WO2021031859A1 - Slab lowering construction method for underground structure in reverse construction method - Google Patents

Slab lowering construction method for underground structure in reverse construction method Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2021031859A1
WO2021031859A1 PCT/CN2020/107259 CN2020107259W WO2021031859A1 WO 2021031859 A1 WO2021031859 A1 WO 2021031859A1 CN 2020107259 W CN2020107259 W CN 2020107259W WO 2021031859 A1 WO2021031859 A1 WO 2021031859A1
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underground
construction
prefabricated
beams
slabs
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PCT/CN2020/107259
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French (fr)
Chinese (zh)
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于亚磊
龙莉波
罗恒
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上海建工二建集团有限公司
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Priority to CN201910777283.3A priority Critical patent/CN110792099A/en
Priority to CN201910777283.3 priority
Application filed by 上海建工二建集团有限公司 filed Critical 上海建工二建集团有限公司
Publication of WO2021031859A1 publication Critical patent/WO2021031859A1/en

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D29/00Independent underground or underwater structures; Retaining walls
    • E02D29/045Underground structures, e.g. tunnels or galleries, built in the open air or by methods involving disturbance of the ground surface all along the location line; Methods of making them
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D15/00Handling building or like materials for hydraulic engineering or foundations
    • E02D15/02Handling of bulk concrete specially for foundation or hydraulic engineering purposes
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/18Bulkheads or similar walls made solely of concrete in situ
    • E02D5/187Bulkheads or similar walls made solely of concrete in situ the bulkheads or walls being made continuously, e.g. excavating and constructing bulkheads or walls in the same process, without joints

Abstract

Disclosed is a slab lowering construction method for an underground structure in a reverse construction method, comprising the following steps: first constructing underground guide grooves and underground diaphragm walls, then constructing upright post piles, installing a crane frame and a crane, and placing precast beam slabs in which each layer is of an integral structure in a superimposed manner and fixing same by means of the crane; and then, sequentially lowering the precast beam slabs layer by layer by means of the crane to complete the construction of all the precast beam slabs. During the lowering process of the precast beam slabs, a plurality of pairs of laser range finders and targets provided on vertically adjacent precast beam slabs monitor whether the precast beam slabs are inclined, and a control terminal controls a servo mechanism of the crane to adjust the lowering speed of the crane, thereby ensuring that the precast beam slabs are lowered stably. According to the construction method, a reverse slab lowering construction technology is combined with a prefabricated construction technology, and therefore, the construction is easy and convenient, and is more efficient, stable and safe, and the construction equality is ensured.

Description

逆作法中地下结构的降板施工方法Construction method of lowering slab of underground structure in top-down construction method 技术领域Technical field
本发明涉及一种逆作法中地下结构的降板施工方法,属于建筑施工技术领域。The invention relates to a method for lowering a slab of an underground structure in a reverse construction method, and belongs to the technical field of building construction.
背景技术Background technique
目前,地下结构多采用逆作法施工,即自上而下的顺序逐层施工地下结构,而且,地下结构的楼板及梁均采用现浇的施工方式,该施工方法存在如下缺陷:At present, the underground structure is mostly constructed by the reverse construction method, that is, the underground structure is constructed layer by layer from top to bottom. Moreover, the floors and beams of the underground structure are all cast-in-place construction methods. This construction method has the following defects:
1、由于施工场地内部本身较为封闭狭小,现浇结构施工面临模板支架搭设不便,模板支设困难等难题,施工质量难以保障;而且,狭小空间内机械设备尾气排放集中,有毒气体消散速度慢,直接威胁施工人员的安全;1. Because the interior of the construction site itself is relatively closed and narrow, the construction of cast-in-place structures faces difficulties such as inconvenience of formwork support and difficulty of formwork support, and the construction quality is difficult to guarantee; moreover, the exhaust emissions of mechanical equipment in a small space are concentrated, and the toxic gas dissipates slowly. Directly threaten the safety of construction personnel;
2、现浇结构搭设模板支架需要消耗大量的钢材、木材,除B0板外,地下各层梁板结构施工所需的模板、钢筋、脚手架等均需由预留的狭小取土口运输,工作效率低下,而且,材料在运输过程中也不可避免会产生破损消耗;2. It takes a lot of steel and wood to build the formwork support of the cast-in-place structure. Except for the B0 plate, the formwork, steel bars, scaffolding, etc. required for the construction of the beam and slab structure of each underground layer must be transported by the reserved narrow earth borrowing port. The efficiency is low, and the material will inevitably be damaged and consumed during transportation;
3、地下结构混凝土浇筑完成后,需养护一段时间后才能形成强度,由于逆作法中地下梁板结构在作为永久结构梁板的同时也兼做临时水平支撑,所以每层楼板施工完成后需等待养护至设计强度后,才能进行下一步施工,混凝土养护时间占用大量工期,降低了施工效率。3. After the concrete pouring of the underground structure is completed, it needs to be cured for a period of time to form the strength. Because the underground beam and slab structure in the reverse construction method is used as a permanent structural beam and slab, it also serves as a temporary horizontal support, so you need to wait after the completion of the construction of each floor. After curing to the design strength, the next step of construction can be carried out. The concrete curing time takes up a lot of construction period and reduces the construction efficiency.
发明内容Summary of the invention
本发明提供的一种逆作法中地下结构的降板施工方法,每层的水平梁采用预制并形成整体结构,先依次降梁,完成预制梁板的施工,在预制梁板下放过程中,通过设置于上下相邻的预制梁板上的多对激光测距仪和标靶,监测预制梁板是否倾斜,通过控制终端控制吊机的伺服机构,调整吊机的下降速率,从 而保证预制梁板平稳下降。采用该施工方法,将逆作降板法施工技术与预制装配式施工技术相结合,施工简便且更加高效、稳定、安全,保障了施工质量。The invention provides a method for lowering the slab of an underground structure in a top-down construction method. The horizontal beams of each layer are prefabricated and form an integral structure. The beams are first lowered in order to complete the construction of the prefabricated beams and slabs. Multiple pairs of laser rangefinders and targets on adjacent prefabricated beams and slabs monitor whether the prefabricated beams and slabs are tilted, control the servo mechanism of the hoist through the control terminal, and adjust the descending rate of the hoist to ensure the stability of the prefabricated beams. decline. By adopting this construction method, the construction technology of the top-down construction method and the prefabricated construction technology are combined, and the construction is simpler and more efficient, stable and safe, and the construction quality is guaranteed.
