WO2020253550A1 - 一种新型空心轴制造方法 - Google Patents

一种新型空心轴制造方法 Download PDF

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WO2020253550A1
WO2020253550A1 PCT/CN2020/094502 CN2020094502W WO2020253550A1 WO 2020253550 A1 WO2020253550 A1 WO 2020253550A1 CN 2020094502 W CN2020094502 W CN 2020094502W WO 2020253550 A1 WO2020253550 A1 WO 2020253550A1
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forging
mold
steel pipe
seamless steel
treatment
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PCT/CN2020/094502
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English (en)
French (fr)
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桑原康宏
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常熟希那基汽车零件有限公司
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Publication of WO2020253550A1 publication Critical patent/WO2020253550A1/zh

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21KMAKING FORGED OR PRESSED METAL PRODUCTS, e.g. HORSE-SHOES, RIVETS, BOLTS OR WHEELS
    • B21K1/00Making machine elements
    • B21K1/06Making machine elements axles or shafts
    • B21K1/063Making machine elements axles or shafts hollow
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23PMETAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P15/00Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/008Incremental forging
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/02Die forging; Trimming by making use of special dies ; Punching during forging
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/06Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor for performing particular operations
    • B21J5/12Forming profiles on internal or external surfaces
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21KMAKING FORGED OR PRESSED METAL PRODUCTS, e.g. HORSE-SHOES, RIVETS, BOLTS OR WHEELS
    • B21K1/00Making machine elements
    • B21K1/06Making machine elements axles or shafts
    • B21K1/066Making machine elements axles or shafts splined
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21KMAKING FORGED OR PRESSED METAL PRODUCTS, e.g. HORSE-SHOES, RIVETS, BOLTS OR WHEELS
    • B21K1/00Making machine elements
    • B21K1/06Making machine elements axles or shafts
    • B21K1/12Making machine elements axles or shafts of specially-shaped cross-section
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60BVEHICLE WHEELS; CASTORS; AXLES FOR WHEELS OR CASTORS; INCREASING WHEEL ADHESION
    • B60B35/00Axle units; Parts thereof ; Arrangements for lubrication of axles
    • B60B35/02Dead axles, i.e. not transmitting torque
    • B60B35/08Dead axles, i.e. not transmitting torque of closed hollow section
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C3/00Shafts; Axles; Cranks; Eccentrics
    • F16C3/02Shafts; Axles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60BVEHICLE WHEELS; CASTORS; AXLES FOR WHEELS OR CASTORS; INCREASING WHEEL ADHESION
    • B60B2310/00Manufacturing methods
    • B60B2310/20Shaping
    • B60B2310/208Shaping by forging
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60BVEHICLE WHEELS; CASTORS; AXLES FOR WHEELS OR CASTORS; INCREASING WHEEL ADHESION
    • B60B2310/00Manufacturing methods
    • B60B2310/20Shaping
    • B60B2310/228Shaping by machining
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60BVEHICLE WHEELS; CASTORS; AXLES FOR WHEELS OR CASTORS; INCREASING WHEEL ADHESION
    • B60B2310/00Manufacturing methods
    • B60B2310/20Shaping
    • B60B2310/232Shaping by milling
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60BVEHICLE WHEELS; CASTORS; AXLES FOR WHEELS OR CASTORS; INCREASING WHEEL ADHESION
    • B60B35/00Axle units; Parts thereof ; Arrangements for lubrication of axles
    • B60B35/02Dead axles, i.e. not transmitting torque
    • B60B35/04Dead axles, i.e. not transmitting torque straight
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C2220/00Shaping
    • F16C2220/40Shaping by deformation without removing material
    • F16C2220/44Shaping by deformation without removing material by rolling
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C2223/00Surface treatments; Hardening; Coating
    • F16C2223/10Hardening, e.g. carburizing, carbo-nitriding
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16CSHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
    • F16C2223/00Surface treatments; Hardening; Coating
    • F16C2223/10Hardening, e.g. carburizing, carbo-nitriding
    • F16C2223/12Hardening, e.g. carburizing, carbo-nitriding with carburizing

Abstract

一种空心轴制造方法,包括空心冷轧无缝钢管、切断、退火和表面处理、锻造成型、精密机加工、热处理几个步骤。高强度冷轧无缝钢管进行的锻造工艺比用棒材少3次锻造和一次退火和一次表面处理,在时间,成本上都节省了大约1/2,缩短周期,降低成本,减少能耗减少三废,材料利用率提高到68%左右,工序间按重量计算费用的成本降低,同样产品利用本工艺,制作周期缩短。

