所述金属制品进行机械与化学提纯的步骤包括:
将所述金属制品放置于机械与化学提纯装置内处理5 ~20分钟;所述机械与化学提纯装置内盛放有第二提纯液与钢球或陶瓷球;所述机械与化学提纯装置通过旋转所述第二提纯液与所述钢球或陶瓷球,通过所述钢球或陶瓷球的碰撞力与所述第二提纯液的冲刷力对所述金属制品进行机械与化学提纯;所述第二提纯液包括盐酸、硝酸、硫酸、磷酸、草酸、硼酸、氢氟酸、冰醋酸、氟化氢铵中的至少一种;所述第一提纯液的浓度为1g/L ~20g/L,PH值为2.5 ~5.0;温度为50˚C ~100˚C。在本实施例中,所述第二提纯液为稀酸液,同样有效降低了酸碱类化学品消耗。
进一步的,所述第二提纯液还包括氨基磺酸、铝盐、过硫酸钠、六次甲基四胺中的至少一种。该些添加剂的使用可以有效降低稀酸液对环境的负面影响。
步骤S23、将机械与化学提纯后的所述金属制品进行去离子水清洗。
具体的,在本实施例中,机械与化学提纯完成后,将所述金属制品转移到清洗槽中,利用去去离子水清洗干净,清洗次数2 ~3次。
步骤S24、将去离子水清洗后的所述金属制品进行恒温烘干。
具体的,所述将去离子水清洗后的所述金属制品进行恒温烘干的步骤包括:将去离子水清洗后的所述金属制品放置于恒温烘箱内进行烘干;烘干温度为100˚C ~200˚C;烘干时间为20 ~60分钟。
步骤S30、在提纯处理后的金属制品的表面被覆铝膜。
所述被覆铝膜指:在金属制品表面覆盖一层纯铝膜。金属制品被覆后,金属制品表面金属属性为活性高的纯铝材质,有利后续金属表面装饰上色工序。纯铝膜是一层微观上多孔的薄膜,将金属制品表面的瑕疵遮掩,有利于提高金属表面装饰的合格率。金属制品的表面金属经过提纯处理后,表面金属活性增强,表面将生成微观多孔的氧化层,有利于金属制品表面与被覆纯铝膜的界面吸附结合,提高附着力。
具体的,在本实施例中,所述在提纯处理后的金属制品的表面被覆铝膜的步骤包括:通过热浸镀、电解电镀、溶剂电镀或气相沉积的方式在提纯处理后的金属制品的金属层的表面形成铝膜。具体可根据金属制品的金属材质确定。
步骤S40、对所述铝膜进行上色处理。
所述上色指:在金属制品表面装饰颜色。金属制品表面被覆铝膜,表面金属属性为纯铝材质,目前纯铝材质是金属表面处理装饰技术中最成熟,最容易的金属材料之一。铝金属底颜色为银白色,上色后表面颜色靓丽,炫目。铝金属活性高,上色后金属表面对颜料的附着力好。金属制品表面被覆铝膜后,非铝质金属例如锌合金压铸成型金属制品可以实现阳极氧化,达到非常靓丽的色彩。
具体的,在本实施例中,所述对所述铝膜进行上色处理的步骤包括:通过阳极氧化、气相沉积、电化沉积、烤漆、水转印、热转印或喷绘的方式在所述铝膜的表面形成上色层。具体可根据金属制品的设计要求确定。
步骤S50、对上色处理后的铝膜进行封闭处理。
所述封闭指:将金属制品上色后的表面利用封闭剂进行掩盖封闭处理,以提高金属制品表面的耐候抗腐蚀性、高硬耐磨擦性、光泽高附着力。封闭处理的原理是封闭剂渗透,堵塞上色涂层中的毛细孔,隔离和封闭涂层迁移。
具体的,如图3所示,图3为图1所示的对上色处理后的铝膜进行封闭处理的步骤的一实施例的流程图。在本实施例中,所述对上色处理后的铝膜进行封闭处理的步骤包括:
步骤S51、将封闭剂通过浸渍、喷涂或喷淋的方式附着于所述上色层的表面,以形成封闭层。所述封闭剂包括有机缓蚀剂、表面活性剂、固化剂、水溶性高分子聚合物;
步骤S52、将形成有所述封闭层的所述金属制品放置于恒温烘箱进行烘干处理,以使得所述封闭层干固。所述恒温烘箱的烘干温度为60 ~80˚C,烘干时间为15 ~30分钟。
进一步的,如图4所示,图4为图1所示的对上色处理后的铝膜进行封闭处理的步骤的另一实施例的流程图。在本实施例中,所述对上色处理后的铝膜进行封闭处理的步骤包括:
步骤S53、将封闭剂通过浸渍、喷涂或喷淋的方式附着于所述上色层的表面,以形成封闭层。所述封闭剂包括有机缓蚀剂、表面活性剂、固化剂、水溶性高分子聚合物;
步骤S54、将形成有所述封闭层的所述金属制品置于常温环境中4 ~8小时,以使得所述封闭层干固。
本实施例的技术方案,通过干抛光的方式对金属制品进行抛光,有效节省前处理工序,减少废水的排放;通过稀酸液进行提纯,有效降低酸碱类化学品消耗,有利于环保;通过上色处理,可以有效美化金属制品的外观;通过封闭处理,提高金属制品的耐磨与耐腐蚀性;且本实施例的技术方案,可以有效降低技术表面处理的成本。