为解决以上技术问题,本发明包括如下技术方案:To solve the above technical problems, the present invention includes the following technical solutions:
一种逆作法中地下结构的施工方法,地下结构共N层,该施工方法包括:A construction method of an underground structure in a top-down construction method. The underground structure has N layers. The construction method includes:
S1.在地面以下开挖导槽,在所述导槽内放置预制的地下连续墙,形成施工区域的围护结构;每个所述地下连续墙内侧沿其高度方向设有若干凹槽,在地下结构施工区域内打入多根立柱桩;S1. Excavate a guide channel below the ground, and place a prefabricated underground continuous wall in the guide channel to form the enclosure structure of the construction area; the inner side of each underground continuous wall is provided with a number of grooves along its height direction. Drive multiple piles into the construction area of the underground structure;
S2.在立柱桩上安放吊机架,在吊机架上设置若干吊机,每两个吊机为一组,吊机的位置与地下结构预制梁板的位置相对应;S2. Place a hanging frame on the column pile, and set up a number of cranes on the hanging frame, every two cranes are a group, and the position of the crane corresponds to the position of the prefabricated beam and slab of the underground structure;
S3.在所述地下结构施工区域内开挖土层至地下一层底部标高处,在地下一层的凹槽内安装临时支撑牛腿,将N个叠合放置的预制梁板通过吊机搁置于所述临时支撑牛腿上,N个叠合放置的所述预制梁板由上至下依次为第一层预制梁板、第二层预制梁板、…、第N层预制梁板,且所述第一层预制梁板位于设计标高处,所述第一层预制梁板与地下连续墙、立柱桩之间的连接节点采用后浇混凝土连接,完成地下结构地下一层顶部预制梁板的施工;其中,上下相邻的两层预制梁板上分别对应设置有多对标靶和激光测距仪;S3. Excavate the soil layer in the construction area of the underground structure to the elevation of the bottom of the underground floor, install temporary support corbels in the grooves of the underground floor, and place the N stacked prefabricated beams and slabs by the crane On the temporary support corbels, the N prefabricated beams and slabs superimposed are sequentially from top to bottom, the first layer of prefabricated beams, the second layer of prefabricated beams, ..., the Nth layer of prefabricated beams, and The first layer of prefabricated beams and slabs is located at the design elevation, and the connection nodes between the first layer of prefabricated beams and the underground continuous wall and the column piles are connected by post-pouring concrete to complete the underground structure Construction; Among them, two adjacent prefabricated beam slabs are respectively provided with multiple pairs of targets and laser rangefinders;
S4.在所述地下结构施工区域内开挖土层至地下二层标高,在地下二层的凹槽内安装临时支撑牛腿,将剩余的N-1个叠合放置的预制梁板通过吊机下降并搁置于临时支撑牛腿上,拆除第一层预制梁板下方的临时支撑牛腿,所述第二层预制梁板与地下连续墙、立柱桩之间的连接节点采用后浇混凝土连接,完成地下结构地下二层顶部预制梁板的施工;其中,采用吊机将预制梁板下降过程中,开启地下二层预制梁板上的激光测距仪,始终保持激光测距仪的激光照射在地下一层预制梁板下表面对应的标靶上,控制吊机的下降速度使每个激光测距仪的读数趋向一致;S4. Excavate the soil layer to the elevation of the second underground floor in the construction area of the underground structure, install temporary support corbels in the grooves of the second underground floor, and pass the remaining N-1 prefabricated beams and slabs stacked together. The machine is lowered and placed on the temporary support corbels, and the temporary support corbels under the first layer of prefabricated beams are removed. The connection nodes between the second layer of prefabricated beams and the underground continuous wall and column piles are connected by post-pouring concrete , To complete the construction of the prefabricated beams on the top of the second underground floor of the underground structure; among them, when the prefabricated beams are lowered by a crane, the laser rangefinder on the second underground prefabricated beams is turned on to always keep the laser irradiation of the laser rangefinder On the target corresponding to the lower surface of the prefabricated beam slab on the first underground floor, control the descending speed of the crane so that the readings of each laser rangefinder tend to be consistent;
S5.重复步骤S4完成地下结构地下三至五层顶部预制梁板的施工,然后拆除吊机和吊机架,浇筑地下结构的大底板。S5. Repeat step S4 to complete the construction of the prefabricated beams and slabs on the top of the third to fifth floors of the underground structure, and then remove the crane and hanging frame, and pour the large bottom plate of the underground structure.
进一步,地下结构第i层顶部预制梁板下方的临时支撑牛腿的顶部标高为H Li,其中, Further, the top elevation of the temporary support corbel under the prefabricated beam slab at the top of the i-th floor of the underground structure is H Li , where,
H Li=H Yi-B·(N+1-i);其中,i=1,2,…,N; H Li =H Yi -B·(N+1-i); where i=1, 2,..., N;
H Yi,为第i层预制梁板顶部的标高; H Yi is the elevation of the top of the i-th prefabricated beam;
B为预制梁板的高度。B is the height of the prefabricated beam.
进一步,所述预制梁板包括若干环梁、水平横梁和楼层板,所述环梁与立柱桩相对应,环梁分别套在对应的立柱桩上,通过后浇段与立柱桩固定连接;水平横梁,预制梁板水平横梁用于连接相邻环梁以及外围环梁与地下连续墙,楼层板与水平横梁固定连接。Further, the prefabricated beam slab includes a number of ring beams, horizontal beams and floor slabs, the ring beams correspond to the column piles, and the ring beams are respectively sleeved on the corresponding column piles, and are fixedly connected to the column piles through the post-cast section; Horizontal beams, prefabricated beam slabs, horizontal beams are used to connect adjacent ring beams and peripheral ring beams with the underground continuous wall, and the floor slabs are fixedly connected to the horizontal beams.