Description

一种新型空心轴制造方法 技术领域
本发明为空心轴技术领域,具体涉及一种用高强度空心冷轧无缝钢管锻造空心轴的制造方法。
背景技术
目前空心轴的制造工艺为将棒材切断后进行锻造,进行钻孔加工和车削,棒材由锻造车加工后钻孔做成的空心轴存在材料利用率低在30%左右,加工周期长,成本高等缺点。传统棒料工艺,需要多次锻造成型,两次退火和磷皂化处理。
发明内容
本发明提供了一种新型空心轴制造方法,包括以下几个步骤:
步骤一:空心冷轧无缝钢管,使无缝钢管内外径尺寸达到尺寸要求,长度4-6m;
步骤二:切断,把冷轧后的无缝钢管用圆锯机切成所需长度;
步骤三:退火和表面处理,将切断后的冷轧无缝钢管经过球化退火或普通退火进行软化,然后进行磷皂化处理或环保型表面润滑处理;
步骤四:锻造成型,用长行程多工位锻造机进行锻造加工;
步骤五:精密机加工,将锻造后的空心轴进行车,铣加工;
步骤六:热处理,将精加工后的空心轴做淬火回火或者渗碳热处理。
进一步的,步骤四所述的锻造成型包括三道锻造工序,第一锻造工序为把步骤三做好退火和表面处理的材料放进第一锻造工序模具里,使无缝钢管外径和内孔挤压成台阶式的空心轴;第二锻造工序为把经过第一锻造工序模具做好的毛坯放进第二锻造工序模具内,墩粗法兰,法兰在上模和下模之间成型;第三锻造工序为把经过第二锻造工序模具做好的产品放进第三锻造工序模具内,用带花键的芯棒把齿形挤压出来。
本发明用新型工艺代替传统工艺,使用高强度冷轧无缝钢管进行的锻造工艺比用棒材少三次锻造、一次退火和一次表面处理的步骤,在时间和成本上都节省了大约1/2,缩短周期,降低成本,减少能耗减少三废,材料利用率提高到68%左右,工序间按重量计算费用的成本降低,同样产品利用本工艺,制作周期缩短。
附图说明
图1是本发明的制造方法流程图。
图2是本发明用于制造空心马达轴的三道锻造工序模具示意图。
图3是本发明用于制造空心马达轴的锻造过程中的空心马达轴结构示意图。
图4是本发明用于制造空心电机轴的三道锻造工序模具示意图。
图5是本发明用于制造空心电机轴的锻造过程中的空心电机轴结构示意图。
具体实施方式
实施例1
参考图1、2和3,当制造空心马达轴时,按照以下步骤进行:
步骤一:空心冷轧无缝钢管,使无缝钢管内外径尺寸达到尺寸要求,长度4-6m;
步骤二:切断,把冷轧后的无缝钢管用圆锯机切成所需长度;
步骤三:退火和表面处理,将切断后的冷轧无缝钢管经过球化退火或普通退火进行软化,然后进行磷皂化处理或环保型表面润滑处理;
步骤四:锻造成型,用长行程多工位锻造机进行锻造加工;首先,把步骤三做好退火和表面处理的材料放进如图2中的第一锻造工序模具里,使无缝钢管外径和内孔挤压成台阶式的空心马达轴,形成如图3的第一锻造工序的毛坯结构;其次,把经过第一锻造工序模具做好的毛坯结构放进如图2中的第二锻造工序模具内,墩粗法兰,法兰在上模和下模之间成型,形成如图3所示的第二锻造工序的产品结构;最后,把经过第二锻造工序模具做好的产品结构放进如图2中的第三锻造工序模具内,用带花键的芯棒把齿形挤压出来,形成如图3所示的第三锻造工序的成品结构。
步骤五:精密机加工,将锻造后的空心马达轴进行车,铣加工;
步骤六:热处理,将精加工后的空心马达轴做淬火回火或者渗碳热处理。
完成制造。
实施例2
参考图1、4和5,当制造空心电机轴时,按照以下步骤进行:
步骤一:空心冷轧无缝钢管,使无缝钢管内外径尺寸达到尺寸要求,长度4-6m;
步骤二:切断,把冷轧后的无缝钢管用圆锯机切成所需长度;
步骤三:退火和表面处理,将切断后的冷轧无缝钢管经过球化退火或普通退火进行软化,然后进行磷皂化处理或环保型表面润滑处理;
步骤四:锻造成型,用长行程多工位锻造机进行锻造加工;首先,把步骤三做好退火和表面处理的材料放进如图4中的第一锻造工序模具里,使无缝钢管外径和内孔挤压成台阶式的空心电机轴,形成如图5的第一锻造工序的毛坯结构;其次,把经过第一锻造工序模具做好的毛坯结构放进如图4中的第二锻造工序模具内,墩粗法兰,法兰在上模和下模之间成型;最后,把经过第二锻造工序模具做好的产品放进如图4中的第三锻造工序模具内,用带花键的芯棒把齿形挤压出来,形成如图5所示的第三锻造工序的成品结构。
步骤五:精密机加工,将步骤四锻造成型得到的空心电机轴进行车,铣加工; 步骤六:热处理,将精加工后的空心电机轴做淬火回火或者渗碳热处理。
完成制造。

Claims (2)

  1. 一种新型空心轴制造方法,其特征在于:包括以下几个步骤:
    步骤一:空心冷轧无缝钢管,使无缝钢管内外径尺寸达到尺寸要求,长度4-6m;
    步骤二:切断,把冷轧后的无缝钢管用圆锯机切成所需长度;
    步骤三:退火和表面处理,将切断后的冷轧无缝钢管经过球化退火或普通退火进行软化,然后进行磷皂化处理或环保型表面润滑处理;
    步骤四:锻造成型,用长行程多工位锻造机进行锻造加工;
    步骤五:精密机加工,将锻造后的空心轴进行车,铣加工;
    步骤六:热处理,将精加工后的空心轴做淬火回火或者渗碳热处理。
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的一种新型空心轴制造方法,其特征在于:步骤四所述的锻造成型包括三道锻造工序,第一锻造工序为把步骤三做好退火和表面处理的材料放进第一锻造工序模具里,使无缝钢管外径和内孔挤压成台阶式的空心轴;第二锻造工序为把经过第一锻造工序模具做好的毛坯放进第二锻造工序模具内,墩粗法兰,法兰在上模和下模之间成型;第三锻造工序为把经过第二锻造工序模具做好的产品放进第三锻造工序模具内,用带花键的芯棒把齿形挤压出来。
PCT/CN2020/094502 2019-06-18 2020-06-05 一种新型空心轴制造方法 WO2020253550A1 (zh)

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EP20827441.5A EP3854517A4 (en) 2019-06-18 2020-06-05 NEW HOLLOW SHAFT MANUFACTURING PROCESS
US17/283,016 US20210346941A1 (en) 2019-06-18 2020-06-05 Novel hollow shaft manufacturing method

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