以上所述仅为本发明的优选实施例,并非因此限制本发明的专利范围,凡是在本发明的发明构思下,利用本发明说明书及附图内容所作的等效结构变换,或直接/间接运用在其他相关的技术领域均包括在本发明的专利保护范围内。
工业实用性
本发明的技术方案,通过干抛光的方式对金属制品进行抛光,有效节省前处理工序,减少废水的排放;通过稀酸液进行提纯,有效降低酸碱类化学品消耗,有利于环保;通过上色处理,可以有效美化金属制品的外观;通过封闭处理,提高金属制品的耐磨与耐腐蚀性;且本发明的技术方案,可以有效降低技术表面处理的成本。因此,具有工业实用性。

Claims (10)

  1. 一种金属表面处理方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:
       通过生物磨料对金属制品的表面进行干抛光处理;
       对抛光处理后的金属制品的表面进行提纯处理;
       在提纯处理后的金属制品的表面被覆铝膜;
       对所述铝膜进行上色处理;
       对上色处理后的铝膜进行封闭处理。
  2. 如权利要求1所述的金属表面处理方法,其特征在于,所述生物磨料包括稻壳、菜籽壳、木粉、菜籽、核桃壳粉、玉米棒中的至少一种;所述通过生物磨料对金属制品的表面进行干抛光处理的时间为15~30分钟。
  3. 如权利要求1所述的金属表面处理方法,其特征在于,所述对抛光处理后的金属制品的 表面进行提纯处理的步骤包括:
        将所述金属制品进行化学提纯;
        将化学提纯后的所述金属制品进行机械与化学提纯;
        将机械与化学提纯后的所述金属制品进行去离子水清洗;
        将去离子水清洗后的所述金属制品进行恒温烘干。
  4. 如权利要求3所述的金属表面处理方法,其特征在于,所述将所述金属制品进行化学提纯的步骤包括:
        将所述金属制品放置于化学提纯池内浸泡10~30秒;所述化学提纯池内盛放有第一提纯液;所述第一提纯液包括盐酸、硝酸、硫酸、磷酸、草酸、硼酸、氢氟酸、冰醋酸、氟化氢铵中的至少一种;所述第一提纯液的浓度为2g/L~20g/L,PH值为2.5~6.0。
  5. 如权利要求3所述的金属表面处理方法,其特征在于,所述将化学提纯后的所述金属制品进行机械与化学提纯的步骤包括:
        将所述金属制品放置于机械与化学提纯装置内处理5~20分钟;所述机械与化学提纯装置内盛放有第二提纯液与钢球或陶瓷球;所述机械与化学提纯装置通过旋转所述第二提纯液与所述钢球或陶瓷球,通过所述钢球或陶瓷球的碰撞力与所述第二提纯液的冲刷力对所述金属制品进行机械与化学提纯;所述第二提纯液包括盐酸、硝酸、硫酸、磷酸、草酸、硼酸、氢氟酸、冰醋酸、氟化氢铵中的至少一种;所述第一提纯液的浓度为1g/L~20g/L,PH值为2.5~5.0;温度为50˚C~100˚C。
  6. 如权利要求5所述的金属表面处理方法,其特征在于,所述第二提纯液还包括氨基磺酸、铝盐、过硫酸钠、六次甲基四胺中的至少一种。
  7. 如权利要求3所述的金属表面处理方法,其特征在于,所述将去离子水清洗后的所述金属制品进行恒温烘干的步骤包括:
        将去离子水清洗后的所述金属制品放置于恒温烘箱内进行烘干;烘干温度为100˚C~200˚C;烘干时间为20~60分钟。
  8. 如权利要求1所述的金属表面处理方法,其特征在于,所述在提纯处理后的金属制品的表面被覆铝膜的步骤包括:
        通过热浸镀、电解电镀、溶剂电镀或气相沉积的方式在提纯处理后的金属制品的表面形成铝膜。
  9. 如权利要求1所述的金属表面处理方法,其特征在于,所述对所述铝膜进行上色处理的步骤包括:
        通过阳极氧化、气相沉积、电化沉积、烤漆、水转印、热转印或喷绘的方式在所述铝膜的表面形成上色层。
  10. 如权利要求1所述的金属表面处理方法,其特征在于,所述对上色处理后的铝膜进行封闭处理的步骤包括:
        将封闭剂通过浸渍、喷涂或喷淋的方式附着于所述上色层的表面,以形成封闭层;所述封闭剂包括有机缓蚀剂、表面活性剂、固化剂、水溶性高分子聚合物;
    将形成有所述封闭层的所述金属制品放置于恒温烘箱进行烘干处理,以使得所述封闭层干固,烘干温度为60~80˚C,烘干时间为15~30分钟;或将形成有所述封闭层的所述金属制品置于常温环境中4~8小时,以使得所述封闭层干固。
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