进一步,环梁内侧沿径向设有插筋,立柱桩与环梁的连接节点处设置有抗剪栓钉,环梁与立柱桩之间通过超高性能混凝土浇筑。Furthermore, the inner side of the ring beam is provided with inserts along the radial direction, the connection node of the column pile and the ring beam is provided with shear studs, and the ring beam and the column pile are poured by ultra-high performance concrete.
进一步所述水平横梁上两侧设置有水平方向的锚固钢筋,伸入楼层板中。Further, horizontal anchoring steel bars are arranged on both sides of the horizontal beam, which extend into the floor slab.
进一步,所述立柱桩为9个,呈3排3列规则排布,每个预制梁板包括9个环梁和24根水平横梁,每个环梁均连接有4个水平横梁,外围的12个水平横梁与地下连续墙固定连接。Furthermore, there are 9 column piles, arranged in 3 rows and 3 rows. Each prefabricated beam slab includes 9 ring beams and 24 horizontal beams. Each ring beam is connected with 4 horizontal beams. A horizontal beam is fixedly connected with the underground continuous wall.
进一步,每个所述地下连续墙内侧沿其高度方向设有相对应的N-1个凹槽,地下一层至地下N-1层的预制梁板与地下连续墙的连接节点下方各设置一个凹槽。Further, the inner side of each underground continuous wall is provided with corresponding N-1 grooves along its height direction, and one is provided below the connection node of the prefabricated beam slab and the underground continuous wall from the first underground floor to the underground N-1 floor. Groove.
进一步,吊机架包括竖向支杆和横向支杆,每个立柱桩上设置一个竖向支杆,横向支杆水平设置且两端分别固定在竖向支杆上。Further, the hanging frame includes vertical struts and transverse struts. Each vertical strut is provided with a vertical strut. The transverse struts are arranged horizontally and both ends are respectively fixed on the vertical struts.
进一步,所述吊机为电动葫芦。Further, the hoist is an electric hoist.
进一步,步骤S4中,“控制吊机的下降速度使每个激光测距仪的读数趋向一致”,包括如下步骤:Further, in step S4, "controlling the descending speed of the hoist to make the readings of each laser rangefinder tend to be consistent" includes the following steps:
激光测距仪将测量的数据传递至控制终端;The laser rangefinder transmits the measured data to the control terminal;
控制终端中预设有偏差允许值,控制终端计算激光测距仪的均值并一一判定激光测距仪读数与均值相比是否超出偏差允许值,当激光测距仪的读数超出偏差允许值时,控制终端自动控制吊机的伺服机构,调整吊机的下降速度,直至该激光测距仪的读数符合偏差允许值。The control terminal is preset with a deviation allowable value. The control terminal calculates the average value of the laser rangefinder and determines whether the reading of the laser rangefinder exceeds the allowable deviation value compared with the average value. When the reading of the laser rangefinder exceeds the allowable deviation value , The control terminal automatically controls the servo mechanism of the hoist and adjusts the descending speed of the hoist until the reading of the laser rangefinder meets the deviation allowable value.
本发明提供的逆作法中地下结构的施工方法,首先,一次性预制地下结构 的所有层的预制梁板,每一层的预制梁板包括连为一体的若干环梁和水平横梁,所有的预制梁板均由吊机叠放在一起;当施工至地下结构的某一层顶部预制梁板时,将预制梁板下放,使预制梁板搁置在临时支撑牛腿上,直接将最上层的预制梁板与立柱桩、地下连接墙进行浇筑固定即可;待下一层地下土体开挖完成后,对剩余的预制梁板进行降梁操作,从而依次完成所有地下结构的预制梁板施工。相比原有逐层现浇的逆作法而言,本发明采用地下结构的各层预制梁板整体预制、整体吊装、依次降梁的施工方法,节省了现浇结构养护时间,大幅提高了施工效率,同时,由于省去了模板支设的工作,避免了安全隐患,并节省了大量钢材、木材等资源;而且,在上下相邻的预制梁板上设置若干对激光测距仪和标靶,通过激光测距仪的读数可以判定下一层的预制梁板是否平稳下降,出现倾斜时可以及时加以调整,从而提高预制梁板施工的安全性。因此,本发明通过将逆作降梁法施工技术及预制装配式施工技术相结合,施工简便且更加高效、稳定、安全,保障了施工质量,从而形成一套能够方便、快速、安全且高质量地进行逆作法施工的工业化建筑施工体系。In the construction method of the underground structure in the reverse construction method provided by the present invention, firstly, the prefabricated beams and slabs of all layers of the underground structure are prefabricated at one time. The prefabricated beams and slabs of each layer include several ring beams and horizontal beams connected as a whole. The beams and slabs are stacked together by a crane; when the construction reaches the prefabricated beams on the top of a certain layer of the underground structure, the prefabricated beams are lowered so that the prefabricated beams are placed on the temporary support corbels, and the uppermost prefabricated beams are directly placed It is sufficient to cast and fix the column piles and the underground connecting wall; after the excavation of the next layer of underground soil is completed, the remaining precast beams and slabs are lowered to complete the construction of all the precast beams and slabs of the underground structure in sequence. Compared with the original layer-by-layer cast-in-place reverse construction method, the present invention adopts the construction method of integral prefabrication, integral hoisting, and sequential beam drop of each layer of prefabricated beams and slabs of the underground structure, which saves the cast-in-place structure maintenance time and greatly improves the construction Efficiency, at the same time, because the work of template support is omitted, potential safety hazards are avoided, and a large amount of steel, wood and other resources are saved; moreover, several pairs of laser rangefinders and targets are set on the upper and lower adjacent prefabricated beams. , Through the reading of the laser rangefinder, it can be judged whether the prefabricated beams and slabs of the next layer are falling steadily, and it can be adjusted in time when there is an inclination, thereby improving the safety of the prefabricated beams and slabs. Therefore, the present invention combines the construction technology of the top-down beam drop method and the prefabricated construction technology, which makes the construction simpler, more efficient, stable and safe, and guarantees the construction quality, thereby forming a set that can be convenient, fast, safe and high-quality An industrialized building construction system that performs top-down construction locally.
附图说明Description of the drawings
图1为导槽和地下连续墙施工示意图;Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the construction of the guide channel and the underground continuous wall;
图2为立柱桩施工示意图;Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of column pile construction;
图3为吊机架安装及地下一层顶部预制梁板施工示意图;Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the installation of the hanging frame and the construction of the prefabricated beam slab on the top of the underground first floor;
图4为预制梁板仰视图;Figure 4 is a bottom view of prefabricated beams;
图5为预制梁板俯视图;Figure 5 is a top view of the prefabricated beam slab;
图6为预制梁板与立柱桩的连接节点的局部放大图;Figure 6 is a partial enlarged view of the connection node between the prefabricated beam slab and the column pile;
图7-图10分别为地下二层至地下五层顶部预制梁板施工示意图。Figures 7-10 are schematic diagrams of the construction of the top prefabricated beams from the second underground floor to the fifth underground floor.
图中标号如下:The labels in the figure are as follows:
10-地下连续墙;11-第一凹槽;12-第二凹槽;13-第三凹槽;14-第四凹槽;15-临时支撑牛腿;10- underground continuous wall; 11-first groove; 12-second groove; 13-third groove; 14-fourth groove; 15-temporary support corbel;
20-立柱桩;21-抗剪栓钉;20-post pile; 21-shear stud;
30-吊机架;31-横向支杆;32-竖向支杆;33-吊机;30-hanging frame; 31-transverse pole; 32-vertical pole; 33-crane;
40-预制梁板;41-环梁;42-水平横梁;43-插筋;44-楼层板;45-激光测距仪;46-标靶;40-prefabricated beam slab; 41-ring beam; 42-horizontal beam; 43-reinforcement; 44-floor slab; 45-laser rangefinder; 46-target;
50-大底板;50-large base plate;
60-上部结构。60-Superstructure.
具体实施方式detailed description
以下结合附图和具体实施例对本发明提供的一种逆作法中地下结构的施工方法作进一步详细说明。结合下面说明,本发明的优点和特征将更清楚。需说明的是,附图均采用非常简化的形式且均使用非精准的比例,仅用以方便、明晰地辅助说明本发明实施例的目的。The construction method of the underground structure in the reverse construction method provided by the present invention will be further described in detail below with reference to the drawings and specific embodiments. In combination with the following description, the advantages and features of the present invention will become clearer. It should be noted that the drawings are in a very simplified form and all use imprecise proportions, which are only used to conveniently and clearly assist in explaining the purpose of the embodiments of the present invention.
结合图1至图10所示,对本实施例提供的一种逆作法中地下结构的降板施工方法作进一步介绍。其中,地下结构共5层,由上至下分别标记为地下一层,地下二层,…,地下五层。该施工方法包括:With reference to Figs. 1 to 10, a method for lowering slab construction of an underground structure in a reverse construction method provided in this embodiment is further introduced. Among them, the underground structure has 5 floors, from top to bottom marked as the first underground, the second underground,..., the fifth underground. The construction method includes:
S1.如图1和图2所示,在地面以下开挖导槽,在所述导槽内放置预制的地下连续墙10,形成施工区域的围护结构;每个所述地下连续墙10内侧沿其高度方向设有若干凹槽,在所述地下结构施工区域内打入多根立柱桩20。作为举例,地下一层至地下4层的预制梁板40与地下连续墙10的连接节点下方各设置一个凹槽,由上至下依次为第一凹槽11、第二凹槽12、第三凹槽13、第四凹槽14,也就是第五层的预制梁板40与地下连续墙10的连接节点下方不设置凹槽。如图4所示,本实施例中,地下连续墙10为矩形结构,在施工区域内共打入三排三列共9个立柱桩20。S1. As shown in Figures 1 and 2, a guide trench is excavated below the ground, and a prefabricated underground continuous wall 10 is placed in the guide trench to form the enclosure structure of the construction area; the inner side of each underground continuous wall 10 A number of grooves are provided along the height direction, and a plurality of upright piles 20 are driven into the construction area of the underground structure. As an example, one groove is set below the connection node of the prefabricated beam slab 40 and the underground continuous wall 10 from the first underground floor to the fourth underground floor. The first groove 11, the second groove 12, and the third groove are arranged from top to bottom. The groove 13 and the fourth groove 14, that is, the connection node between the prefabricated beam slab 40 of the fifth layer and the underground continuous wall 10 is not provided with a groove. As shown in Fig. 4, in this embodiment, the underground continuous wall 10 is a rectangular structure, and a total of 9 pillar piles 20 in three rows and three rows are driven into the construction area.
S2.如图3所示,在立柱桩20上安放吊机架30,在吊机架30上设置若干吊机33,每两个吊机33为一组,吊机33的位置与地下结构预制梁板40的位置相对应。吊机架30包括竖向支杆32和横向支杆31,每个立柱桩20上设置一个竖向支杆32,地上连续墙上也相应设置有竖向支杆32,横向支杆31水平设置且两端分别固定在竖向支杆32上。作为举例,吊机33可以为电动葫芦或手动葫芦,用于吊装地下结构的预制梁板40。结合图4所示,在9个立柱桩上各设置一个竖向支杆32,在地下连续墙10的每一边上对应设置有3个竖向 支杆32,共设置21个竖向支杆,横向支杆31将所有的竖向支杆连接成一个整体,每一个竖向支杆31上均设置2个吊机。S2. As shown in Figure 3, a hanging frame 30 is placed on the column pile 20, and a number of cranes 33 are set on the hanging frame 30. Two cranes 33 are a group. The position of the crane 33 is prefabricated with the underground structure. The position of the beam 40 corresponds. The hanging frame 30 includes vertical struts 32 and transverse struts 31. Each column pile 20 is provided with a vertical strut 32. The continuous wall on the ground is also provided with vertical struts 32, and the transverse struts 31 are arranged horizontally. And both ends are respectively fixed on the vertical support rod 32. As an example, the hoist 33 may be an electric hoist or a manual hoist for hoisting the prefabricated beams 40 of the underground structure. As shown in FIG. 4, each of the nine vertical poles is provided with a vertical support rod 32, and each side of the underground continuous wall 10 is correspondingly provided with 3 vertical support rods 32, a total of 21 vertical support rods are provided. The horizontal support rod 31 connects all the vertical support rods into a whole, and each vertical support rod 31 is provided with two cranes.
S3.如图3所示,在所述地下结构施工区域内开挖土层至地下一层标高,在每个所述地下连续墙10的第一凹槽11上安装临时支撑牛腿15,将5个叠合放置的预制梁板40通过吊机33搁置于所述临时支撑牛腿15上,5个叠合放置的所述预制梁板40由上至下依次为第一层预制梁板40、第二层预制梁板40、…、第五层预制梁板40,预制梁板包括一体结构的环梁41、水平横梁42和楼层板43,环梁与立柱桩相对应,水平横梁用于连接相邻环梁以及外围环梁与地下连续墙,楼层板与水平横梁固定连接。结合图4至图6所示,每个预制梁板40均包括9个环梁41和24根水平横梁42,每个环梁41上分别连接有4个水平横梁42,相邻的环梁41之间设置一个水平横梁42,外围的环梁41通过向外延伸的水平横梁42与地下连续墙10固定连接,环梁41分别套在对应的立柱桩20上,所述第一层预制梁板40与地下连续墙10、立柱桩20之间的连接节点采用后浇混凝土连接,完成地下结构地下一层顶部预制梁板40的施工。其中,后浇筑混凝土采用超高性能混凝土(简称UHPC)浇筑,具有强度高、强度上升快、粘结性强等优点。结合图4和图5所示,上下相邻的两层预制梁板40上分别对应设置有多对激光测距仪45和标靶46,也就是说,第一层预制梁板下表面上、第二层预制梁板上表面上对应设置有多对标靶和激光测距仪,第二层预制梁板下表面上、第三层预制梁板上表面上对应设置有多对标靶和激光测距仪,其余各层预制梁板亦如此。S3. As shown in Figure 3, excavate the soil layer in the underground structure construction area to the level of the first underground level, install temporary support corbels 15 on the first groove 11 of each underground continuous wall 10, Five prefabricated beams 40 stacked on top of the temporary support leg 15 are placed on the temporary support leg 15 by a crane 33, and the five prefabricated beams 40 stacked on top of each other are the first layer of prefabricated beams 40 from top to bottom. , The second layer of prefabricated beam slab 40, ..., the fifth layer of prefabricated beam slab 40, the prefabricated beam slab includes an integral structure of ring beam 41, horizontal beam 42 and floor slab 43, the ring beam corresponds to the column pile, the horizontal beam is used for The adjacent ring beams and the outer ring beams are connected with the underground continuous wall, and the floor slabs are fixedly connected with the horizontal beams. As shown in FIG. 4 to FIG. 6, each prefabricated beam plate 40 includes 9 ring beams 41 and 24 horizontal beams 42. Each ring beam 41 is connected to 4 horizontal beams 42. The adjacent ring beams 41 A horizontal beam 42 is arranged in between. The peripheral ring beam 41 is fixedly connected to the underground continuous wall 10 through the horizontal beam 42 extending outward. The ring beams 41 are respectively sleeved on the corresponding column piles 20. The first layer of prefabricated beam slab The connection nodes between 40 and the underground continuous wall 10 and the column piles 20 are connected by post-pouring concrete to complete the construction of the prefabricated beam slab 40 on the top of the underground structure. Among them, the post-pouring concrete is made of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC for short), which has the advantages of high strength, fast rise in strength, and strong cohesion. As shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, two adjacent layers of prefabricated beam slabs 40 are respectively provided with multiple pairs of laser rangefinders 45 and targets 46, that is, on the lower surface of the first layer of prefabricated beams, Correspondingly, there are multiple pairs of targets and laser rangefinders on the upper surface of the second layer of prefabricated beams, and multiple pairs of targets and lasers are correspondingly provided on the lower surface of the second layer of precast beams and the upper surface of the third layer of precast beams. The same applies to the rangefinder and the other prefabricated beams.
S4.如图7所示,在所述地下结构施工区域内开挖土层至地下二层标高,在每个所述地下连续墙10的第二凹槽12上安装临时支撑牛腿15,将剩余的4个叠合放置的预制梁板40通过吊机33下降并搁置于地下二层的临时支撑牛腿15上,拆除第一凹槽11处的临时支撑牛腿15,所述第二层预制梁板40与地下连续墙10、立柱桩20之间的连接节点采用后浇混凝土连接,完成地下结构地下二层顶部预制梁板的施工;其中,采用吊机将预制梁板下降过程中,开启地下二层预制梁板上的激光测距仪,始终保持激光测距仪的激光照射在地下一 层预制梁板下表面对应的标靶上,控制吊机的下降速度使每个激光测距仪的读数趋向一致。S4. As shown in Figure 7, excavate the soil layer to the second underground level in the underground structure construction area, install temporary support corbels 15 on the second groove 12 of each underground continuous wall 10, and The remaining 4 stacked prefabricated beams 40 are lowered by a crane 33 and placed on the temporary support corbel 15 of the second underground floor, and the temporary support corbel 15 at the first groove 11 is removed. The second layer The connection nodes between the prefabricated beam slab 40 and the underground continuous wall 10 and the column piles 20 are connected by post-pouring concrete to complete the construction of the prefabricated beam slab on the top of the second underground floor of the underground structure; among them, the prefabricated beam slab is lowered by a crane, Turn on the laser rangefinder on the prefabricated beam on the second underground floor, always keep the laser of the laser rangefinder on the target corresponding to the lower surface of the prefabricated beam on the first underground floor, and control the descending speed of the crane to make each laser ranging The readings of the meter tend to be consistent.
因预制梁板尺寸较大,且包括多个套在立柱桩上的环梁和多个与地下连续墙连接的水平横梁,如果吊机的下降速度有大有小,环梁与立柱桩之间、水平横梁与地下连续墙之间将会碰撞,倾斜的预制梁板也将增大某些吊机的拉力,产生安全隐患。因此,要保证所有的吊机的下降速率,使预制梁板平稳下降,作为举例,激光测距仪的测量数据实时传递至控制终端,当某一激光测距仪的测量数值较大或较小时,通过控制终端调整该吊机的伺服机构,调整该吊机的下降速度,从而使所有的激光测距仪的读数趋于一致,使预制梁板平稳下降。进一步,控制终端中还可以用以计算激光测距仪的均值,当某一激光测距仪的读数超出偏差允许值时,控制终端自动控制吊机的伺服机构,调整吊机的下降速度,直至该激光测距仪的读数符合偏差允许值。Because the size of the prefabricated beams and slabs is large, and includes multiple ring beams sleeved on the column piles and multiple horizontal beams connected with the underground continuous wall, if the descending speed of the crane is large or small, the ring beam and the column piles , The horizontal beam and the underground continuous wall will collide, and the inclined prefabricated beam slab will also increase the pulling force of some cranes, causing safety hazards. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure the descending rate of all cranes to make the prefabricated beams descend steadily. As an example, the measurement data of the laser rangefinder is transmitted to the control terminal in real time. When the measurement value of a laser rangefinder is larger or smaller , Adjust the servo mechanism of the hoist through the control terminal, and adjust the descending speed of the hoist, so that the readings of all the laser rangefinders tend to be consistent, and the prefabricated beams and slabs will fall smoothly. Furthermore, the control terminal can also be used to calculate the average value of the laser rangefinder. When the reading of a certain laser rangefinder exceeds the deviation allowable value, the control terminal automatically controls the hoist's servo mechanism and adjusts the hoist's descending speed until The reading of the laser rangefinder complies with the deviation allowable value.
S5.如图8至图10所示,重复步骤S4完成地下结构地下三至五层顶部预制梁板40的施工,然后拆除吊机33和吊机架30,浇筑地下结构的大底板50。S5. As shown in Figures 8 to 10, repeat step S4 to complete the construction of the top prefabricated beams 40 of the third to fifth underground floors of the underground structure, and then remove the crane 33 and the hanging frame 30, and pour the large bottom plate 50 of the underground structure.
本发明提供的逆作法中地下结构的施工方法,首先,一次性预制地下结构的所有层的预制梁板40,每一层的预制梁板40包括连为一体的若干环梁41、水平横梁42和楼层板43,所有的预制梁板40均由吊机33叠放在一起;当施工至地下结构的某一层顶部预制梁板40时,将预制梁板40下放,使预制梁板40搁置在临时支撑牛腿15上,直接将最上层的预制梁板40与立柱桩20、地下连接墙进行浇筑固定即可;待下一层地下土体开挖完成后,对剩余的预制梁板40进行降梁操作,从而依次完成所有地下结构的预制梁板40施工。相比原有逐层现浇的逆作法而言,本发明采用地下结构的各层预制梁板40整体预制、整体吊装、依次降梁的施工方法,节省了现浇结构养护时间,大幅提高了施工效率,同时,由于省去了模板支设的工作,避免了安全隐患,并节省了大量钢材、木材等资源;而且,在上下相邻的预制梁板上设置若干对激光测距仪和标靶,通过激光测距仪的读数可以判定下一层的预制梁板是否平稳下降,出现倾斜时可以及时加以调整,从而提高预制梁板施工的安全性。因此,本发明通过将逆作降梁法施工技术及预制装配式施工技术相结合,施工简便且更加高效、 稳定、安全,保障了施工质量,从而形成一套能够方便、快速、安全且高质量地进行逆作法施工的工业化建筑施工体系。In the construction method of the underground structure in the reverse construction method provided by the present invention, firstly, the prefabricated beams 40 of all layers of the underground structure are prefabricated at one time, and the prefabricated beams 40 of each layer include a plurality of ring beams 41 and horizontal beams 42 which are connected together. And the floor slab 43, all the prefabricated beams 40 are stacked together by the crane 33; when the construction reaches the top prefabricated beams 40 of a certain layer of the underground structure, the prefabricated beams 40 are lowered, so that the prefabricated beams 40 are laid aside On the temporary support corbel 15, directly cast and fix the uppermost prefabricated beam slab 40 with the column pile 20 and the underground connecting wall; after the excavation of the next layer of underground soil is completed, the remaining prefabricated beam slab 40 The beam lowering operation is carried out to complete the construction of the prefabricated beam slab 40 of all underground structures in sequence. Compared with the original layer-by-layer cast-in-place reverse construction method, the present invention adopts the construction method of integral prefabrication, integral hoisting, and successive beam drop of each layer of prefabricated beams 40 of the underground structure, which saves the cast-in-place structure maintenance time and greatly improves Construction efficiency, at the same time, because the work of template support is omitted, potential safety hazards are avoided, and a large amount of steel, wood and other resources are saved; moreover, several pairs of laser rangefinders and marks are installed on the upper and lower adjacent precast beams. For the target, the reading of the laser rangefinder can determine whether the prefabricated beams and slabs of the next layer are falling steadily, and it can be adjusted in time when there is a tilt, thereby improving the safety of the prefabricated beams and slabs. Therefore, the present invention combines the construction technology of the upside down beam method and the prefabricated construction technology, which makes the construction simpler, more efficient, stable, and safer, guarantees the construction quality, and forms a set that can be convenient, fast, safe and high-quality An industrialized building construction system that performs top-down construction locally.
进一步,位于地下结构第i层的临时支撑牛腿15的顶部标高为H Li,其中,H Li=H Yi-B·(N+1-i);其中,i=1,2,…,N;H Yi,为第i层预制梁板40顶部的标高;B为预制梁板40的高度。也就是说第一层预制梁板40顶部的标高与临时支撑牛腿15的顶部标高之间的距离等于5个预制梁板40的高度,此时正好使第一层预制梁板40位于设计标高处,同理,其它各层的临时支撑牛腿15上搁置的多个预制梁板40,最上层的预制梁板40始终位于该层的设计标高处,可以实现预制梁板40的快速安装,提高施工效率。当然,若凹槽的数量为N-1个时,取值i=1,2,…,N-1。 Furthermore, the top elevation of the temporary support corbel 15 located on the i-th floor of the underground structure is H Li , where H Li =H Yi -B·(N+1-i); where i=1, 2,..., N ; H Yi is the elevation of the top of the prefabricated beam 40 of the i-th layer; B is the height of the prefabricated beam 40. That is to say, the distance between the top elevation of the first layer of prefabricated beam slab 40 and the top elevation of the temporary support corbel 15 is equal to the height of 5 prefabricated beam slabs 40. At this time, the first layer of prefabricated beam slab 40 is located at the design elevation. In the same way, the multiple prefabricated beams 40 placed on the temporary support corbels 15 of the other layers, the uppermost prefabricated beams 40 are always located at the design elevation of this layer, which can realize the rapid installation of the prefabricated beams 40, Improve construction efficiency. Of course, if the number of grooves is N-1, the value i=1, 2,..., N-1.
进一步,结合图6所示,环梁41内侧沿径向设有插筋43,立柱桩20与环梁41的连接节点处设置有抗剪栓钉21,环梁41与立柱桩20之间通过超高性能混凝土浇筑。通过设置插筋43和抗剪栓钉21可以提高环梁41与立柱桩20之间的连接效果。进一步,所述水平横梁上两侧设置有水平方向的锚固钢筋,伸入楼层板中,提高水平横梁与楼层板的整体性。Further, as shown in FIG. 6, the inner side of the ring beam 41 is provided with inserting ribs 43 along the radial direction, the connection node of the column pile 20 and the ring beam 41 is provided with shear studs 21, and the ring beam 41 and the column pile 20 pass between Ultra-high performance concrete pouring. The connection effect between the ring beam 41 and the column pile 20 can be improved by providing the insert bars 43 and the shear studs 21. Further, horizontal anchoring steel bars are arranged on both sides of the horizontal beams, which extend into the floor slabs to improve the integrity of the horizontal beams and the floor slabs.
以上所述实施例的各技术特征可以进行任意的组合,为使描述简洁,未对上述实施例中的各个技术特征所有可能的组合都进行描述,然而,只要这些技术特征的组合不存在矛盾,都应当认为是本说明书记载的范围。The technical features of the above-mentioned embodiments can be combined arbitrarily. In order to make the description concise, all possible combinations of the technical features in the above-mentioned embodiments are not described. However, as long as there is no contradiction in the combination of these technical features, All should be considered as the scope of this specification.
以上所述实施例仅表达了本发明的几种实施方式,其描述较为具体和详细,但并不能因此而理解为对发明专利范围的限制。应当指出的是,对于本领域的普通技术人员来说,在不脱离本发明构思的前提下,还可以做出若干变形和改进,这些都属于本发明的保护范围。因此,本发明专利的保护范围应以所附权利要求为准。The above-mentioned embodiments only express several embodiments of the present invention, and the descriptions are more specific and detailed, but they should not be understood as limiting the scope of the invention patent. It should be pointed out that for those of ordinary skill in the art, without departing from the concept of the present invention, several modifications and improvements can be made, and these all fall within the protection scope of the present invention. Therefore, the protection scope of the patent of the present invention should be subject to the appended claims.

Claims (10)

  1. 一种逆作法中地下结构的降板施工方法,其特征在于,地下结构共N层,该施工方法包括:A method for lowering the slab of an underground structure in a top-down construction method, characterized in that the underground structure has N layers, and the construction method includes:
    S1.在地面以下开挖导槽,在所述导槽内放置预制的地下连续墙,形成施工区域的围护结构;每个所述地下连续墙内侧沿其高度方向设有若干凹槽,在地下结构施工区域内打入多根立柱桩;S1. Excavate a guide channel below the ground, and place a prefabricated underground continuous wall in the guide channel to form the enclosure structure of the construction area; the inner side of each underground continuous wall is provided with a number of grooves along its height direction. Drive multiple piles into the construction area of the underground structure;
    S2.在立柱桩上安放吊机架,在吊机架上设置若干吊机,每两个吊机为一组,吊机的位置与地下结构预制梁板的位置相对应;S2. Place a hanging frame on the column pile, and set up a number of cranes on the hanging frame, every two cranes are a group, and the position of the crane corresponds to the position of the prefabricated beam and slab of the underground structure;
    S3.在所述地下结构施工区域内开挖土层至地下一层底部标高处,在地下一层的凹槽内安装临时支撑牛腿,将N个叠合放置的预制梁板通过吊机搁置于所述临时支撑牛腿上,N个叠合放置的所述预制梁板由上至下依次为第一层预制梁板、第二层预制梁板、…、第N层预制梁板,且所述第一层预制梁板位于设计标高处,所述第一层预制梁板与地下连续墙、立柱桩之间的连接节点采用后浇混凝土连接,完成地下结构地下一层顶部预制梁板的施工;其中,上下相邻的两层预制梁板上分别对应设置有多对标靶和激光测距仪;S3. Excavate the soil layer in the construction area of the underground structure to the elevation of the bottom of the underground floor, install temporary support corbels in the grooves of the underground floor, and place the N stacked prefabricated beams and slabs by the crane On the temporary support corbels, the N prefabricated beams and slabs superimposed are sequentially from top to bottom, the first layer of prefabricated beams, the second layer of prefabricated beams, ..., the Nth layer of prefabricated beams, and The first layer of prefabricated beams and slabs is located at the design elevation, and the connection nodes between the first layer of prefabricated beams and the underground continuous wall and the column piles are connected by post-pouring concrete to complete the underground structure Construction; Among them, two adjacent prefabricated beam slabs are respectively provided with multiple pairs of targets and laser rangefinders;
    S4.在所述地下结构施工区域内开挖土层至地下二层标高,在地下二层的凹槽内安装临时支撑牛腿,将剩余的N-1个叠合放置的预制梁板通过吊机下降并搁置于临时支撑牛腿上,拆除第一层预制梁板下方的临时支撑牛腿,所述第二层预制梁板与地下连续墙、立柱桩之间的连接节点采用后浇混凝土连接,完成地下结构地下二层顶部预制梁板的施工;其中,采用吊机将预制梁板下降过程中,开启地下二层预制梁板上的激光测距仪,始终保持激光测距仪的激光照射在地下一层预制梁板下表面对应的标靶上,控制吊机的下降速度使每个激光测距仪的读数趋向一致;S4. Excavate the soil layer to the elevation of the second underground floor in the construction area of the underground structure, install temporary support corbels in the grooves of the second underground floor, and pass the remaining N-1 prefabricated beams and slabs stacked together. The machine is lowered and placed on the temporary support corbels, and the temporary support corbels under the first layer of prefabricated beams are removed. The connection nodes between the second layer of prefabricated beams and the underground continuous wall and column piles are connected by post-pouring concrete , To complete the construction of the prefabricated beams on the top of the second underground floor of the underground structure; among them, when the prefabricated beams are lowered by a crane, the laser rangefinder on the second underground prefabricated beams is turned on to always keep the laser irradiation of the laser rangefinder On the target corresponding to the lower surface of the prefabricated beam slab on the first underground floor, control the descending speed of the crane so that the readings of each laser rangefinder tend to be consistent;
    S5.重复步骤S4完成地下结构地下三至五层顶部预制梁板的施工,然后拆除吊机和吊机架,浇筑地下结构的大底板。S5. Repeat step S4 to complete the construction of the prefabricated beams and slabs on the top of the third to fifth floors of the underground structure, and then remove the crane and hanging frame, and pour the large bottom plate of the underground structure.
  2. 如权利要求1所述的施工方法,其特征在于,地下结构第i层顶部预制梁板下方的临时支撑牛腿的顶部标高为H Li,其中, The construction method according to claim 1, wherein the top elevation of the temporary support corbel under the prefabricated beam slab at the top of the i-th layer of the underground structure is H Li , wherein:
    H Li=H Yi-B·(N+1-i);其中,i=1,2,…,N; H Li =H Yi -B·(N+1-i); where i=1, 2,..., N;
    H Yi,为第i层预制梁板顶部的标高; H Yi is the elevation of the top of the i-th prefabricated beam;
    B为预制梁板的高度。B is the height of the prefabricated beam.
  3. 如权利要求1所述的施工方法,其特征在于,The construction method according to claim 1, wherein:
    所述预制梁板包括若干环梁、水平横梁和楼层板,所述环梁与立柱桩相对应,环梁分别套在对应的立柱桩上,通过后浇段与立柱桩固定连接;水平横梁用于连接相邻环梁以及外围环梁与地下连续墙,楼层板与水平横梁固定连接。The prefabricated beam slab includes a number of ring beams, horizontal beams and floor slabs. The ring beams correspond to the column piles. The ring beams are respectively sleeved on the corresponding column piles and are fixedly connected to the column piles through the post-cast section; for horizontal beams To connect adjacent ring beams and peripheral ring beams with the underground continuous wall, the floor slabs are fixedly connected with the horizontal beams.
  4. 如权利要求3所述的施工方法,其特征在于,The construction method according to claim 3, wherein:
    环梁内侧沿径向设有插筋,立柱桩与环梁的连接节点处设置有抗剪栓钉,环梁与立柱桩之间通过超高性能混凝土浇筑。The inner side of the ring beam is provided with inserts along the radial direction, the connection node of the column pile and the ring beam is provided with shear studs, and the ring beam and the column pile are poured by ultra-high performance concrete.
  5. 如权利要求3所述的施工方法,其特征在于,The construction method according to claim 3, wherein:
    所述水平横梁上两侧设置有水平方向的锚固钢筋,伸入楼层板中。Horizontal anchoring steel bars are arranged on both sides of the horizontal beam, which extend into the floor slab.
  6. 如权利要求3所述的施工方法,其特征在于,The construction method according to claim 3, wherein:
    所述立柱桩为9个,呈3排3列规则排布,每个预制梁板包括9个环梁和24根水平横梁,每个环梁均连接有4个水平横梁,外围的12个水平横梁与地下连续墙固定连接。There are 9 upright piles, arranged in 3 rows and 3 rows. Each prefabricated beam slab includes 9 ring beams and 24 horizontal beams. Each ring beam is connected with 4 horizontal beams and 12 horizontal beams on the periphery. The beam is fixedly connected with the underground continuous wall.
  7. 如权利要求1所述的施工方法,其特征在于,The construction method according to claim 1, wherein:
    每个所述地下连续墙内侧沿其高度方向设有相对应的N-1个凹槽,地下一层至地下N-1层的预制梁板与地下连续墙的连接节点下方各设置一个凹槽。Corresponding N-1 grooves are provided on the inner side of each underground continuous wall along its height direction, and one groove is respectively provided below the connection node between the prefabricated beam slab and the underground continuous wall from the underground floor to the underground N-1 floor .
  8. 如权利要求1所述的施工方法,其特征在于,The construction method according to claim 1, wherein:
    吊机架包括竖向支杆和横向支杆,每个立柱桩上设置一个竖向支杆,横向支杆水平设置且两端分别固定在竖向支杆上。The hanging frame includes vertical struts and transverse struts. Each vertical strut is provided with a vertical strut. The transverse struts are arranged horizontally and both ends are respectively fixed on the vertical struts.
  9. 如权利要求1所述的施工方法,其特征在于,所述吊机为电动葫芦。The construction method according to claim 1, wherein the hoist is an electric hoist.
  10. 如权利要求1所述的施工方法,其特征在于,步骤S4中,“控制吊机的下降速度使每个激光测距仪的读数趋向一致”,包括如下步骤:The construction method according to claim 1, characterized in that, in step S4, “controlling the descending speed of the crane so that the reading of each laser rangefinder tends to be consistent” includes the following steps:
    激光测距仪将测量的数据传递至控制终端;The laser rangefinder transmits the measured data to the control terminal;
    控制终端中预设有偏差允许值,控制终端计算激光测距仪的均值并一一判 定激光测距仪读数与均值相比是否超出偏差允许值,当激光测距仪的读数超出偏差允许值时,控制终端自动控制吊机的伺服机构,调整吊机的下降速度,直至该激光测距仪的读数符合偏差允许值。The control terminal is preset with a deviation allowable value. The control terminal calculates the average value of the laser rangefinder and determines whether the reading of the laser rangefinder exceeds the allowable deviation value compared with the average value. When the reading of the laser rangefinder exceeds the allowable deviation value , The control terminal automatically controls the servo mechanism of the hoist and adjusts the descending speed of the hoist until the reading of the laser rangefinder meets the deviation allowable value.
PCT/CN2020/107259 2019-08-22 2020-08-06 Slab lowering construction method for underground structure in reverse construction method WO2021031859A1 (en)

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CN111058476A (en) * 2019-08-22 2020-04-24 上海建工二建集团有限公司 Beam lowering construction method of underground structure in reverse construction method

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